NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Apr 25 20:07:39 2014 +0200 (2014-04-25)
changeset 56728 6dc97c5aaf5e
parent 56652 b0126a5a256d
child 56738 13b0fc4ece42
child 56761 951c6a9ac3d7
permissions -rw-r--r--
unused;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    93     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    94     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    95 
    96   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
    97     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    98 
    99 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   100 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   101 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   102 
   103 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   104 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   105 
   106 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   107 auxiliary ML files.
   108 
   109 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   110 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   111 
   112 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   113 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   114 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   115 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   116 
   117 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   118 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   119 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   120 
   121 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   122 
   123 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   124 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   125 
   126 
   127 *** Pure ***
   128 
   129 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   130 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   131 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   132 renaming needs to be applied:
   133 
   134   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   135   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   136   all            ~>  Pure.all
   137   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   138   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   139 
   140 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   141 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   142 old constants:
   143 
   144 setup {*
   145   fn thy => thy
   146     |> Sign.root_path
   147     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   148     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   149     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   150     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   151 *}
   152 
   153 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   154 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   155 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   156 
   157 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   158 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   159 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   160 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   161 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   162 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   163 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   164 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   165 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   166 
   167 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   168 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   169 instantiated theorem.
   170 
   171 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   172 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   173 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   174 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   175 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   176 
   177   attribute_setup standard =
   178     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   179 
   180 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   181 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   182 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   183 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   184 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   185 
   186 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   187 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   188 differently).
   189 
   190 
   191 *** HOL ***
   192 
   193 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   197 with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalized and replace
   198 former INT_cong, SUP_cong.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   201 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   204 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   210   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   211   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   212   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   213   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   214   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   217   can now deal with conjunctions.
   218   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   219   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   220   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   221 
   222 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * HOL-Word:
   225   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   226   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   227   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   228   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   229   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   230 
   231 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   235 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   238 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   241 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   244   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   245   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   246   Theory renamings:
   247     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   248     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   249     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   250     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   251     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   252     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   253     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   254     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   255     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   256     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   257     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   258     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   259     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   260     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   261     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   262     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   263     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   264     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   265     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   266     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   267     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   268     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   269   New theories:
   270     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   271     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   272     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   273     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   274     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   275   Discontinued theories:
   276     BNF/BNF.thy
   277     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   278   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * New (co)datatype package:
   281   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   282   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   283     required by "fun".
   284   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   285     with Transfer.
   286   * Renamed commands:
   287       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   288       primrec_new ~> primrec
   289       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   292     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   293     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   295     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   296     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Old datatype package:
   299   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   300     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   301     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   303     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   304     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   307   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   308   datatype package.
   309   Renamed constants:
   310     Option.set ~> set_option
   311     Option.map ~> map_option
   312     option_rel ~> rel_option
   313     list_size ~> size_list
   314     option_size ~> size_option
   315   Renamed theorems:
   316     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   317     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   318     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   319     option.recs ~> option.rec
   320     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   321     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   322     map.simps ~> list.map
   323     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   324     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   325     the.simps ~> option.sel
   326   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   329     sum_map ~> map_sum
   330     map_pair ~> map_prod
   331     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   332     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   333     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   334     set_rel ~> rel_set
   335     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   336     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   337     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   338     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   339 
   340 * New theory:
   341     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   342 
   343 * Theory reorganizations:
   344   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   345 
   346 * SMT module:
   347   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   348     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   349     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   350     elsewhere.
   351 
   352 * Sledgehammer:
   353   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   354   - New option:
   355       smt_proofs
   356   - Renamed options:
   357       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   358       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   359     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361 * Metis:
   362   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   363     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364 
   365 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   366 
   367 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   370 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   371 
   372 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   373 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   374 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   375 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   376 
   377 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   381 with the given constants.
   382 
   383 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   384 
   385 Fact consolidations:
   386     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   387     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   388     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   389     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   390     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   391     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   392     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   393     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   394     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   395     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   396     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   397     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   398     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   399     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   400     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   401     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   402     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   403     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   404     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   405     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   406     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   407     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   408     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   409     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   410     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   411     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   412     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   413     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   414     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   415     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   416     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   417     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   418     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   419     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   420     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   421     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   422     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   423     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   424     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   425     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   426 
   427 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   428 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   429 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   430 
   431 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   432 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   433 
   434 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   435 
   436 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   437 
   438 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   445 operations on records.
   446 
   447 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   451     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   453 
   454 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   455     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   456     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   458 
   459 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   460   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   461   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   462   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   463     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   464   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   465     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   466   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   467 INCOMPATBILITY.
   468 
   469 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   470     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   471     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   472     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   473     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   475 
   476 * Fact name consolidation:
   477     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   478     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   479     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   480     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   481     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   485 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   486 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   487 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   488 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   489 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   490 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   491 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492 
   493 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   494 
   495 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   496 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   497 
   498 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   499 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   500 
   501 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   502 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   503 or the brute way with
   504 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   505 
   506 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   507 
   508 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   509 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   510 
   511 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   512 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   513 
   514 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   515 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   516 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   517 INCOMPATIBILITY
   518 
   519 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   520   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   521   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   522   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   523   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   524   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   525   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   526   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   527   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   528   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   529   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   530   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   531 
   532   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   533 
   534   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   535     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   536     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   537     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   538     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   542   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   543 
   544   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   545 
   546   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   547 
   548   - removed constant isDiff
   549 
   550   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   551     syntax.
   552 
   553   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   554 
   555   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   556 
   557   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   558 
   559   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   560 
   561   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   562     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   563 
   564   - Other renamings:
   565     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   566     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   567     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   568     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   569     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   570     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   571     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   575   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   576 
   577 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   578 
   579 * Nitpick:
   580   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   581     infinite values.
   582   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   583     "Rep_Integ".
   584   - Removed "std" option.
   585   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   586     "hide_types".
   587 
   588 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   589   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   590   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   591     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   592     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   593     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   594     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   595     intervals.
   596 
   597   - renamed theorems:
   598     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   599     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   600     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   601 
   602 
   603 *** Scala ***
   604 
   605 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   606 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   607 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   608 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   609 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 
   612 *** ML ***
   613 
   614 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   615 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   618 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   619 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   625 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   626 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   630 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   631 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   632 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   633 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   634 of schematic variables.
   635 
   636 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   637 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   639 formal context.
   640 
   641 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   642 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   643 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   644 actually belongs to it).
   645 
   646 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   647 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   648 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   649 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   650 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   651 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   652 
   653 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   654 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   657 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   658 
   659 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   660 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   661 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   662 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   663 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   664 
   665 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   666 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   667 purposes.
   668 
   669 
   670 *** System ***
   671 
   672 * Session ROOT specifications support explicit 'document_files' for
   673 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   674 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   675 processing is started.
   676 
   677 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   678 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   679 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   680 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   681 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   682 
   683 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   684 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   685 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   686 
   687 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   688 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   689 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   690 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   691 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   692 settings variable yet.
   693 
   694 
   695 
   696 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   697 -------------------------------------
   698 
   699 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   700 
   701 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   702 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   703 
   704 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   705 after edits surrounding the command location.
   706 
   707 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   708 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   709 e.g. out-of-memory).
   710 
   711 
   712 *** System ***
   713 
   714 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   715 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   716 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   717 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   718 
   719 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   720 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   721 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   722 
   723 
   724 
   725 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   726 -------------------------------------
   727 
   728 *** General ***
   729 
   730 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   731 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   732 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   733 
   734 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   735 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   736 
   737 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   738 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   739 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   740 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   741 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   742 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   743 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   744 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   745 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   746 syntax.
   747 
   748 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   749 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   752 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   753 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   755 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   756 
   757 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   761 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   762 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   763 
   764 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   765 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   766 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   767 
   768 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   769 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   770 
   771 
   772 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   773 
   774 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   775 Documentation panel.
   776 
   777 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   778 documentation.
   779 
   780 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   781 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   782 
   783 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   784 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   785 normal editing and checking process.
   786 
   787 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   788 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   789 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   790 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   791 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   792 
   793 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   794 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   795 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   796 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   797 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   798 
   799 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   800 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   801 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   802 
   803 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   804 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   805 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   806 to resolve conflict.
   807 
   808 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   809 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   810 
   811 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   812 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   813 such command executions while editing.
   814 
   815 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   816 document content.
   817 
   818 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   819 toplevel theorem statements.
   820 
   821 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   822 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   823 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   824 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   825 
   826 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   827 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   828 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   829 
   830 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   831 / Global Options / Appearance".
   832 
   833 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   834 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   835 
   836 
   837 *** Pure ***
   838 
   839 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   840 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   841 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   842 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   843 details.
   844 
   845 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   846 
   847 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   848 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   849 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   850 
   851 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853 
   854 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   855 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   856 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   857 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858 
   859 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   860 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   861 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   864 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   865 
   866 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   867 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   868 situations.
   869 
   870 
   871 *** HOL ***
   872 
   873 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   874 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   878 
   879 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   880 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   881 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   882 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   883 
   884   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   885 
   886 * Code generator:
   887   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   888     'code_instance'.
   889   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   890     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   891 
   892 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   893 examples.
   894 
   895 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   896 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   897 to distinguish both when desired.
   898 
   899 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   900 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   901 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   902 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   903 
   904 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   905 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   906 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   907 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   908 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   909 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   912 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   913 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   914 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   915 
   916 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   917 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   918 
   919 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   920 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   921 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   922 
   923 * Lifting:
   924   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   925     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   926       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   927       transfer rules
   928     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   929       correspondence relation can be generated
   930     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   931       parametricity
   932     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   933   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   934   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   935     copies
   936   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   937     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   938     anonymous context)
   939   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   940     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   941   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   942     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   943   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   944     INCOMPATIBILITY
   945 
   946 * Transfer:
   947   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   948     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   949   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   950   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   951     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   952   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   953 
   954 * Reification and reflection:
   955   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   956     "Reification".
   957   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   958   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   960 
   961 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   962   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   963     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   964     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   965   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   966     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   967   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   968     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   969     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   970     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   971     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   972     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   973     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   974     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   975   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   976     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   977   - Fact renames:
   978       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   979       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   983 
   984 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   985 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   986 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   990 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   991 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   992 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   993 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   994 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   995 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   996 lemmas.
   997 
   998 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   999 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1000 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1001 
  1002 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1003 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1004 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1005 
  1006 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1007 top and bottom elements.
  1008 
  1009 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1010 
  1011 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1012 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1013 
  1014  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1015    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1016    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1017 
  1018  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1019    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1020    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1021 
  1022    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1023    arbitrary filter.
  1024 
  1025  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1026    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1027    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1028    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1029    on a compact set.
  1030 
  1031  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1032    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1033    linear_continuum_topology).
  1034 
  1035  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1036    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1037    on all sequences converging to x.
  1038 
  1039  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1040    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1041    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1042    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1043    left or right.
  1044 
  1045  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1046 
  1047      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1048 
  1049  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1050    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1051 
  1052  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1053    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1054    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1055    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1056    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1057    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1058 
  1059  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1060 
  1061    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1062 
  1063    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1064      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1065 
  1066    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1067 
  1068    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1069      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1070 
  1071    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1072 
  1073    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1074 
  1075  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1076 
  1077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1078 
  1079 * Nitpick:
  1080   - Added option "spy".
  1081   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1082 
  1083 * Sledgehammer:
  1084   - Renamed option:
  1085       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1086     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1087   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1088   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1089   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1090 
  1091 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1092 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1093 
  1094 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1095   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1096   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1097     generated code.
  1098   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1099   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1100   - Fact renames:
  1101     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1102     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1103     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1104 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1107 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1108 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1109 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1110 
  1111 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1112 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1113 
  1114 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1115 
  1116 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1117 
  1118     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1119     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1120 
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1124 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1125 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1126 
  1127 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1128 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1129 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1130 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * HOL-BNF:
  1133   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1134     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1135     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1136     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1137   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1138     coinduct).
  1139   - Renamed keywords:
  1140     data ~> datatype_new
  1141     codata ~> codatatype
  1142     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1143   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1144     discs ~> disc
  1145     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1146     map_id' ~> map_id
  1147     sels ~> sel
  1148     set_map' ~> set_map
  1149     sets ~> set
  1150 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151 
  1152 
  1153 *** ML ***
  1154 
  1155 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1156 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1157 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1158 Examples.thy in particular.
  1159 
  1160 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1161 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1162 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1163 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1164 
  1165 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1166 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1167 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1168 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1170 
  1171 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1172 
  1173     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1174     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1175 
  1176 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1179 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1180 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1181 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1182 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1183 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1184 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1185 
  1186 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1187 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1188 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1189 clasets separately from the context.
  1190 
  1191 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1192 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1193 
  1194 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1195 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1196 
  1197 
  1198 *** System ***
  1199 
  1200 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1201 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1202 
  1203 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1204 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1205 
  1206 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1207 settings variable.
  1208 
  1209 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1210 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1211 always pdf.
  1212 
  1213 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1214 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1215 
  1216 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1217 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1218 
  1219 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1220 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1221 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1222 
  1223 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1224 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1225 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1226 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1227 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1228 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1229 
  1230 
  1231 
  1232 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1233 -----------------------------------
  1234 
  1235 *** General ***
  1236 
  1237 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1238 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1239 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1240 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1241 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1242 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1243 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1244 
  1245 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1246 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1247 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1248 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1249 
  1250 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1251 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1252 
  1253 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1254 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1255 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1256 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1257 dependencies properly.
  1258 
  1259 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1260 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1261 
  1262 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1263 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1264 
  1265 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1266 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1267 and "class ... context ...".
  1268 
  1269 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1270 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1271 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1272 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1273 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1274 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1275 
  1276 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1277 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1278 
  1279 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1280 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1281 
  1282 
  1283 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1284 
  1285 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1286 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1287 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1288 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1289 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1290 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1291 
  1292 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1293 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1294 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1295 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1296 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1297 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1298 
  1299 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1300 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1301 browser on demand.
  1302 
  1303 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1304 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1305 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1306 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1307 
  1308 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1309 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1310 
  1311 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1312 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1313 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1314 potentially infinite message streams.
  1315 
  1316 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1317 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1318 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1319 schemes.
  1320 
  1321 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1322 symbols.
  1323 
  1324 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1325 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1326 
  1327 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1328 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1329 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1330 
  1331 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1332 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1333 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1334 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1335 
  1336 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1337 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1338 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1339 
  1340 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1341 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1342 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1343 Isabelle distribution.
  1344 
  1345 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1346 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1347 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1348 
  1349 
  1350 *** Pure ***
  1351 
  1352 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1353 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1354 
  1355 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1356 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1357 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1358 
  1359 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1360 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1361 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1362 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1363 with some care where this is really required.
  1364 
  1365 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1366 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1367 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1368 
  1369   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1370 
  1371 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1372 a Hasse diagram.
  1373 
  1374 
  1375 *** HOL ***
  1376 
  1377 * Sledgehammer:
  1378 
  1379   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1380     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1381   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1382   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1383   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1384   - Renamed options:
  1385       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1386       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1387       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1388       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1389 
  1390 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1391 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1392 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1393 
  1394 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1396 
  1397 * Lifting:
  1398   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1399   - quot_del attribute
  1400   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1401 
  1402 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1403 expressions.
  1404 
  1405 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1406 pointfree expressions.
  1407 
  1408 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1409 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1410 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1411 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1415 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1416 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1417 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1418 accordingly.
  1419 
  1420 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1421 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422 
  1423 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1424 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1427 
  1428 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1429 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1430 
  1431 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1432 
  1433 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1434 
  1435   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1436   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1437 
  1438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1441 
  1442   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1443   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1444 
  1445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1448 
  1449   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1450     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1451     output f x converges to G.
  1452 
  1453   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1454     infinity (at_bot).
  1455 
  1456   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1457     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1458 
  1459   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1460     at_top".
  1461 
  1462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1465 lattice type classes.
  1466 
  1467 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1468 
  1469     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1470     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1471 
  1472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1475 changes as follows.
  1476 
  1477   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1478 
  1479       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1480       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1481 
  1482   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1483     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1484     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1485     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1486 
  1487   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1488     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1489     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1490 
  1491   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1492     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1493     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1494     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1495 
  1496   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1497     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1498 
  1499       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1500       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1501       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1502       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1503       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1504       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1505       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1506       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1507       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1508       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1509       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1510       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1511       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1512       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1513       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1514       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1515 
  1516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1517 
  1518 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1519 
  1520 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1521 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1522 
  1523 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1524 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1525 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1526 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1527 
  1528   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1529   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1530   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1531   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1532   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1533   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1534   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1535   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1536   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1537   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1538 
  1539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1540 
  1541 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1542 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1543 Data").
  1544 
  1545 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1546 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1547 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1548 code.
  1549 
  1550 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1551 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1552 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1556 
  1557 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1558 
  1559 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1560 
  1561   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1562   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1563 
  1564 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1565 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1566 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1567 
  1568   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1569 
  1570     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1571     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1572     cart_base i  removed
  1573     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1574 
  1575   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1576 
  1577   Renamed lemmas:
  1578 
  1579     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1580     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1581     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1582     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1583     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1584     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1585     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1586     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1587     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1588     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1589 
  1590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592 * HOL/Probability:
  1593 
  1594   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1595 
  1596   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1597     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1598     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1599 
  1600   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1601     projective family).
  1602 
  1603 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1604 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1605 
  1606 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1607 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1608 datatypes.
  1609 
  1610 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1611 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1612 
  1613 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1614 trees for the code generator.
  1615 
  1616 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1617 Lifting/Transfer.
  1618 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 
  1624 *** Document preparation ***
  1625 
  1626 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1627 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1628 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1629 
  1630 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1631 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1632 
  1633 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1634 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1635 document/root.tex.
  1636 
  1637 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1638 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640 
  1641 *** ML ***
  1642 
  1643 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1644 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1645 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1646 
  1647 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1648 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1649 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1650 
  1651 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1652 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1653 necessarily printing visible text.
  1654 
  1655 
  1656 *** System ***
  1657 
  1658 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1659 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1660 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1661 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1662 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1663 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1664 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1665 
  1666 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1667 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1668 
  1669   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1670 
  1671 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1672 
  1673 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1674 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1675 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1676 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1677 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1678 
  1679 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1680 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1681 
  1682 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1683 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1684 
  1685 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1689 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1690 version of Isabelle.
  1691 
  1692 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1693 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1694 
  1695 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1696 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1697 for home-made settings.
  1698 
  1699 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1700 
  1701 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1702 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1703 configuration.
  1704 
  1705 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1706 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1707 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1708 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1709 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1710 
  1711 
  1712 
  1713 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1714 ------------------------------
  1715 
  1716 *** General ***
  1717 
  1718 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1719 
  1720   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1721     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1722   - markup for bound variables
  1723   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1724   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1725   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1726     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1727 
  1728 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1729 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1730 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1731 
  1732 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1733 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1734 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1735 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1736 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1737 
  1738   context
  1739     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1740     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1741   begin
  1742 
  1743   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1744 
  1745   end
  1746 
  1747   thm my_trans
  1748 
  1749 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1750 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1751 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1752 
  1753 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1754 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1755 
  1756 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1757 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1758 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1759 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1760 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1761 
  1762 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1763 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1764 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1765 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1766 indices of schematic variables.
  1767 
  1768 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1769 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1770 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1771 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1772 etc. was exploited.
  1773 
  1774 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1775 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1776 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1777 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1778 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1779 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1780 
  1781 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1782 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1783 manual.
  1784 
  1785 
  1786 *** Pure ***
  1787 
  1788 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1789 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1790 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1791 
  1792 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1793 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1794 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1795 undocumented feature.)
  1796 
  1797 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1798 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1799 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1800 
  1801   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1802 
  1803   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1804     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1805 
  1806 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1807 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1808 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1809 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1810 
  1811 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1812 
  1813     num ~> num_token
  1814     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1815     xstr ~> str_token
  1816 
  1817 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1818 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1819 position information via constraints).
  1820 
  1821 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1822 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1823 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1824 
  1825 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1826 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1827 
  1828 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1829 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1830 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831 
  1832 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1833 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1836 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1837 
  1838   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1839 
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1843 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1846 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1847 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1848 
  1849 
  1850 *** HOL ***
  1851 
  1852 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1853 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1854 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1855 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1856 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1857 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1858 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1859 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1860 possible.
  1861 
  1862 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1863 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1864 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1865 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1866 
  1867 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1868 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869 
  1870 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1871 
  1872 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1873 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1874 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1875 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1876 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1877 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1878 
  1879   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1880     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1881 
  1882   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1883     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1884     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1885 
  1886   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1887     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1888 
  1889   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1890     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1891     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1892 
  1893   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1894     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1895 
  1896 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1897 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1898 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1899 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1900 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1901 
  1902   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1903     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1904     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1905     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1906     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1907 
  1908     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1909     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1910 
  1911   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1912     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1913     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1914     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1915     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1916     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1917     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1918     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1919 
  1920   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1921     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1922     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1923     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1924 
  1925   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1926     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1927     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1928     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1929 
  1930   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1931     from type nat to type int.
  1932 
  1933 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1934 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1935 
  1936   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1937     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1938     type.  Example syntax:
  1939 
  1940     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1941       is List.insert
  1942 
  1943     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1944     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1945     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1946     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1947     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1948     by the package.
  1949 
  1950   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1951     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1952     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1953     code generation for each constant.
  1954 
  1955   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1956     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1957     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1958     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1959     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1960 
  1961   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1962     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1963     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1964 
  1965 * Quotient package:
  1966 
  1967   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1968     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1969 
  1970   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1971     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1972 
  1973   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1974     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1975     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1978     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1979 
  1980 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1981 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1982 
  1983 * Quickcheck:
  1984 
  1985   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1986     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1987     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1988     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1989     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1990 
  1991     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1992     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1993     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1994 
  1995     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1996     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1997 
  1998     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1999     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2000     show genuine counterexamples.
  2001 
  2002   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2003     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2004 
  2005     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2006     constructors of that type.
  2007 
  2008   - Support for multisets.
  2009 
  2010   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2011 
  2012   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2013     conjectures in a locale context.
  2014 
  2015 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2016 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2017 
  2018 * Sledgehammer:
  2019   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2020     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2021   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2022   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2023     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2024   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2025   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2026   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2027   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2028 
  2029 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2030 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2031 
  2032 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2033 
  2034 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2035 
  2036 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2037 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2038 
  2039   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2040 
  2041 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2042 a list and a nat.
  2043 
  2044 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2045 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2046 
  2047 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2048 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2049 default.
  2050 
  2051 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2052 
  2053   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2054 
  2055 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2056 
  2057 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2058 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2059 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2060 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2061 one_case.
  2062 
  2063 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2064 the result of the fact expression.
  2065 
  2066 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2067 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2068 of some relation theorems:
  2069 
  2070   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2071   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2072   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2073   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2074   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2075   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2076 
  2077 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2078 
  2079 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2080 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2081 
  2082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2085 to match the constant's name:
  2086 
  2087   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2088   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2089   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2090   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2091   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2092   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2093   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2094   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2095   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2096   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2097   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2098   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2099   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2100   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2101   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2102   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2103   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2104   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2105   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2106   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2107   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2108   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2109   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2110   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2111 
  2112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2113 
  2114 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2115 and corresponding theorem names:
  2116 
  2117   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2118 
  2119   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2120 
  2121   - Renamed theorems:
  2122 
  2123     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2124     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2125     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2126     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2127     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2128     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2129     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2130     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2131     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2132     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2133     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2134     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2135     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2136     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2137     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2138     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2139     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2140     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2141     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2142     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2143     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2144     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2145     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2146 
  2147     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2148 
  2149     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2150 
  2151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2154 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2155 
  2156   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2157   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2158   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2159   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2160   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2161   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2162   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2163   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2164   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2165   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2166   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2167   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2168   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2169   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2170   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2171   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2172   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2173   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2174   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2175   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2176   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2177 
  2178 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2179 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2184 
  2185   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2186   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2187   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2188   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2189   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2190   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2191   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2192   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2193   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2194   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2195   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2196   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2197   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2198   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2199   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2200   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2201   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2202   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2203 
  2204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2207 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2208 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2209 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2210 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2211 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2212 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2213 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2214 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2215 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2216 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2217 
  2218 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2219 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2220 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2221 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2222 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2223 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2224 
  2225 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2226 through option types.
  2227 
  2228 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2229 relations.
  2230 
  2231 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2234 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2235 
  2236   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2237   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2238   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2239   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2240   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2241   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2242   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2243   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2244   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2245   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2246   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2247   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2248   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2249   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2250   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2251   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2252   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2253   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2254   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2255   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2256   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2257   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2258   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2259   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2260   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2261   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2262   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2263   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2264   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2265   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2266   zless_le ~> less_le
  2267   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2268   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2269   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2270 
  2271 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2272 
  2273   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2274 
  2275 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2276 
  2277 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2278 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2279 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2280 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2282 
  2283 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2284 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2285 
  2286 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2287 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2288 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2289 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2290 follows:
  2291 
  2292   Operations:
  2293   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2294   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2295   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2296   del -> rbt_del
  2297   delete -> rbt_delete
  2298   ins -> rbt_ins
  2299   insert -> rbt_insert
  2300   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2301   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2302   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2303   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2304   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2305   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2306   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2307   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2308   union -> rbt_union
  2309   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2310   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2311 
  2312   Lemmas:
  2313   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2314   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2315   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2316   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2317   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2318   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2319   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2320   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2321   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2322   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2323   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2324   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2325   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2326   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2327   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2328   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2329   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2330   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2331   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2332   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2333   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2334   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2335   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2336   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2337   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2338   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2339   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2340   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2341   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2342   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2343   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2344   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2345   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2346   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2347   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2348   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2349   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2350   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2351   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2352   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2353   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2354   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2355   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2356   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2357   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2358   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2359   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2360   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2361   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2362   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2363   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2364   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2365   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2366   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2367   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2368   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2369   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2370   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2371   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2372   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2373   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2374   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2375   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2376   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2377   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2378   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2379   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2380   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2381   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2382   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2383   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2384   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2385   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2386   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2387   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2388   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2389   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2390   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2391   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2392   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2393   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2394   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2395   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2396 
  2397 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2398 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2399 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2400 
  2401   Changed Operations:
  2402   float_abs -> abs
  2403   float_nprt -> nprt
  2404   float_pprt -> pprt
  2405   pow2 -> use powr
  2406   round_down -> float_round_down
  2407   round_up -> float_round_up
  2408   scale -> exponent
  2409 
  2410   Removed Operations:
  2411   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2412 
  2413   Renamed Lemmas:
  2414   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2415   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2416   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2417   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2418   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2419   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2420   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2421   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2422   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2423   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2424   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2425   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2426   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2427   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2428   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2429   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2430   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2431   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2432   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2433   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2434   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2435   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2436   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2437   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2438   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2439   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2440   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2441   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2442   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2443   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2444   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2445   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2446   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2447   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2448   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2449   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2450 
  2451   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2452   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2453   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2454   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2455   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2456   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2457   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2458   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2459   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2460   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2461 
  2462 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2463 association lists with distinct keys.
  2464 
  2465 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2466 annotated commands.
  2467 
  2468 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2469 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2470 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2471 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2472 
  2473 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2474 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2475 instead.
  2476 
  2477   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2478   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2479   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2480   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2481   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2482   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2483   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2484   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2485   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2486   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2487   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2488   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2489   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2490   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2491   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2492   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2493   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2494   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2495   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2496   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2497   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2498   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2499   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2500   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2501   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2502   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2503   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2504   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2505   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2506   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2507   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2508   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2509   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2510   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2511   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2512   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2513   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2514   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2515   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2516   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2517   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2518 
  2519 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2520 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2521 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2522 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2523 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2524 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2525 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2526 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2527 
  2528 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2529 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2530 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2531 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2532 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2533 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2534 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2535 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2536 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2537 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2538 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2539 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541   Renamed constants:
  2542   measure -> emeasure
  2543   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2544   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2545   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2546   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2547 
  2548   Removed locales:
  2549   completeable_measure_space
  2550   finite_measure_space
  2551   finite_prob_space
  2552   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2553   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2554   finite_sigma_algebra
  2555   measure_space
  2556   pair_finite_prob_space
  2557   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2558   pair_finite_space
  2559   pair_sigma_algebra
  2560   product_sigma_algebra
  2561 
  2562   Removed constants:
  2563   conditional_space
  2564   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2565   image_space
  2566   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2567   pair_measure_generator
  2568   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2569   subvimage
  2570 
  2571   Replacement theorems:
  2572   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2573   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2574   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2575   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2576   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2577   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2578   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2579   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2580   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2581   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2582   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2583   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2584   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2585   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2586   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2587   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2588   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2589   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2590   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2591   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2592   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2593   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2594   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2595   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2596   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2597   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2598   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2599   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2600   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2601   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2602   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2603   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2604   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2605   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2606   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2607   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2608   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2609   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2610   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2611   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2612   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2613   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2614   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2615   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2616   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2617   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2618   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2619   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2620   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2621   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2622   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2623   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2624   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2625   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2626   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2627   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2628   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2629   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2630   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2631   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2632   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2633   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2634   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2635   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2636   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2637   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2638   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2639   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2640   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2641   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2642   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2643   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2644   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2645   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2646   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2647   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2648   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2649   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2650   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2651   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2652   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2653   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2654   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2655   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2656   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2657   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2658   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2659   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2660   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2661   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2662   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2663   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2664   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2665   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2666   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2667   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2668   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2669   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2670   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2671   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2672   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2673   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2674   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2675   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2676   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2677   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2678   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2679   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2680   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2681   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2682   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2683   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2684   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2685   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2686   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2687   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2688   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2689   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2690   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2691   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2692   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2693   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2694   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2695   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2696   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2697   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2698   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2699   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2700 
  2701 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2702 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2703 
  2704 
  2705 *** FOL ***
  2706 
  2707 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2708 
  2709 
  2710 *** ZF ***
  2711 
  2712 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2713 analysis.
  2714 
  2715 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2716 
  2717 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2718 
  2719 
  2720 *** ML ***
  2721 
  2722 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2723 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2724 
  2725 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2726 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2727 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2728 
  2729 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2730 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2731 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2732 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2733 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2734 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2735 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2736 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2737 
  2738 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2739 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2740 
  2741 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2742 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2743 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2744 
  2745 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2746 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2749 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2750 context as well.
  2751 
  2752 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2753 
  2754   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2755   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2756   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2757   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2758   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2759   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2760   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2761   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2762   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2763   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2764   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2765   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2766 
  2767 
  2768 *** System ***
  2769 
  2770 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2771 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2772 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2773 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2774 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2775 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2776 the generic user home was intended.
  2777 
  2778 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2779 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2780 
  2781 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2782 (not just JRE).
  2783 
  2784 
  2785 
  2786 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2787 ------------------------------------
  2788 
  2789 *** General ***
  2790 
  2791 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2792 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2793 
  2794   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2795     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2796     files for checking).
  2797 
  2798   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2799     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2800     positions.
  2801 
  2802   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2803     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2804     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2805 
  2806   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2807     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2808     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2809 
  2810   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2811     cores.
  2812 
  2813   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2814     versions (garbage collection).
  2815 
  2816 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2817 including some remaining limitations.
  2818 
  2819 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2820 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2821 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2822 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2823 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2824 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2827 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2828 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2829 
  2830 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2831 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2832 usedir option -Q.
  2833 
  2834 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2835 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2836 
  2837   long_names   ~> names_long
  2838   short_names  ~> names_short
  2839   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2840 
  2841 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2842 
  2843   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2844 
  2845 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2846 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2847 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2848 
  2849 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2850 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2851 
  2852 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2853   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2854   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2855   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2856     "Classical Reasoner".
  2857 
  2858 
  2859 *** HOL ***
  2860 
  2861 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2862 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2865 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2866 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2867 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2868 class complete_linorder.
  2869 
  2870 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2871 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2872 
  2873 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2874 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2875 
  2876   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2877   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2878   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2879   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2880   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2881   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2882   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2883   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2884   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2885   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2886   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2887 
  2888 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2889 
  2890   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2891   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2892   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2893   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2894   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2895   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2896   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2897   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2898   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2899   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2900   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2901   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2902   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2903   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2904   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2905   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2906 
  2907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2910 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2913 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2914 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2915 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2918 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2919 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2920 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2923 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2924 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2925 
  2926 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2927 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2928 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2931 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2932 
  2933 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2934 
  2935     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2936     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2937 
  2938 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2939 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2942 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943 
  2944 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2945 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2946 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2947 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2948 
  2949   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2950   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2951   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2952   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2953   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2954   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2955   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2956 
  2957 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2958 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2961   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2962   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2963   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2964   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2965   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2966   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2967   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2968   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2969   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2970   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2971   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2972   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2973   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2974   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2975   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2976   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2977   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2978   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2979   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2980   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2981   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2982   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2983   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2984   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2985   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2986   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2987   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2988   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2989   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2990   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2991   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2992   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2993   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2994   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2995   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2996   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2997   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2998   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2999   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3000   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3001   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3002   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3003   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3004   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3005   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3006   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3007   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3008   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3009   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3010   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3011   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3012   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3013   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3014   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3015   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3016   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3017   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3018   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3019   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3020   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3021   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3022   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3023   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3024   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3025   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3026   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3027   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3028   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3029   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3030   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3031   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3032   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3033   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3034   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3035   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3036   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3037   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3038   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3039   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3040   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3041   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3042 
  3043 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3044 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3045 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3046 
  3047 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3048 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3049 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3050 
  3051 * Code generation:
  3052 
  3053   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3054     characters in the target language.
  3055 
  3056   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3057     instead.
  3058 
  3059   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3060 
  3061   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3062     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3063 
  3064       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3065 
  3066 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3067 
  3068 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3069 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3070 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3071 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3072 syntax.
  3073 
  3074 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3075 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3076 
  3077 * Nitpick:
  3078   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3079   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3080   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3081     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * Sledgehammer:
  3084   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3085   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3086     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3087   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3088     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3089   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3090     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3092     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3093   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3094     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Metis:
  3097   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3099     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101 * Command 'try':
  3102   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3103     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3105     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3106 
  3107 * Quickcheck:
  3108   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3109     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3110   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3111     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3112   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3113     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3114     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3115     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3116   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3117     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3118 
  3119 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3120 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3121 
  3122 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3123 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3124 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3125 
  3126 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3127 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3131 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3134 arithmetic.
  3135 
  3136 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3137 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3138 and lattice type classes.
  3139 
  3140 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3141 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3142 
  3143 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3144 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3145 
  3146 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3147 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3148 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3149 
  3150   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3151   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3152   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3153   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3156 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3157 constants:
  3158 
  3159   type inat   ~> type enat
  3160   Fin         ~> enat
  3161   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3162   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3163   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3164 
  3165 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3166 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3167 
  3168 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3169 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3170 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3171 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3172 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3173 
  3174 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3175 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3176 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3177 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3178 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3179 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3180 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3181 
  3182   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3183   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3184   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3185   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3186 
  3187 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3188 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3189 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3190 
  3191   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3192   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3193   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3194   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3195   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3196   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3197   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3198   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3199   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3200   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3201   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3202   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3203   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3204   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3205   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3206   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3207   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3208   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3209   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3210   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3211   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3212   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3213   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3214   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3215   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3216   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3217   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3218   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3219   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3220   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3221   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3222   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3223   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3224   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3225   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3226   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3227   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3228   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3229   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3230   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3231   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3232   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3233   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3234   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3235   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3236   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3237   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3238   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3239   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3240   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3241   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3242 
  3243 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3244   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3245   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3246   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3247   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3248     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3253   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3254   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3255   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3256   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3257   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3258   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3259   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3260   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3261   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3262   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3263   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3264   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3265   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3266   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3267   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3268   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3269   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3270   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3271   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3272   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3273   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3274   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3275   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3276   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3277 
  3278 
  3279 *** Document preparation ***
  3280 
  3281 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3282 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3283 same.
  3284 
  3285 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3286 result.
  3287 
  3288 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3289 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3290 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3291 
  3292 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3293 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3294 
  3295 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3296 like this:
  3297 
  3298   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3299   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3300 
  3301 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3302 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3303 layouts.
  3304 
  3305 
  3306 *** ML ***
  3307 
  3308 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3309 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3310 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3311 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3312 under external program control.
  3313 
  3314 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3315 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3316 
  3317 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3318 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3319 (better known as Proof General).
  3320 
  3321 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3322 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3323 
  3324 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3325 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3326 
  3327 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3328 (including quotes etc.).
  3329 
  3330 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3331 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3332 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3333 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3334 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3335 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3336 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3337 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3338 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3339 
  3340 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3341 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3342 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3343 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3344 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3345 
  3346 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3347 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3348 
  3349 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3350 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3351 
  3352 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3353 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3354 
  3355 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3356 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3357 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3358 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3359 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3360 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3361 proper Proof.context.
  3362 
  3363 
  3364 *** System ***
  3365 
  3366 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3367 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3368 
  3369 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3370 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3371 
  3372 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3373 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3374 
  3375   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3376   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3377   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3378   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3379   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3380 
  3381 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3382 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3385 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3386 example:
  3387 
  3388   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3389 
  3390 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3391 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3392 
  3393 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3394 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3395 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3396 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3397 
  3398 
  3399 
  3400 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3401 ----------------------------------
  3402 
  3403 *** General ***
  3404 
  3405 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3406 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3407 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3408 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3409 like this:
  3410 
  3411   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3412 
  3413 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3414 
  3415 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3416 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3417 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3418 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3419 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3420 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3421 
  3422 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3423 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3424 the following package declarations:
  3425 
  3426   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3427   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3428 
  3429 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3430 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3431 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3432 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3433 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3434 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3435 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3436 
  3437 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3438 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3439 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3440 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3441 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3442 
  3443 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3444 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3445 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3446 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3447 
  3448 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3449 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3450 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3451 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3452 
  3453   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3454 
  3455   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3456   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3457   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3458   show_types                    show_types
  3459   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3460   show_consts                   show_consts
  3461   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3462 
  3463   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3464   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3465   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3466 
  3467   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3468   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3469 
  3470   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3471 
  3472   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3473   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3474   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3475   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3476   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3477 
  3478 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3479 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3480 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3481 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3482 
  3483 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3487   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3488 
  3489 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3490 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3491 float_token.
  3492 
  3493 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3494 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3498 DejaVu Sans.
  3499 
  3500 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3501 
  3502 
  3503 *** Pure ***
  3504 
  3505 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3506 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3507 time.
  3508 
  3509 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3510 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3513 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3516 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3517 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3518 command already provided this functionality.
  3519 
  3520 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3521 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3522 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3523 without interpretations.
  3524 
  3525 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3526 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3527 
  3528 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3529 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3530 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3531 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3532 
  3533 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3534 'definition' instead.
  3535 
  3536 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3537 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3538 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3539 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3540 
  3541 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3542 constructors.
  3543 
  3544 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3545 the local file system.
  3546 
  3547 
  3548 *** HOL ***
  3549 
  3550 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3551 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3552 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3553 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3554 
  3555   declare [[coercion f]]
  3556 
  3557 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3558 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3559 
  3560   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3561 
  3562 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3563 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3564 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3565 other theories like this:
  3566 
  3567   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3568 
  3569 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3570 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3571 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3572 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3573 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3574 for examples.
  3575 
  3576 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3577 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578 
  3579 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3580 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3581 
  3582 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3583 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3584 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3585 
  3586 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3587 functorial structure of types.
  3588 
  3589 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3590 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3591 
  3592 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3593 languages.
  3594 
  3595 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3596 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3600 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3603 combinators any longer.
  3604 
  3605 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3606 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3607 
  3608 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3609 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3610 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3611 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3612 
  3613   record 'a foo = ...
  3614   ...
  3615   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3616 
  3617 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3618 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3622 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3623 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3624 
  3625 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3626 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3627 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3628 
  3629 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3630 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3633 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3634 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3635 independently.
  3636 
  3637 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3638 counter example search.
  3639 
  3640 * Sledgehammer:
  3641   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3642     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3643     sledgehammer").
  3644   - Renamed commands:
  3645     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3646     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3647     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3648     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649   - Renamed options:
  3650     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3651     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3652     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3653     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3654     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Nitpick:
  3657   - Renamed options:
  3658     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3659     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3660     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3662   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3663   - Added "whack" option.
  3664   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3665   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3666   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3667   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3668     higher cardinalities.
  3669   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3670 
  3671 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3672 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3673 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3674 
  3675     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3676 
  3677 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3678 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3679 
  3680 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3681 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3682 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3683 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3684 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3685 "smt_solver".
  3686 
  3687 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3688 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3689 
  3690 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3691 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3692 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3693 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3696   - Renamed:
  3697     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3698     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3699     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700   - Added:
  3701     smt_verbose
  3702     smt_random_seed
  3703     smt_datatypes
  3704     smt_infer_triggers
  3705     smt_monomorph_limit
  3706     cvc3_options
  3707     remote_cvc3_options
  3708     remote_z3_options
  3709     yices_options
  3710 
  3711 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3712 header.
  3713 
  3714 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3715 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3716 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3717 
  3718   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3719 
  3720 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3723 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726 
  3727 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3728 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3731 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3732 
  3733 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3734 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3737 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3738 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3744 
  3745 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3746 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3747 
  3748 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3749 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3750 for congruent(2)).
  3751 
  3752 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3753 
  3754   types
  3755     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3756     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3757 
  3758   constants
  3759     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3760     True ~> HOL.True
  3761     False ~> HOL.False
  3762     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3763     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3764     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3765     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3766     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3767     The ~> HOL.The
  3768     All ~> HOL.All
  3769     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3770     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3771     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3772     If ~> HOL.If
  3773     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3774     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3775     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3776     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3777     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3778     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3779     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3780     op : ~> Set.member
  3781     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3782 
  3783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3786 
  3787     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3788     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3789     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3790     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3791     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3792     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3793     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3794     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3795 
  3796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * More stylized fact names:
  3799 
  3800   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3801   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3802   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3803   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3804 
  3805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3808 
  3809   constants
  3810     null ~> List.null
  3811 
  3812   facts
  3813     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3814     null_empty ~> null_def
  3815 
  3816 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3817 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3818 generation.
  3819 
  3820 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3821 Haskell code.
  3822 
  3823 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3824 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3825 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826 
  3827 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3828 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3831 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3832 
  3833 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3834 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3835 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3838 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3839 
  3840 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3842 
  3843 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3844 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3845 referred to by its qualified name.
  3846 
  3847   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3848   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3849   product ~>  Enum.product
  3850 
  3851 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3852 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3856 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3857 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3861 sort_key.
  3862 
  3863 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3867 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3868 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3869 
  3870   types
  3871     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3872               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3873               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3874         (depends on your needs)
  3875 
  3876   constants
  3877      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3878      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3879      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3880 
  3881 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3882 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3883 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3884 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3887 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3888 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3889 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3890 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3896 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3897 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3898 
  3899 
  3900 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3901 
  3902 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3903 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3904 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3905 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3906 compatibility.
  3907 
  3908 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3909 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3910 
  3911 
  3912 *** HOLCF ***
  3913 
  3914 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3915 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3916 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3920 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3921 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3924   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3925   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3926 
  3927 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3928 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3929 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3932 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3933 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3934 domain definition now works:
  3935 
  3936   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3937 
  3938 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3939 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3940 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3941 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3942 
  3943   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3944     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3945 
  3946   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3947 
  3948 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3949 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3950 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3953 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3956 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3957 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3958 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3959 
  3960 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3961 
  3962 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965 
  3966 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3968 
  3969 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3970 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3971 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3972 
  3973 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3974 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3975 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3978 still supported as an input translation.
  3979 
  3980 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3981 
  3982   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3983   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3984   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3985   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3986   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3987   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3988   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3989 
  3990 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3991 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3994   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3995   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3996   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3997   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3998   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3999 
  4000 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4001 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4004 
  4005   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4006   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4007   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4008   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4009 
  4010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4013 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014 
  4015 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4016 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4019   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4020   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4021   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4022   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4023   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4024   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4025   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4026   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4027   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4028   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4029   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4030   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4031   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4032   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4033   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4034   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4035   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4036   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4037   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4038 
  4039 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4042   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4043   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4044   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4045   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4046   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4047   box_less             ~> box_below
  4048   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4049   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4050   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4051   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4052   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4053   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4054   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4055   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4056   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4057   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4058   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4059   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4060   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4061   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4062   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4063   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4064   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4065   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4066   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4067   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4068   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4069   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4070   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4071   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4072   up_less              ~> up_below
  4073   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4074   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4075   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4076   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4077   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4078   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4079   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4080   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4081   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4082   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4083   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4084   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4085   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4086 
  4087 
  4088 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4089 
  4090 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4091 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 
  4094 *** ML ***
  4095 
  4096 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4097 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4098 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4099 
  4100 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4101 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4102 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4103 
  4104 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4105 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4106 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4107 
  4108 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4109 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4110 
  4111 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4112 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4113 
  4114 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4115 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4116 
  4117 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4118 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4119 
  4120 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4121 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4122 almost all situations.
  4123 
  4124 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4125 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4126 Isabelle/ML.
  4127 
  4128 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4129 meaning.
  4130 
  4131 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4132 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4133 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4134 
  4135 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4136 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4137 
  4138 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4139 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4140 
  4141 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4142 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4143 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4144 
  4145 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4146 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4147 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4148 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4149 configuration options.
  4150 
  4151 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4152 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4153 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4154 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4155 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4156 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4157 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4158 
  4159 
  4160 
  4161 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4162 ---------------------------------
  4163 
  4164 *** General ***
  4165 
  4166 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4167 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4168 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4169 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4170 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4171 their full internal name.
  4172 
  4173 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4174 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4175 Some hints on upgrading:
  4176 
  4177   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4178     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4179     which are independent of this issue.
  4180 
  4181   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4182     provides the following special forms:
  4183 
  4184       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4185       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4186       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4187 
  4188     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4189     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4190     extra variables".
  4191 
  4192     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4193     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4194     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4195     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4196     "logic".
  4197 
  4198   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4199     antiquotations:
  4200 
  4201       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4202       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4203       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4204       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4205 
  4206   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4207     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4208     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4209     antiquotations.
  4210 
  4211 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4212 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4213 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4214 diagnose syntax problems.
  4215 
  4216 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4217 
  4218 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4219 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4220 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4221 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4222 
  4223 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4224 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4225 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4226 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4229 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4230 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4231 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4232 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4233 
  4234 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4235 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4236 
  4237 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4238 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4239 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4240 
  4241   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4242 
  4243 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4244 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4245 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4246 
  4247 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4248 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4252 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4253 
  4254 
  4255 *** Pure ***
  4256 
  4257 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4258 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4259 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4260 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4261 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4262 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4263 inspect proof terms.
  4264 
  4265 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4266 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4267 are added internally.  For example:
  4268 
  4269   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4270 
  4271 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4272 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273 
  4274 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4275 
  4276 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4277 'class' instead.
  4278 
  4279 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4280 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4284 invariants.
  4285 
  4286 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4287 user space functionality any longer.
  4288 
  4289 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4290 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4294 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4295 
  4296 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4297 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4298 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4299 
  4300 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4301 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4302 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4303 
  4304 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4305 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 
  4308 *** HOL ***
  4309 
  4310 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4311 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4312 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4313 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4314 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4315 
  4316 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4317 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4318 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4319 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4320 
  4321   fun
  4322     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4323   where
  4324     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4325 
  4326   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4327     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4328 
  4329   quotient_definition
  4330     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4331 
  4332 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4333 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4334 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4335 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4336 
  4337 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4338 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4339 
  4340 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4341 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4342 
  4343 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4347 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4348 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4349 
  4350 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4351 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4352 
  4353 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4355 
  4356 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4360 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4363 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4364 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4367   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4368   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4369   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4370   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4371   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4372   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4373   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4374   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4375   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4376   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4377   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4378   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4379   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4380   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4381   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4382   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4383   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4384   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4385   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4386   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4387   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4388   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4389   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4390   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4391   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4392   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4393   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4394   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4395   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4396 
  4397 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4398 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4399 
  4400 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4401 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4402 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4403 
  4404 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4405 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4406 
  4407 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4408 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4411 
  4412 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4413 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4416 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4419 
  4420 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4421 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4422 
  4423 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4424 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4425 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4426 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4429   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4430   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4431   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4433 
  4434 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4435 lattices):
  4436 
  4437     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4438     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4439 
  4440     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4441 
  4442     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4443     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4444     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4445     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4446     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4447     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4448     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4449     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4450     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4451     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4452     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4453     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4454     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4455 
  4456     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4457     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4458     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4459     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4460     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4461     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4462     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4463     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4464     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4465     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4466     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4467     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4468     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4469     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4470     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4471     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4472     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4473     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4474 
  4475   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4476   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4477 
  4478     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4479     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4480     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4481     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4482     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4483 
  4484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4485 
  4486 * Refined field classes:
  4487   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4488     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4489     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4490   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4494   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4495   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4496   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4497     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4498   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4499     equal_neg_zero.
  4500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4501 
  4502 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4503 sets to lattices:
  4504 
  4505   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4506   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4507   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4508   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4509   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4510   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4511   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4512   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4513   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4514   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4515 
  4516 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4517 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4518 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4519 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4520 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4521 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4524 multiset order:
  4525 
  4526   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4527     <= and <;
  4528   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4529     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4530     multiset_order;
  4531   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4532     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4533     generation;
  4534   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4535     if needed.
  4536 
  4537 Renamed:
  4538 
  4539   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4540   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4541   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4542 
  4543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4544 
  4545 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4546 
  4547 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4548 
  4549 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4550 
  4551 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4552 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4553 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554 
  4555   Constants:
  4556   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4557   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4558   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4559   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4560   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4561   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4562   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4563   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4564   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4565   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4566   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4567   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4568   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4569 
  4570   Lemmas:
  4571   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4572   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4573   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4574   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4575   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4576   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4577   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4578   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4579   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4580   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4581   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4582   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4583   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4584 
  4585 * Sledgehammer:
  4586   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4587     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4588     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4589     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4590     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4591     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4592     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4594   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4595     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4596   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4597     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4598     is still experimental.)
  4599   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4600     full-typed mode.
  4601   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4602 
  4603 * Nitpick:
  4604   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4605   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4606   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4607     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4608   - Added support for quotient types.
  4609   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4610     constructs.
  4611   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4612     "termination" proofs).
  4613   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4614   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4615   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4616   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4617     record getters.
  4618   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4619   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4620   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4621   - Added "atoms" option.
  4622   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4623     problems.
  4624   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4625     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4626     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4627   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4628     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4629   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4632   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4633   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4634   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4635   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4636   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4637   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4638   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4639   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4640   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4641 
  4642 
  4643 *** HOLCF ***
  4644 
  4645 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4646 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4647 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4650 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4651 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4652 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4655 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4656 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4657 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4658 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4659 
  4660 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4661 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4662 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4665 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4668   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4669 
  4670 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4671 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4672 
  4673   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4674   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4675   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4676   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4677   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4678 
  4679 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4680 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4683   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4684   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4685 
  4686 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4687 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4691 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4694 
  4695 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4696 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 
  4699 *** ML ***
  4700 
  4701 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4702 
  4703     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4704     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4705 
  4706     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4707     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4708     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4709     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4710 
  4711     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4712     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4713     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4714 
  4715 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4716 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4717 
  4718 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4719 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4720 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4721 
  4722 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4723 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4724 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4725 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4726 
  4727 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4728 the context or even global references.
  4729 
  4730 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4731 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4732 
  4733 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4734 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4735 
  4736   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4737   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4738   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4739   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4740   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4741   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4742   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4743   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4744   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4745   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4746 
  4747 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4748 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4749 
  4750 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4751 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4752 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4753 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4754 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4755 
  4756 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4757 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4758 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4759 Theory_Data version.
  4760 
  4761 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4762 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4763 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4764 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4765 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4766 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4767 explicitly in rare situations.
  4768 
  4769 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4770 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4774 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4777 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4778 quite rare).
  4779 
  4780 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4781 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4784 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4785 terms.
  4786 
  4787 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4788 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4789 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4790 
  4791 
  4792 *** System ***
  4793 
  4794 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4795 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4796 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4797 
  4798 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4799 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4800 respectively.
  4801 
  4802 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4803 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4804 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4805 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4806 
  4807   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4808 
  4809 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4810 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4811 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4812 component.
  4813 
  4814 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4815 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4816 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4817 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4818 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4819 the user for manual installation.
  4820 
  4821 
  4822 
  4823 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4824 -------------------------------------
  4825 
  4826 *** General ***
  4827 
  4828 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4829 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4830 
  4831 
  4832 *** Pure ***
  4833 
  4834 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4835 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4836 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4837 
  4838 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4839 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4840 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4841 
  4842 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4843 interpretation.
  4844 
  4845 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4846 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 
  4849 *** Document preparation ***
  4850 
  4851 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4852 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4853 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4854 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4855 
  4856 
  4857 *** HOL ***
  4858 
  4859 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4860 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4861 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4862 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4863 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4864 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4865 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4866 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4867 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4868 
  4869 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4870 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4871 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4872 
  4873 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4874 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4875 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4876 
  4877 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4878 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4879 
  4880 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4881 
  4882 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4883 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4884 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4885 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4886 
  4887 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4888 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4889 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4890 "mirabelle" utility.
  4891 
  4892 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4893 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4894 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4895 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4896 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4897 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4898 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4899 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4900 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4901 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4902 
  4903 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4904 procedure only.
  4905 
  4906 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4907 
  4908 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4909 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4910 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4911 that fail later.
  4912 
  4913 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4914 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4915 
  4916 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4917 the same method as the approximation method.
  4918 
  4919 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4920 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4921 series expansion.
  4922 
  4923 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4924 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4925 
  4926 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4927 reals.
  4928 
  4929 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4930 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4931 
  4932 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4933 fixpoint theorem.
  4934 
  4935 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4936   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4937     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4938   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4939     accordingly
  4940   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4941     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4942   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4943     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4944 
  4945 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4946 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4947 lattice.
  4948 
  4949 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4950 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4951 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4952 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4953 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4954 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4956 
  4957 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4958   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4959     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4960   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4961     le_inf_iff
  4962   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4963     sup_aci)
  4964   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4965   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4966   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4967     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4968     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4969     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4970     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4971     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4972     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4973     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4974     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4975     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4976     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4977   - authentic syntax for
  4978     Set.Pow
  4979     Set.image
  4980   - mere abbreviations:
  4981     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4982     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4983     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4984     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4985     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4986     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4987     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4988     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4989   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4990 
  4991 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4992 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4993 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4994 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4995 
  4996 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4997 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4998 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4999 
  5000 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5001 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5004 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5005 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5006 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5007 
  5008 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5009 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5010 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5011 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5012 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5013 
  5014 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5015 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 
  5018 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5019 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5020 
  5021 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5022 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5023 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5024 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5025 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5026 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5027 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5029 
  5030 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5031     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5032     code_post       replaces    code post
  5033     etc.
  5034   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Renamed methods:
  5037     sizechange -> size_change
  5038     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5039   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5040 
  5041 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5042 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5043 
  5044 * Renamed theorems:
  5045     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5046     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5047     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5048     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5049     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5050   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5051 
  5052 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 
  5059 *** HOLCF ***
  5060 
  5061 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5062 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5063 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5064 
  5065 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5066 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5067 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5068 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5069 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5070 
  5071 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5072 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5073 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5074 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5075 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5076 
  5077 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5078 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5079 constructor are pre-configured.
  5080 
  5081 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5082 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5083 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5084 
  5085 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5086 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5087 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5088 as well.)
  5089 
  5090 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5091 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5092 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5093 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5094 examples.
  5095 
  5096 
  5097 *** ML ***
  5098 
  5099 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5100 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5101 
  5102 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5103 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5104 position, logical grouping etc.
  5105 
  5106 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5107 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5108 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5109 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5110 
  5111 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5112 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5113 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5114 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5115 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5116 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5117 
  5118 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5119 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5120 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5121 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5122 experiments with references.
  5123 
  5124 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5125 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5126 
  5127 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5128 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5129 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5130 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5131 
  5132 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5133 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5134 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5135 
  5136 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5137 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5138 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5139 
  5140 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5141 
  5142 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5146 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5147 
  5148 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5149 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5150 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5151 
  5152 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5153 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5154 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5155 
  5156 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5157 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5158 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5162 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5163 instead of global theory.
  5164 
  5165 
  5166 *** System ***
  5167 
  5168 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5169 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5170 usedir option -q.
  5171 
  5172 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5173 also the system manual.
  5174 
  5175 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5176 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5177 
  5178 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5179 this is always enabled.
  5180 
  5181 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5182 
  5183 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5184 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5185 currently supported on Linux only.
  5186 
  5187 
  5188 
  5189 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5190 --------------------------------
  5191 
  5192 *** General ***
  5193 
  5194 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5195 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5196 
  5197   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5198     "isatool."
  5199 
  5200   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5201     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5202 
  5203   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5204     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5205 
  5206 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5207 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5208 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5209 
  5210 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5211 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5212 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5213 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5214 via "isabelle emacs".
  5215 
  5216 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5217 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5218 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5219 
  5220 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5221 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5222 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5223 
  5224 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5225 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5226 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5227 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5228 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5229 
  5230 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5231 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5232 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5233 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5234 
  5235 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5236 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5237 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5238 
  5239 
  5240 *** Pure ***
  5241 
  5242 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5243 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5244 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5245 
  5246 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5247 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5248 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5249 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5250 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5251 
  5252 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5253 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5254 useful in locale declarations.
  5255 
  5256 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5257 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5258 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5259 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5260 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5261 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5262 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5263 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5264 no longer generated.
  5265 
  5266 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5267 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5268 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5269 
  5270 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5271 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5272 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5273 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5274 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5275 
  5276 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5277 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5278 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5279 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5280 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5281 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5282 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5283 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5284 
  5285 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5286 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5287 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5288 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5289 
  5290 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5291 
  5292 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5293 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5294 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5295 
  5296 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5297 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5300 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5301 in HOL, write
  5302 
  5303     class foo = ...
  5304 
  5305 instead of
  5306 
  5307     class foo = type + ...
  5308 
  5309 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5310 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5313 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5314 
  5315 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5316 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5317 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5318 
  5319 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5320 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5321 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5322 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5323 directly in regular applications.
  5324 
  5325 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5326 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5327 
  5328 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5329 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5330 
  5331 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5332 theory context.
  5333 
  5334 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5335 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5336 
  5337 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5338 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5339 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5340 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5341 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5342 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5343 
  5344   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5345 
  5346 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5347 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5348 normalization.
  5349 
  5350 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5351 addressing etc.
  5352 
  5353 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5354 
  5355   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5356   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5357 
  5358 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5359 
  5360   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5361      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5362      parts of the code generator framework).
  5363 
  5364   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5365      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5366      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5367 
  5368 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5371 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5372 
  5373 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5374 patterns, e.g.
  5375 
  5376     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5377 
  5378 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5379 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5380 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5381 hyphen:
  5382 
  5383     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5384 
  5385 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5386 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5387 
  5388 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5389 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5390 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5391 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5392 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5393 higher-order unification.
  5394 
  5395 
  5396 *** Document preparation ***
  5397 
  5398 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5399 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5400 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5401 
  5402 
  5403 *** HOL ***
  5404 
  5405 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5406 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5407 
  5408 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5409 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5410 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5411 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5412 Main, as before.
  5413 
  5414 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5415 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5416 
  5417 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5418 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5419 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5420 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5421 
  5422 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5423 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5424 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5425 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5426 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5427 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5428 
  5429 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5430 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5431 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5432 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5433 
  5434 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5435 menu.
  5436 
  5437 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5438 (contains the empty clause).
  5439 
  5440 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5441 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5442 
  5443 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5444 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5445 
  5446 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5447 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5448 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5449 
  5450 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5451 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5452 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5453 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5454 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5455 
  5456 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5457 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5458 
  5459 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5460 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5461 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5462 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5463 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5464 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5465 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5466 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5467 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5468 
  5469 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5470 
  5471 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5472 
  5473 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5474 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5477 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5478 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5479 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5480 
  5481 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5482 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5483 
  5484     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5485     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5486     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5487     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5488     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5489     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5490     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5491     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5492 
  5493 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5494 theory Set.
  5495 
  5496 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5497 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5498 
  5499 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5500 
  5501 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5502 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5503 
  5504 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5505 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5506 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5507 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5508 allowed. For examples see
  5509 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5510 
  5511 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5512 
  5513 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5515 
  5516 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5517 structure:
  5518 
  5519     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5520     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5521     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5522     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5523     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5524     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5525     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5526     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5527     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5528     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5529     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5530     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5531     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5532     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5533     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5534     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5535     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5536     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5537     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5538     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5539     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5540     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5541     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5542     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5543     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5544     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5545     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5546     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5547     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5548     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5549     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5550     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5551     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5552 
  5553     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5554     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5555     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5556     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5557     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5558     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5559     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5560     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5561     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5562     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5563 
  5564     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5565     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5566     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5567     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5568     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5569     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5570 
  5571 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5572 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5573 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5574 
  5575 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5576 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5577 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5578 
  5579 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5580 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5583 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5584 
  5585 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5586 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5587 proofs, e.g.
  5588 
  5589   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5590 
  5591 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5592 
  5593 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5594 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5595 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5596 
  5597 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5598 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5600 
  5601 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5602 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5603 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5605 
  5606 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5607 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5608 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5609 preorder_class.*.
  5610 
  5611 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5612 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5613 
  5614 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5615 
  5616   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5617 
  5618 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5619 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5620 fold_image.
  5621 
  5622 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5623 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5624 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5625 the former will disappear at some point.
  5626 
  5627 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5628 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5629 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5630 
  5631 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5632 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5633 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5634 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5635 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5636 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5637 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5638 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5639 
  5640 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5641 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5642 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5643 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5644 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5645 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5646 
  5647     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5648     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5649     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5650     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5651     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5652     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5653     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5654 
  5655 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5656 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5657 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5658 
  5659 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5660 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5661 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5662 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5663 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5664 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5665 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5666 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5667 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5668 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5669 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5670 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5671 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5672 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5673 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5674 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5675 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5676 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5677 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5678 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5679 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5680 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5681 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5682 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5683 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5684 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5685 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5686 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5687 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5688 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5689 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5690 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5691 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5692 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5693 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5694 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5695 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5696 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5697 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5698 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5699 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5700 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5701 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5702 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5703 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5704 
  5705 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5706 
  5707 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5708 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5709 
  5710 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5711 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5712 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5713 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5714 
  5715 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5716 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5717 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5718 theory RealVector.
  5719 
  5720 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5721 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5722 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5723 and inner products are included.
  5724 
  5725 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5726 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5727 supported.
  5728 
  5729 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5730 first diagonalization argument.
  5731 
  5732 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5733 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5734 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5735 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5736 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5737 
  5738     hide (open) const gcd
  5739     abbreviation gcd where
  5740       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5741     notation (output)
  5742       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5743 
  5744 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5745 
  5746 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5747 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5748 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5749 
  5750 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5751 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5752 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5753 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5754 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5755 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5756 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5757 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5758 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5759 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5760 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5761 cases.
  5762 
  5763 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5764 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5765 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5766 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5767 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5768 
  5769     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5770     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5771     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5772     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5773     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5774 
  5775 
  5776 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5777 
  5778 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5779 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5780 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5781 
  5782 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5783 
  5784 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5785 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5786 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5787 
  5788 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5789 
  5790 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5791 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5792 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5793 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5794 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5795 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5796 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5797 
  5798 
  5799 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5800 
  5801 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5802 
  5803 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5804 theory targets.
  5805 
  5806 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5807 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5808 'inductive' etc.
  5809 
  5810 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5811 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5812 
  5813 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5814 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5815 
  5816 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5817 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5818 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5819 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5820 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5821 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5822 the algorithm W:
  5823 
  5824  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5825  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5826          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5827 
  5828 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5829 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5830 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5831 
  5832 
  5833 *** HOLCF ***
  5834 
  5835 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5836 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5837 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5838 
  5839 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5840 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5841 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5842 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5843 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5844 
  5845 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5846 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5847 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5848 
  5849 
  5850 *** ZF ***
  5851 
  5852 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5853 
  5854 
  5855 *** ML ***
  5856 
  5857 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5858 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5859 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5860 5.2.1!
  5861 
  5862 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5863 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5864 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5865 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5866 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5867 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5868 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5869 
  5870 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5871 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5872 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5873 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5874 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5875 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5876 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5877 
  5878 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5879 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5880 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5881 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5882 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5883 
  5884 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5885 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5886 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5887 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5888 Method.add_method.
  5889 
  5890 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5891 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5892 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5893 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5894 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5895 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5896 
  5897 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5898 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5899 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5900 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5901 examples.
  5902 
  5903 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5904 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5905 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5906 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5907 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5908 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5909 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5910 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5911 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5912 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5913 
  5914 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5915 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5916 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5917 
  5918 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5919 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5920 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5921 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5922 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5923 resort for legacy applications.
  5924 
  5925 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5926 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5927 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5928 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5929 explicit runtime argument.
  5930 
  5931 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5932 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5933 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5934 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5935 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5938 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5939 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5940 theory state.
  5941 
  5942 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5943 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5944 
  5945   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5946   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5947   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5948   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5949   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5950   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5951   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5952   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5953   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5954   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5955 
  5956 
  5957 *** System ***
  5958 
  5959 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5960 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5961 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5962 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5963 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5964 
  5965 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5966 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5967 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5968 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5969 
  5970 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5971 
  5972 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5973 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5974 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5975 prover operations.
  5976 
  5977 
  5978 
  5979 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5980 -------------------------------
  5981 
  5982 *** General ***
  5983 
  5984 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5985 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5986 
  5987 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5988 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5989 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5990 provides a proper context already.
  5991 
  5992 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5993 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5994 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5995 
  5996 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5997 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5998 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5999 swap theory imports.
  6000 
  6001 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6002 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6003 
  6004 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6005 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6006 white space without escapes.
  6007 
  6008 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6009 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6010 "foo_bar".
  6011 
  6012 
  6013 *** Pure ***
  6014 
  6015 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6016 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6017 
  6018 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6019 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6020 
  6021 (1) unused_thms
  6022      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6023 
  6024 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6025      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6026      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6027 
  6028 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6029      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6030      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6031      their ancestors.
  6032 
  6033 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6034 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6035 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6036 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6037 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6038 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6039 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6040 
  6041 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6042 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6043 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6044 
  6045 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6046 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6047 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6048 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6049 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6050 
  6051 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6052 
  6053 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6054 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6055 update of theories within ML code.
  6056 
  6057 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6058 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6059 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6060 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6061 
  6062 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6063 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6064 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6066 
  6067 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6068 
  6069 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6070 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6071 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6072 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6073 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6074 
  6075 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6076 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6077 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6078 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6079 situations.
  6080 
  6081 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6082 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6083 proof text.
  6084 
  6085 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6086 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6087 
  6088 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6089 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6090 predicates.
  6091 
  6092 
  6093 *** Document preparation ***
  6094 
  6095 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6096 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6097 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6098 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6099 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6100 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6101 
  6102 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6103 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6104 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6105 
  6106 
  6107 *** HOL ***
  6108 
  6109 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6110 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6111 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6112 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6113 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6114 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6115 
  6116 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6117 with multithreading.
  6118 
  6119 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6120 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6121 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6122 
  6123 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6124 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6125 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6126 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6127 
  6128 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6129 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6130 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6131 and makes them available separately.  See
  6132 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6133 
  6134 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6135 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6136 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6137 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6138 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6139 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6140 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6141 the declared rules.
  6142 
  6143 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6144 
  6145   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6146 
  6147 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6148 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6149 
  6150 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6151 
  6152   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6153 
  6154   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6155     definitions on => and bool.
  6156 
  6157   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6158     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6159     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6160 
  6161       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6162       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6163       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6164       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6165       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6166       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6167       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6168       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6169 
  6170   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6171     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6172     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6173 
  6174   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6175     The proof pattern
  6176 
  6177       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6178       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6179 
  6180     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6181     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6182 
  6183       have "EX S. P S"
  6184       proof
  6185         show "P S" <...>
  6186       qed
  6187 
  6188   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6189     The proof pattern
  6190 
  6191       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6192       also have "S = T" <...>
  6193       finally have "P T" .
  6194 
  6195     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6196     must be replaced by something like
  6197 
  6198       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6199       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6200       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6201 
  6202   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6203     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6204 
  6205       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6206 
  6207     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6208     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6209     type of the form
  6210 
  6211       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6212 
  6213     rather than
  6214 
  6215       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6216 
  6217 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6218 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6219 
  6220 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6221 
  6222 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6223 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6225 
  6226 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6227 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6228 
  6229 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6230 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6231 
  6232 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6233 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6234 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6237 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6238 
  6239   less_trans
  6240   less_linear
  6241   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6242   le_less_trans
  6243   less_le_trans
  6244   less_not_sym
  6245   less_asym
  6246 
  6247 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6248 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6249 and different variable names.
  6250 
  6251 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6252 
  6253 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6254 finite maps.
  6255 
  6256 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6257 
  6258 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6259 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6260 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6261 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6262 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6263 accordingly.
  6264 
  6265 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6266 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions