NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Feb 22 16:16:21 2014 +0100 (2014-02-22)
changeset 55668 6e97c1766500
parent 55654 5ff4742f27ec
child 55677 1f89921f3e75
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols for
    39 languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol completion for ML source,
    40 but within ML strings, comments, antiquotations.
    41 
    42 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    43 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    44 
    45 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    46 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    47 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    48 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    49 
    50 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    51 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    52 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    53 
    54 
    55 *** Pure ***
    56 
    57 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    58 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    59 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    60 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    61 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    62 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    63 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    64 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    66 
    67 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    68 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    69 instantiated theorem.
    70 
    71 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    72 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    73 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    74 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    75 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    76 
    77   attribute_setup standard =
    78     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    79 
    80 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    81 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    82 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    83 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    84 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    85 
    86 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    87 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    88 differently).
    89 
    90 
    91 *** HOL ***
    92 
    93 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    94 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    95 
    96 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    97   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    98   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    99   "Main".
   100   Theory renamings:
   101     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   102     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   103     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   104     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   105     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   106     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   107     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   108     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   109     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   110     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   111     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   112     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   113     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   114     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   115     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   116     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   117     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   118     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   119     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   120     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   121     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   122     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   123   New theories:
   124     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   125     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   126     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   127     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   128     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   129   Discontinued theories:
   130     BNF/BNF.thy
   131     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   132   Renamed commands:
   133     datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   134     primrec_new ~> primrec
   135     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   136   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Old datatype package:
   139   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   140     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   141     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * Old and new (co)datatype packages:
   144   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   145     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   146     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   149   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   150   datatype package.
   151   Renamed constants:
   152     Option.set ~> set_option
   153     Option.map ~> map_option
   154     option_rel ~> rel_option
   155   Renamed theorems:
   156     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   157     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   158     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   159     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   160     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   161     map.simps ~> list.map
   162     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   163     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   164     the.simps ~> option.sel
   165   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * New theory:
   168     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   169 
   170 * Theory reorganizations:
   171   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   172 
   173 * Sledgehammer:
   174   - New option:
   175       smt_proofs
   176   - Renamed options:
   177       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   178       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   179     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Metis:
   182   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   183     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   186 
   187 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   190 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   191 
   192 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   193 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   194 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   195 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   196 
   197 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   201 with the given constants.
   202 
   203 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   204 
   205 Fact consolidations:
   206     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   207     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   208     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   209     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   210     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   211     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   212     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   213     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   214     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   215     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   216     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   217     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   218     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   219     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   220     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   221     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   222     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   223     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   224     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   225     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   226     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   227     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   228     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   229     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   230     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   231     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   232     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   233     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   234     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   235     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   236     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   237     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   238     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   239     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   240     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   241     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   242     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   243     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   244     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   245     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   246 
   247 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   248 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   249 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   250 
   251 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   252 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   253 
   254 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   255 
   256 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   257 
   258 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   265 operations on records.
   266 
   267 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   269 
   270 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   271     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   275     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   276     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   278 
   279 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   280   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   281   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   282   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   283     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   284   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   285     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   286   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   287 INCOMPATBILITY.
   288 
   289 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   290     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   291     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   292     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   293     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * Fact name consolidation:
   297     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   298     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   299     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   300     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   301     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   305 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   306 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   307 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   308 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   309 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   310 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   311 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   314 
   315 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   316 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   317 
   318 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   319 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   320 
   321 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   322 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   323 or the brute way with
   324 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   325 
   326 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   327 
   328 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   329 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   332 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   333 
   334 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   335 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   336 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY
   338 
   339 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   340 
   341 * Nitpick:
   342   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   343     infinite values.
   344 
   345 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   346   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   347   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   348     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   349     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   350     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   351     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   352     intervals.
   353 
   354 
   355 *** Scala ***
   356 
   357 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   358 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   359 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   360 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   361 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 
   364 *** ML ***
   365 
   366 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   367 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   368 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   369 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   370 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   371 of schematic variables.
   372 
   373 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   374 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   375 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   376 formal context.
   377 
   378 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   379 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   380 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   381 actually belongs to it).
   382 
   383 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   384 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   385 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   386 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   387 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   388 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   389 
   390 
   391 *** System ***
   392 
   393 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   394 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   395 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   396 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   398 
   399 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   400 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   401 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   402 
   403 
   404 
   405 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   406 -------------------------------------
   407 
   408 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   409 
   410 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   411 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   412 
   413 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   414 after edits surrounding the command location.
   415 
   416 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   417 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   418 e.g. out-of-memory).
   419 
   420 
   421 *** System ***
   422 
   423 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   424 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   425 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   426 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   427 
   428 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   429 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   430 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   431 
   432 
   433 
   434 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   435 -------------------------------------
   436 
   437 *** General ***
   438 
   439 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   440 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   441 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   444 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   447 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   448 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   449 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   450 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   451 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   452 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   453 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   454 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   455 syntax.
   456 
   457 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   458 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   461 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   462 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   463 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   464 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   465 
   466 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   470 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   471 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   472 
   473 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   474 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   475 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   476 
   477 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   478 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   479 
   480 
   481 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   482 
   483 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   484 Documentation panel.
   485 
   486 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   487 documentation.
   488 
   489 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   490 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   491 
   492 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   493 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   494 normal editing and checking process.
   495 
   496 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   497 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   498 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   499 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   500 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   501 
   502 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   503 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   504 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   505 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   506 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   507 
   508 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   509 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   510 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   511 
   512 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   513 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   514 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   515 to resolve conflict.
   516 
   517 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   518 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   519 
   520 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   521 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   522 such command executions while editing.
   523 
   524 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   525 document content.
   526 
   527 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   528 toplevel theorem statements.
   529 
   530 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   531 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   532 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   533 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   534 
   535 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   536 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   537 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   538 
   539 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   540 / Global Options / Appearance".
   541 
   542 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   543 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   544 
   545 
   546 *** Pure ***
   547 
   548 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   549 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   550 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   551 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   552 details.
   553 
   554 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   555 
   556 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   557 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   558 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   559 
   560 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   564 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   565 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   566 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   569 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   570 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   571 
   572 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   573 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   574 
   575 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   576 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   577 situations.
   578 
   579 
   580 *** HOL ***
   581 
   582 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   583 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   587 
   588 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   589 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   590 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   591 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   592 
   593   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   594 
   595 * Code generator:
   596   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   597     'code_instance'.
   598   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   599     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   600 
   601 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   602 examples.
   603 
   604 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   605 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   606 to distinguish both when desired.
   607 
   608 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   609 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   610 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   611 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   614 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   615 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   616 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   617 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   618 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   621 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   622 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   623 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   624 
   625 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   626 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   627 
   628 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   629 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   630 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   631 
   632 * Lifting:
   633   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   634     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   635       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   636       transfer rules
   637     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   638       correspondence relation can be generated
   639     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   640       parametricity
   641     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   642   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   643   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   644     copies
   645   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   646     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   647     anonymous context)
   648   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   649     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   650   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   651     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   652   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   653     INCOMPATIBILITY
   654 
   655 * Transfer:
   656   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   657     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   658   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   659   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   660     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   661   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   662 
   663 * Reification and reflection:
   664   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   665     "Reification".
   666   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   667   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   671   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   672     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   673     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   674   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   675     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   676   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   677     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   678     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   679     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   680     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   681     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   682     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   683     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   684   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   685     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   686   - Fact renames:
   687       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   688       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   692 
   693 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   694 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   695 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   697 
   698 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   699 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   700 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   701 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   702 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   703 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   704 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   705 lemmas.
   706 
   707 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   708 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   709 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   712 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   713 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   714 
   715 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   716 top and bottom elements.
   717 
   718 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   719 
   720 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   721 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   722 
   723  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   724    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   725    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   726 
   727  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   728    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   729    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   730 
   731    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   732    arbitrary filter.
   733 
   734  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   735    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   736    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   737    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   738    on a compact set.
   739 
   740  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   741    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   742    linear_continuum_topology).
   743 
   744  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   745    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   746    on all sequences converging to x.
   747 
   748  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   749    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   750    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   751    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   752    left or right.
   753 
   754  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   755 
   756      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   757 
   758  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   759    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   760 
   761  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   762    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   763    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   764    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   765    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   766    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   767 
   768  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   769 
   770    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   771 
   772    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   773      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   774 
   775    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   776 
   777    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   778      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   779 
   780    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   781 
   782    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   783 
   784  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   785 
   786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   787 
   788 * Nitpick:
   789   - Added option "spy"
   790   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   791 
   792 * Sledgehammer:
   793   - Renamed option:
   794       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   795     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   797   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   798   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   799 
   800 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   801 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   802 
   803 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   804   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   805   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   806     generated code.
   807   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   808   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   809   - Fact renames:
   810     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   811     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   812     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   813 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   814 
   815 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   816 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   817 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   818 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   819 
   820 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   821 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   822 
   823 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   826 
   827     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   828     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   829 
   830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   833 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   834 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   835 
   836 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   837 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   838 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   839 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * HOL-BNF:
   842   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   843     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   844     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   845     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   846   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   847     coinduct).
   848   - Renamed keywords:
   849     data ~> datatype_new
   850     codata ~> codatatype
   851     bnf_def ~> bnf
   852   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   853     discs ~> disc
   854     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   855     map_id' ~> map_id
   856     sels ~> sel
   857     set_map' ~> set_map
   858     sets ~> set
   859 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 
   862 *** ML ***
   863 
   864 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   865 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   866 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   867 Examples.thy in particular.
   868 
   869 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   870 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   871 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   872 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   873 
   874 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   875 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   876 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   877 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   881 
   882     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   883     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   884 
   885 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886 
   887 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   888 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   889 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   890 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   891 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   892 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   893 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   894 
   895 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   896 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   897 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   898 clasets separately from the context.
   899 
   900 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   901 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   902 
   903 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   904 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   905 
   906 
   907 *** System ***
   908 
   909 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   910 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   911 
   912 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   913 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   914 
   915 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   916 settings variable.
   917 
   918 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   919 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   920 always pdf.
   921 
   922 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   923 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   924 
   925 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   926 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   927 
   928 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   929 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   930 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   931 
   932 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   933 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   934 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   935 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   936 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   937 for HTML presentation of theories.
   938 
   939 
   940 
   941 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   942 -----------------------------------
   943 
   944 *** General ***
   945 
   946 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   947 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   948 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   949 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   950 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   951 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   952 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   953 
   954 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   955 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   956 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   957 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   958 
   959 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   960 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   961 
   962 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   963 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   964 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   965 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   966 dependencies properly.
   967 
   968 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   969 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   970 
   971 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   972 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   973 
   974 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   975 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   976 and "class ... context ...".
   977 
   978 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   979 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   980 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   981 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   982 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   983 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   984 
   985 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   986 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   987 
   988 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   989 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   990 
   991 
   992 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   993 
   994 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   995 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   996 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   997 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   998 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   999 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1000 
  1001 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1002 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1003 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1004 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1005 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1006 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1007 
  1008 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1009 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1010 browser on demand.
  1011 
  1012 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1013 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1014 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1015 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1016 
  1017 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1018 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1019 
  1020 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1021 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1022 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1023 potentially infinite message streams.
  1024 
  1025 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1026 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1027 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1028 schemes.
  1029 
  1030 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1031 symbols.
  1032 
  1033 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1034 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1035 
  1036 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1037 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1038 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1039 
  1040 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1041 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1042 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1043 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1044 
  1045 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1046 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1047 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1048 
  1049 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1050 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1051 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1052 Isabelle distribution.
  1053 
  1054 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1055 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1056 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1057 
  1058 
  1059 *** Pure ***
  1060 
  1061 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1062 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1063 
  1064 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1065 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1066 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1069 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1070 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1071 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1072 with some care where this is really required.
  1073 
  1074 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1075 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1076 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1077 
  1078   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1079 
  1080 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1081 a Hasse diagram.
  1082 
  1083 
  1084 *** HOL ***
  1085 
  1086 * Sledgehammer:
  1087 
  1088   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1089     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1090   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1091   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1092   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1093   - Renamed options:
  1094       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1095       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1096       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1097       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1098 
  1099 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1100 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1101 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1102 
  1103 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Lifting:
  1107   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1108   - quot_del attribute
  1109   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1110 
  1111 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1112 expressions.
  1113 
  1114 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1115 pointfree expressions.
  1116 
  1117 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1118 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1119 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1120 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1124 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1125 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1126 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1127 accordingly.
  1128 
  1129 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1130 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1133 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134 
  1135 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1138 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1139 
  1140 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1141 
  1142 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1143 
  1144   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1145   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1146 
  1147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1150 
  1151   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1152   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1153 
  1154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1157 
  1158   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1159     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1160     output f x converges to G.
  1161 
  1162   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1163     infinity (at_bot).
  1164 
  1165   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1166     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1167 
  1168   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1169     at_top".
  1170 
  1171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1174 lattice type classes.
  1175 
  1176 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1177 
  1178     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1179     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1180 
  1181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1184 changes as follows.
  1185 
  1186   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1187 
  1188       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1189       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1190 
  1191   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1192     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1193     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1194     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1195 
  1196   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1197     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1198     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1199 
  1200   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1201     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1202     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1203     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1204 
  1205   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1206     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1207 
  1208       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1209       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1210       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1211       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1212       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1213       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1214       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1215       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1216       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1217       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1218       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1219       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1220       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1221       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1222       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1223       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1224 
  1225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1226 
  1227 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1228 
  1229 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1230 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1231 
  1232 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1233 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1234 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1235 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1236 
  1237   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1238   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1239   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1240   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1241   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1242   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1243   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1244   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1245   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1246   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1247 
  1248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1249 
  1250 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1251 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1252 Data").
  1253 
  1254 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1255 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1256 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1257 code.
  1258 
  1259 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1260 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1261 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1263 
  1264 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1265 
  1266 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1267 
  1268 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1269 
  1270   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1271   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1272 
  1273 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1274 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1275 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1276 
  1277   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1278 
  1279     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1280     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1281     cart_base i  removed
  1282     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1283 
  1284   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1285 
  1286   Renamed lemmas:
  1287 
  1288     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1289     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1290     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1291     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1292     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1293     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1294     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1295     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1296     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1297     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1298 
  1299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1300 
  1301 * HOL/Probability:
  1302 
  1303   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1304 
  1305   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1306     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1307     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1308 
  1309   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1310     projective family).
  1311 
  1312 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1313 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1314 
  1315 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1316 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1317 datatypes.
  1318 
  1319 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1320 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1321 
  1322 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1323 trees for the code generator.
  1324 
  1325 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1326 Lifting/Transfer.
  1327 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 
  1333 *** Document preparation ***
  1334 
  1335 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1336 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1337 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1338 
  1339 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1340 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1341 
  1342 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1343 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1344 document/root.tex.
  1345 
  1346 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1347 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1348 
  1349 
  1350 *** ML ***
  1351 
  1352 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1353 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1354 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1355 
  1356 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1357 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1358 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1359 
  1360 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1361 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1362 necessarily printing visible text.
  1363 
  1364 
  1365 *** System ***
  1366 
  1367 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1368 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1369 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1370 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1371 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1372 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1373 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1374 
  1375 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1376 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1377 
  1378   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1379 
  1380 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1381 
  1382 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1383 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1384 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1385 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1386 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1387 
  1388 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1389 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1390 
  1391 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1392 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1393 
  1394 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1396 
  1397 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1398 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1399 version of Isabelle.
  1400 
  1401 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1402 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1403 
  1404 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1405 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1406 for home-made settings.
  1407 
  1408 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1409 
  1410 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1411 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1412 configuration.
  1413 
  1414 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1415 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1416 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1417 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1418 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1419 
  1420 
  1421 
  1422 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1423 ------------------------------
  1424 
  1425 *** General ***
  1426 
  1427 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1428 
  1429   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1430     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1431   - markup for bound variables
  1432   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1433   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1434   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1435     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1436 
  1437 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1438 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1439 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1440 
  1441 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1442 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1443 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1444 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1445 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1446 
  1447   context
  1448     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1449     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1450   begin
  1451 
  1452   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1453 
  1454   end
  1455 
  1456   thm my_trans
  1457 
  1458 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1459 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1460 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1461 
  1462 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1463 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1464 
  1465 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1466 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1467 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1468 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1469 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1470 
  1471 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1472 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1473 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1474 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1475 indices of schematic variables.
  1476 
  1477 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1478 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1479 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1480 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1481 etc. was exploited.
  1482 
  1483 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1484 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1485 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1486 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1487 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1488 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1489 
  1490 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1491 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1492 manual.
  1493 
  1494 
  1495 *** Pure ***
  1496 
  1497 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1498 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1499 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1500 
  1501 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1502 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1503 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1504 undocumented feature.)
  1505 
  1506 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1507 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1508 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1509 
  1510   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1511 
  1512   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1513     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1514 
  1515 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1516 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1517 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1518 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1519 
  1520 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1521 
  1522     num ~> num_token
  1523     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1524     xstr ~> str_token
  1525 
  1526 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1527 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1528 position information via constraints).
  1529 
  1530 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1531 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1532 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1533 
  1534 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1535 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1536 
  1537 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1538 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1539 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1540 
  1541 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1542 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1545 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1546 
  1547   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1548 
  1549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1550 
  1551 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1552 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553 
  1554 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1555 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1556 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1557 
  1558 
  1559 *** HOL ***
  1560 
  1561 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1562 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1563 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1564 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1565 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1566 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1567 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1568 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1569 possible.
  1570 
  1571 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1572 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1573 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1574 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1575 
  1576 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1577 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1580 
  1581 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1582 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1583 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1584 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1585 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1586 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1587 
  1588   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1589     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1590 
  1591   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1592     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1593     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1594 
  1595   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1596     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1597 
  1598   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1599     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1600     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1601 
  1602   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1603     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1604 
  1605 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1606 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1607 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1608 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1609 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1610 
  1611   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1612     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1613     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1614     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1615     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1616 
  1617     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1618     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1619 
  1620   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1621     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1622     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1623     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1624     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1625     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1626     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1627     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1628 
  1629   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1630     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1631     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1632     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1633 
  1634   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1635     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1636     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1637     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1638 
  1639   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1640     from type nat to type int.
  1641 
  1642 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1643 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1644 
  1645   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1646     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1647     type.  Example syntax:
  1648 
  1649     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1650       is List.insert
  1651 
  1652     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1653     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1654     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1655     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1656     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1657     by the package.
  1658 
  1659   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1660     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1661     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1662     code generation for each constant.
  1663 
  1664   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1665     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1666     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1667     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1668     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1669 
  1670   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1671     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1672     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1673 
  1674 * Quotient package:
  1675 
  1676   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1677     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1678 
  1679   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1680     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1681 
  1682   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1683     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1684     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1687     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1690 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1691 
  1692 * Quickcheck:
  1693 
  1694   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1695     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1696     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1697     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1698     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1699 
  1700     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1701     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1702     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1703 
  1704     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1705     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1706 
  1707     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1708     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1709     show genuine counterexamples.
  1710 
  1711   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1712     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1713 
  1714     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1715     constructors of that type.
  1716 
  1717   - Support for multisets.
  1718 
  1719   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1720 
  1721   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1722     conjectures in a locale context.
  1723 
  1724 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1725 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1726 
  1727 * Sledgehammer:
  1728   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1729     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1730   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1731   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1732     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1733   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1734   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1735   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1736   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1737 
  1738 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1739 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1740 
  1741 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1742 
  1743 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1746 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1747 
  1748   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1749 
  1750 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1751 a list and a nat.
  1752 
  1753 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1754 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1755 
  1756 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1757 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1758 default.
  1759 
  1760 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1761 
  1762   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1763 
  1764 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1765 
  1766 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1767 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1768 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1769 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1770 one_case.
  1771 
  1772 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1773 the result of the fact expression.
  1774 
  1775 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1776 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1777 of some relation theorems:
  1778 
  1779   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1780   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1781   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1782   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1783   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1784   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1785 
  1786 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1787 
  1788 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1789 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1790 
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1794 to match the constant's name:
  1795 
  1796   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1797   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1798   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1799   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1800   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1801   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1802   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1803   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1804   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1805   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1806   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1807   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1808   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1809   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1810   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1811   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1812   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1813   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1814   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1815   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1816   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1817   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1818   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1819   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1820 
  1821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1822 
  1823 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1824 and corresponding theorem names:
  1825 
  1826   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1827 
  1828   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1829 
  1830   - Renamed theorems:
  1831 
  1832     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1833     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1834     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1835     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1836     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1837     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1838     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1839     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1840     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1841     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1842     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1843     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1844     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1845     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1846     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1847     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1848     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1849     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1850     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1851     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1852     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1853     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1854     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1855 
  1856     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1857 
  1858     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1859 
  1860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1861 
  1862 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1863 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1864 
  1865   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1866   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1867   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1868   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1869   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1870   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1871   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1872   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1873   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1874   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1875   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1876   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1877   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1878   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1879   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1880   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1881   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1882   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1883   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1884   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1885   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1886 
  1887 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1888 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891 
  1892 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1893 
  1894   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1895   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1896   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1897   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1898   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1899   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1900   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1901   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1902   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1903   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1904   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1905   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1906   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1907   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1908   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1909   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1910   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1911   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1912 
  1913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914 
  1915 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1916 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1917 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1918 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1919 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1920 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1921 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1922 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1923 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1924 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1925 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1926 
  1927 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1928 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1929 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1930 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1931 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1932 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1933 
  1934 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1935 through option types.
  1936 
  1937 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1938 relations.
  1939 
  1940 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941 
  1942 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1943 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1944 
  1945   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1946   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1947   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1948   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1949   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1950   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1951   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1952   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1953   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1954   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1955   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1956   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1957   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1958   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1959   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1960   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1961   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1962   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1963   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1964   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1965   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1966   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1967   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1968   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1969   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1970   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1971   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1972   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1973   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1974   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1975   zless_le ~> less_le
  1976   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1977   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1978   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1979 
  1980 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1981 
  1982   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1983 
  1984 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1985 
  1986 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1987 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1988 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1989 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1993 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1994 
  1995 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1996 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1997 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1998 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1999 follows:
  2000 
  2001   Operations:
  2002   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2003   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2004   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2005   del -> rbt_del
  2006   delete -> rbt_delete
  2007   ins -> rbt_ins
  2008   insert -> rbt_insert
  2009   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2010   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2011   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2012   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2013   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2014   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2015   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2016   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2017   union -> rbt_union
  2018   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2019   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2020 
  2021   Lemmas:
  2022   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2023   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2024   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2025   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2026   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2027   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2028   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2029   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2030   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2031   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2032   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2033   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2034   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2035   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2036   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2037   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2038   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2039   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2040   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2041   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2042   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2043   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2044   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2045   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2046   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2047   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2048   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2049   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2050   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2051   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2052   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2053   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2054   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2055   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2056   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2057   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2058   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2059   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2060   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2061   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2062   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2063   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2064   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2065   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2066   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2067   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2068   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2069   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2070   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2071   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2072   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2073   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2074   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2075   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2076   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2077   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2078   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2079   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2080   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2081   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2082   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2083   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2084   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2085   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2086   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2087   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2088   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2089   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2090   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2091   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2092   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2093   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2094   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2095   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2096   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2097   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2098   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2099   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2100   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2101   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2102   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2103   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2104   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2105 
  2106 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2107 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2108 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110   Changed Operations:
  2111   float_abs -> abs
  2112   float_nprt -> nprt
  2113   float_pprt -> pprt
  2114   pow2 -> use powr
  2115   round_down -> float_round_down
  2116   round_up -> float_round_up
  2117   scale -> exponent
  2118 
  2119   Removed Operations:
  2120   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2121 
  2122   Renamed Lemmas:
  2123   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2124   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2125   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2126   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2127   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2128   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2129   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2130   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2131   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2132   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2133   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2134   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2135   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2136   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2137   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2138   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2139   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2140   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2141   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2142   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2143   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2144   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2145   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2146   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2147   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2148   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2149   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2150   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2151   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2152   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2153   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2154   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2155   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2156   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2157   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2158   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2159 
  2160   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2161   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2162   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2163   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2164   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2165   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2166   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2167   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2168   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2169   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2170 
  2171 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2172 association lists with distinct keys.
  2173 
  2174 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2175 annotated commands.
  2176 
  2177 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2178 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2179 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2180 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2181 
  2182 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2183 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2184 instead.
  2185 
  2186   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2187   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2188   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2189   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2190   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2191   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2192   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2193   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2194   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2195   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2196   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2197   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2198   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2199   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2200   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2201   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2202   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2203   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2204   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2205   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2206   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2207   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2208   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2209   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2210   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2211   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2212   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2213   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2214   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2215   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2216   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2217   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2218   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2219   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2220   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2221   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2222   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2223   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2224   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2225   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2226   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2227 
  2228 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2229 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2230 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2231 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2232 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2233 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2234 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2235 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2236 
  2237 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2238 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2239 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2240 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2241 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2242 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2243 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2244 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2245 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2246 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2247 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2248 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250   Renamed constants:
  2251   measure -> emeasure
  2252   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2253   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2254   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2255   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2256 
  2257   Removed locales:
  2258   completeable_measure_space
  2259   finite_measure_space
  2260   finite_prob_space
  2261   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2262   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2263   finite_sigma_algebra
  2264   measure_space
  2265   pair_finite_prob_space
  2266   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2267   pair_finite_space
  2268   pair_sigma_algebra
  2269   product_sigma_algebra
  2270 
  2271   Removed constants:
  2272   conditional_space
  2273   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2274   image_space
  2275   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2276   pair_measure_generator
  2277   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2278   subvimage
  2279 
  2280   Replacement theorems:
  2281   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2282   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2283   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2284   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2285   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2286   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2287   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2288   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2289   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2290   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2291   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2292   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2293   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2294   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2295   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2296   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2297   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2298   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2299   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2300   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2301   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2302   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2303   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2304   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2305   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2306   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2307   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2308   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2309   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2310   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2311   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2312   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2313   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2314   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2315   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2316   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2317   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2318   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2319   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2320   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2321   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2322   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2323   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2324   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2325   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2326   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2327   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2328   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2329   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2330   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2331   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2332   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2333   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2334   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2335   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2336   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2337   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2338   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2339   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2340   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2341   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2342   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2343   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2344   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2345   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2346   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2347   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2348   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2349   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2350   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2351   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2352   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2353   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2354   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2355   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2356   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2357   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2358   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2359   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2360   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2361   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2362   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2363   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2364   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2365   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2366   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2367   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2368   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2369   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2370   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2371   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2372   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2373   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2374   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2375   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2376   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2377   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2378   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2379   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2380   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2381   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2382   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2383   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2384   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2385   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2386   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2387   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2388   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2389   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2390   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2391   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2392   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2393   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2394   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2395   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2396   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2397   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2398   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2399   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2400   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2401   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2402   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2403   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2404   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2405   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2406   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2407   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2408   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2409 
  2410 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2411 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2412 
  2413 
  2414 *** FOL ***
  2415 
  2416 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2417 
  2418 
  2419 *** ZF ***
  2420 
  2421 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2422 analysis.
  2423 
  2424 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2425 
  2426 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 
  2429 *** ML ***
  2430 
  2431 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2432 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2433 
  2434 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2435 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2436 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2437 
  2438 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2439 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2440 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2441 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2442 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2443 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2444 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2445 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2446 
  2447 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2448 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2449 
  2450 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2451 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2452 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2453 
  2454 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2455 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2458 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2459 context as well.
  2460 
  2461 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2462 
  2463   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2464   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2465   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2466   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2467   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2468   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2469   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2470   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2471   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2472   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2473   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2474   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2475 
  2476 
  2477 *** System ***
  2478 
  2479 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2480 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2481 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2482 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2483 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2484 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2485 the generic user home was intended.
  2486 
  2487 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2488 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2489 
  2490 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2491 (not just JRE).
  2492 
  2493 
  2494 
  2495 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2496 ------------------------------------
  2497 
  2498 *** General ***
  2499 
  2500 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2501 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2502 
  2503   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2504     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2505     files for checking).
  2506 
  2507   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2508     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2509     positions.
  2510 
  2511   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2512     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2513     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2514 
  2515   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2516     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2517     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2518 
  2519   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2520     cores.
  2521 
  2522   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2523     versions (garbage collection).
  2524 
  2525 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2526 including some remaining limitations.
  2527 
  2528 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2529 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2530 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2531 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2532 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2536 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2537 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2538 
  2539 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2540 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2541 usedir option -Q.
  2542 
  2543 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2544 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2545 
  2546   long_names   ~> names_long
  2547   short_names  ~> names_short
  2548   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2549 
  2550 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2551 
  2552   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2553 
  2554 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2555 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2556 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2557 
  2558 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2559 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2560 
  2561 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2562   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2563   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2564   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2565     "Classical Reasoner".
  2566 
  2567 
  2568 *** HOL ***
  2569 
  2570 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2571 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2574 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2575 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2576 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2577 class complete_linorder.
  2578 
  2579 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2580 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2581 
  2582 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2583 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2584 
  2585   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2586   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2587   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2588   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2589   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2590   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2591   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2592   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2593   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2594   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2595   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2596 
  2597 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2598 
  2599   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2600   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2601   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2602   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2603   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2604   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2605   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2606   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2607   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2608   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2609   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2610   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2611   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2612   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2613   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2614   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2615 
  2616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2617 
  2618 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2622 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2623 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2624 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2627 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2628 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2632 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2633 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2634 
  2635 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2636 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2637 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2640 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2641 
  2642 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2643 
  2644     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2645     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2646 
  2647 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2648 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2651 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2652 
  2653 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2654 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2655 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2656 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2659   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2660   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2661   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2662   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2663   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2664   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2665 
  2666 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2667 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2670   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2671   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2672   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2673   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2674   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2675   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2676   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2677   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2678   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2679   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2680   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2681   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2682   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2683   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2684   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2685   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2686   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2687   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2688   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2689   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2690   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2691   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2692   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2693   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2694   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2695   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2696   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2697   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2698   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2699   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2700   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2701   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2702   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2703   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2704   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2705   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2706   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2707   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2708   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2709   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2710   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2711   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2712   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2713   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2714   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2715   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2716   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2717   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2718   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2719   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2720   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2721   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2722   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2723   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2724   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2725   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2726   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2727   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2728   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2729   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2730   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2731   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2732   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2733   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2734   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2735   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2736   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2737   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2738   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2739   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2740   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2741   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2742   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2743   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2744   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2745   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2746   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2747   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2748   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2749   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2750   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2751 
  2752 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2753 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2754 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2755 
  2756 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2757 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2758 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2759 
  2760 * Code generation:
  2761 
  2762   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2763     characters in the target language.
  2764 
  2765   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2766     instead.
  2767 
  2768   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2769 
  2770   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2771     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2772 
  2773       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2774 
  2775 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2778 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2779 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2780 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2781 syntax.
  2782 
  2783 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2784 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2785 
  2786 * Nitpick:
  2787   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2788   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2789   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2790     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * Sledgehammer:
  2793   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2794   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2795     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2796   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2797     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2798   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2799     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2801     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2802   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2803     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Metis:
  2806   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2808     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Command 'try':
  2811   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2812     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2813   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2814     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2815 
  2816 * Quickcheck:
  2817   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2818     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2819   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2820     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2821   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2822     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2823     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2824     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2825   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2826     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2827 
  2828 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2829 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2830 
  2831 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2832 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2833 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2834 
  2835 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2836 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2838 
  2839 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2840 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2841 
  2842 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2843 arithmetic.
  2844 
  2845 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2846 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2847 and lattice type classes.
  2848 
  2849 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2850 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2851 
  2852 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2853 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2854 
  2855 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2856 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2857 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858 
  2859   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2860   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2861   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2862   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2863 
  2864 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2865 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2866 constants:
  2867 
  2868   type inat   ~> type enat
  2869   Fin         ~> enat
  2870   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2871   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2872   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2873 
  2874 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2875 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2878 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2879 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2880 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2881 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2882 
  2883 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2884 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2885 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2886 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2887 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2888 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2889 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2890 
  2891   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2892   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2893   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2894   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2895 
  2896 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2897 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2898 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2899 
  2900   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2901   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2902   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2903   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2904   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2905   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2906   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2907   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2908   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2909   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2910   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2911   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2912   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2913   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2914   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2915   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2916   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2917   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2918   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2919   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2920   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2921   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2922   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2923   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2924   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2925   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2926   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2927   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2928   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2929   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2930   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2931   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2932   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2933   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2934   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2935   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2936   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2937   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2938   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2939   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2940   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2941   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2942   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2943   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2944   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2945   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2946   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2947   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2948   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2949   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2950   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2951 
  2952 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2953   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2954   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2955   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2956   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2957     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2958 
  2959 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2962   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2963   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2964   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2965   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2966   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2967   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2968   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2969   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2970   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2971   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2972   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2973   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2974   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2975   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2976   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2977   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2978   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2979   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2980   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2981   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2982   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2983   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2984   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2985   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2986 
  2987 
  2988 *** Document preparation ***
  2989 
  2990 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2991 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2992 same.
  2993 
  2994 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2995 result.
  2996 
  2997 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2998 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2999 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3000 
  3001 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3002 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3003 
  3004 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3005 like this:
  3006 
  3007   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3008   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3009 
  3010 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3011 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3012 layouts.
  3013 
  3014 
  3015 *** ML ***
  3016 
  3017 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3018 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3019 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3020 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3021 under external program control.
  3022 
  3023 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3024 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3025 
  3026 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3027 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3028 (better known as Proof General).
  3029 
  3030 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3031 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3032 
  3033 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3034 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3035 
  3036 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3037 (including quotes etc.).
  3038 
  3039 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3040 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3041 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3042 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3043 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3044 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3045 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3046 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3047 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3048 
  3049 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3050 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3051 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3052 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3053 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3054 
  3055 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3056 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3057 
  3058 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3059 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3060 
  3061 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3062 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3063 
  3064 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3065 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3066 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3067 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3068 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3069 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3070 proper Proof.context.
  3071 
  3072 
  3073 *** System ***
  3074 
  3075 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3076 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3077 
  3078 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3079 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3080 
  3081 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3082 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3083 
  3084   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3085   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3086   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3087   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3088   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3089 
  3090 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3091 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3094 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3095 example:
  3096 
  3097   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3098 
  3099 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3100 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3101 
  3102 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3103 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3104 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3105 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3106 
  3107 
  3108 
  3109 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3110 ----------------------------------
  3111 
  3112 *** General ***
  3113 
  3114 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3115 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3116 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3117 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3118 like this:
  3119 
  3120   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3121 
  3122 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3123 
  3124 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3125 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3126 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3127 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3128 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3129 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3130 
  3131 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3132 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3133 the following package declarations:
  3134 
  3135   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3136   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3137 
  3138 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3139 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3140 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3141 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3142 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3143 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3144 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3145 
  3146 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3147 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3148 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3149 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3150 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3151 
  3152 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3153 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3154 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3155 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3156 
  3157 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3158 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3159 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3160 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3161 
  3162   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3163 
  3164   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3165   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3166   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3167   show_types                    show_types
  3168   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3169   show_consts                   show_consts
  3170   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3171 
  3172   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3173   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3174   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3175 
  3176   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3177   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3178 
  3179   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3180 
  3181   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3182   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3183   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3184   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3185   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3186 
  3187 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3188 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3189 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3190 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3191 
  3192 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3196   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3197 
  3198 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3199 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3200 float_token.
  3201 
  3202 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3203 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3207 DejaVu Sans.
  3208 
  3209 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3210 
  3211 
  3212 *** Pure ***
  3213 
  3214 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3215 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3216 time.
  3217 
  3218 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3219 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3220 
  3221 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3222 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223 
  3224 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3225 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3226 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3227 command already provided this functionality.
  3228 
  3229 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3230 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3231 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3232 without interpretations.
  3233 
  3234 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3235 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3236 
  3237 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3238 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3239 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3240 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3241 
  3242 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3243 'definition' instead.
  3244 
  3245 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3246 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3247 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3248 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3249 
  3250 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3251 constructors.
  3252 
  3253 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3254 the local file system.
  3255 
  3256 
  3257 *** HOL ***
  3258 
  3259 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3260 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3261 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3262 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3263 
  3264   declare [[coercion f]]
  3265 
  3266 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3267 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3268 
  3269   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3270 
  3271 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3272 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3273 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3274 other theories like this:
  3275 
  3276   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3277 
  3278 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3279 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3280 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3281 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3282 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3283 for examples.
  3284 
  3285 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3286 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3289 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3290 
  3291 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3292 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3293 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3294 
  3295 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3296 functorial structure of types.
  3297 
  3298 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3299 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3300 
  3301 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3302 languages.
  3303 
  3304 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3305 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3309 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3312 combinators any longer.
  3313 
  3314 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3315 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3316 
  3317 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3318 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3319 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3320 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3321 
  3322   record 'a foo = ...
  3323   ...
  3324   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3325 
  3326 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3327 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3331 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3332 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3333 
  3334 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3335 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3336 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3337 
  3338 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3339 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3342 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3343 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3344 independently.
  3345 
  3346 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3347 counter example search.
  3348 
  3349 * Sledgehammer:
  3350   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3351     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3352     sledgehammer").
  3353   - Renamed commands:
  3354     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3355     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3356     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3357     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358   - Renamed options:
  3359     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3360     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3361     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3362     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3363     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Nitpick:
  3366   - Renamed options:
  3367     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3368     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3369     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3371   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3372   - Added "whack" option.
  3373   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3374   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3375   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3376   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3377     higher cardinalities.
  3378   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3379 
  3380 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3381 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3382 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3383 
  3384     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3385 
  3386 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3387 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3388 
  3389 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3390 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3391 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3392 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3393 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3394 "smt_solver".
  3395 
  3396 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3397 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3398 
  3399 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3400 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3401 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3402 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3405   - Renamed:
  3406     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3407     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3408     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409   - Added:
  3410     smt_verbose
  3411     smt_random_seed
  3412     smt_datatypes
  3413     smt_infer_triggers
  3414     smt_monomorph_limit
  3415     cvc3_options
  3416     remote_cvc3_options
  3417     remote_z3_options
  3418     yices_options
  3419 
  3420 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3421 header.
  3422 
  3423 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3424 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3425 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3426 
  3427   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3428 
  3429 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3432 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3437 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3440 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3441 
  3442 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3443 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3446 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3447 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3455 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3458 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3459 for congruent(2)).
  3460 
  3461 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3462 
  3463   types
  3464     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3465     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3466 
  3467   constants
  3468     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3469     True ~> HOL.True
  3470     False ~> HOL.False
  3471     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3472     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3473     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3474     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3475     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3476     The ~> HOL.The
  3477     All ~> HOL.All
  3478     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3479     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3480     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3481     If ~> HOL.If
  3482     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3483     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3484     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3485     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3486     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3487     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3488     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3489     op : ~> Set.member
  3490     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3491 
  3492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3495 
  3496     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3497     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3498     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3499     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3500     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3501     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3502     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3503     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3504 
  3505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * More stylized fact names:
  3508 
  3509   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3510   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3511   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3512   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3513 
  3514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3517 
  3518   constants
  3519     null ~> List.null
  3520 
  3521   facts
  3522     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3523     null_empty ~> null_def
  3524 
  3525 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3526 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3527 generation.
  3528 
  3529 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3530 Haskell code.
  3531 
  3532 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3533 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3534 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535 
  3536 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3537 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3540 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3541 
  3542 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3543 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3544 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3547 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3553 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3554 referred to by its qualified name.
  3555 
  3556   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3557   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3558   product ~>  Enum.product
  3559 
  3560 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3561 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3565 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3566 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3570 sort_key.
  3571 
  3572 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3576 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3577 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3578 
  3579   types
  3580     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3581               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3582               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3583         (depends on your needs)
  3584 
  3585   constants
  3586      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3587      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3588      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3589 
  3590 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3591 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3592 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3593 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3596 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3597 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3598 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3599 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3605 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3606 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3607 
  3608 
  3609 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3610 
  3611 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3612 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3613 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3614 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3615 compatibility.
  3616 
  3617 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3618 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3619 
  3620 
  3621 *** HOLCF ***
  3622 
  3623 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3624 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3625 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3627 
  3628 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3629 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3630 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3633   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3634   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3635 
  3636 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3637 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3638 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3641 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3642 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3643 domain definition now works:
  3644 
  3645   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3646 
  3647 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3648 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3649 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3650 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3651 
  3652   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3653     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3654 
  3655   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3656 
  3657 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3658 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3659 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3662 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3665 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3666 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3667 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3668 
  3669 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3670 
  3671 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3674 
  3675 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3679 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3680 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3681 
  3682 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3683 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3684 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3685 
  3686 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3687 still supported as an input translation.
  3688 
  3689 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3690 
  3691   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3692   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3693   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3694   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3695   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3696   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3697   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3698 
  3699 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3700 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3703   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3704   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3705   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3706   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3707   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3708 
  3709 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3710 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3713 
  3714   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3715   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3716   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3717   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3718 
  3719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3722 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3725 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726 
  3727   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3728   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3729   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3730   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3731   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3732   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3733   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3734   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3735   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3736   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3737   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3738   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3739   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3740   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3741   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3742   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3743   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3744   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3745   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3746   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3747 
  3748 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3749 
  3750   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3751   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3752   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3753   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3754   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3755   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3756   box_less             ~> box_below
  3757   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3758   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3759   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3760   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3761   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3762   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3763   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3764   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3765   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3766   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3767   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3768   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3769   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3770   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3771   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3772   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3773   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3774   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3775   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3776   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3777   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3778   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3779   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3780   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3781   up_less              ~> up_below
  3782   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3783   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3784   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3785   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3786   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3787   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3788   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3789   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3790   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3791   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3792   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3793   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3794   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3795 
  3796 
  3797 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3798 
  3799 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3800 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 
  3803 *** ML ***
  3804 
  3805 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3806 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3807 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3808 
  3809 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3810 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3811 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3812 
  3813 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3814 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3815 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3816 
  3817 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3818 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3819 
  3820 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3821 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3822 
  3823 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3824 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3825 
  3826 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3827 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3828 
  3829 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3830 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3831 almost all situations.
  3832 
  3833 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3834 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3835 Isabelle/ML.
  3836 
  3837 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3838 meaning.
  3839 
  3840 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3841 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3842 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3843 
  3844 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3845 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3846 
  3847 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3848 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3849 
  3850 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3851 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3852 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3853 
  3854 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3855 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3856 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3857 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3858 configuration options.
  3859 
  3860 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3861 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3862 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3863 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3864 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3865 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3866 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3867 
  3868 
  3869 
  3870 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3871 ---------------------------------
  3872 
  3873 *** General ***
  3874 
  3875 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3876 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3877 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3878 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3879 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3880 their full internal name.
  3881 
  3882 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3883 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3884 Some hints on upgrading:
  3885 
  3886   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3887     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3888     which are independent of this issue.
  3889 
  3890   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3891     provides the following special forms:
  3892 
  3893       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3894       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3895       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3896 
  3897     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3898     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3899     extra variables".
  3900 
  3901     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3902     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3903     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3904     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3905     "logic".
  3906 
  3907   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3908     antiquotations:
  3909 
  3910       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3911       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3912       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3913       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3914 
  3915   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3916     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3917     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3918     antiquotations.
  3919 
  3920 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3921 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3922 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3923 diagnose syntax problems.
  3924 
  3925 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3926 
  3927 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3928 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3929 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3930 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3931 
  3932 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3933 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3934 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3935 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3938 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3939 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3940 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3941 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3944 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3945 
  3946 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3947 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3948 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3949 
  3950   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3951 
  3952 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3953 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3954 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3955 
  3956 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3957 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3961 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3962 
  3963 
  3964 *** Pure ***
  3965 
  3966 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3967 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3968 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3969 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3970 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3971 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3972 inspect proof terms.
  3973 
  3974 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3975 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3976 are added internally.  For example:
  3977 
  3978   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3979 
  3980 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3981 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3982 
  3983 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3986 'class' instead.
  3987 
  3988 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3989 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3993 invariants.
  3994 
  3995 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3996 user space functionality any longer.
  3997 
  3998 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3999 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4003 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4004 
  4005 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4006 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4007 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4008 
  4009 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4010 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4011 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4012 
  4013 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4014 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 
  4017 *** HOL ***
  4018 
  4019 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4020 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4021 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4022 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4023 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4024 
  4025 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4026 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4027 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4028 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4029 
  4030   fun
  4031     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4032   where
  4033     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4034 
  4035   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4036     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4037 
  4038   quotient_definition
  4039     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4040 
  4041 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4042 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4043 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4044 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4045 
  4046 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4047 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4048 
  4049 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4050 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4051 
  4052 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4056 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4057 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4058 
  4059 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4060 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4067 
  4068 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4069 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4072 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4073 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4076   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4077   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4078   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4079   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4080   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4081   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4082   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4083   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4084   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4085   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4086   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4087   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4088   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4089   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4090   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4091   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4092   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4093   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4094   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4095   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4096   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4097   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4098   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4099   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4100   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4101   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4102   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4103   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4104   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4105 
  4106 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4107 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4108 
  4109 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4110 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4111 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4112 
  4113 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4114 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4115 
  4116 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4117 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4118 
  4119 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4120 
  4121 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4122 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4125 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4130 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4131 
  4132 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4133 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4134 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4135 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4138   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4139   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4140   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4144 lattices):
  4145 
  4146     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4147     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4148 
  4149     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4150 
  4151     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4152     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4153     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4154     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4155     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4156     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4157     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4158     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4159     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4160     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4161     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4162     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4163     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4164 
  4165     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4166     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4167     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4168     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4169     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4170     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4171     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4172     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4173     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4174     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4175     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4176     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4177     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4178     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4179     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4180     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4181     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4182     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4183 
  4184   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4185   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4186 
  4187     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4188     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4189     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4190     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4191     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4192 
  4193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195 * Refined field classes:
  4196   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4197     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4198     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4199   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4203   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4204   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4205   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4206     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4207   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4208     equal_neg_zero.
  4209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4212 sets to lattices:
  4213 
  4214   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4215   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4216   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4217   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4218   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4219   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4220   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4221   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4222   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4223   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4224 
  4225 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4226 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4227 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4228 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4229 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4230 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4233 multiset order:
  4234 
  4235   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4236     <= and <;
  4237   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4238     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4239     multiset_order;
  4240   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4241     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4242     generation;
  4243   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4244     if needed.
  4245 
  4246 Renamed:
  4247 
  4248   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4249   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4250   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4251 
  4252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4253 
  4254 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4255 
  4256 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4257 
  4258 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4259 
  4260 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4261 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4262 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4263 
  4264   Constants:
  4265   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4266   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4267   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4268   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4269   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4270   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4271   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4272   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4273   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4274   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4275   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4276   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4277   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4278 
  4279   Lemmas:
  4280   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4281   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4282   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4283   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4284   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4285   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4286   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4287   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4288   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4289   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4290   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4291   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4292   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4293 
  4294 * Sledgehammer:
  4295   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4296     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4297     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4298     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4299     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4300     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4301     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4303   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4304     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4305   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4306     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4307     is still experimental.)
  4308   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4309     full-typed mode.
  4310   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4311 
  4312 * Nitpick:
  4313   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4314   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4315   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4316     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4317   - Added support for quotient types.
  4318   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4319     constructs.
  4320   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4321     "termination" proofs).
  4322   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4323   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4324   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4325   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4326     record getters.
  4327   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4328   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4329   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4330   - Added "atoms" option.
  4331   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4332     problems.
  4333   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4334     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4335     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4337     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4339 
  4340 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4341   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4342   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4343   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4344   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4345   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4346   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4347   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4348   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4349   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 
  4352 *** HOLCF ***
  4353 
  4354 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4355 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4356 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357 
  4358 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4359 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4360 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4361 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4364 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4365 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4366 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4367 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4370 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4371 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4374 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4377   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4378 
  4379 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4380 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4383   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4384   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4385   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4386   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4387 
  4388 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4389 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4392   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4393   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4394 
  4395 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4396 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4398 
  4399 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4400 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4405 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 
  4408 *** ML ***
  4409 
  4410 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4411 
  4412     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4413     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4414 
  4415     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4416     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4417     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4418     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4419 
  4420     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4421     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4422     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4423 
  4424 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4425 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4426 
  4427 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4428 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4429 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4430 
  4431 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4432 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4433 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4434 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4435 
  4436 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4437 the context or even global references.
  4438 
  4439 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4440 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4441 
  4442 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4443 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4444 
  4445   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4446   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4447   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4448   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4449   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4450   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4451   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4452   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4453   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4454   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4455 
  4456 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4457 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4458 
  4459 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4460 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4461 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4462 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4463 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4464 
  4465 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4466 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4467 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4468 Theory_Data version.
  4469 
  4470 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4471 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4472 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4473 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4474 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4475 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4476 explicitly in rare situations.
  4477 
  4478 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4479 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4481 
  4482 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4483 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4486 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4487 quite rare).
  4488 
  4489 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4490 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4491 
  4492 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4493 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4494 terms.
  4495 
  4496 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4497 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4498 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4499 
  4500 
  4501 *** System ***
  4502 
  4503 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4504 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4505 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4506 
  4507 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4508 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4509 respectively.
  4510 
  4511 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4512 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4513 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4514 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4515 
  4516   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4517 
  4518 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4519 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4520 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4521 component.
  4522 
  4523 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4524 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4525 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4526 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4527 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4528 the user for manual installation.
  4529 
  4530 
  4531 
  4532 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4533 -------------------------------------
  4534 
  4535 *** General ***
  4536 
  4537 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4538 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4539 
  4540 
  4541 *** Pure ***
  4542 
  4543 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4544 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4545 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4546 
  4547 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4548 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4549 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4550 
  4551 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4552 interpretation.
  4553 
  4554 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4555 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 
  4558 *** Document preparation ***
  4559 
  4560 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4561 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4562 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4563 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4564 
  4565 
  4566 *** HOL ***
  4567 
  4568 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4569 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4570 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4571 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4572 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4573 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4574 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4575 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4576 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4577 
  4578 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4579 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4580 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4581 
  4582 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4583 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4584 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4585 
  4586 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4587 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4588 
  4589 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4590 
  4591 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4592 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4593 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4594 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4595 
  4596 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4597 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4598 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4599 "mirabelle" utility.
  4600 
  4601 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4602 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4603 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4604 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4605 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4606 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4607 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4608 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4609 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4610 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4611 
  4612 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4613 procedure only.
  4614 
  4615 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4616 
  4617 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4618 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4619 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4620 that fail later.
  4621 
  4622 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4623 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4624 
  4625 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4626 the same method as the approximation method.
  4627 
  4628 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4629 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4630 series expansion.
  4631 
  4632 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4633 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4634 
  4635 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4636 reals.
  4637 
  4638 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4639 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4640 
  4641 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4642 fixpoint theorem.
  4643 
  4644 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4645   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4646     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4647   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4648     accordingly
  4649   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4650     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4651   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4652     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4653 
  4654 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4655 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4656 lattice.
  4657 
  4658 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4659 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4660 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4661 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4662 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4663 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4665 
  4666 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4667   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4668     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4669   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4670     le_inf_iff
  4671   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4672     sup_aci)
  4673   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4674   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4675   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4676     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4677     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4678     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4679     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4680     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4681     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4682     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4683     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4684     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4685     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4686   - authentic syntax for
  4687     Set.Pow
  4688     Set.image
  4689   - mere abbreviations:
  4690     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4691     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4692     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4693     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4694     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4695     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4696     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4697     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4698   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4699 
  4700 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4701 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4702 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4703 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4704 
  4705 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4706 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4707 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4710 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4713 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4714 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4715 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4718 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4719 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4720 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4721 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4722 
  4723 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4724 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4728 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4731 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4732 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4733 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4734 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4735 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4736 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738 
  4739 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4740     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4741     code_post       replaces    code post
  4742     etc.
  4743   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4744 
  4745 * Renamed methods:
  4746     sizechange -> size_change
  4747     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4748   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4749 
  4750 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4751 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4752 
  4753 * Renamed theorems:
  4754     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4755     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4756     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4757     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4758     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4759   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4760 
  4761 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4766 
  4767 
  4768 *** HOLCF ***
  4769 
  4770 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4771 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4772 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4773 
  4774 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4775 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4776 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4777 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4778 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4779 
  4780 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4781 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4782 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4783 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4784 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4785 
  4786 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4787 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4788 constructor are pre-configured.
  4789 
  4790 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4791 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4792 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4793 
  4794 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4795 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4796 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4797 as well.)
  4798 
  4799 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4800 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4801 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4802 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4803 examples.
  4804 
  4805 
  4806 *** ML ***
  4807 
  4808 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4809 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4810 
  4811 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4812 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4813 position, logical grouping etc.
  4814 
  4815 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4816 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4817 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4818 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4819 
  4820 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4821 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4822 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4823 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4824 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4825 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4826 
  4827 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4828 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4829 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4830 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4831 experiments with references.
  4832 
  4833 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4834 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4835 
  4836 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4837 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4838 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4839 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4840 
  4841 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4842 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4843 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4844 
  4845 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4846 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4847 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4855 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4856 
  4857 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4858 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4859 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4860 
  4861 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4862 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4863 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4864 
  4865 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4866 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4867 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4869 
  4870 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4871 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4872 instead of global theory.
  4873 
  4874 
  4875 *** System ***
  4876 
  4877 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4878 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4879 usedir option -q.
  4880 
  4881 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4882 also the system manual.
  4883 
  4884 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4885 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4886 
  4887 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4888 this is always enabled.
  4889 
  4890 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4891 
  4892 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4893 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4894 currently supported on Linux only.
  4895 
  4896 
  4897 
  4898 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4899 --------------------------------
  4900 
  4901 *** General ***
  4902 
  4903 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4904 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4905 
  4906   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4907     "isatool."
  4908 
  4909   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4910     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4911 
  4912   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4913     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4914 
  4915 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4916 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4917 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4918 
  4919 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4920 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4921 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4922 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4923 via "isabelle emacs".
  4924 
  4925 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4926 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4927 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4928 
  4929 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4930 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4931 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4932 
  4933 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4934 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4935 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4936 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4937 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4938 
  4939 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4940 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4941 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4942 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4943 
  4944 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4945 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4946 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4947 
  4948 
  4949 *** Pure ***
  4950 
  4951 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4952 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4953 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4954 
  4955 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4956 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4957 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4958 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4959 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4960 
  4961 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4962 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4963 useful in locale declarations.
  4964 
  4965 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4966 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4967 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4968 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4969 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4970 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4971 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4972 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4973 no longer generated.
  4974 
  4975 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4976 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4977 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4978 
  4979 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4980 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4981 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4982 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4983 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4984 
  4985 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4986 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4987 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4988 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4989 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4990 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4991 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4992 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4993 
  4994 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4995 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4996 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4997 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4998 
  4999 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5000 
  5001 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5002 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5003 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5004 
  5005 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5006 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5007 
  5008 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5009 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5010 in HOL, write
  5011 
  5012     class foo = ...
  5013 
  5014 instead of
  5015 
  5016     class foo = type + ...
  5017 
  5018 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5019 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5020 
  5021 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5022 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5023 
  5024 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5025 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5026 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5027 
  5028 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5029 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5030 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5031 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5032 directly in regular applications.
  5033 
  5034 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5035 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5036 
  5037 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5038 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5039 
  5040 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5041 theory context.
  5042 
  5043 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5044 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5045 
  5046 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5047 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5048 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5049 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5050 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5051 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5052 
  5053   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5054 
  5055 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5056 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5057 normalization.
  5058 
  5059 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5060 addressing etc.
  5061 
  5062 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5063 
  5064   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5065   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5066 
  5067 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5068 
  5069   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5070      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5071      parts of the code generator framework).
  5072 
  5073   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5074      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5075      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5076 
  5077 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 
  5079 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5080 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5081 
  5082 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5083 patterns, e.g.
  5084 
  5085     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5086 
  5087 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5088 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5089 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5090 hyphen:
  5091 
  5092     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5093 
  5094 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5095 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5096 
  5097 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5098 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5099 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5100 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5101 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5102 higher-order unification.
  5103 
  5104 
  5105 *** Document preparation ***
  5106 
  5107 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5108 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5109 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5110 
  5111 
  5112 *** HOL ***
  5113 
  5114 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5115 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5116 
  5117 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5118 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5119 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5120 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5121 Main, as before.
  5122 
  5123 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5124 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5125 
  5126 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5127 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5128 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5129 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5130 
  5131 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5132 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5133 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5134 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5135 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5136 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5137 
  5138 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5139 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5140 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5141 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5142 
  5143 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5144 menu.
  5145 
  5146 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5147 (contains the empty clause).
  5148 
  5149 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5150 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5151 
  5152 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5153 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5154 
  5155 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5156 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5157 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5158 
  5159 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5160 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5161 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5162 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5163 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5164 
  5165 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5166 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5167 
  5168 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5169 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5170 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5171 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5172 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5173 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5174 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5175 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5176 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5177 
  5178 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5179 
  5180 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5181 
  5182 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5183 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5186 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5187 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5188 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5189 
  5190 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5191 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5192 
  5193     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5194     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5195     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5196     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5197     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5198     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5199     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5200     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5201 
  5202 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5203 theory Set.
  5204 
  5205 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5206 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5207 
  5208 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5209 
  5210 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5211 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5212 
  5213 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5214 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5215 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5216 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5217 allowed. For examples see
  5218 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5219 
  5220 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5221 
  5222 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5224 
  5225 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5226 structure:
  5227 
  5228     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5229     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5230     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5231     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5232     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5233     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5234     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5235     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5236     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5237     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5238     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5239     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5240     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5241     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5242     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5243     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5244     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5245     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5246     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5247     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5248     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5249     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5250     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5251     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5252     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5253     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5254     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5255     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5256     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5257     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5258     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5259     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5260     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5261 
  5262     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5263     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5264     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5265     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5266     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5267     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5268     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5269     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5270     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5271     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5272 
  5273     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5274     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5275     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5276     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5277     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5278     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5279 
  5280 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5281 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5282 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5283 
  5284 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5285 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5286 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5287 
  5288 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5289 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5290 
  5291 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5292 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5293 
  5294 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5295 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5296 proofs, e.g.
  5297 
  5298   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5299 
  5300 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5301 
  5302 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5303 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5304 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5305 
  5306 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5307 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5311 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5312 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5317 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5318 preorder_class.*.
  5319 
  5320 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5321 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5322 
  5323 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5324 
  5325   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5326 
  5327 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5328 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5329 fold_image.
  5330 
  5331 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5332 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5333 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5334 the former will disappear at some point.
  5335 
  5336 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5337 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5338 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5339 
  5340 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5341 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5342 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5343 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5344 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5345 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5346 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5347 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5348 
  5349 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5350 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5351 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5352 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5353 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5354 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5355 
  5356     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5357     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5358     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5359     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5360     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5361     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5362     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5363 
  5364 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5365 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5366 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5367 
  5368 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5369 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5370 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5371 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5372 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5373 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5374 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5375 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5376 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5377 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5378 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5379 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5380 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5381 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5382 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5383 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5384 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5385 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5386 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5387 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5388 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5389 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5390 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5391 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5392 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5393 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5394 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5395 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5396 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5397 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5398 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5399 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5400 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5401 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5402 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5403 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5404 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5405 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5406 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5407 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5408 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5409 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5410 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5411 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5412 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5413 
  5414 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5415 
  5416 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5417 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5418 
  5419 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5420 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5421 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5422 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5423 
  5424 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5425 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5426 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5427 theory RealVector.
  5428 
  5429 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5430 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5431 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5432 and inner products are included.
  5433 
  5434 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5435 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5436 supported.
  5437 
  5438 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5439 first diagonalization argument.
  5440 
  5441 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5442 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5443 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5444 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5445 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5446 
  5447     hide (open) const gcd
  5448     abbreviation gcd where
  5449       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5450     notation (output)
  5451       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5452 
  5453 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5454 
  5455 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5456 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5457 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5458 
  5459 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5460 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5461 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5462 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5463 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5464 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5465 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5466 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5467 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5468 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5469 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5470 cases.
  5471 
  5472 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5473 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5474 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5475 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5476 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5477 
  5478     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5479     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5480     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5481     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5482     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5483 
  5484 
  5485 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5486 
  5487 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5488 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5489 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5490 
  5491 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5492 
  5493 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5494 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5495 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5496 
  5497 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5498 
  5499 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5500 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5501 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5502 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5503 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5504 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5505 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5506 
  5507 
  5508 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5509 
  5510 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5511 
  5512 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5513 theory targets.
  5514 
  5515 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5516 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5517 'inductive' etc.
  5518 
  5519 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5520 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5521 
  5522 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5523 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5524 
  5525 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5526 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5527 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5528 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5529 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5530 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5531 the algorithm W:
  5532 
  5533  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5534  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5535          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5536 
  5537 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5538 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5539 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5540 
  5541 
  5542 *** HOLCF ***
  5543 
  5544 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5545 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5546 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5547 
  5548 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5549 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5550 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5551 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5552 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5553 
  5554 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5555 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5556 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 
  5559 *** ZF ***
  5560 
  5561 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5562 
  5563 
  5564 *** ML ***
  5565 
  5566 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5567 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5568 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5569 5.2.1!
  5570 
  5571 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5572 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5573 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5574 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5575 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5576 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5577 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5578 
  5579 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5580 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5581 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5582 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5583 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5584 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5585 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5586 
  5587 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5588 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5589 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5590 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5591 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5592 
  5593 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5594 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5595 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5596 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5597 Method.add_method.
  5598 
  5599 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5600 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5601 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5602 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5603 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5604 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5605 
  5606 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5607 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5608 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5609 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5610 examples.
  5611 
  5612 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5613 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5614 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5615 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5616 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5617 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5618 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5619 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5620 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5621 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5622 
  5623 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5624 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5625 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5626 
  5627 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5628 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5629 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5630 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5631 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5632 resort for legacy applications.
  5633 
  5634 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5635 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5636 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5637 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5638 explicit runtime argument.
  5639 
  5640 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5641 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5642 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5643 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5644 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5647 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5648 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5649 theory state.
  5650 
  5651 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5652 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5653 
  5654   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5655   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5656   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5657   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5658   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5659   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5660   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5661   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5662   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5663   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5664 
  5665 
  5666 *** System ***
  5667 
  5668 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5669 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5670 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5671 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5672 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5673 
  5674 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5675 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5676 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5677 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5678 
  5679 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5680 
  5681 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5682 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5683 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5684 prover operations.
  5685 
  5686 
  5687 
  5688 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5689 -------------------------------
  5690 
  5691 *** General ***
  5692 
  5693 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5694 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5695 
  5696 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5697 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5698 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5699 provides a proper context already.
  5700 
  5701 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5702 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5703 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5704 
  5705 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5706 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5707 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5708 swap theory imports.
  5709 
  5710 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5711 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5712 
  5713 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5714 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5715 white space without escapes.
  5716 
  5717 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5718 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5719 "foo_bar".
  5720 
  5721 
  5722 *** Pure ***
  5723 
  5724 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5725 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5726 
  5727 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5728 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5729 
  5730 (1) unused_thms
  5731      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5732 
  5733 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5734      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5735      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5736 
  5737 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5738      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5739      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5740      their ancestors.
  5741 
  5742 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5743 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5744 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5745 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5746 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5747 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5748 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5749 
  5750 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5751 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5752 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5753 
  5754 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5755 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5756 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5757 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5758 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5759 
  5760 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5761 
  5762 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5763 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5764 update of theories within ML code.
  5765 
  5766 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5767 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5768 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5769 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5770 
  5771 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5772 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5773 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5777 
  5778 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5779 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5780 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5781 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5782 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5783 
  5784 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5785 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5786 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5787 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5788 situations.
  5789 
  5790 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5791 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5792 proof text.
  5793 
  5794 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5795 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5796 
  5797 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5798 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5799 predicates.
  5800 
  5801 
  5802 *** Document preparation ***
  5803 
  5804 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5805 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5806 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5807 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5808 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5809 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5810 
  5811 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5812 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5813 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5814 
  5815 
  5816 *** HOL ***
  5817 
  5818 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5819 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5820 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5821 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5822 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5823 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5824 
  5825 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5826 with multithreading.
  5827 
  5828 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5829 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5830 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5831 
  5832 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5833 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5834 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5835 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5836 
  5837 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5838 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5839 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5840 and makes them available separately.  See
  5841 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5842 
  5843 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5844 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5845 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5846 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5847 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5848 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5849 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5850 the declared rules.
  5851 
  5852 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5853 
  5854   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5855 
  5856 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5857 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5858 
  5859 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5860 
  5861   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5862 
  5863   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5864     definitions on => and bool.
  5865 
  5866   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5867     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5868     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5869 
  5870       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5871       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5872       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5873       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5874       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5875       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5876       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5877       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5878 
  5879   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5880     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5881     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5882 
  5883   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5884     The proof pattern
  5885 
  5886       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5887       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5888 
  5889     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5890     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5891 
  5892       have "EX S. P S"
  5893       proof
  5894         show "P S" <...>
  5895       qed
  5896 
  5897   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5898     The proof pattern
  5899 
  5900       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5901       also have "S = T" <...>
  5902       finally have "P T" .
  5903 
  5904     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5905     must be replaced by something like
  5906 
  5907       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5908       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5909       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5910 
  5911   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5912     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5913 
  5914       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5915 
  5916     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5917     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5918     type of the form
  5919 
  5920       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5921 
  5922     rather than
  5923 
  5924       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5925 
  5926 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5927 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5928 
  5929 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5930 
  5931 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5932 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5934 
  5935 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5936 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5937 
  5938 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5939 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5942 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5943 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5944 
  5945 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5946 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5947 
  5948   less_trans
  5949   less_linear
  5950   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5951   le_less_trans
  5952   less_le_trans
  5953   less_not_sym
  5954   less_asym
  5955 
  5956 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5957 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5958 and different variable names.
  5959 
  5960 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5961 
  5962 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5963 finite maps.
  5964 
  5965 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5966 
  5967 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5968 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5969 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5970 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5971 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5972 accordingly.
  5973 
  5974 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5975 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5976 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5977 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5978 
  5979 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5980 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5981 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5982 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5983 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5985 
  5986 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5987 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5988 
  5989 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5990 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5991 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5992 
  5993 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5995 
  5996 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5997 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5998 
  5999 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6000 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6003 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6004 
  6005 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6006 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6008 
  6009 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6010 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6011 
  6012 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6013 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6014 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6015 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6016 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6017 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6018 
  6019 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6020 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6021 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6022 
  6023 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6024 
  6025 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6026 
  6027 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6028 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6029 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6030 
  6031 
  6032 *** ZF ***
  6033 
  6034 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6035 same session:
  6036 
  6037   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6038   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6039   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6040   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6041   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6042   List      -> List_ZF
  6043   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6044 
  6045 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6046 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6047 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6048 
  6049 
  6050 *** ML ***
  6051 
  6052 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6053 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6054 
  6055 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6056 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6057 
  6058 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6059 
  6060 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6061 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6062 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6063 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6064 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6065 
  6066 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6067 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6068 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6069 
  6070 
  6071 *** System ***
  6072 
  6073 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6074 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6075 
  6076 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6077 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6078 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6079 
  6080 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6081 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6082 
  6083 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6084 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6085 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6086 
  6087 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6088 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6089 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6090 
  6091 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6092 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6093 
  6094 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6095 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6096 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6097 script.
  6098 
  6099 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6100 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6101 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6102 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6103 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6104 
  6105 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6106 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6107 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6108 
  6109 
  6110 
  6111 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6112 -----------------------------------
  6113 
  6114 *** General ***
  6115 
  6116 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6117 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6118 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6119 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6120 
  6121 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6122 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6123 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6124 
  6125 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6126 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6127 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6128 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6129 
  6130 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6131 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6132 quotes.
  6133 
  6134 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6135 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6136 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6137 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6138 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6139 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6140 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6141 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6142 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6143 
  6144 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6145 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6146 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6147 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6148 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6149 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6150 
  6151 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6152 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6153 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6154 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6155 
  6156 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6157 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6158 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6159 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6160 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6161 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6162 
  6163 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6164 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6165 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6166 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6167 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6168 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6169 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6170 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6171 
  6172 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6173 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6174 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6175 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6176 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6177 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6178 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6179 
  6180 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6181 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6182 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6183 
  6184 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6185 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6186 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6187 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6188 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6189 limit is imposed.
  6190 
  6191 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6192 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6193 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6194 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6195 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6196 and scalability.
  6197 
  6198 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6199 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6200 
  6201 
  6202 *** Document preparation ***
  6203 
  6204 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6205 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6206 current context.
  6207 
  6208 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6209 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6210 
  6211 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6212 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6213 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6214 
  6215 
  6216 *** Pure ***
  6217 
  6218 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6219 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6220 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6221 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6222 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6223 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6224 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6225 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6226 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6227 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6228 
  6229 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6230 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6231 sketch:
  6232 
  6233     internal compilation:
  6234         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6235     writing SML code to a file:
  6236         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6237     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6238         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6239     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6240         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6241 
  6242     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6243         method ``eval''
  6244 
  6245 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6246 
  6247 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6248 
  6249     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6250     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6251     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6252     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6253 
  6254 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6255 
  6256     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6257       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6258 
  6259     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6260       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6261 
  6262     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6263       {(target)}+
  6264         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6265 
  6266     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6267       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6268         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?