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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Thu Apr 03 21:23:36 2008 +0200 (2008-04-03) | |

changeset 26545 | 6e1aef001b3b |

parent 26513 | 6f306c8c2c54 |

child 26562 | 9d25ef112cf6 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

output: canonical argument order (as opposed to write);

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

10 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

12 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

13 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

14 "foo_bar".

16 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

17 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

18 white space directly.

20 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

21 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

22 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

23 provides a proper context already.

25 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

26 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

27 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

30 *** Pure ***

32 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

33 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

34 update of theories within ML code.

36 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

37 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

38 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

39 INCOMPATIBILITY.

41 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

43 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version.

45 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

46 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

47 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

48 See HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

49 HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

51 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

52 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

53 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

54 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

55 situations.

58 *** HOL ***

60 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

62 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class enum from

63 theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect. INCOMPATIBILITY.

65 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil" and "Cons".

66 INCOMPATIBILITY.

68 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

69 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

71 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and injective_fst_snd

72 removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead. Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd

73 to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

75 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

76 the same name in theory Orderings:

78 less_trans

79 less_linear

80 le_imp_less_or_eq

81 le_less_trans

82 less_le_trans

83 less_not_sym

84 less_asym

86 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

87 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

88 and different variable names.

90 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

92 * Library/RBT.thy: New theory of red-black trees, an efficient

93 implementation of finite maps.

95 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

97 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

98 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

99 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

100 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

101 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

102 accordingly.

104 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

105 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

106 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

107 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

109 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

110 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

111 abandoned in favour of the existing algebraic classes

112 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

113 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

114 INCOMPATIBILITY.

116 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

117 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

119 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

120 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

121 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

123 * Theorems "power.simps" renamed to "power_int.simps".

125 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

126 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

128 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

129 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

131 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

132 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

134 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

135 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

136 INCOMPATIBILITY.

138 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

139 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

140 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

141 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

142 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

143 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

145 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

147 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

149 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of pairs.

150 Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and well-orders

151 on sets and on types.

153 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

154 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

156 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

157 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

158 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

159 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

160 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

161 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

163 * Method "induction_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

164 from wellfounded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

165 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

166 and makes them available separately. See "HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy"

167 for examples,

169 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

170 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

171 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

173 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

174 with multithreading.

176 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To enable,

177 declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes reconstruction_modulus,

178 reconstruction_sorts renamed sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.

179 INCOMPATIBILITY.

181 *** ZF ***

183 * Renamed theories:

185 Datatype.thy -> Datatype_ZF.thy

186 Inductive.thy -> Inductive_ZF.thy

187 Int.thy -> Int_ZF.thy

188 IntDiv.thy -> IntDiv_ZF.thy

189 Nat.thy -> Nat_ZF.thy

190 List.thy -> List_ZF.thy

191 Main.thy -> Main_ZF.thy

193 This is to allow to load both ZF and HOL in the same session.

195 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

196 Main might need to be adapted. For compatibility, a new

197 "theory Main imports Main_ZF begin end" is provided, so if you just

198 imported "Main", no changes are needed.

201 *** ML ***

203 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

204 (of the same name).

206 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function. INCOMPATIBILITY.

208 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

209 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

211 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

212 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

213 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

214 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

215 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

217 * system/system_out provides a robust way to invoke external shell

218 commands, with propagation of interrupts (after Poly/ML 5.2). Do not

219 use OS.Process.system etc. directly.

222 *** System ***

224 * System: removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the

225 documented way of changing the user's settings is via

226 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

227 script.

229 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

230 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

232 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

233 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

234 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

235 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

236 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

238 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

239 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

240 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

242 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

243 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

245 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to prevent

246 Isabelle from flooding interactive front-ends (notably ProofGeneral /

247 XEmacs).

249 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

250 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

251 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

253 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

254 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

258 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

259 -----------------------------------

261 *** General ***

263 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

264 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

265 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

266 legacy features will disappear eventually.

268 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

269 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

270 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

272 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

273 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

274 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

275 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

277 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

278 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

279 quotes.

281 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

282 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

283 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

284 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

285 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

286 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

287 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

288 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

289 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

291 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

292 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

293 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

294 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

295 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

296 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

298 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

299 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

300 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

301 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

303 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

304 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

305 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

306 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

307 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

308 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

310 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

311 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

312 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

313 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

314 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

315 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

316 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

317 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

319 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

320 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

321 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

322 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

323 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

324 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

325 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

327 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

328 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

329 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

331 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

332 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

333 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

334 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

335 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

336 limit is imposed.

338 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

339 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

340 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

341 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

342 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

343 and scalability.

345 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

346 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

349 *** Document preparation ***

351 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

352 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

353 current context.

355 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

356 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

358 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

359 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

360 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

363 *** Pure ***

365 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

366 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

367 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

368 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

369 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

370 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

371 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

372 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

373 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

374 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

376 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

377 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

378 sketch:

380 internal compilation:

381 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

382 writing SML code to a file:

383 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

384 writing OCaml code to a file:

385 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

386 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

387 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

389 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

390 method ``eval''

392 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

394 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

396 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

397 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

398 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

399 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

401 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

403 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

404 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

406 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

407 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

409 code_instance <and-list of instances>

410 {(target)}+

411 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

413 code_class <and_list of classes>

414 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

415 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

417 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

419 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

420 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

421 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

422 codegen".

424 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

425 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

426 annotations).

428 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

429 syntax.

431 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

432 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

433 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

434 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

435 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

436 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

438 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

439 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

440 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

441 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

442 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

443 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

444 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

445 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

446 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

447 equations, see section "definitions".

449 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

450 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

451 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

452 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

453 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

454 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

455 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

456 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

457 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

458 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

460 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

461 configuration options:

463 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

464 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

465 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

466 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

467 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

468 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

469 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

470 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

471 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

473 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

474 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

475 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

476 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

477 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

478 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

479 order.

481 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

482 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

483 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

484 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

485 context encountered later on.

487 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

488 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

489 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

490 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

492 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

493 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

494 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

495 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

496 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

497 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

499 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

500 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

501 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

502 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

503 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

504 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

505 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

506 more permissive.

508 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

509 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

510 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

511 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

512 maintainability of proof texts.

514 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

515 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

517 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

518 then guess x and y by clarify

520 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

521 proof tools being involved here.

523 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

524 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

525 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

526 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

527 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

528 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

529 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

530 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

532 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

533 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

534 certain special cases of literal facts:

536 have "A" by fact == note `A`

537 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

538 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

539 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

541 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

542 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

543 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

545 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

546 both named and unnamed ones.

548 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

550 def x == "t" and y == "u"

552 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

553 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

554 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

555 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

557 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

558 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

559 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

560 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

561 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

563 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

564 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

566 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

567 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

568 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

569 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

570 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

571 originally first one.

573 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

574 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

575 expected.

577 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

578 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

579 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

580 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

581 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

583 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

584 assumes "EX x. P x"

585 obtains x where "P x"

587 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

588 assumes "A & B"

589 obtains A and B

591 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

592 assumes "A | B"

593 obtains

594 A

595 | B

597 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

598 explicitly:

600 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

601 obtains "~ thesis"

603 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

604 obtains "thesis ==> something"

606 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

607 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

608 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

609 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

610 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

611 case_names).

613 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

614 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

615 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

616 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

618 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

619 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

620 top-level lemma.

622 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

623 introduction rule (default "that").

625 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

626 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

627 to occur.

629 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

630 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

631 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

632 representations independently of name spaces.

634 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

635 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

636 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

638 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

639 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

640 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

641 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

642 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

643 current context.

645 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

646 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

647 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

648 isar-ref manual. Examples:

650 axiomatization

651 eq (infix "===" 50) where

652 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

654 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

655 definition g where "g x = f x x"

657 abbreviation

658 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

659 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

661 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

662 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

663 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

664 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

665 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

666 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

667 entities from a monomorphic theory.

669 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

670 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

671 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

672 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

673 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

675 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

676 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

677 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

678 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

680 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

681 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

682 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

684 definition "K x _ = x"

686 inductive conj for A B

687 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

689 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

690 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

691 abbreviations on output.

693 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

694 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

695 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

696 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

698 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

699 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

700 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

701 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

702 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

703 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

704 `unfold_locales'; see below.

706 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

707 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

708 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

709 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

710 unfold predicates to assumptions.

712 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

713 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

714 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

716 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

717 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

718 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

719 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

720 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

722 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

723 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

725 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

726 definition specification element in the context of locale

727 partial_order.

729 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

730 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

731 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

732 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

733 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

734 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

735 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

736 examples.

738 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

739 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

740 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

741 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

742 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

744 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

745 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

746 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

747 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

748 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

750 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

751 (induct set: foo bar)

752 (induct pred: foo bar)

753 (induct type: foo bar)

755 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

756 new format.

758 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

759 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

761 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

762 considered a legacy feature.

764 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

765 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

767 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

768 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

769 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

770 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

772 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

773 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

774 manipulating the claset.

776 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

777 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

778 least one premise.

780 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

781 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

782 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

783 rule steps.

785 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

786 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

787 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

788 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

789 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

790 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

792 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

793 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

794 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

796 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

797 the graph browser tool.

799 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

800 default; use '!' option for full details.

803 *** HOL ***

805 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

806 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

807 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

808 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

809 multi-threading.

811 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

812 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

813 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

814 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

815 work with multi-threading.

817 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

818 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

819 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

820 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

821 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

823 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

825 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

826 equality.

828 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

829 the new 'class' package:

831 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

832 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

833 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

834 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

835 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

836 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

837 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

838 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

839 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

840 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

841 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

842 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

843 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

844 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

845 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

846 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

847 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

848 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

849 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

850 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

852 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

854 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

855 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

856 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

857 names.

859 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

860 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

862 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

863 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

864 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

865 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

866 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

868 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

869 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

870 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

871 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

873 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

875 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

876 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

877 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

878 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

879 INCOMPATIBILITY.

881 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

882 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

884 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

885 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

886 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

888 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

889 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

891 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

892 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

893 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

894 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

895 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

896 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

897 in the current context.

899 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

900 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

901 INCOMPATIBILITY.

903 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

904 with new class dense_linear_order.

906 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

908 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

909 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

911 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

912 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

913 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

914 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

916 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

917 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

919 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

921 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

922 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

923 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

924 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

925 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

926 le_meetI ~> le_infI

927 join_leI ~> le_supI

928 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

929 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

930 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

931 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

932 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

933 join_comm ~> sup_commute

934 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

935 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

936 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

937 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

938 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

939 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

940 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

941 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

942 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

943 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

944 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

945 join_aci ~> sup_aci

946 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

947 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

948 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

949 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

950 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

951 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

952 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

953 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

954 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

955 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

957 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

958 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

959 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

960 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

961 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

962 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

963 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

964 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

965 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

966 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

967 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

968 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

969 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

970 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

971 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

972 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

973 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

975 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

976 mono_join ~> mono_sup

977 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

978 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

979 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

980 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

981 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

982 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

983 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

984 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

985 meet1I ~> inf1I

986 meet2I ~> inf2I

987 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

988 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

989 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

990 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

991 meet1E ~> inf1E

992 meet2E ~> inf2E

993 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

994 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

995 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

996 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

997 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

998 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

999 join1CI ~> sup1CI

1000 join2CI ~> sup2CI

1001 join1E ~> sup1E

1002 join2E ~> sup2E

1004 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

1005 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

1006 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

1007 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

1008 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

1009 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

1011 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

1012 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

1013 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

1014 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

1016 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

1017 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

1019 meet_min ~> inf_min

1020 join_max ~> sup_max

1022 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

1023 type "'a::size ==> bool"

1025 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

1026 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

1027 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

1028 "*.size".

1030 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

1031 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1033 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

1034 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

1035 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1037 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1039 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

1040 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

1041 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

1042 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

1043 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

1044 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

1045 numerals on all operations.

1047 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

1049 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

1051 * Code generator library theories:

1052 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

1053 languages.

1054 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

1055 languages.

1056 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

1057 codes; includes Code_Integer.

1058 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

1059 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

1060 denominator).

1061 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

1062 representable by rational numbers.

1063 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

1064 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

1065 includes Code_Integer.

1066 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

1067 target-language built-in integers.

1068 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

1069 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

1071 * New package for inductive predicates

1073 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

1075 inductive

1076 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1077 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1078 where

1079 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1080 | ...

1082 with full support for type-inference, rather than

1084 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1086 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1087 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1089 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

1090 intros

1091 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1092 ...

1094 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

1095 sets to be defined with the new package via

1097 inductive_set

1098 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1099 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1100 where

1101 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1102 | ...

1104 or

1106 inductive_set

1107 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1108 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1109 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1110 where

1111 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1112 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1113 | ...

1115 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

1117 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

1118 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

1120 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

1122 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

1123 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

1124 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

1125 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

1126 than before the actual inductive definition.

1128 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

1129 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

1130 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

1131 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

1132 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

1133 statements of the form

1135 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

1137 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

1138 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

1140 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

1142 - The format of the elimination rules is now

1144 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

1145 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

1146 ==> ... ==> P

1148 for predicates and

1150 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

1151 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

1152 ==> ... ==> P

1154 for sets rather than

1156 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

1157 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

1158 ==> ... ==> P

1160 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

1161 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

1162 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

1164 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

1165 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

1166 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

1168 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

1169 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

1170 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

1171 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

1172 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

1173 users are encouraged to use the new package.

1175 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

1176 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

1178 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

1179 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

1180 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

1181 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

1182 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

1183 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

1184 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

1185 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

1186 variable.

1188 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

1189 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

1190 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

1191 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

1192 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

1193 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

1195 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

1196 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

1197 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

1198 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

1199 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

1200 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

1201 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

1202 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

1203 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

1205 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

1206 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

1207 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

1208 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

1209 rat, etc.

1211 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

1212 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

1213 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

1215 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

1217 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

1218 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

1220 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

1221 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

1223 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

1224 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

1225 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1227 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

1228 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

1229 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1231 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

1233 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

1235 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

1236 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

1237 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

1238 positive/negative (in inequations).

1240 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

1241 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

1242 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

1243 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1245 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

1246 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

1247 algebraic operations.

1249 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

1250 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1252 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

1253 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1255 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

1256 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

1257 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

1258 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

1259 adapted.

1261 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

1262 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

1263 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

1264 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

1265 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

1267 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

1268 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

1269 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

1271 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

1272 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

1273 better use 'abbreviation'.

1275 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1277 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

1278 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

1279 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

1280 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

1281 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

1282 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

1283 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

1284 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

1286 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

1288 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

1289 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

1290 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

1291 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

1292 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

1293 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

1295 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

1296 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

1297 "A = B" (with priority 50).

1299 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

1300 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

1301 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

1302 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1304 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

1306 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

1307 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1309 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

1310 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

1312 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

1313 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

1314 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

1316 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

1317 True/False.

1319 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

1321 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

1323 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

1324 ``rule'' method.

1326 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

1327 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

1328 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

1329 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

1331 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

1332 zChaff is still supported as well.

1334 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

1335 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

1337 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

1338 Library.

1340 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

1342 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

1343 as greatest fixed-point.

1345 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

1346 association lists.

1348 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

1349 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

1350 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

1352 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

1353 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

1354 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1355 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

1356 behavior.

1358 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

1360 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

1361 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

1362 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

1363 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

1364 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

1365 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

1367 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

1368 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

1369 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

1370 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

1371 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

1372 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

1373 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

1375 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

1376 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

1378 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

1379 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

1380 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

1381 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

1382 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

1385 *** HOL-Complex ***

1387 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

1388 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

1389 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

1390 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

1391 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1393 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

1394 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

1395 and norm :: 'a => real.

1397 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

1398 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

1399 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1401 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

1402 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

1404 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

1405 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

1406 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

1407 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1409 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1410 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1411 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1412 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

1413 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1414 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1415 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1416 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1417 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1418 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1419 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

1420 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1421 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

1422 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

1423 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

1425 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

1426 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

1427 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

1428 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1430 approx <-- capprox

1431 HFinite <-- CFinite

1432 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

1433 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

1434 monad <-- cmonad

1435 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

1436 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

1437 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

1438 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

1441 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1443 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

1445 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

1446 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1448 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

1449 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1451 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

1452 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

1453 of algebraic structures.

1455 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

1458 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1460 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

1461 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

1462 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

1463 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

1466 *** ML ***

1468 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

1469 (even on SML/NJ).

1471 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

1472 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

1473 compile-time. For example:

1475 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

1476 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

1477 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

1478 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

1479 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

1480 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

1481 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

1482 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

1483 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

1484 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

1485 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

1486 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

1487 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

1488 ML {* @{context} *}

1489 ML {* @{theory} *}

1490 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

1491 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

1492 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

1493 ML {* @{simpset} *}

1494 ML {* @{claset} *}

1495 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

1497 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

1499 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

1500 ML_Context.trace enabled.

1502 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

1503 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

1504 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

1506 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

1507 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

1509 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

1510 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

1511 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

1513 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

1514 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

1515 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

1516 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

1517 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

1518 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

1519 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

1520 declarations and definitions.

1522 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

1523 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

1524 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

1525 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

1527 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

1528 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

1529 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

1530 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1532 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

1533 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

1534 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

1535 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

1536 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

1537 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

1539 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

1540 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

1541 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

1542 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

1543 attributes, methods, etc.

1545 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

1546 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

1547 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

1548 fold_map combinators.

1550 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

1551 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

1552 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

1553 derivation.

1555 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

1556 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

1557 achieve the old behaviour.

1559 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

1560 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

1561 statements.

1563 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

1564 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

1565 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

1567 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

1568 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

1569 some popular functions from term.ML:

1571 Term.variant -> Name.variant

1572 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

1573 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

1575 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

1576 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

1578 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

1579 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

1580 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

1581 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

1582 various freeze_thaw operations.

1584 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

1585 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

1586 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

1587 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

1588 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

1589 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

1590 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

1591 in a locale context).

1593 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

1594 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

1595 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

1596 which are considered legacy and await removal.

1598 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

1599 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

1600 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

1601 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

1602 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

1603 a mere theory instead of a full context.

1605 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

1606 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

1607 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

1608 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

1609 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

1611 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

1613 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

1614 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

1615 this:

1617 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

1619 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

1620 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

1621 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

1622 -- use plain ERROR instead.

1624 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

1625 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

1627 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

1628 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

1630 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

1631 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

1632 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

1633 batch mode.

1635 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

1636 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

1637 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

1638 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1640 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

1641 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

1642 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

1643 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

1644 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

1646 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

1647 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

1648 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

1649 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

1650 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

1651 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

1653 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

1654 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

1655 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

1656 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1658 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

1659 "Trueprop" etc.

1662 *** System ***

1664 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

1665 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

1666 Isabelle installations.

1668 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

1669 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

1670 code.

1672 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

1674 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

1675 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

1676 independent theories, according to the given theory header

1677 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

1678 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

1679 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

1680 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

1681 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

1682 Implementation manual.

1686 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

1687 ----------------------------------

1689 *** General ***

1691 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

1693 theory <name>

1694 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

1695 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

1696 begin

1698 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

1700 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

1702 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

1703 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

1704 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

1706 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

1707 relative and absolute paths.

1709 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

1710 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

1711 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

1712 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

1713 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

1714 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

1715 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

1716 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

1717 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

1719 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

1721 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

1722 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

1723 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

1725 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

1726 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1728 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

1729 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

1730 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

1731 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

1733 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

1734 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

1736 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

1737 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

1738 faster.

1741 *** Document preparation ***

1743 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

1744 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

1745 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

1746 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

1747 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

1748 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

1750 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

1751 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

1752 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

1753 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

1754 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

1755 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

1756 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

1757 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

1758 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

1759 \isadroptag.

1761 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

1762 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

1763 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

1764 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

1765 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

1766 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

1767 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

1768 specified above.

1770 * Several new antiquotations:

1772 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

1774 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

1776 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

1777 argument is a known logical constant;

1779 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

1780 theorem applying a "style" to it

1782 @{ML text}

1784 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

1785 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

1786 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

1787 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

1788 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

1789 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

1790 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

1792 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

1793 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

1794 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

1795 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

1797 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

1798 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

1799 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

1801 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

1802 a proof context.

1804 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

1805 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

1807 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

1808 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

1810 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

1811 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

1812 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

1815 *** Pure ***

1817 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

1818 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

1819 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

1820 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

1821 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

1822 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

1823 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

1825 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

1826 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

1827 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

1828 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

1829 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

1830 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

1831 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

1832 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

1834 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

1835 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

1836 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

1838 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

1839 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

1840 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

1842 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

1843 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

1844 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

1845 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

1846 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1848 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

1849 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

1850 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

1851 axclasses vs. locales.

1853 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

1854 instead of base 26 numbers.

1856 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

1857 marks in schematic variable names.

1859 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

1860 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

1861 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

1863 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

1864 by simp

1866 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

1868 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

1869 annotations as "(00...)".

1871 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

1872 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

1873 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

1874 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

1875 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

1876 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

1877 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

1879 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

1880 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

1881 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

1882 specifications.

1884 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

1885 locally fixed variables as well.

1887 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

1888 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

1889 Limit.

1891 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

1892 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

1893 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

1894 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

1895 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

1896 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

1897 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

1899 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

1900 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

1901 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

1903 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1905 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

1906 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

1907 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

1908 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

1909 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

1910 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

1912 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

1913 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

1915 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

1916 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

1917 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

1919 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

1921 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

1922 theory development.

1924 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

1925 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

1926 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

1927 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

1929 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

1930 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

1931 quoted when used as identifier.

1934 *** Locales ***

1936 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

1937 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

1938 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

1939 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

1940 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

1941 commands is a follows:

1943 (1) interpretation expr inst

1944 (2) interpretation target < expr

1945 (3) interpret expr inst

1947 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

1948 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

1949 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

1950 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

1951 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

1952 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

1953 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

1954 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

1955 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

1956 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

1958 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

1959 'interpret' instead.

1961 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

1962 parameters.

1964 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

1965 redeclaration.

1967 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

1969 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

1970 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

1971 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

1972 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

1973 to attribute arguments as expected.

1975 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

1976 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

1977 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

1978 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

1979 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

1980 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

1981 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

1982 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

1983 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

1984 values to argument tokens explicitly.

1986 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

1987 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

1988 theorem statement in rare situations.

1990 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

1991 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

1994 *** Provers ***

1996 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

1997 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

1998 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

1999 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

2000 still available as 'simplesubst'.

2002 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

2003 and quasi orders.

2005 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

2006 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

2008 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

2009 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

2011 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

2012 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

2013 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2016 *** HOL ***

2018 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

2020 syntax (epsilon)

2021 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

2023 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

2024 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

2025 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

2026 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2028 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

2029 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

2030 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

2031 support corresponding Isar calculations.

2033 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

2034 instead of ":".

2036 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

2038 Old New

2039 {..n(} {..<n}

2040 {)n..} {n<..}

2041 {m..n(} {m..<n}

2042 {)m..n} {m<..n}

2043 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

2045 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

2046 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

2047 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

2049 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

2050 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

2052 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

2053 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

2054 interface.

2056 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

2057 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

2058 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

2059 be a tuple pattern.

2061 Some new syntax forms are available:

2063 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

2064 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

2065 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

2066 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

2068 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

2069 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

2071 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

2072 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

2073 (insert F x)'.

2075 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

2076 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

2077 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

2079 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

2080 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

2081 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

2083 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

2084 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

2085 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

2086 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

2087 in unstructured proof scripts.

2089 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

2090 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

2091 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

2092 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

2093 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

2094 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

2095 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

2096 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

2097 <record_name>_ext_type.

2099 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

2100 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

2101 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

2102 quite long.

2104 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

2105 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

2106 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

2107 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

2109 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

2110 type-variables in the term.

2112 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

2113 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

2114 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2115 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

2116 goals than previously.

2118 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

2119 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

2120 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

2121 just like y <= x.

2123 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

2124 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

2125 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

2126 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

2127 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

2128 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

2129 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

2131 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

2133 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

2134 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

2136 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

2137 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

2138 inequalities.

2140 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2141 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2143 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

2144 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

2145 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

2146 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

2147 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

2148 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

2149 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

2150 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

2151 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

2152 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

2153 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

2155 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

2157 zero_le_square

2158 not_square_less_zero

2160 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

2162 realpow_zero_zero

2163 realpow_two

2164 realpow_less

2165 zero_le_power

2166 realpow_two_le

2167 abs_realpow_two

2168 realpow_two_abs

2170 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

2172 * Theory List:

2174 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2175 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2177 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

2178 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

2179 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

2180 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

2182 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

2183 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

2186 *** HOL-Complex ***

2188 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

2189 integers in the reals.

2191 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2192 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2194 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

2195 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2196 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2197 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2198 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2200 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

2202 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

2204 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

2205 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

2207 hypreal = real star

2208 hypnat = nat star

2209 hcomplex = complex star

2211 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

2212 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2214 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

2216 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

2217 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

2218 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

2219 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

2220 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

2222 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2223 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

2224 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

2225 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

2226 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

2228 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

2229 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2231 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

2232 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

2233 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

2234 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

2235 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

2236 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

2237 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

2238 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

2239 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

2240 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

2241 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

2242 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

2243 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

2244 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

2245 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

2246 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

2247 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

2248 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

2249 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

2250 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

2251 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

2252 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

2253 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

2254 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

2256 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

2257 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

2258 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2260 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

2261 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

2262 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

2263 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

2264 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

2265 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

2266 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

2267 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

2268 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

2269 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

2270 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

2271 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

2272 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

2273 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

2274 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

2275 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

2276 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

2277 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

2278 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

2279 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

2280 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

2281 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

2282 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

2283 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2284 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2285 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

2286 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

2287 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

2288 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

2289 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

2290 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

2291 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

2292 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

2293 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

2294 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

2295 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

2296 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

2297 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

2298 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

2299 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

2300 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

2301 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

2302 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

2303 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

2304 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

2305 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

2306 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

2307 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

2308 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

2309 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

2310 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

2311 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

2312 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

2313 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

2315 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

2316 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

2317 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

2318 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

2319 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

2320 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

2321 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

2322 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

2323 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

2324 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

2325 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

2327 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

2328 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

2329 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

2330 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

2331 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

2332 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

2333 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

2334 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

2335 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

2336 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

2337 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

2338 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

2339 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

2340 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

2341 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

2342 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

2343 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

2344 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

2345 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

2346 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

2347 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

2349 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

2350 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

2351 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

2352 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

2353 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

2354 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

2356 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

2359 *** HOLCF ***

2361 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

2362 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

2363 type-inference.

2365 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

2366 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

2367 instead of exponential time).

2369 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

2370 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

2372 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

2374 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

2375 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

2376 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

2377 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

2378 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2379 syntax and examples.

2381 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

2382 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

2383 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

2384 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

2385 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

2387 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

2388 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2390 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

2391 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

2392 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

2393 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

2394 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

2395 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

2398 *** ZF ***

2400 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

2401 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

2402 of a homomorphism).

2404 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

2405 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

2406 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

2409 *** Cube ***

2411 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

2412 theories.

2415 *** ML ***

2417 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

2418 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

2420 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

2421 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

2422 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

2423 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

2424 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

2426 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

2427 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

2428 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

2429 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

2431 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

2432 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

2433 suggests how one can translate existing code:

2435 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

2436 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

2437 last_elem xs = List.last xs

2438 flat xss = List.concat xss

2439 seq fs = List.app fs

2440 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

2441 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

2443 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

2444 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

2446 x |> f f #> g

2447 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

2449 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

2451 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

2452 infix 2 ?;

2453 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

2454 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

2456 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

2457 infix operators.

2459 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

2460 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

2461 example:

2463 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

2464 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

2466 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

2467 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

2469 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

2470 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

2472 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

2473 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

2475 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

2476 available:

2478 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

2479 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

2480 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

2481 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

2483 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2484 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

2485 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

2486 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

2487 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

2489 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

2490 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

2491 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

2493 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2495 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

2496 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

2498 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

2499 Naive rewrites:

2501 make_keylist = AList.make

2502 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

2504 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

2505 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

2507 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

2508 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

2510 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

2511 Naive rewrites:

2513 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

2514 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

2516 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

2517 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

2518 lists.

2520 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

2521 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

2522 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

2523 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

2525 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

2526 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

2527 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

2528 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

2529 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

2530 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

2531 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

2532 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

2533 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

2534 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

2535 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

2536 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

2537 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

2538 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

2539 Output.raw have no effect.

2541 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

2542 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

2543 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

2545 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

2546 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

2547 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

2548 internal and external process view of file names are different.

2550 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

2551 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

2552 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

2553 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

2554 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

2555 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

2556 Library.sort_strings on result).

2558 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

2559 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

2560 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

2561 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

2563 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

2564 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

2565 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

2566 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

2567 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

2568 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

2569 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

2570 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

2571 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

2572 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

2573 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

2575 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

2576 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

2577 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

2578 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

2579 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

2580 with earlier declarations.

2582 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

2583 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

2584 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2586 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

2587 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

2588 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

2589 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

2590 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

2591 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

2593 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

2594 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

2596 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

2597 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

2599 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

2600 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

2601 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

2602 Theory.merge, etc.)

2604 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

2605 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

2606 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

2608 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

2610 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

2611 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

2612 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

2613 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

2615 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

2616 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

2617 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

2618 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

2619 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

2620 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

2621 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

2622 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

2624 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

2625 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

2626 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2628 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

2629 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

2630 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

2632 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

2633 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

2635 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2636 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2637 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2638 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2640 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

2642 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

2643 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

2644 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

2645 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

2646 (both increase the runtime).

2648 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

2649 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

2650 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

2652 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

2653 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

2654 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

2655 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

2656 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

2657 for further details.

2659 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

2660 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

2661 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

2662 scripts for the time being.

2664 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

2665 generated HTML files. For example:

2667 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

2668 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

2671 *** System ***

2673 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

2674 isabelle, isatool etc.).

2676 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

2677 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

2679 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

2680 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

2682 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

2683 distribution being used.

2685 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

2686 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

2687 theories.

2691 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

2692 --------------------------------

2694 *** General ***

2696 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

2697 Replaces linorder.ML.

2699 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

2700 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

2701 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

2702 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

2703 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

2704 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

2705 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

2706 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

2707 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

2708 existing theory and ML files.

2710 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

2712 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

2713 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

2714 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

2715 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

2717 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

2718 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

2719 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

2720 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

2722 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

2723 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

2724 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

2726 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

2727 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

2728 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

2729 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

2730 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

2732 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

2733 (i.e. intersections of classes),

2735 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

2736 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

2737 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

2740 *** Isar ***

2742 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

2743 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

2744 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

2745 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

2746 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

2747 emulations.

2748 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

2749 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

2750 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

2752 * Attributes "where" and "of":

2753 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

2754 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

2755 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

2756 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

2758 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

2759 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

2760 and derived forms.

2762 * Locales:

2763 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

2764 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

2765 "_axioms") in the premise.

2766 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

2767 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

2768 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

2769 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

2770 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

2771 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

2772 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

2773 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

2774 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

2775 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

2776 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

2777 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

2778 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

2779 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

2780 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

2781 with "locale (open)".

2782 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

2784 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

2785 (Isar) contexts.

2788 *** HOL ***

2790 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

2791 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

2792 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

2793 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

2794 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

2796 * Simplifier:

2797 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

2798 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

2799 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

2800 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

2801 to solve goals from the assumptions.

2802 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

2803 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

2804 is solved by simplification already.

2806 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

2807 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

2809 * Numerics:

2810 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

2811 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

2812 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

2813 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

2814 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

2815 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

2816 exponentiation).

2818 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

2820 * Records:

2821 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

2822 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

2823 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

2824 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

2825 (not enabled by default).

2826 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

2827 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

2828 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

2830 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

2831 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

2832 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

2834 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

2836 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

2838 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

2839 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

2841 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

2842 matrix theory to linear programming.

2844 * Unions and Intersections:

2845 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

2846 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

2847 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

2848 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

2850 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

2851 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

2852 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

2853 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

2855 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

2856 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

2858 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

2859 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

2861 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

2862 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

2863 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

2865 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

2866 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

2867 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

2868 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

2869 for examples.

2872 *** HOLCF ***

2874 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

2878 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

2879 ------------------------------

2881 *** General ***

2883 * Provers/simplifier:

2885 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

2886 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

2887 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

2888 the order of assumptions.

2890 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2892 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

2893 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

2895 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

2897 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

2899 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

2901 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

2902 kind of problem.

2904 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

2905 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

2906 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

2907 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

2908 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

2909 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

2910 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

2912 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

2914 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

2915 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

2916 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

2917 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

2918 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

2919 the simplifier would diverge.

2921 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

2923 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

2924 congruence is ignored.

2926 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

2927 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

2928 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

2930 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

2931 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

2932 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

2933 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

2935 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

2936 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

2937 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

2938 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

2939 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

2940 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

2941 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

2943 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

2944 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

2945 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

2946 assumption failed.

2948 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

2949 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

2950 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

2951 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

2952 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

2953 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

2954 on the old view without predicates;

2956 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

2957 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

2958 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

2960 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

2961 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

2962 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

2963 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

2964 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

2965 be given (the default is 40);

2967 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

2968 (batch-mode only);

2970 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

2971 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

2972 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

2974 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

2975 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

2976 for slight decrease in efficiency;

2978 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

2979 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

2981 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

2982 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

2985 *** HOL ***

2987 * arith(_tac)

2989 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

2990 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

2991 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

2992 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

2994 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

2996 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

2997 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

2998 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

3000 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

3001 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

3003 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

3004 are distributed over a sum of terms;

3006 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

3007 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

3008 "<=", "<" and "=").

3010 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

3011 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

3013 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

3014 definition;

3016 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

3017 Finite_Set);

3019 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

3020 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

3022 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

3023 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

3025 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

3026 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

3027 of the empty set.

3029 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

3030 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

3031 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

3032 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

3034 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

3036 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

3037 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

3038 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

3040 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

3042 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

3043 Fleuriot);

3045 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

3047 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

3048 Gray and Kramer);

3050 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

3052 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

3053 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

3055 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

3056 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

3057 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

3058 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

3059 assignment, exceptions.

3062 *** ZF ***

3064 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

3065 universe, etc.);

3067 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

3070 *** ML ***

3072 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

3073 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

3074 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

3076 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

3078 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

3079 up simprocs;

3082 *** Document preparation ***

3084 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

3085 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

3086 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

3088 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

3089 other packages

3091 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

3092 broke \Rightarrow)

3094 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

3095 textcomp package)

3099 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

3100 --------------------------------

3102 *** Document preparation ***

3104 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

3105 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

3106 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

3107 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

3108 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

3109 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

3111 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

3112 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

3113 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

3115 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

3116 blocks after section headings;

3118 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

3119 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

3121 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

3122 better in printed text;

3124 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

3125 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

3126 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

3128 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

3129 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

3130 location;

3133 *** Isar ***

3135 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

3136 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

3137 "case (Suc n)");

3138 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

3139 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

3140 instantiation of cases;

3141 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

3142 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

3143 rules without further ado;

3144 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

3145 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

3146 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

3147 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

3148 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

3149 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

3150 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

3151 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

3152 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

3153 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

3154 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

3155 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

3156 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

3157 below);

3158 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

3159 success (no backtracking);

3160 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

3161 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

3162 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

3163 General versions);

3164 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

3165 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

3167 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

3168 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

3169 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

3170 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

3171 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

3172 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

3173 fails:

3175 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

3177 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

3178 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

3180 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

3181 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

3182 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

3183 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

3184 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

3185 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

3186 some examples;

3188 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

3189 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

3190 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

3191 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

3192 qualified by the locale name);

3194 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

3195 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

3196 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

3197 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

3198 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

3200 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

3201 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

3202 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

3203 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

3204 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

3206 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

3208 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

3209 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

3210 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

3212 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

3214 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

3216 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

3218 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

3219 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

3220 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

3222 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

3223 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

3224 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

3225 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

3226 proof *scripts*;

3228 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

3229 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

3230 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

3231 especially important for locales);

3233 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

3234 mode;

3236 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

3237 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

3238 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

3239 situations;

3241 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

3242 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

3244 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

3245 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

3246 discontinued;

3248 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

3249 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

3250 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

3252 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

3253 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

3254 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

3255 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

3256 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

3257 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

3258 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3260 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

3261 of introduction rules;

3263 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

3264 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

3265 conditional rules;

3267 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

3269 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

3270 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

3272 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

3273 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

3275 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

3276 wf_induct_rule;

3279 *** HOL ***

3281 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

3282 follows:

3284 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

3285 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

3287 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

3288 binary representation internally;

3290 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

3291 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

3293 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

3294 are some hints on converting existing sources:

3296 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

3297 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

3298 to be spaced properly;

3300 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

3301 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

3303 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

3305 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

3307 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

3308 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

3310 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

3312 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

3313 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

3314 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

3315 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

3316 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

3318 * HOL/record package improvements:

3319 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

3320 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

3321 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

3322 declared as simp by default;

3323 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

3324 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

3325 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

3326 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3327 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3328 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

3329 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

3330 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

3331 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

3332 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

3334 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

3335 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

3336 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

3337 via 'generate_code' theory section;

3339 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

3341 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

3342 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

3343 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

3345 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

3346 (beware of argument permutation!);

3348 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

3350 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

3352 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

3353 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3354 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

3356 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

3357 in this (rare) case use:

3359 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

3360 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

3362 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

3363 MAY FAIL;

3365 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

3366 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

3367 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

3368 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

3370 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

3371 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

3372 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

3374 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

3375 expressions;

3377 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

3378 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3380 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3381 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

3382 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

3384 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

3386 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

3387 the "cases" method);

3389 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

3390 Florian Kammller);

3392 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

3393 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

3394 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

3396 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

3398 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

3401 *** HOLCF ***

3403 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

3404 operations;

3406 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

3407 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

3409 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

3410 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

3411 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

3413 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

3416 *** ZF ***

3418 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

3419 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

3420 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

3421 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

3423 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

3424 your theory on Main_ZFC;

3426 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

3427 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

3429 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

3430 typeless version of the formalism;

3432 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

3433 format;

3435 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

3436 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

3437 new-style theory format;

3439 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

3442 *** General ***

3444 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

3445 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

3446 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

3447 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

3449 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

3450 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

3452 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

3453 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

3454 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

3455 properly;

3457 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

3458 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

3460 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

3461 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

3462 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

3463 type variable);

3465 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

3466 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

3467 "type_brackets";

3469 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

3470 tokens into AST constants;

3472 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

3473 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

3474 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

3476 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

3477 practice);

3479 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

3480 addSafter;

3482 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

3483 as well;

3485 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

3486 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

3487 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

3488 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

3489 support requires further installations, e.g. from

3490 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

3492 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

3494 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

3495 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

3497 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

3498 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

3500 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

3501 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

3502 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

3504 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

3505 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

3506 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

3507 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

3508 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

3510 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

3511 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

3512 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

3513 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

3515 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

3516 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

3517 terminal);

3521 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

3522 -----------------------------------

3524 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3526 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

3527 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

3528 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

3530 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

3531 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

3532 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

3533 'split_rule (complete)';

3535 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

3536 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

3538 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

3540 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

3541 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

3542 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

3544 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

3545 operation;

3547 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

3549 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

3551 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

3552 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

3553 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

3555 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

3556 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

3559 *** Document preparation ***

3561 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

3562 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

3563 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

3564 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

3565 type-writer);

3567 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

3568 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

3570 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

3571 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

3573 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

3574 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

3575 definitions);

3577 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

3578 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

3579 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

3580 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

3582 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

3583 fonts;

3585 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

3586 generation;

3588 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

3591 *** Isar ***

3593 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

3594 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

3595 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

3596 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

3597 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

3599 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

3600 rules as well;

3602 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

3603 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

3604 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

3605 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

3607 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

3608 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

3610 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

3611 statements as well;

3613 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

3615 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

3616 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

3618 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

3619 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

3621 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

3623 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

3625 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

3626 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

3628 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

3629 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

3630 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

3632 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

3633 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

3634 the result to be shown in each case;

3636 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

3638 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

3641 *** HOL ***

3643 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

3644 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

3645 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

3646 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

3647 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

3649 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

3650 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

3651 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

3653 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

3654 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

3655 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

3656 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

3657 literature;

3659 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

3660 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

3661 operator \<Sum>;

3663 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

3664 HOL/subset.thy);

3666 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

3667 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

3668 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

3670 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

3671 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

3673 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

3674 rules with string literals);

3676 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

3677 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

3678 functions for the reals;

3680 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

3683 *** CTT ***

3685 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

3686 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

3688 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

3689 and Arith);

3692 *** General ***

3694 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

3695 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

3696 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

3697 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

3699 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

3700 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

3702 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

3703 as assumptions as well;

3705 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

3707 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

3711 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

3712 ----------------------------------

3714 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3716 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

3717 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

3718 issue the following ML commands:

3720 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

3721 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

3723 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

3724 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

3726 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

3728 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

3729 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

3731 select_equality -> some_equality

3732 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

3733 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

3734 selectI2 -> someI2

3735 selectI -> someI

3736 select1_equality -> some1_equality

3737 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

3738 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

3740 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

3742 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

3743 instead);

3745 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

3746 f.simps instead of f.rules;

3748 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

3750 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

3751 sometimes be needed;

3753 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

3755 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

3757 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

3758 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

3759 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

3761 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

3762 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

3764 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

3765 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

3767 syntax (symbols)

3768 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

3769 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

3771 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3773 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

3774 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

3775 internally;

3777 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

3778 changed from A/r to A//r;

3780 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

3781 proofs;

3783 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

3784 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

3786 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3787 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

3788 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

3789 "rule del";

3791 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

3793 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

3795 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

3796 lib/texinputs);

3799 *** Document preparation ***

3801 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

3802 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

3803 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

3804 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

3806 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

3807 including proper document sources;

3809 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

3810 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

3811 of isatool usedir;

3813 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

3814 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

3815 LaTeX debugging;

3817 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

3819 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

3820 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

3821 graph for 'all sessions';

3823 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

3824 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

3825 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

3828 *** Isar ***

3830 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

3831 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

3832 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

3834 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

3835 generalized existence reasoning;

3837 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

3838 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

3839 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

3840 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

3841 premises;

3843 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

3844 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

3845 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

3846 to theorems as "tags";

3848 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

3849 class/type/const name spaces;

3851 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

3852 indicate potential overloading;

3854 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

3856 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

3857 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

3859 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

3860 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

3861 with the version in Provers/classical;

3863 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

3864 case name 'antecedent';

3866 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

3867 to the current context is now done automatically);

3869 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

3870 for definining proof methods in ML;

3872 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3873 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3874 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

3875 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

3877 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

3878 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

3880 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

3881 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

3882 well (including splits);

3884 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

3885 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

3887 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

3888 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

3890 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

3891 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

3892 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

3894 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

3895 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

3896 calculations;

3898 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

3899 method anyway;

3901 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

3902 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

3903 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

3905 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

3906 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

3907 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

3908 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

3910 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

3912 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

3914 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

3915 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

3916 proof states;

3918 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

3919 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

3920 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

3922 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

3923 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

3924 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

3925 (for HOL datatypes);

3927 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

3928 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

3929 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

3931 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

3933 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

3934 should instead use individual commands for printing items

3935 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

3937 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

3940 *** HOL ***

3942 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

3943 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

3944 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

3945 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

3946 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

3947 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

3949 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

3950 Clemens Ballarin;

3952 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

3953 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

3954 Rasmussen;

3956 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

3957 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

3958 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

3959 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

3960 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

3961 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

3963 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

3964 von Oheimb;

3966 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

3967 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

3969 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

3971 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

3972 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

3973 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

3975 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

3976 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

3977 well; admit "r" as field name;

3979 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

3980 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

3982 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

3983 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

3985 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

3986 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

3987 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

3988 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

3989 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

3990 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

3991 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

3993 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

3994 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

3995 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

3997 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

3998 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

3999 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

4001 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

4002 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

4003 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

4004 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

4005 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

4007 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

4008 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

4009 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

4010 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

4011 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

4012 each equation;

4014 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

4015 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

4016 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

4017 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

4019 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

4020 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

4022 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

4024 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

4025 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

4026 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

4028 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4030 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

4031 main HOL, but was unused);

4033 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

4034 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

4036 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

4037 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

4038 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

4039 bogus);

4042 *** ZF ***

4044 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

4045 expressions over nat and int;

4047 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

4048 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

4049 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

4051 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

4052 using the function intify;

4054 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

4055 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

4057 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

4058 simplification;

4060 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

4061 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4064 *** General ***

4066 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

4067 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

4069 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

4070 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

4072 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

4073 explicit make_elim);

4075 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

4076 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4077 use instead the strong form,

4078 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4079 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

4080 from destruct-rules;

4082 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

4083 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

4085 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

4087 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

4088 for hiding of names;

4090 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

4091 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

4092 situations;

4094 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

4095 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

4096 Poly/ML);

4098 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

4099 useful for remote X11);

4101 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

4103 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

4104 order;

4106 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

4107 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

4109 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

4110 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

4112 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

4113 overloading (usually false);

4115 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

4116 results;

4120 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

4121 --------------------------------

4123 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4125 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

4126 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

4127 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

4129 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

4131 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

4132 complement;

4134 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

4136 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

4137 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

4139 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4140 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4142 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

4143 to constants declared in the same theory;

4145 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

4146 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

4147 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

4149 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4151 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

4152 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

4153 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

4154 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

4155 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

4156 where the string argument is only a comment.

4159 *** Proof tools ***

4161 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

4162 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

4163 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

4164 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

4166 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

4167 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

4168 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

4169 matching.

4172 *** General ***

4174 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

4175 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

4176 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

4177 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

4178 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

4179 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

4181 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

4182 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

4183 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

4184 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

4185 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

4187 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

4188 Isabelle/Isar;

4190 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

4191 using the graph browser tool;

4193 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

4195 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

4196 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

4197 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

4198 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

4199 isatool doc ref);

4201 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

4202 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

4204 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

4205 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

4207 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

4208 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

4209 Isabelle;

4211 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

4213 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

4214 empty;

4216 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

4217 long arrows);

4219 * new print_mode "HTML";

4221 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

4222 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

4224 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

4225 mode and goal output format:

4227 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

4228 244c244

4229 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

4230 ---

4231 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

4232 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

4233 181c181

4234 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

4235 ---

4236 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

4238 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

4240 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

4242 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

4243 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

4244 result still apply;

4246 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

4247 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

4250 *** HOL ***

4252 ** HOL arithmetic **

4254 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

4255 int:

4257 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

4258 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

4259 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

4260 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

4261 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

4262 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

4263 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

4264 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

4266 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

4267 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

4268 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

4269 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

4270 simplifier.

4272 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

4273 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

4274 int(m) < int(n)'.

4276 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

4277 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

4278 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

4279 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

4280 type constraints;

4282 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

4283 arguments;

4285 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

4286 are now available;

4288 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

4289 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

4290 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

4291 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

4292 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

4293 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

4295 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

4298 ** HOL misc **

4300 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

4301 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

4303 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

4304 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

4306 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

4307 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

4308 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

4309 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

4311 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

4312 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

4313 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

4314 "mono" attribute);

4316 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

4317 (using function types) such as

4319 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

4321 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

4322 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

4323 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

4324 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

4326 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

4327 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

4329 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4330 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4332 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

4333 names rather than an ML expression;

4335 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

4336 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

4337 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

4338 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

4340 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4341 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

4342 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

4344 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

4345 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

4346 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

4348 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

4349 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

4351 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

4352 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

4353 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

4355 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

4357 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

4358 thus available for user theories;

4360 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

4361 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

4362 time;

4364 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

4365 several times and then mp;

4368 *** LK ***

4370 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

4371 formulas;

4373 * the simplifier is now installed

4375 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

4377 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

4380 *** ZF ***

4382 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

4383 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4385 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

4386 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4388 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

4390 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

4391 constructors;

4393 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

4394 type-checking rules;

4396 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

4397 to the claset;

4399 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

4400 if(P,x,y);

4403 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4405 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

4407 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

4408 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

4410 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

4412 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

4413 printing empty lines;

4415 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

4416 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

4417 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

4418 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

4420 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

4421 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

4422 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

4424 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

4425 now of type real instead of int;

4427 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

4428 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

4429 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

4430 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

4432 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

4433 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

4434 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

4435 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

4436 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

4440 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

4441 ----------------------------------

4443 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4445 * several changes of automated proof tools;

4447 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

4448 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

4450 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

4451 called `inj_on';

4453 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

4454 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

4455 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

4457 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

4458 required);

4460 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

4461 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

4462 now taken as an integer constant.

4464 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

4467 *** Proof tools ***

4469 * Simplifier:

4470 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

4471 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

4472 simplify.

4473 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

4474 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

4475 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

4476 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

4477 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

4479 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

4480 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

4481 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

4482 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

4483 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

4484 one (emitting a warning).

4485 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

4486 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

4487 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

4488 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

4489 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

4491 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

4492 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

4493 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

4494 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

4495 by Force_tac;

4497 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

4498 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

4500 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

4501 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

4502 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

4503 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

4504 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

4505 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

4506 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

4507 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

4508 split_all_tac for record fields.

4510 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

4511 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

4512 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

4513 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

4515 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

4516 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

4517 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

4518 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

4519 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

4520 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

4521 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

4522 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

4523 t is the name of the datatype).

4525 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

4526 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

4527 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

4528 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

4531 *** General ***

4533 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

4534 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

4535 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

4536 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

4537 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

4538 (backup your sources first!);

4540 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

4541 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

4543 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

4544 definitions that have local scope;

4546 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

4548 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

4549 (e.g. package initialization);

4551 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

4552 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

4554 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

4555 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

4557 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

4559 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

4561 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

4563 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

4566 *** HOL ***

4568 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

4570 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

4571 definitions such as

4573 inductive EVEN ODD

4574 intrs

4575 null "0 : EVEN"

4576 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

4577 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

4579 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

4580 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

4581 correctly (also ZF);

4583 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

4584 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

4585 contained in "induct";

4588 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

4589 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

4591 datatype

4592 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4593 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4594 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4595 | NUM 'a

4596 and

4597 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4598 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4599 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4601 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

4603 datatype

4604 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

4605 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

4607 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

4608 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

4610 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

4611 <function_name>.simps.

4613 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4615 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

4616 ancestor.

4617 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

4618 generic induct_tac instead.

4619 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

4620 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

4621 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

4622 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

4623 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

4624 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

4625 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

4626 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

4627 sort constraints.

4628 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

4629 of recursive argument.

4631 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

4632 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

4635 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

4636 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

4637 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

4638 support is as follows:

4640 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

4641 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

4643 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

4644 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

4646 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

4647 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

4649 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

4650 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

4651 the name of your record type.

4653 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

4655 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

4657 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

4658 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

4659 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

4660 solve record problems automatically.

4663 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

4664 default; theory Main includes everything;

4666 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

4668 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

4670 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

4672 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

4674 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

4675 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

4676 with add/delsplits);

4678 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

4679 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

4680 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

4681 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

4682 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

4683 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

4684 %u.f();

4686 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

4687 makes more sense);

4689 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4690 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4691 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4693 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

4694 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

4695 literature);

4697 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

4698 the well-founded relation;

4700 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

4701 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

4702 release ONLY.

4704 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

4705 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

4706 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4708 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

4710 * HOL/List:

4711 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

4712 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

4713 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

4714 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

4715 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

4716 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

4718 * HOL/Arith:

4719 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

4720 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

4721 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

4722 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

4724 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

4725 instead of "inverse";

4727 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

4728 of the multiset ordering;

4730 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

4731 (not included by default);

4733 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

4735 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

4736 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

4738 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4739 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4740 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4743 *** ZF ***

4745 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

4746 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

4748 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4749 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4750 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4752 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

4753 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

4754 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4756 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

4758 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4759 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4760 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4762 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

4763 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

4766 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4768 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

4769 also src/Pure/README;

4771 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

4772 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

4773 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

4774 print_data function becomes basically useless;

4776 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

4777 are qualified by default;

4779 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

4780 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

4781 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

4783 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

4784 cterm -> thm;

4786 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

4787 subgoal;

4789 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

4791 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

4792 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

4793 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

4794 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

4795 for example;

4799 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

4800 --------------------------------

4802 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4804 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

4805 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

4807 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

4808 simpset / simpset_ref;

4810 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

4811 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

4813 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

4815 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

4818 *** General Changes ***

4820 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

4821 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

4822 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

4823 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

4824 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

4825 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

4826 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

4827 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

4828 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

4829 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

4830 section;

4832 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

4833 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

4834 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

4835 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

4836 to patch your ML files accordingly;

4838 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

4839 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

4840 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

4842 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

4843 conditional equations;

4845 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

4847 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

4848 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

4849 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

4850 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

4852 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

4853 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

4855 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

4856 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

4858 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

4859 show_types);

4861 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

4863 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

4865 * removed old README and Makefiles;

4867 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

4869 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

4871 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

4872 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

4874 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

4875 (which abbreviates $HOME);

4877 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

4878 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

4879 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

4881 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

4882 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

4885 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4887 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

4888 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

4889 splitting it into several subgoals;

4891 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

4894 *** Simplifier ***

4896 * added simplification meta rules:

4897 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

4899 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

4900 logics (again);

4902 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

4904 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

4905 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

4906 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

4909 *** Syntax ***

4911 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

4913 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

4915 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

4917 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

4920 *** HOL ***

4922 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4923 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4925 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

4927 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

4928 protocol TLS;

4930 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

4932 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

4933 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

4934 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

4935 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

4936 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

4937 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

4939 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

4940 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

4941 are rewritten to

4942 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

4943 and those of the form

4944 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

4945 are rewritten to

4946 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

4948 * HOL/datatype

4949 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

4951 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4952 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

4953 ...

4954 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4955 )

4957 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

4959 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4960 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

4961 ...

4962 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4963 )

4964 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

4965 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

4966 split_list_case and split_option_case.

4968 * HOL/Arithmetic:

4969 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

4970 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

4971 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

4972 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

4973 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

4974 `standard'.

4976 * HOL/Lists:

4977 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

4978 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

4979 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

4981 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

4983 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

4984 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

4986 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

4987 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

4988 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

4991 *** HOLCF ***

4993 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

4995 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

4996 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

4998 * domain package:

4999 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

5000 . creates hierachical name space,

5001 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

5002 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

5003 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

5004 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

5005 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

5006 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

5008 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

5010 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

5011 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

5014 *** FOL and ZF ***

5016 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5017 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5019 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

5020 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

5024 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

5025 ------------------------------

5027 *** General Changes ***

5029 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

5030 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

5032 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

5034 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

5036 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

5037 messages and clean internal interface;

5039 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

5040 setting goals_limit);

5043 *** Syntax ***

5045 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

5046 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

5048 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

5049 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

5050 "symbols" syntax table;

5052 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

5053 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

5054 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

5055 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

5056 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

5058 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

5059 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

5060 version of xterm);

5062 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

5064 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

5065 access type of constant);

5068 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5070 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

5071 some limitations. Blast_tac...

5072 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

5073 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

5074 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

5075 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

5076 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

5077 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

5078 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

5080 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

5081 assumptions;

5083 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

5084 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

5085 (and access functions for it);

5087 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

5088 + functions for handling clasimpsets

5089 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

5090 safe steps.

5091 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

5092 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

5093 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

5095 *** Simplifier ***

5097 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

5098 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

5099 redex);

5101 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

5103 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

5105 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

5106 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

5107 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

5108 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

5111 *** HOL ***

5113 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

5114 also for type `nat';

5116 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

5117 datatypes and also for type `nat';

5119 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

5121 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

5122 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

5124 * primrec now also works with type nat;

5126 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

5127 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

5129 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

5130 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

5132 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

5133 infinite lists;

5135 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

5137 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

5138 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

5140 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

5142 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

5144 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

5146 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

5148 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

5149 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

5150 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

5151 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

5152 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

5153 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

5154 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

5155 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

5156 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

5159 *** ZF ***

5161 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

5162 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

5163 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

5167 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

5168 ---------------------------------

5170 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

5172 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

5174 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

5175 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

5176 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

5177 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

5179 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

5181 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

5182 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

5184 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

5186 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

5187 examples on HOL/Auth);

5189 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

5190 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

5192 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

5193 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

5197 New in Isabelle94-6

5198 -------------------

5200 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

5201 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

5203 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

5205 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

5207 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

5209 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

5211 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

5215 New in Isabelle94-5

5216 -------------------

5218 * reduced space requirements;

5220 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

5222 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

5224 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

5226 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

5230 New in Isabelle94-4

5231 -------------------

5233 * greatly reduced space requirements;

5235 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

5237 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

5238 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

5240 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

5241 Axiom of Choice;

5243 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

5245 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

5246 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

5248 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

5250 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

5251 translates to the operator "split";

5255 New in Isabelle94-3

5256 -------------------

5258 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

5259 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

5260 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

5262 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

5263 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

5264 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

5266 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

5268 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

5269 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

5271 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

5272 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

5274 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

5275 of the Axiom of Choice;

5279 New in Isabelle94-2

5280 -------------------

5282 * Significantly faster resolution;

5284 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

5285 freely;

5287 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

5288 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

5290 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

5291 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

5292 (theory_of_thm);

5294 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

5296 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

5297 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

5299 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

5300 have been removed;

5302 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

5304 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

5306 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

5307 types;

5309 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72:

5311 $Id$