NEWS
author hoelzl
Fri Apr 20 11:17:01 2012 +0200 (2012-04-20)
changeset 47622 6d53f2ef4a97
parent 47617 f5eaa7fa8d72
child 47655 b9e132e54d25
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    12     command line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    13   - markup for bound variables
    14   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    15   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    16   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    17     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    18 
    19 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    20 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    21 
    22 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    23 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    24 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    25 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    26 etc. was exploited.
    27 
    28 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    29 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    30 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    31 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    32 indices of schematic variables.
    33 
    34 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    35 
    36     num ~> num_token
    37     xnum ~> xnum_token
    38     xstr ~> str_token
    39 
    40 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    41 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    42 position information via constraints).
    43 
    44 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    45 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    46 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    47 
    48 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    49 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    50 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Pure ***
    54 
    55 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    56 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    57 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    58 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    59 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    60 
    61   context
    62     fixes x y z :: 'a
    63     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    64   begin
    65 
    66   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    67 
    68   end
    69 
    70   thm my_trans
    71 
    72 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    73 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    74 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    75 
    76 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    77 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    78 
    79 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    80 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    81 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    82 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    83 
    84 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    85 manual.
    86 
    87 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    88 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    89 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    90 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    91 
    92 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    93 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    94 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    95 
    96 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    97 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    98 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    99 undocumented feature.)
   100 
   101 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   102 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   103 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   104 
   105 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   106 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   109 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   110 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   113 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   116 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   117 
   118   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   119 
   120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   123 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   124 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   127 
   128   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   129     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   130 
   131 
   132 *** HOL ***
   133 
   134 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   135 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   136 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   137 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   138 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   141 
   142 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   143 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   144 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   145 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   146 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   147 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   148 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   149 as far as possible.
   150 
   151 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   152 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   153 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   154 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   155 
   156 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   157 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   158 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   159 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   160 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   161 may require adaptations as follows:
   162 
   163   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   164     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   165 
   166   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   167     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   168     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   169 
   170   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   171     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   172 
   173   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   174     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   175     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   176 
   177   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   178     Redefine using other integer operations.
   179 
   180 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   181 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   184 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   185 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   189 
   190 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   191 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   192 of some relation theorems:
   193 
   194   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   195   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   196   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   197   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   198   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   199   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   200 
   201 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   202 
   203 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   204 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   205 
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   209 to match the constant's name:
   210 
   211   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   212   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   213   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   214   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   215   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   217   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   219   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   220   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   221   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   222   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   223   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   224   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   225   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   226   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   227   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   228   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   229   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   230   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   231   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   232   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   233   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   234   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   235 
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   239 and corresponding theorem names:
   240 
   241   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   242 
   243   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   244 
   245   - Renamed theorems:
   246 
   247     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   248     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   249     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   250     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   251     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   252     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   253     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   254     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   255     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   256     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   257     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   258     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   259     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   260     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   261     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   262     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   263     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   264     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   265     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   266     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   267     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   268     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   269     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   270 
   271     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   272 
   273     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   279 
   280   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   281   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   282   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   283   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   284   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   285   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   286   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   287   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   288   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   289   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   290   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   291   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   292   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   293   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   294   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   295   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   296   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   297   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   298   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   299   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   300   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   301 
   302 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   303 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   308 
   309   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   310   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   311   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   312   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   313   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   314   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   315   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   316   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   317   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   318   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   319   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   320   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   321   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   322   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   323   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   324   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   325   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   326   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   327 
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   331 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   332 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   333 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   334 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   335 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   336 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   338 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   339 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   340 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   341 
   342 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   343 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   344 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   345 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   346 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   347 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   348 
   349 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   350 through option types.
   351 
   352 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   353 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   355 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   356 one_case.
   357 
   358 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   359 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   360 
   361 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   362 association lists with distinct keys.
   363 
   364 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   365 
   366 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   367 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   368 
   369 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   370 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   371 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   372 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   373 follows:
   374 
   375   Operations:
   376   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   377   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   378   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   379   del -> rbt_del
   380   delete -> rbt_delete
   381   ins -> rbt_ins
   382   insert -> rbt_insert
   383   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   384   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   385   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   386   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   387   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   388   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   389   tree_less -> rbt_less
   390   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   391   union -> rbt_union
   392   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   393   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   394 
   395   Lemmas:
   396   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   397   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   398   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   399   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   400   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   401   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   402   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   403   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   404   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   405   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   406   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   407   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   408   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   409   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   410   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   411   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   412   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   413   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   414   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   415   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   416   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   417   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   418   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   419   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   420   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   421   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   422   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   423   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   424   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   425   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   426   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   427   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   428   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   429   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   430   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   431   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   432   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   433   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   434   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   435   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   436   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   437   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   438   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   439   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   440   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   441   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   442   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   443   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   444   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   445   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   446   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   447   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   448   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   449   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   450   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   451   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   452   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   453   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   454   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   455   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   456   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   457   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   458   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   459   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   460   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   461   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   462   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   463   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   464   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   465   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   466   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   467   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   468   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   469   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   470   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   471   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   472   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   473   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   474   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   475   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   476   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   477   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   478   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   479 
   480 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as a
   481 subset of the real numbers. All operations are defined using the
   482 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485   Changed Operations:
   486   float_abs -> abs
   487   float_nprt -> nprt
   488   float_pprt -> pprt
   489   pow2 -> use powr
   490   round_down -> float_round_down
   491   round_up -> float_round_up
   492   scale -> exponent
   493 
   494   Removed Operations:
   495   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   496 
   497   Renamed Lemmas:
   498   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   499   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   500   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   501   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   502   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   503   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   504   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   505   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   506   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   507   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   508   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   509   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   510   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   511   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   512   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   513   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   514   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   515   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   516   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   517   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   518   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   519   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   520   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   521   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   522   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   523   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   524   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   525   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   526   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   527   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   528   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   529   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   530   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   531   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   532   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   533   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   534 
   535   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   536   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   537   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   538   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   539   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   540   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   541   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   542   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   543   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   544   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   545 
   546 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   547 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   548 instead.
   549 
   550   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   551   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   552   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   553   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   554   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   555   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   556   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   557   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   558   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   559   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   560   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   561   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   562   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   563   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   564   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   565   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   566   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   567   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   568   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   569   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   570   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   571   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   572   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   573   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   574   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   575   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   576   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   577   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   578   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   579   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   580   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   581   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   582   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   583   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   584   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   585   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   586   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   587   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   588   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   589   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   590   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   591 
   592 * New tactic "word_bitwise" for splitting machine word equalities and
   593 inequalities into logical circuits. Requires theory "WordBitwise" from HOL-Word
   594 session. Supports addition, subtraction, multiplication, shifting by
   595 constants, bitwise operators and numeric constants. Requires fixed-length word
   596 types, cannot operate on 'a word. Solves many standard word identies outright
   597 and converts more into first order problems amenable to blast or similar. See
   598 HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy and examples in HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   599 
   600 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   601 the result of the fact expression.
   602 
   603 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   604 relations.
   605 
   606 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   609 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   610 
   611   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   612   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   613   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   614   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   615   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   616   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   617   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   618   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   619   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   620   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   621   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   622   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   623   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   624   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   625   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   626   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   627   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   628   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   629   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   630   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   631   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   632   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   633   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   634   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   635   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   636   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   637   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   638   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   639   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   640   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   641   zless_le ~> less_le
   642   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   643   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   644   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   645 
   646 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   647 
   648   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   649 
   650 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   651 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   652 
   653   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   654 
   655 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   656 a list and a nat.
   657 
   658 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   659 
   660 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   661 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   662 
   663 * Quickcheck:
   664 
   665   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   666     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   667     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   668     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   669     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   670 
   671     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   672     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   673     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   674 
   675     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   676     continues searching for genuine ones.
   677 
   678     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   679     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   680     show genuine counterexamples.
   681 
   682   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   683     value generators for a given type and operations.
   684 
   685     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   686     constructors of that type.
   687 
   688   - Support for multisets.
   689 
   690   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   691 
   692   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   693     conjectures in a locale context.
   694 
   695 * Nitpick:
   696   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   697     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   698 
   699 * Sledgehammer:
   700   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012 paper "More
   701     SPASS with Isabelle".
   702   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   703   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and TFF1),
   704     iProver, iProver-Eq.
   705   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   706   - Sped up the minimizer.
   707   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   708   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   709   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   710 
   711 * Metis:
   712   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   713     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   714 
   715 * SMT:
   716   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   717 
   718 * Command 'try0':
   719   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   720 
   721 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   722 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   723 
   724 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   725 into Isabelle/HOL.
   726 
   727 
   728 *** FOL ***
   729 
   730 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   731 
   732 
   733 *** ZF ***
   734 
   735 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   736 analysis.
   737 
   738 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   739 
   740 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 
   743 *** ML ***
   744 
   745 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   746 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   747 
   748 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   749 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   750 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   751 
   752 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   753 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   754 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   755 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   756 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   757 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   759 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   760 
   761 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   762 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   763 
   764 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   765 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   766 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   767 
   768 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   769 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   772 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   773 context as well.
   774 
   775 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   776 
   777   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   778   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   779   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   780   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   781   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   782   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   783   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   784   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   785   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   786   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   787   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   788   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   789 
   790 
   791 *** System ***
   792 
   793 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
   794 (not just JRE).
   795 
   796 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
   797 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
   798 
   799 
   800 
   801 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   802 ------------------------------------
   803 
   804 *** General ***
   805 
   806 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   807 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   808 
   809   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   810     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   811     files for checking).
   812 
   813   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   814     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   815     positions.
   816 
   817   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   818     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   819     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   820 
   821   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   822     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   823     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   824 
   825   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   826     cores.
   827 
   828   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   829     versions (garbage collection).
   830 
   831 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   832 including some remaining limitations.
   833 
   834 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   835 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   836 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   837 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   838 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   842 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   843 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   844 
   845 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   846 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   847 usedir option -Q.
   848 
   849 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   850 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   851 
   852   long_names   ~> names_long
   853   short_names  ~> names_short
   854   unique_names ~> names_unique
   855 
   856 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   857 
   858   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   859 
   860 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   861 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   862 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   863 
   864 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   865 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   866 
   867 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   868   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   869   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   870   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   871     "Classical Reasoner".
   872 
   873 
   874 *** HOL ***
   875 
   876 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   877 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   880 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   881 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   882 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   883 class complete_linorder.
   884 
   885 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   886 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   887 
   888 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   889 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   890 
   891   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   892   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   893   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   894   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   895   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   896   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   897   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   898   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   899   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   900   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   901   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   902 
   903 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   904 
   905   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   906   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   907   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   908   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   909   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   910   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   911   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   912   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   913   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   914   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   915   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   916   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   917   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   918   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   919   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   920   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   921 
   922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   923 
   924 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   926 
   927 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   928 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   929 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   930 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931 
   932 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   933 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   934 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   938 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   939 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   940 
   941 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   942 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   943 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   946 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   947 
   948 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   949 
   950     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   951     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   952 
   953 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   954 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   955 
   956 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   957 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   958 
   959 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   960 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   961 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   962 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   963 
   964   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   965   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   966   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   967   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   968   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   969   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   970   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   971 
   972 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   973 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   974 
   975   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   976   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   977   real_less_def ~> less_le
   978   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   979   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   980   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   981   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   982   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   983   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   984   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   985   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   986   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   987   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   988   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   989   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   990   real_le_linear ~> linear
   991   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   992   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   993   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   994   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   995   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   996   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   997   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   998   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   999   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1000   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1001   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1002   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1003   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1004   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1005   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1006   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1007   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1008   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1009   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1010   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1011   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1012   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1013   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1014   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1015   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1016   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1017   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1018   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1019   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1020   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1021   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1022   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1023   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1024   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1025   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1026   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1027   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1028   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1029   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1030   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1031   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1032   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1033   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1034   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1035   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1036   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1037   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1038   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1039   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1040   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1041   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1042   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1043   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1044   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1045   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1046   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1047   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1048   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1049   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1050   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1051   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1052   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1053   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1054   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1055   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1056   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1057 
  1058 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1059 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1060 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1061 
  1062 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1063 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1064 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1065 
  1066 * Code generation:
  1067 
  1068   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1069     characters in the target language.
  1070 
  1071   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1072     instead.
  1073 
  1074   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1075 
  1076   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1077     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1078 
  1079       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1080 
  1081 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1084 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1085 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1086 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1087 syntax.
  1088 
  1089 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1090 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1091 
  1092 * Nitpick:
  1093   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1094   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1095   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1096     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 * Sledgehammer:
  1099   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1100   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1101     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1102   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1103     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1104   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1105     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1107     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1108   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1109     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Metis:
  1112   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1113   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1114     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1115 
  1116 * Command 'try':
  1117   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1118     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1120     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1121 
  1122 * Quickcheck:
  1123   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1124     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1125   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1126     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1127   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1128     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1129     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1130     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1131   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1132     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1133 
  1134 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1135 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1136 
  1137 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1138 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1139 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1140 
  1141 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1142 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1144 
  1145 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1146 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1147 
  1148 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1149 arithmetic.
  1150 
  1151 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1152 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1153 and lattice type classes.
  1154 
  1155 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1156 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1157 
  1158 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1159 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1160 
  1161 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1162 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1163 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1164 
  1165   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1166   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1167   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1168   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1169 
  1170 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1171 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1172 constants:
  1173 
  1174   type inat   ~> type enat
  1175   Fin         ~> enat
  1176   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1177   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1178   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1179 
  1180 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1181 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1184 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1185 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1186 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1187 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1188 
  1189 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1190 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1191 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1192 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1193 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1194 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1195 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1196 
  1197   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1198   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1199   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1200   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1201 
  1202 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1203 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1204 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1205 
  1206   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1207   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1208   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1209   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1210   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1211   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1212   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1213   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1214   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1215   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1216   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1217   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1218   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1219   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1220   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1221   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1222   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1223   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1224   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1225   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1226   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1227   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1228   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1229   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1230   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1231   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1232   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1233   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1234   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1235   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1236   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1237   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1238   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1239   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1240   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1241   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1242   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1243   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1244   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1245   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1246   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1247   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1248   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1249   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1250   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1251   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1252   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1253   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1254   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1255   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1256   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1257 
  1258 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1259   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1260   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1261   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1262   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1263     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1268   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1269   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1270   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1271   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1272   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1273   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1274   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1275   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1276   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1277   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1278   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1279   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1280   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1281   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1282   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1283   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1284   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1285   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1286   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1287   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1288   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1289   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1290   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1291   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1292 
  1293 
  1294 *** Document preparation ***
  1295 
  1296 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1297 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1298 same.
  1299 
  1300 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1301 result.
  1302 
  1303 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1304 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1305 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1306 
  1307 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1308 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1309 
  1310 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1311 like this:
  1312 
  1313   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1314   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1315 
  1316 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1317 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1318 layouts.
  1319 
  1320 
  1321 *** ML ***
  1322 
  1323 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1324 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1325 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1326 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1327 under external program control.
  1328 
  1329 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1330 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1331 
  1332 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1333 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1334 (better known as Proof General).
  1335 
  1336 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1337 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1338 
  1339 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1340 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1341 
  1342 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1343 (including quotes etc.).
  1344 
  1345 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1346 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1347 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1348 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1349 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1350 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1351 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1352 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1353 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1354 
  1355 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1356 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1357 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1358 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1359 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1360 
  1361 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1362 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1363 
  1364 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1365 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1366 
  1367 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1368 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1369 
  1370 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1371 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1372 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1373 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1374 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1375 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1376 proper Proof.context.
  1377 
  1378 
  1379 *** System ***
  1380 
  1381 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1382 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1383 
  1384 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1385 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1386 
  1387 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1388 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1389 
  1390   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1391   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1392   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1393   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1394   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1395 
  1396 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1397 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1400 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1401 example:
  1402 
  1403   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1404 
  1405 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1406 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1407 
  1408 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1409 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1410 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1411 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1412 
  1413 
  1414 
  1415 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1416 ----------------------------------
  1417 
  1418 *** General ***
  1419 
  1420 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1421 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1422 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1423 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1424 like this:
  1425 
  1426   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1427 
  1428 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1429 
  1430 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1431 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1432 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1433 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1434 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1435 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1436 
  1437 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1438 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1439 the following package declarations:
  1440 
  1441   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1442   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1443 
  1444 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1445 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1446 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1447 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1448 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1449 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1450 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1451 
  1452 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1453 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1454 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1455 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1456 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1457 
  1458 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1459 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1460 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1461 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1462 
  1463 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1464 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1465 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1466 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1467 
  1468   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1469 
  1470   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1471   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1472   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1473   show_types                    show_types
  1474   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1475   show_consts                   show_consts
  1476   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1477 
  1478   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1479   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1480   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1481 
  1482   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1483   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1484 
  1485   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1486 
  1487   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1488   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1489   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1490   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1491   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1492 
  1493 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1494 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1495 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1496 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1497 
  1498 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1502   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1503 
  1504 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1505 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1506 float_token.
  1507 
  1508 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1509 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1513 DejaVu Sans.
  1514 
  1515 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1516 
  1517 
  1518 *** Pure ***
  1519 
  1520 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1521 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1522 time.
  1523 
  1524 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1525 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526 
  1527 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1528 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1531 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1532 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1533 command already provided this functionality.
  1534 
  1535 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1536 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1537 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1538 without interpretations.
  1539 
  1540 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1541 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1542 
  1543 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1544 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1545 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1546 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1547 
  1548 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1549 'definition' instead.
  1550 
  1551 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1552 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1553 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1554 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1555 
  1556 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1557 constructors.
  1558 
  1559 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1560 the local file system.
  1561 
  1562 
  1563 *** HOL ***
  1564 
  1565 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1566 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1567 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1568 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1569 
  1570   declare [[coercion f]]
  1571 
  1572 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1573 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1574 
  1575   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1576 
  1577 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1578 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1579 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1580 other theories like this:
  1581 
  1582   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1583 
  1584 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1585 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1586 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1587 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1588 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1589 for examples.
  1590 
  1591 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1592 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593 
  1594 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1595 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1596 
  1597 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1598 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1599 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1600 
  1601 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1602 functorial structure of types.
  1603 
  1604 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1605 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1606 
  1607 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1608 languages.
  1609 
  1610 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1611 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1615 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1618 combinators any longer.
  1619 
  1620 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1621 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1622 
  1623 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1624 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1625 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1626 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1627 
  1628   record 'a foo = ...
  1629   ...
  1630   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1631 
  1632 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1633 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1637 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1638 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1639 
  1640 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1641 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1642 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1643 
  1644 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1645 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646 
  1647 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1648 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1649 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1650 independently.
  1651 
  1652 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1653 counter example search.
  1654 
  1655 * Sledgehammer:
  1656   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1657     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1658     sledgehammer").
  1659   - Renamed commands:
  1660     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1661     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1662     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1663     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1664   - Renamed options:
  1665     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1666     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1667     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1668     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1669     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * Nitpick:
  1672   - Renamed options:
  1673     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1674     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1675     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1677   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1678   - Added "whack" option.
  1679   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1680   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1681   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1682   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1683     higher cardinalities.
  1684   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1685 
  1686 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1687 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1688 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1689 
  1690     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1691 
  1692 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1693 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1694 
  1695 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1696 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1697 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1698 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1699 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1700 "smt_solver".
  1701 
  1702 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1703 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1704 
  1705 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1706 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1707 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1708 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1709 
  1710 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1711   - Renamed:
  1712     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1713     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1714     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715   - Added:
  1716     smt_verbose
  1717     smt_random_seed
  1718     smt_datatypes
  1719     smt_infer_triggers
  1720     smt_monomorph_limit
  1721     cvc3_options
  1722     remote_cvc3_options
  1723     remote_z3_options
  1724     yices_options
  1725 
  1726 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1727 header.
  1728 
  1729 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1730 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1731 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1732 
  1733   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1734 
  1735 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1736 
  1737 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1738 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1739 
  1740 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1741 
  1742 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1743 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1746 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1747 
  1748 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1749 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1750 
  1751 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1752 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1753 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1754 
  1755 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756 
  1757 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1759 
  1760 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1761 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1764 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1765 for congruent(2)).
  1766 
  1767 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1768 
  1769   types
  1770     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1771     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1772 
  1773   constants
  1774     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1775     True ~> HOL.True
  1776     False ~> HOL.False
  1777     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1778     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1779     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1780     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1781     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1782     The ~> HOL.The
  1783     All ~> HOL.All
  1784     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1785     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1786     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1787     If ~> HOL.If
  1788     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1789     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1790     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1791     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1792     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1793     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1794     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1795     op : ~> Set.member
  1796     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1797 
  1798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1801 
  1802     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1803     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1804     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1805     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1806     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1807     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1808     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1809     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1810 
  1811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813 * More stylized fact names:
  1814 
  1815   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1816   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1817   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1818   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1819 
  1820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821 
  1822 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1823 
  1824   constants
  1825     null ~> List.null
  1826 
  1827   facts
  1828     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1829     null_empty ~> null_def
  1830 
  1831 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1832 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1833 generation.
  1834 
  1835 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1836 Haskell code.
  1837 
  1838 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1839 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1840 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1843 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1846 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1847 
  1848 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1849 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1850 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1851 
  1852 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1853 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1854 
  1855 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1857 
  1858 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1859 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1860 referred to by its qualified name.
  1861 
  1862   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1863   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1864   product ~>  Enum.product
  1865 
  1866 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1867 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869 
  1870 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1871 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1872 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1876 sort_key.
  1877 
  1878 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1882 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1883 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1884 
  1885   types
  1886     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1887               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1888               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1889         (depends on your needs)
  1890 
  1891   constants
  1892      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1893      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1894      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1895 
  1896 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1897 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1898 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1899 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1902 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1903 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1904 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1905 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1911 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1912 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1913 
  1914 
  1915 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1916 
  1917 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1918 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1919 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1920 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1921 compatibility.
  1922 
  1923 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1924 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1925 
  1926 
  1927 *** HOLCF ***
  1928 
  1929 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1930 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1931 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933 
  1934 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1935 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1936 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1937 
  1938   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1939   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1940   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1941 
  1942 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1943 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1944 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1947 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1948 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1949 domain definition now works:
  1950 
  1951   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1952 
  1953 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1954 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1955 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1956 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1957 
  1958   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1959     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1960 
  1961   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1962 
  1963 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1964 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1965 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1966 
  1967 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1968 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969 
  1970 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1971 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1972 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1973 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1974 
  1975 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1976 
  1977 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1978 
  1979 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1980 
  1981 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1985 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1986 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1987 
  1988 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1989 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1990 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1993 still supported as an input translation.
  1994 
  1995 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1996 
  1997   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1998   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1999   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2000   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2001   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2002   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2003   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2004 
  2005 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2006 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2007 
  2008   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2009   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2010   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2011   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2012   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2013   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2014 
  2015 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2016 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2017 
  2018 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2019 
  2020   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2021   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2022   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2023   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2024 
  2025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2028 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2031 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2034   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2035   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2036   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2037   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2038   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2039   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2040   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2041   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2042   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2043   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2044   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2045   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2046   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2047   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2048   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2049   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2050   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2051   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2052   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2053 
  2054 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2057   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2058   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2059   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2060   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2061   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2062   box_less             ~> box_below
  2063   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2064   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2065   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2066   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2067   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2068   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2069   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2070   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2071   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2072   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2073   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2074   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2075   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2076   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2077   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2078   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2079   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2080   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2081   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2082   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2083   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2084   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2085   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2086   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2087   up_less              ~> up_below
  2088   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2089   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2090   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2091   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2092   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2093   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2094   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2095   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2096   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2097   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2098   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2099   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2100   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2101 
  2102 
  2103 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2104 
  2105 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2106 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2107 
  2108 
  2109 *** ML ***
  2110 
  2111 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2112 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2113 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2114 
  2115 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2116 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2117 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2118 
  2119 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2120 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2121 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2122 
  2123 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2124 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2125 
  2126 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2127 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2128 
  2129 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2130 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2131 
  2132 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2133 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2134 
  2135 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2136 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2137 almost all situations.
  2138 
  2139 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2140 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2141 Isabelle/ML.
  2142 
  2143 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2144 meaning.
  2145 
  2146 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2147 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2148 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2149 
  2150 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2151 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2152 
  2153 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2154 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2155 
  2156 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2157 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2158 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2159 
  2160 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2161 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2162 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2163 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2164 configuration options.
  2165 
  2166 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2167 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2168 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2169 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2170 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2171 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2172 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2173 
  2174 
  2175 
  2176 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2177 ---------------------------------
  2178 
  2179 *** General ***
  2180 
  2181 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2182 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2183 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2184 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2185 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2186 their full internal name.
  2187 
  2188 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2189 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2190 Some hints on upgrading:
  2191 
  2192   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2193     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2194     which are independent of this issue.
  2195 
  2196   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2197     provides the following special forms:
  2198 
  2199       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2200       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2201       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2202 
  2203     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2204     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2205     extra variables".
  2206 
  2207     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2208     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2209     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2210     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2211     "logic".
  2212 
  2213   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2214     antiquotations:
  2215 
  2216       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2217       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2218       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2219       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2220 
  2221   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2222     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2223     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2224     antiquotations.
  2225 
  2226 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2227 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2228 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2229 diagnose syntax problems.
  2230 
  2231 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2232 
  2233 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2234 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2235 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2236 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2237 
  2238 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2239 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2240 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2241 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2244 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2245 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2246 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2247 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2250 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2251 
  2252 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2253 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2254 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2255 
  2256   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2257 
  2258 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2259 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2260 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2261 
  2262 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2263 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2265 
  2266 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2267 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2268 
  2269 
  2270 *** Pure ***
  2271 
  2272 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2273 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2274 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2275 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2276 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2277 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2278 inspect proof terms.
  2279 
  2280 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2281 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2282 are added internally.  For example:
  2283 
  2284   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2285 
  2286 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2287 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2288 
  2289 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2292 'class' instead.
  2293 
  2294 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2295 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2299 invariants.
  2300 
  2301 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2302 user space functionality any longer.
  2303 
  2304 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2305 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2307 
  2308 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2309 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2310 
  2311 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2312 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2313 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2314 
  2315 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2316 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2317 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2318 
  2319 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2320 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 
  2323 *** HOL ***
  2324 
  2325 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2326 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2327 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2328 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2329 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2330 
  2331 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2332 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2333 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2334 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2335 
  2336   fun
  2337     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2338   where
  2339     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2340 
  2341   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2342     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2343 
  2344   quotient_definition
  2345     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2346 
  2347 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2348 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2349 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2350 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2351 
  2352 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2353 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2354 
  2355 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2356 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2357 
  2358 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2362 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2363 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2364 
  2365 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2366 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2375 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2378 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2379 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2382   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2383   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2384   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2385   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2386   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2387   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2388   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2389   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2390   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2391   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2392   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2393   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2394   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2395   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2396   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2397   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2398   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2399   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2400   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2401   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2402   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2403   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2404   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2405   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2406   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2407   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2408   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2409   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2410   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2411 
  2412 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2413 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2414 
  2415 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2416 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2417 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2418 
  2419 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2420 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2421 
  2422 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2423 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2426 
  2427 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2428 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2429 
  2430 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2431 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432 
  2433 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2436 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2437 
  2438 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2439 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2440 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2441 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2444   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2445   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2446   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2450 lattices):
  2451 
  2452     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2453     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2454 
  2455     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2456 
  2457     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2458     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2459     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2460     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2461     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2462     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2463     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2464     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2465     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2466     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2467     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2468     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2469     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2470 
  2471     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2472     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2473     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2474     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2475     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2476     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2477     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2478     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2479     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2480     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2481     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2482     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2483     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2484     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2485     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2486     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2487     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2488     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2489 
  2490   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2491   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2492 
  2493     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2494     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2495     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2496     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2497     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2498 
  2499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Refined field classes:
  2502   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2503     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2504     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2505   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2509   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2510   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2511   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2512     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2513   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2514     equal_neg_zero.
  2515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2518 sets to lattices:
  2519 
  2520   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2521   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2522   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2523   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2524   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2525   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2526   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2527   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2528   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2529   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2530 
  2531 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2532 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2533 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2534 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2535 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2536 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2539 multiset order:
  2540 
  2541   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2542     <= and <;
  2543   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2544     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2545     multiset_order;
  2546   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2547     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2548     generation;
  2549   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2550     if needed.
  2551 
  2552 Renamed:
  2553 
  2554   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2555   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2556   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2557 
  2558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2561 
  2562 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2563 
  2564 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2565 
  2566 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2567 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2568 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2569 
  2570   Constants:
  2571   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2572   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2573   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2574   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2575   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2576   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2577   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2578   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2579   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2580   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2581   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2582   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2583   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2584 
  2585   Lemmas:
  2586   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2587   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2588   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2589   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2590   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2591   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2592   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2593   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2594   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2595   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2596   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2597   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2598   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2599 
  2600 * Sledgehammer:
  2601   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2602     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2603     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2604     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2605     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2606     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2607     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2609   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2610     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2611   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2612     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2613     is still experimental.)
  2614   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2615     full-typed mode.
  2616   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2617 
  2618 * Nitpick:
  2619   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2620   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2621   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2622     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2623   - Added support for quotient types.
  2624   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2625     constructs.
  2626   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2627     "termination" proofs).
  2628   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2629   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2630   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2631   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2632     record getters.
  2633   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2634   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2635   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2636   - Added "atoms" option.
  2637   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2638     problems.
  2639   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2640     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2641     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2643     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2647   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2648   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2649   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2650   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2651   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2652   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2653   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2654   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2655   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 
  2658 *** HOLCF ***
  2659 
  2660 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2661 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2662 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2665 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2666 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2667 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2670 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2671 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2672 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2673 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2676 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2677 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 
  2679 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2680 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2681 
  2682   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2683   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2684 
  2685 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2686 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2689   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2690   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2691   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2692   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2693 
  2694 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2695 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2698   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2699   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2700 
  2701 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2702 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2704 
  2705 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2706 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2709 
  2710 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2711 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 
  2714 *** ML ***
  2715 
  2716 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2717 
  2718     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2719     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2720 
  2721     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2722     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2723     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2724     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2725 
  2726     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2727     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2728     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2729 
  2730 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2731 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2732 
  2733 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2734 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2735 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2736 
  2737 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2738 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2739 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2740 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2741 
  2742 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2743 the context or even global references.
  2744 
  2745 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2746 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2747 
  2748 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2749 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2750 
  2751   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2752   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2753   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2754   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2755   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2756   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2757   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2758   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2759   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2760   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2761 
  2762 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2763 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2764 
  2765 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2766 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2767 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2768 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2769 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2770 
  2771 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2772 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2773 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2774 Theory_Data version.
  2775 
  2776 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2777 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2778 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2779 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2780 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2781 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2782 explicitly in rare situations.
  2783 
  2784 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2785 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2787 
  2788 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2789 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2792 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2793 quite rare).
  2794 
  2795 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2796 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2799 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2800 terms.
  2801 
  2802 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2803 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2804 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2805 
  2806 
  2807 *** System ***
  2808 
  2809 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2810 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2811 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2812 
  2813 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2814 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2815 respectively.
  2816 
  2817 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2818 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2819 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2820 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2821 
  2822   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2823 
  2824 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2825 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2826 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2827 component.
  2828 
  2829 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2830 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2831 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2832 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2833 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2834 the user for manual installation.
  2835 
  2836 
  2837 
  2838 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2839 -------------------------------------
  2840 
  2841 *** General ***
  2842 
  2843 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2844 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2845 
  2846 
  2847 *** Pure ***
  2848 
  2849 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2850 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2851 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2852 
  2853 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2854 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2855 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2856 
  2857 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2858 interpretation.
  2859 
  2860 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2861 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862 
  2863 
  2864 *** Document preparation ***
  2865 
  2866 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2867 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2868 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2869 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2870 
  2871 
  2872 *** HOL ***
  2873 
  2874 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2875 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2876 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2877 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2878 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2879 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2880 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2881 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2882 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2883 
  2884 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2885 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2886 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2887 
  2888 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2889 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2890 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2891 
  2892 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2893 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2894 
  2895 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2896 
  2897 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2898 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2899 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2900 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2901 
  2902 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2903 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2904 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2905 "mirabelle" utility.
  2906 
  2907 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2908 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2909 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2910 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2911 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2912 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2913 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2914 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2915 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2916 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2917 
  2918 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2919 procedure only.
  2920 
  2921 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2922 
  2923 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2924 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2925 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2926 that fail later.
  2927 
  2928 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2929 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2930 
  2931 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2932 the same method as the approximation method.
  2933 
  2934 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2935 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2936 series expansion.
  2937 
  2938 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2939 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2940 
  2941 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2942 reals.
  2943 
  2944 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2945 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2946 
  2947 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2948 fixpoint theorem.
  2949 
  2950 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2951   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2952     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2953   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2954     accordingly
  2955   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2956     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2957   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2958     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2959 
  2960 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2961 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2962 lattice.
  2963 
  2964 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2965 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2966 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2967 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2968 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2969 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2973   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2974     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2975   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2976     le_inf_iff
  2977   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2978     sup_aci)
  2979   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2980   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2981   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2982     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2983     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2984     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2985     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2986     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2987     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2988     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2989     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2990     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2991     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2992   - authentic syntax for
  2993     Set.Pow
  2994     Set.image
  2995   - mere abbreviations:
  2996     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2997     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2998     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2999     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3000     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3001     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3002     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3003     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3004   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3005 
  3006 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3007 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3008 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3009 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3010 
  3011 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3012 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3013 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3016 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3019 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3020 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3021 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3024 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3025 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3026 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3027 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3028 
  3029 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3030 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3034 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3035 
  3036 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3037 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3038 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3039 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3040 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3041 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3042 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3044 
  3045 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3046     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3047     code_post       replaces    code post
  3048     etc.
  3049   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * Renamed methods:
  3052     sizechange -> size_change
  3053     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3054   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3057 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3058 
  3059 * Renamed theorems:
  3060     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3061     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3062     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3063     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3064     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3065   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 
  3074 *** HOLCF ***
  3075 
  3076 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3077 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3078 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3079 
  3080 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3081 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3082 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3083 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3084 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3085 
  3086 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3087 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3088 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3089 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3090 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3091 
  3092 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3093 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3094 constructor are pre-configured.
  3095 
  3096 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3097 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3098 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3099 
  3100 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3101 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3102 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3103 as well.)
  3104 
  3105 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3106 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3107 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3108 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3109 examples.
  3110 
  3111 
  3112 *** ML ***
  3113 
  3114 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3115 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3116 
  3117 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3118 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3119 position, logical grouping etc.
  3120 
  3121 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3122 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3123 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3124 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3125 
  3126 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3127 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3128 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3129 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3130 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3131 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3132 
  3133 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3134 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3135 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3136 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3137 experiments with references.
  3138 
  3139 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3140 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3141 
  3142 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3143 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3144 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3145 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3146 
  3147 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3148 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3149 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3150 
  3151 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3152 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3153 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3161 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3162 
  3163 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3164 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3165 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3166 
  3167 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3168 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3169 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3170 
  3171 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3172 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3173 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3177 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3178 instead of global theory.
  3179 
  3180 
  3181 *** System ***
  3182 
  3183 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3184 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3185 usedir option -q.
  3186 
  3187 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3188 also the system manual.
  3189 
  3190 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3191 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3192 
  3193 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3194 this is always enabled.
  3195 
  3196 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3197 
  3198 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3199 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3200 currently supported on Linux only.
  3201 
  3202 
  3203 
  3204 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3205 --------------------------------
  3206 
  3207 *** General ***
  3208 
  3209 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3210 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3211 
  3212   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3213     "isatool."
  3214 
  3215   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3216     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3217 
  3218   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3219     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3220 
  3221 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3222 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3223 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3224 
  3225 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3226 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3227 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3228 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3229 via "isabelle emacs".
  3230 
  3231 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3232 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3233 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3234 
  3235 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3236 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3237 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3238 
  3239 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3240 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3241 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3242 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3243 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3244 
  3245 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3246 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3247 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3248 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3249 
  3250 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3251 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3252 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3253 
  3254 
  3255 *** Pure ***
  3256 
  3257 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3258 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3259 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3260 
  3261 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3262 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3263 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3264 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3265 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3266 
  3267 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3268 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3269 useful in locale declarations.
  3270 
  3271 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3272 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3273 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3274 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3275 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3276 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3277 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3278 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3279 no longer generated.
  3280 
  3281 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3282 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3283 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3284 
  3285 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3286 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3287 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3288 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3289 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3290 
  3291 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3293 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3294 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3295 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3296 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3297 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3298 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3299 
  3300 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3301 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3302 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3303 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3304 
  3305 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3308 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3309 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3310 
  3311 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3312 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3313 
  3314 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3315 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3316 in HOL, write
  3317 
  3318     class foo = ...
  3319 
  3320 instead of
  3321 
  3322     class foo = type + ...
  3323 
  3324 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3325 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3328 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3329 
  3330 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3331 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3332 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3333 
  3334 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3335 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3336 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3337 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3338 directly in regular applications.
  3339 
  3340 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3341 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3342 
  3343 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3344 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3345 
  3346 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3347 theory context.
  3348 
  3349 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3350 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3353 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3354 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3355 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3356 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3357 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3358 
  3359   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3360 
  3361 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3362 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3363 normalization.
  3364 
  3365 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3366 addressing etc.
  3367 
  3368 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3369 
  3370   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3371   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3372 
  3373 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3374 
  3375   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3376      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3377      parts of the code generator framework).
  3378 
  3379   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3380      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3381      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3382 
  3383 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3386 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3387 
  3388 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3389 patterns, e.g.
  3390 
  3391     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3392 
  3393 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3394 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3395 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3396 hyphen:
  3397 
  3398     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3399 
  3400 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3401 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3402 
  3403 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3404 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3405 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3406 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3407 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3408 higher-order unification.
  3409 
  3410 
  3411 *** Document preparation ***
  3412 
  3413 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3414 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3415 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3416 
  3417 
  3418 *** HOL ***
  3419 
  3420 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3421 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3422 
  3423 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3424 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3425 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3426 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3427 Main, as before.
  3428 
  3429 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3430 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3431 
  3432 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3433 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3434 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3435 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3436 
  3437 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3438 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3439 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3440 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3441 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3442 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3443 
  3444 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3445 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3446 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3447 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3448 
  3449 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3450 menu.
  3451 
  3452 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3453 (contains the empty clause).
  3454 
  3455 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3456 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3457 
  3458 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3459 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3460 
  3461 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3462 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3463 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3466 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3467 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3468 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3469 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3470 
  3471 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3472 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3473 
  3474 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3475 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3476 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3477 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3478 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3479 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3480 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3481 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3482 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3483 
  3484 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3485 
  3486 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3487 
  3488 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3489 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3492 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3493 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3494 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3495 
  3496 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3497 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3498 
  3499     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3500     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3501     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3502     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3503     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3504     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3505     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3506     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3507 
  3508 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3509 theory Set.
  3510 
  3511 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3512 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3513 
  3514 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3515 
  3516 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3517 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3518 
  3519 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3520 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3521 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3522 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3523 allowed. For examples see
  3524 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3525 
  3526 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3527 
  3528 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3530 
  3531 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3532 structure:
  3533 
  3534     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3535     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3536     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3537     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3538     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3539     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3540     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3541     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3542     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3543     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3544     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3545     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3546     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3547     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3548     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3549     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3550     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3551     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3552     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3553     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3554     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3555     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3556     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3557     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3558     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3559     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3560     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3561     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3562     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3563     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3564     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3565     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3566     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3567 
  3568     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3569     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3570     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3571     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3572     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3573     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3574     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3575     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3576     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3577     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3578 
  3579     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3580     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3581     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3582     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3583     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3584     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3585 
  3586 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3587 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3588 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3589 
  3590 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3591 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3592 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3593 
  3594 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3595 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3598 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3599 
  3600 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3601 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3602 proofs, e.g.
  3603 
  3604   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3605 
  3606 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3607 
  3608 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3609 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3610 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3613 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3617 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3618 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3622 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3623 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3624 preorder_class.*.
  3625 
  3626 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3627 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3628 
  3629 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3630 
  3631   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3632 
  3633 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3634 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3635 fold_image.
  3636 
  3637 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3638 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3639 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3640 the former will disappear at some point.
  3641 
  3642 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3643 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3644 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3645 
  3646 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3647 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3648 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3649 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3650 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3651 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3652 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3653 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3654 
  3655 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3656 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3657 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3658 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3659 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3660 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3661 
  3662     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3663     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3664     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3665     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3666     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3667     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3668     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3669 
  3670 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3671 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3672 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3673 
  3674 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3675 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3676 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3677 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3678 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3679 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3680 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3681 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3682 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3683 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3684 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3685 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3686 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3687 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3688 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3689 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3690 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3691 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3692 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3693 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3694 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3695 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3696 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3697 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3698 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3699 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3700 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3701 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3702 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3703 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3704 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3705 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3706 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3707 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3708 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3709 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3710 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3711 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3712 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3713 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3714 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3715 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3716 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3717 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3718 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3719 
  3720 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3723 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3724 
  3725 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3726 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3727 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3728 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3729 
  3730 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3731 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3732 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3733 theory RealVector.
  3734 
  3735 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3736 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3737 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3738 and inner products are included.
  3739 
  3740 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3741 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3742 supported.
  3743 
  3744 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3745 first diagonalization argument.
  3746 
  3747 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3748 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3749 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3750 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3751 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3752 
  3753     hide (open) const gcd
  3754     abbreviation gcd where
  3755       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3756     notation (output)
  3757       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3758 
  3759 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3760 
  3761 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3762 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3763 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3766 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3767 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3768 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3769 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3770 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3771 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3772 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3773 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3774 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3775 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3776 cases.
  3777 
  3778 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3779 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3780 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3781 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3782 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3783 
  3784     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3785     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3786     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3787     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3788     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3789 
  3790 
  3791 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3792 
  3793 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3794 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3795 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3796 
  3797 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3798 
  3799 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3800 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3801 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3802 
  3803 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3804 
  3805 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3806 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3807 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3808 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3809 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3810 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3811 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3812 
  3813 
  3814 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3815 
  3816 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3817 
  3818 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3819 theory targets.
  3820 
  3821 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3822 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3823 'inductive' etc.
  3824 
  3825 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3826 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3827 
  3828 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3829 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3830 
  3831 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3832 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3833 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3834 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3835 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3836 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3837 the algorithm W:
  3838 
  3839  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3840  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3841          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3842 
  3843 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3844 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3845 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3846 
  3847 
  3848 *** HOLCF ***
  3849 
  3850 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3851 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3852 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3853 
  3854 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3855 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3856 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3857 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3858 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3861 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3862 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 
  3865 *** ZF ***
  3866 
  3867 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3868 
  3869 
  3870 *** ML ***
  3871 
  3872 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3873 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3874 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3875 5.2.1!
  3876 
  3877 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3878 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3879 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3880 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3881 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3882 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3883 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3884 
  3885 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3886 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3887 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3888 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3889 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3890 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3891 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3892 
  3893 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3894 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3895 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3896 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3897 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3898 
  3899 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3900 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3901 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3902 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3903 Method.add_method.
  3904 
  3905 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3906 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3907 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3908 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3909 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3910 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3911 
  3912 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3913 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3914 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3915 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3916 examples.
  3917 
  3918 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3919 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3920 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3921 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3922 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3923 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3924 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3925 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3926 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3927 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3928 
  3929 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3930 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3931 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3932 
  3933 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3934 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3935 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3936 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3937 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3938 resort for legacy applications.
  3939 
  3940 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3941 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3942 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3943 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3944 explicit runtime argument.
  3945 
  3946 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3947 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3948 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3949 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3950 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3953 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3954 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3955 theory state.
  3956 
  3957 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3958 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3959 
  3960   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3961   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3962   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3963   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3964   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3965   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3966   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3967   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3968   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3969   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3970 
  3971 
  3972 *** System ***
  3973 
  3974 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3975 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3976 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3977 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3978 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3979 
  3980 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3981 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3982 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3983 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3984 
  3985 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3986 
  3987 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3988 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3989 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3990 prover operations.
  3991 
  3992 
  3993 
  3994 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3995 -------------------------------
  3996 
  3997 *** General ***
  3998 
  3999 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4000 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4001 
  4002 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4003 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4004 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4005 provides a proper context already.
  4006 
  4007 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4008 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4009 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4010 
  4011 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4012 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4013 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4014 swap theory imports.
  4015 
  4016 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4017 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4018 
  4019 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4020 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4021 white space without escapes.
  4022 
  4023 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4024 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4025 "foo_bar".
  4026 
  4027 
  4028 *** Pure ***
  4029 
  4030 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4031 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4032 
  4033 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4034 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4035 
  4036 (1) unused_thms
  4037      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4038 
  4039 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4040      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4041      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4042 
  4043 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4044      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4045      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4046      their ancestors.
  4047 
  4048 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4049 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4050 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4051 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4052 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4053 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4054 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4055 
  4056 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4057 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4058 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4059 
  4060 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4061 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4062 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4063 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4064 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4065 
  4066 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4067 
  4068 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4069 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4070 update of theories within ML code.
  4071 
  4072 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4073 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4074 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4075 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4076 
  4077 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4078 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4079 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4083 
  4084 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4085 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4086 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4087 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4088 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4089 
  4090 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4091 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4092 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4093 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4094 situations.
  4095 
  4096 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4097 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4098 proof text.
  4099 
  4100 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4101 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4102 
  4103 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4104 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4105 predicates.
  4106 
  4107 
  4108 *** Document preparation ***
  4109 
  4110 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4111 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4112 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4113 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4114 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4115 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4116 
  4117 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4118 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4119 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4120 
  4121 
  4122 *** HOL ***
  4123 
  4124 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4125 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4126 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4127 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4128 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4129 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4130 
  4131 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4132 with multithreading.
  4133 
  4134 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4135 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4136 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4137 
  4138 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4139 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4140 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4141 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4144 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4145 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4146 and makes them available separately.  See
  4147 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4148 
  4149 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4150 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4151 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4152 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4153 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4154 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4155 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4156 the declared rules.
  4157 
  4158 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4159 
  4160   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4161 
  4162 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4163 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4164 
  4165 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4166 
  4167   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4168 
  4169   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4170     definitions on => and bool.
  4171 
  4172   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4173     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4174     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4175 
  4176       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4177       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4178       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4179       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4180       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4181       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4182       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4183       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4184 
  4185   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4186     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4187     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4188 
  4189   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4190     The proof pattern
  4191 
  4192       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4193       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4194 
  4195     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4196     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4197 
  4198       have "EX S. P S"
  4199       proof
  4200         show "P S" <...>
  4201       qed
  4202 
  4203   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4204     The proof pattern
  4205 
  4206       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4207       also have "S = T" <...>
  4208       finally have "P T" .
  4209 
  4210     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4211     must be replaced by something like
  4212 
  4213       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4214       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4215       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4216 
  4217   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4218     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4219 
  4220       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4221 
  4222     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4223     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4224     type of the form
  4225 
  4226       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4227 
  4228     rather than
  4229 
  4230       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4231 
  4232 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4233 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4234 
  4235 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4238 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4240 
  4241 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4242 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4243 
  4244 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4245 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4248 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4249 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4252 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4253 
  4254   less_trans
  4255   less_linear
  4256   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4257   le_less_trans
  4258   less_le_trans
  4259   less_not_sym
  4260   less_asym
  4261 
  4262 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4263 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4264 and different variable names.
  4265 
  4266 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4267 
  4268 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4269 finite maps.
  4270 
  4271 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4272 
  4273 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4274 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4275 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4276 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4277 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4278 accordingly.
  4279 
  4280 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4281 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4282 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4283 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4284 
  4285 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4286 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4287 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4288 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4289 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4291 
  4292 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4293 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4296 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4297 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4298 
  4299 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4303 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4304 
  4305 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4306 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4309 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4312 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4316 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4319 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4320 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4321 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4322 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4323 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4324 
  4325 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4326 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4327 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4328 
  4329 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4330 
  4331 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4332 
  4333 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4334 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4335 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4336 
  4337 
  4338 *** ZF ***
  4339 
  4340 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4341 same session:
  4342 
  4343   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4344   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4345   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4346   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4347   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4348   List      -> List_ZF
  4349   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4350 
  4351 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4352 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4353 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4354 
  4355 
  4356 *** ML ***
  4357 
  4358 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4359 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4360 
  4361 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4362 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4363 
  4364 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4365 
  4366 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4367 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4368 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4369 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4370 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4373 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4374 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4375 
  4376 
  4377 *** System ***
  4378 
  4379 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4380 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4381 
  4382 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4383 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4384 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4385 
  4386 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4387 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4388 
  4389 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4390 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4391 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4392 
  4393 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4394 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4395 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4396 
  4397 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4398 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4399 
  4400 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4401 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4402 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4403 script.
  4404 
  4405 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4406 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4407 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4408 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4409 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4410 
  4411 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4412 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4413 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4414 
  4415 
  4416 
  4417 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4418 -----------------------------------
  4419 
  4420 *** General ***
  4421 
  4422 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4423 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4424 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4425 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4426 
  4427 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4428 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4429 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4430 
  4431 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4432 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4433 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4434 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4435 
  4436 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4437 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4438 quotes.
  4439 
  4440 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4441 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4442 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4443 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4444 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4445 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4446 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4447 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4448 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4449 
  4450 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4451 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4452 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4453 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4454 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4455 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4456 
  4457 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4458 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4459 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4460 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4461 
  4462 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4463 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4464 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4465 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4466 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4467 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4468 
  4469 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4470 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4471 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4472 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4473 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4474 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4475 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4476 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4477 
  4478 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4479 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4480 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4481 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4482 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4483 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4484 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4485 
  4486 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4487 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4488 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4489 
  4490 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4491 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4492 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4493 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4494 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4495 limit is imposed.
  4496 
  4497 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4498 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4499 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4500 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4501 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4502 and scalability.
  4503 
  4504 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4505 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4506 
  4507 
  4508 *** Document preparation ***
  4509 
  4510 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4511 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4512 current context.
  4513 
  4514 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4515 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4516 
  4517 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4518 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4519 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4520 
  4521 
  4522 *** Pure ***
  4523 
  4524 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4525 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4526 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4527 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4528 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4529 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4530 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4531 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4532 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4533 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4534 
  4535 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4536 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4537 sketch:
  4538 
  4539     internal compilation:
  4540         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4541     writing SML code to a file:
  4542         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4543     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4544         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4545     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4546         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4547 
  4548     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4549         method ``eval''
  4550 
  4551 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4552 
  4553 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4554 
  4555     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4556     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4557     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4558     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4559 
  4560 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4561 
  4562     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4563       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4564 
  4565     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4566       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4567 
  4568     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4569       {(target)}+
  4570         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4571 
  4572     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4573       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4574         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4575 
  4576 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4577 
  4578 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4579 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4580 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4581 codegen".
  4582 
  4583 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4584 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4585 annotations).
  4586 
  4587 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4588 syntax.
  4589 
  4590 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4591 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4592 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4593 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4594 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4595 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4596 
  4597 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4598 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4599 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4600 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4601 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4602 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4603 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4604 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4605 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4606 equations, see section "definitions".
  4607 
  4608 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4609 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4610 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4611 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4612 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4613 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4614 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4615 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4616 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4617 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4618 
  4619 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4620 configuration options:
  4621 
  4622   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4623   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4624   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4625   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4626   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4627   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4628   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4629   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4630   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4631 
  4632 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4633 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4634 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4635 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4636 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4637 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4638 order.
  4639 
  4640 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4641 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4642 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4643 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4644 context encountered later on.
  4645 
  4646 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4647 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4648 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4649 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4650 
  4651 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4652 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4653 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4654 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4655 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4656 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4657 
  4658 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4659 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4660 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4661 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4662 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4663 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4664 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4665 more permissive.
  4666 
  4667 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4668 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4669 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4670 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4671 maintainability of proof texts.
  4672 
  4673 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4674 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4675 
  4676   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4677   then guess x and y by clarify
  4678 
  4679 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4680 proof tools being involved here.
  4681 
  4682 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4683 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4684 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4685 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4686 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4687 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4688 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4689 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4690 
  4691 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4692 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4693 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4694 
  4695   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4696   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4697   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4698   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4699 
  4700 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4701 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4702 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4703 
  4704 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4705 both named and unnamed ones.
  4706 
  4707 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4708 
  4709   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4710 
  4711 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4712 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4713 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4714 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4715 
  4716 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4717 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4718 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4719 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4720 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4721 
  4722 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4723 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4724 
  4725 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4726 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4727 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4728 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4729 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4730 originally first one.
  4731 
  4732 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4733 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4734 expected.
  4735 
  4736 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4737 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4738 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4739 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4740 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4741 
  4742   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4743     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4744     obtains x where "P x"
  4745 
  4746   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4747     assumes "A & B"
  4748     obtains A and B
  4749 
  4750   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4751     assumes "A | B"
  4752     obtains
  4753       A
  4754     | B
  4755 
  4756 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4757 explicitly:
  4758 
  4759   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4760     obtains "~ thesis"
  4761 
  4762   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4763     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4764 
  4765 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4766 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4767 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4768 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4769 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4770 case_names).
  4771 
  4772 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4773 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4774 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4775 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4776 
  4777 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4778 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4779 top-level lemma.
  4780 
  4781 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4782 introduction rule (default "that").
  4783 
  4784 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4785 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4786 to occur.
  4787 
  4788 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4789 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4790 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4791 representations independently of name spaces.
  4792 
  4793 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4794 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4795 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4796 
  4797 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4798 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4799 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4800 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4801 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4802 current context.
  4803 
  4804 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4805 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4806 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4807 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4808 
  4809   axiomatization
  4810     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4811     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4812 
  4813   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4814   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4815 
  4816   abbreviation
  4817     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4818     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4819 
  4820 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4821 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4822 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4823 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4824 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4825 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4826 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4827 
  4828 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4829 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4830 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4831 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4832 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4833 
  4834 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4835 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4836 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4837 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4838 
  4839 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4840 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4841 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4842 
  4843   definition "K x _ = x"
  4844 
  4845   inductive conj for A B
  4846   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4847 
  4848 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4849 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4850 abbreviations on output.
  4851 
  4852 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4853 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4854 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4855 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4856 
  4857 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4858 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4859 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4860 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4861 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4862 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4863 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4864 
  4865 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4866 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4867 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4868 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4869 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4870 
  4871 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4872 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4873 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4874 
  4875 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4876 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4877 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4878 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4879 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4880 
  4881   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4882     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4883 
  4884 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4885 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4886 partial_order.
  4887 
  4888 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4889 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4890 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4891 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4892 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4893 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4894 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4895 examples.
  4896 
  4897 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4898 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4899 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4900 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4901 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4902 
  4903 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4904 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4905 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4906 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4907 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4908 
  4909   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4910   (induct set: foo bar)
  4911   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4912   (induct type: foo bar)
  4913 
  4914 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4915 new format.
  4916 
  4917 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4918 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4919 
  4920 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4921 considered a legacy feature.
  4922 
  4923 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4924 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4925 
  4926 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4927 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4928 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4929 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4930   
  4931 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4932 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4933 manipulating the claset.
  4934 
  4935 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4936 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4937 least one premise.
  4938 
  4939 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4940 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4941 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4942 rule steps.
  4943 
  4944 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4945 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4946 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4947 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4948 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4949 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4950 
  4951 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4952 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4953 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4954 
  4955 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4956 the graph browser tool.
  4957 
  4958 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4959 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4960 
  4961 
  4962 *** HOL ***
  4963 
  4964 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4965 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4966 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4967 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4968 multi-threading.
  4969   
  4970 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4971 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4972 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4973 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4974 work with multi-threading.
  4975 
  4976 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4977 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4978 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4979 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4980 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4981 
  4982 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4983 
  4984 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4985 equality.
  4986 
  4987 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4988 the new 'class' package:
  4989 
  4990     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4991     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4992     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4993     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4994     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4995     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4996     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4997     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4998     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4999     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5000     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5001     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5002     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5003     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5004     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5005     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5006     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5007     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5008     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5009     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5010 
  5011 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5012 
  5013 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5014 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5015 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5016 names.
  5017 
  5018 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5019 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5020 
  5021 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5022 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5023 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5024 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5025 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5026 
  5027 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5028 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5029 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5030 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5031 
  5032 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5033 
  5034 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5035 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5036 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5037 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5039 
  5040 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5041 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5044 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5045 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5048 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5049 
  5050 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5051 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5052 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5053 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5054 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5055 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5056 in the current context.
  5057 
  5058 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5059 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5063 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5064 
  5065 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5066 
  5067     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5068     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5069 
  5070     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5071       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5072     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5073     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5074 
  5075     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5076     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5077 
  5078   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5079 
  5080     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5081     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5082     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5083     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5084     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5085     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5086     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5087     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5088     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5089     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5090     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5091     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5092     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5093     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5094     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5095     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5096     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5097     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5098     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5099     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5100     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5101     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5102     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5103     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5104     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5105     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5106     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5107     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5108     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5109     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5110     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5111     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5112     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5113     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5114     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5115 
  5116     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5117     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5118     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5119     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5120     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5121     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5122     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5123     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5124     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5125     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5126     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5127     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5128     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5129     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5130     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5131     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5132     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5133 
  5134     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5135     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5136     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5137     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5138     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5139     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5140     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5141     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5142     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5143     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5144     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5145     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5146     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5147     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5148     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5149     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5150     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5151     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5152     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5153     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5154     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5155     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5156     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5157     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5158     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5159     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5160     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5161     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5162 
  5163     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5164     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5165     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5166     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5167     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5168     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5169 
  5170     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5171     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5172     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5173     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5174 
  5175     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5176     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5177 
  5178     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5179     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5180 
  5181 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5182 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5183 
  5184 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5185 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5186 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5187 "*.size".
  5188 
  5189 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5191 
  5192 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5193 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5194 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5195 
  5196 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5199 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5200 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5201 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5202 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5203 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5204 numerals on all operations.
  5205 
  5206 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5207 
  5208 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5209 
  5210 * Code generator library theories:
  5211   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5212     languages.
  5213   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5214     languages.
  5215   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5216     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5217   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5218   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5219     denominator).
  5220   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5221     representable by rational numbers.
  5222   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5223     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5224     includes Code_Integer.
  5225   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5226     target-language built-in integers.
  5227   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5228     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5229 
  5230 * New package for inductive predicates
  5231 
  5232   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5233 
  5234     inductive
  5235       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5236       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5237     where
  5238       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5239     | ...
  5240 
  5241   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5242 
  5243     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5244 
  5245     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5246     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5247 
  5248     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5249     intros
  5250       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5251       ...
  5252 
  5253   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5254   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5255 
  5256     inductive_set
  5257       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5258       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5259     where
  5260       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5261     | ...
  5262 
  5263   or
  5264 
  5265     inductive_set
  5266       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5267       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5268       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5269     where
  5270       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5271     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5272     | ...
  5273 
  5274   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5275 
  5276   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5277   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5278 
  5279   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5280 
  5281   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5282     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5283     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5284     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5285     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5286 
  5287   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5288     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5289     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5290     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5291     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5292     statements of the form
  5293 
  5294       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5295 
  5296     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5297     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5298 
  5299       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5300 
  5301   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5302 
  5303       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5304         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5305         ==> ... ==> P
  5306 
  5307     for predicates and
  5308 
  5309       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5310         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5311         ==> ... ==> P
  5312 
  5313     for sets rather than
  5314 
  5315       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5316         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5317         ==> ... ==> P
  5318 
  5319     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5320     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5321     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5322 
  5323   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5324     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5325     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5326 
  5327 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5328 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5329 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5330 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5331 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5332 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5333 
  5334 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5335 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5336 
  5337 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5338 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5339 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5340 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5341 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5342 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5343 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5344 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5345 variable.
  5346 
  5347 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5348 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5349 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5350 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5351   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5352   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5353 
  5354 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5355 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5356 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5357 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5358 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5359 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5360 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5361 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5362 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5363 
  5364 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5365 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5366 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5367 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5368 rat, etc.
  5369 
  5370 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5371 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5372 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5373 
  5374 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5375 
  5376 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5377 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5378 
  5379 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5380 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5381 
  5382 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5383 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5384 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5387 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5389 
  5390 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5391 
  5392 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5393 
  5394 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5395 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5396 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5397 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5398 
  5399 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5400 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5401 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5402 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5403 
  5404 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5405 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5406 algebraic operations.
  5407 
  5408 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5410 
  5411 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5413 
  5414 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5415 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5416 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5417 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5418 adapted.
  5419  
  5420 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5421 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5422 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5423 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5424 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5425 
  5426 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5427 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5428 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5429 
  5430 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5431 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5432 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5433 
  5434 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5435 
  5436 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5437 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5438 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5439   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5440       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5441   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5442   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5443   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5444 
  5445 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5446 
  5447 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5448 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5449 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5450 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5451 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5452 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5453 
  5454 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5455 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5456 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5457 
  5458 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5459 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5460 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5462 
  5463 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5464 
  5465 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5466 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5469 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5470 
  5471 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5472 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5473 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5474 
  5475 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5476 True/False.
  5477 
  5478 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5479 
  5480 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5481 
  5482 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5483 ``rule'' method.
  5484 
  5485 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5486 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5487 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5488 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5489 
  5490 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5491 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5492 
  5493 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5494 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5495 
  5496 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5497 Library.
  5498 
  5499 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5500 
  5501 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5502 as greatest fixed-point.
  5503 
  5504 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5505 association lists.
  5506 
  5507 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5508 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5509 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5510 
  5511 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5512 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5513 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5514 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5515 behavior.
  5516 
  5517 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5518 
  5519 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5520 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5521 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5522 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5523 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5524 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5525 
  5526 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5527 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5528 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5529 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5530 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5531 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5532 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5533 
  5534 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5535 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5536 
  5537 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5538 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5539 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5540 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5541 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5542 
  5543 
  5544 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5545 
  5546 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5547 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5548 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5549 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5553 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5554 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5555 
  5556 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5557 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5558 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5559 
  5560 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5561 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5562 
  5563 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5564 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5565 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5569   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5570   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5571   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5572   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5573   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5574   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5575   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5576   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5577   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5578   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5579   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5580   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5581   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5582   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5583 
  5584 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5585 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5586 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5587 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5588 
  5589   approx        <-- capprox
  5590   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5591   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5592   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5593   monad         <-- cmonad
  5594   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5595   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5596   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5597   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5598 
  5599 
  5600 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5601 
  5602 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5603 
  5604 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5606 
  5607 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5608 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5609 
  5610 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5611 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5612 of algebraic structures.
  5613 
  5614 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5615 
  5616 
  5617 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5618 
  5619 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5620 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5621 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5622 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5623 
  5624 
  5625 *** ML ***
  5626 
  5627 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5628 (even on SML/NJ).
  5629 
  5630 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5631 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5632 compile-time.  For example:
  5633 
  5634 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5635 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5636 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5637 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5638 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5639 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5640 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5641 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5642 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5643 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5644 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5645 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5646 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5647 ML {* @{context} *}
  5648 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5649 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5650 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5651 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5652 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5653 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5654 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5655 
  5656 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5657 
  5658 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5659 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5660 
  5661 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5662 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5663 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5664 
  5665 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5666 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5667 
  5668 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5669 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5670 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5671 
  5672 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5673 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5674 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5675 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5676 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5677 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5678 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5679 declarations and definitions.
  5680 
  5681 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5682 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5683 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5684 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5685 
  5686 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5687 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5688 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5689 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5690 
  5691 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5692 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5693 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5694 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5695 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5696 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5697 
  5698 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5699 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5700 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5701 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5702 attributes, methods, etc.
  5703 
  5704 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5705 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5706 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5707 fold_map combinators.
  5708 
  5709 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5710 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5711 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5712 derivation.
  5713 
  5714 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5715 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5716 achieve the old behaviour.
  5717 
  5718 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5719 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5720 statements.
  5721 
  5722 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5723 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5724 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5725 
  5726 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5727 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5728 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5729 
  5730   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5731   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5732   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5733 
  5734 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5735 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5736 
  5737 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5738 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5739 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5740 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5741 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5742 
  5743 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5744 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5745 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5746 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5747 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5748 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5749 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5750 in a locale context).
  5751 
  5752 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5753 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5754 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5755 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5756 
  5757 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5758 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5759 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5760 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5761 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5762 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5763 
  5764 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5765 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5766 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5767 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5768 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5769 
  5770   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5771 
  5772 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5773 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5774 this:
  5775 
  5776   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5777 
  5778 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5779 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5780 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5781 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5782 
  5783 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5784 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5785 
  5786 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5787 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5788 
  5789 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5790 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5791 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5792 batch mode.
  5793 
  5794 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5795 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5796 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5797 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5798 
  5799 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5800 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5801 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5802 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5803 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5804 
  5805 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5806 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5807 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5808 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5809 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5810 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5811 
  5812 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5813 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5814 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5816 
  5817 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5818 "Trueprop" etc.
  5819 
  5820 
  5821 *** System ***
  5822 
  5823 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5824 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5825 Isabelle installations.
  5826 
  5827 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5828 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5829 code.
  5830 
  5831 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5832 
  5833 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5834 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5835 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5836 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5837 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5838 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5839 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5840 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5841 Implementation manual.
  5842 
  5843 
  5844 
  5845 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5846 ----------------------------------
  5847 
  5848 *** General ***
  5849 
  5850 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5851 
  5852   theory <name>
  5853   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5854   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5855   begin
  5856 
  5857 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5858 
  5859   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5860 
  5861 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5862 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5863 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5864 
  5865 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5866 relative and absolute paths.
  5867 
  5868 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5869 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5870 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5871 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5872 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5873 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5874 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5875 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5876 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5877 
  5878   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5879 
  5880 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5881 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5882 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5883 
  5884 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5885 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5886 
  5887 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5888 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5889 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5890 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5891 
  5892   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5893   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5894 
  5895 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5896 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5897 faster.
  5898 
  5899 
  5900 *** Document preparation ***
  5901 
  5902 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5903 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5904 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5905 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5906 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5907 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5908 
  5909 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5910 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5911 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5912 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5913 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5914 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5915 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5916 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5917 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5918 \isadroptag.
  5919 
  5920 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5921 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5922 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5923 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5924 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5925 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5926 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5927 specified above.
  5928 
  5929 * Several new antiquotations:
  5930 
  5931   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5932 
  5933   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5934 
  5935   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5936   argument is a known logical constant;
  5937 
  5938   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5939   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5940 
  5941   @{ML text}
  5942 
  5943 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5944 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5945 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5946 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5947 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5948 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5949 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5950 
  5951 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5952 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5953 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5954 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5955 
  5956 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5957 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5958 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5959 
  5960 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5961 a proof context.
  5962 
  5963 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5964 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5965 
  5966 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5967 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5968 
  5969 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5970 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5971 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5972 
  5973 
  5974 *** Pure ***
  5975 
  5976 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5977 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5978 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5979 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5980 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5981 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5982 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5983 
  5984 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5985 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5986 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5987 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5988 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5989 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5990 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5991 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5992 
  5993 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5994 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5995 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5996 
  5997 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5998 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5999 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  6000 
  6001 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  6002 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  6003 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  6004 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  6005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  6008 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  6009 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  6010 axclasses vs. locales.
  6011 
  6012 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  6013 instead of base 26 numbers.
  6014 
  6015 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  6016 marks in schematic variable names.
  6017 
  6018 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  6019 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  6020 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  6021 
  6022   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  6023     by simp
  6024 
  6025 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  6026 
  6027 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  6028 annotations as "(00...)".
  6029 
  6030 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  6031 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  6032 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  6033 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  6034 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  6035 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  6036 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  6037 
  6038 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  6039 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  6040 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  6041 specifications.
  6042 
  6043 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  6044 locally fixed variables as well.
  6045 
  6046 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  6047 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  6048 Limit.
  6049 
  6050 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  6051 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  6052 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  6053 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  6054 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  6055 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  6056 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  6057 
  6058 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  6059 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  6060 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  6061 
  6062 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6063 
  6064 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  6065 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  6066 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  6067 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  6068 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  6069 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  6070 
  6071 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  6072 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  6073 
  6074 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  6075 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  6076 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  6077 
  6078 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  6079 
  6080 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  6081 theory development.
  6082 
  6083 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  6084 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  6085 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  6086 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  6087 
  6088 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  6089 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  6090 quoted when used as identifier.
  6091 
  6092 
  6093 *** Locales ***
  6094 
  6095 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  6096 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  6097 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  6098 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  6099 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  6100 commands is a follows:
  6101 
  6102   (1) interpretation expr inst
  6103   (2) interpretation target < expr
  6104   (3) interpret expr inst
  6105 
  6106 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  6107 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  6108 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  6109 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  6110 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  6111 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  6112 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  6113 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  6114 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  6115 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  6116 
  6117 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  6118 'interpret' instead.
  6119 
  6120 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  6121 parameters.
  6122 
  6123 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  6124 redeclaration.
  6125 
  6126 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  6127 
  6128 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  6129 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  6130 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  6131 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  6132 to attribute arguments as expected.
  6133 
  6134 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  6135 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  6136 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  6137 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  6138 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  6139 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  6140 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  6141 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  6142 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  6143 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  6144 
  6145 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  6146 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  6147 theorem statement in rare situations.
  6148 
  6149 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  6150 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  6151 
  6152 
  6153 *** Provers ***
  6154 
  6155 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  6156 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  6157 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  6158 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  6159 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  6160 
  6161 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  6162 and quasi orders.
  6163 
  6164 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  6165 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  6166 
  6167 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  6168 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  6169 
  6170 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  6171 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  6172 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6173 
  6174 
  6175 *** HOL ***
  6176 
  6177 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  6178 
  6179   syntax (epsilon)
  6180     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  6181 
  6182 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  6183 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  6184 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  6185 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6186 
  6187 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  6188 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  6189 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  6190 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  6191 
  6192 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  6193 instead of ":".
  6194 
  6195 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  6196 
  6197   Old       New
  6198   {..n(}    {..<n}
  6199   {)n..}    {n<..}
  6200   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  6201   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  6202   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  6203 
  6204 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  6205 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  6206 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  6207 
  6208   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  6209   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  6210 
  6211 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  6212 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  6213 interface.
  6214 
  6215 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  6216 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  6217 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  6218 be a tuple pattern.
  6219 
  6220 Some new syntax forms are available:
  6221 
  6222   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  6223   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  6224   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  6225   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  6226 
  6227 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  6228 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  6229 
  6230 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  6231 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  6232 (insert F x)'.
  6233 
  6234 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  6235 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  6236 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  6237 
  6238 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  6239 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  6240 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  6241 
  6242 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  6243 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  6244 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  6245 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6246 in unstructured proof scripts.
  6247 
  6248 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  6249 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  6250 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  6251 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  6252 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  6253 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  6254 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  6255 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called