NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Apr 19 15:02:13 2012 +0200 (2012-04-19)
changeset 47585 6eb3b3ae4ccb
parent 47567 407cabf66f21
child 47617 f5eaa7fa8d72
permissions -rw-r--r--
more robust Sledgehammer in Prover IDE;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    12     command line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    13   - markup for bound variables
    14   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    15   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    16   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    17     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    18 
    19 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    20 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    21 
    22 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    23 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    24 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    25 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    26 etc. was exploited.
    27 
    28 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    29 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    30 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    31 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    32 indices of schematic variables.
    33 
    34 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    35 
    36     num ~> num_token
    37     xnum ~> xnum_token
    38     xstr ~> str_token
    39 
    40 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    41 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    42 position information via constraints).
    43 
    44 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    45 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    46 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    47 
    48 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    49 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    50 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Pure ***
    54 
    55 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    56 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    57 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    58 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    59 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    60 
    61   context
    62     fixes x y z :: 'a
    63     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    64   begin
    65 
    66   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    67 
    68   end
    69 
    70   thm my_trans
    71 
    72 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    73 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    74 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    75 
    76 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    77 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    78 
    79 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    80 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    81 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    82 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    83 
    84 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    85 manual.
    86 
    87 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    88 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    89 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    90 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    91 
    92 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    93 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    94 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    95 
    96 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    97 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    98 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    99 undocumented feature.)
   100 
   101 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   102 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   103 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   104 
   105 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   106 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   109 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   110 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   113 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   116 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   117 
   118   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   119 
   120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   123 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   124 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   127 
   128   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   129     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   130 
   131 
   132 *** HOL ***
   133 
   134 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   135 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   136 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   137 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   138 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   141 
   142 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   143 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   144 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   145 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   146 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   147 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   148 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   149 as far as possible.
   150 
   151 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   152 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   153 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   154 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   155 
   156 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   157 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   158 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   159 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   160 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   161 may require adaptations as follows:
   162 
   163   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   164     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   165 
   166   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   167     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   168     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   169 
   170   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   171     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   172 
   173   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   174     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   175     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   176 
   177   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   178     Redefine using other integer operations.
   179 
   180 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   181 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   184 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   185 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   189 
   190 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   191 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   192 of some relation theorems:
   193 
   194   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   195   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   196   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   197   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   198   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   199   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   200 
   201 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   202 
   203 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   204 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   205 
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   209 to match the constant's name:
   210 
   211   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   212   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   213   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   214   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   215   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   217   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   219   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   220   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   221   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   222   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   223   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   224   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   225   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   226   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   227   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   228   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   229   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   230   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   231   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   232   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   233   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   234   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   235 
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   239 and corresponding theorem names:
   240 
   241   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   242 
   243   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   244 
   245   - Renamed theorems:
   246 
   247     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   248     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   249     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   250     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   251     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   252     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   253     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   254     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   255     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   256     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   257     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   258     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   259     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   260     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   261     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   262     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   263     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   264     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   265     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   266     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   267     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   268     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   269     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   270 
   271     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   272 
   273     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   279 
   280   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   281   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   282   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   283   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   284   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   285   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   286   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   287   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   288   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   289   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   290   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   291   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   292   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   293   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   294   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   295   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   296   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   297   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   298   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   299   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   300   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   301 
   302 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   303 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   308 
   309   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   310   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   311   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   312   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   313   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   314   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   315   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   316   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   317   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   318   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   319   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   320   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   321   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   322   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   323   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   324   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   325   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   326   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   327 
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   331 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   332 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   333 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   334 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   335 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   336 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   338 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   339 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   340 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   341 
   342 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   343 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   344 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   345 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   346 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   347 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   348 
   349 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   350 through option types.
   351 
   352 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   353 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   355 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   356 one_case.
   357 
   358 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   359 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   360 
   361 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   362 association lists with distinct keys.
   363 
   364 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   365 
   366 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   367 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   368 
   369 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   370 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   371 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   372 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   373 follows:
   374 
   375   Operations:
   376   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   377   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   378   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   379   del -> rbt_del
   380   delete -> rbt_delete
   381   ins -> rbt_ins
   382   insert -> rbt_insert
   383   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   384   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   385   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   386   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   387   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   388   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   389   tree_less -> rbt_less
   390   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   391   union -> rbt_union
   392   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   393   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   394 
   395   Lemmas:
   396   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   397   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   398   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   399   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   400   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   401   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   402   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   403   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   404   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   405   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   406   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   407   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   408   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   409   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   410   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   411   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   412   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   413   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   414   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   415   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   416   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   417   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   418   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   419   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   420   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   421   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   422   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   423   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   424   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   425   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   426   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   427   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   428   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   429   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   430   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   431   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   432   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   433   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   434   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   435   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   436   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   437   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   438   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   439   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   440   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   441   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   442   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   443   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   444   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   445   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   446   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   447   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   448   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   449   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   450   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   451   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   452   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   453   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   454   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   455   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   456   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   457   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   458   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   459   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   460   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   461   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   462   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   463   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   464   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   465   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   466   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   467   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   468   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   469   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   470   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   471   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   472   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   473   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   474   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   475   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   476   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   477   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   478   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   479 
   480 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   481 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   482 instead.
   483 
   484   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   485   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   486   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   487   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   488   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   489   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   490   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   491   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   492   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   493   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   494   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   495   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   496   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   497   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   498   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   499   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   500   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   501   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   502   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   503   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   504   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   505   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   506   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   507   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   508   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   509   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   510   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   511   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   512   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   513   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   514   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   515   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   516   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   517   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   518   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   519   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   520   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   521   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   522   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   523   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   524   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   525 
   526 * New tactic "word_bitwise" for splitting machine word equalities and
   527 inequalities into logical circuits. Requires theory "WordBitwise" from HOL-Word
   528 session. Supports addition, subtraction, multiplication, shifting by
   529 constants, bitwise operators and numeric constants. Requires fixed-length word
   530 types, cannot operate on 'a word. Solves many standard word identies outright
   531 and converts more into first order problems amenable to blast or similar. See
   532 HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy and examples in HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   533 
   534 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   535 the result of the fact expression.
   536 
   537 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   538 relations.
   539 
   540 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   541 
   542 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   543 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   544 
   545   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   546   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   547   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   548   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   549   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   550   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   551   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   552   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   553   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   554   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   555   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   556   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   557   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   558   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   559   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   560   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   561   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   562   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   563   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   564   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   565   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   566   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   567   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   568   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   569   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   570   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   571   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   572   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   573   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   574   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   575   zless_le ~> less_le
   576   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   577   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   578   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   579 
   580 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   581 
   582   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   583 
   584 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   585 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   586 
   587   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   588 
   589 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   590 a list and a nat.
   591 
   592 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   593 
   594 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   595 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   596 
   597 * Quickcheck:
   598 
   599   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   600     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   601     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   602     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   603     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   604 
   605     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   606     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   607     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   608 
   609     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   610     continues searching for genuine ones.
   611 
   612     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   613     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   614     show genuine counterexamples.
   615 
   616   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   617     value generators for a given type and operations.
   618 
   619     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   620     constructors of that type.
   621 
   622   - Support for multisets.
   623 
   624   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   625 
   626   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   627     conjectures in a locale context.
   628 
   629 * Nitpick:
   630   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   631     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   632 
   633 * Sledgehammer:
   634   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012 paper "More
   635     SPASS with Isabelle".
   636   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   637   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and TFF1),
   638     iProver, iProver-Eq.
   639   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   640   - Sped up the minimizer.
   641   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   642   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   643   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   644 
   645 * Metis:
   646   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   647     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   648 
   649 * SMT:
   650   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   651 
   652 * Command 'try0':
   653   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   656 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   657 
   658 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   659 into Isabelle/HOL.
   660 
   661 
   662 *** FOL ***
   663 
   664 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   665 
   666 
   667 *** ZF ***
   668 
   669 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   670 analysis.
   671 
   672 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   673 
   674 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675 
   676 
   677 *** ML ***
   678 
   679 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   680 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   681 
   682 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   683 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   684 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   685 
   686 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   687 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   688 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   689 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   690 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   691 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   693 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   694 
   695 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   696 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   697 
   698 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   699 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   700 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   701 
   702 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   703 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   706 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   707 context as well.
   708 
   709 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   710 
   711   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   712   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   713   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   714   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   715   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   716   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   717   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   718   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   719   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   720   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   721   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   722   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   723 
   724 
   725 *** System ***
   726 
   727 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
   728 (not just JRE).
   729 
   730 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
   731 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
   732 
   733 
   734 
   735 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   736 ------------------------------------
   737 
   738 *** General ***
   739 
   740 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   741 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   742 
   743   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   744     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   745     files for checking).
   746 
   747   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   748     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   749     positions.
   750 
   751   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   752     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   753     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   754 
   755   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   756     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   757     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   758 
   759   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   760     cores.
   761 
   762   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   763     versions (garbage collection).
   764 
   765 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   766 including some remaining limitations.
   767 
   768 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   769 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   770 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   771 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   772 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   776 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   777 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   778 
   779 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   780 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   781 usedir option -Q.
   782 
   783 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   784 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   785 
   786   long_names   ~> names_long
   787   short_names  ~> names_short
   788   unique_names ~> names_unique
   789 
   790 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   791 
   792   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   793 
   794 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   795 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   796 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   797 
   798 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   799 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   800 
   801 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   802   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   803   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   804   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   805     "Classical Reasoner".
   806 
   807 
   808 *** HOL ***
   809 
   810 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   811 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   814 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   815 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   816 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   817 class complete_linorder.
   818 
   819 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   820 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   821 
   822 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   823 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   824 
   825   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   826   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   827   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   828   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   829   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   830   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   831   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   832   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   833   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   834   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   835   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   836 
   837 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   838 
   839   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   840   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   841   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   842   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   843   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   844   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   845   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   846   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   847   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   848   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   849   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   850   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   851   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   852   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   853   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   854   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   855 
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   862 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   863 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   864 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   867 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   868 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   872 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   873 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   874 
   875 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   876 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   877 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   880 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   881 
   882 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   883 
   884     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   885     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   886 
   887 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   888 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   891 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   894 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   895 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   896 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   897 
   898   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   899   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   900   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   901   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   902   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   903   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   904   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   905 
   906 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   907 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   908 
   909   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   910   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   911   real_less_def ~> less_le
   912   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   913   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   914   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   915   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   916   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   917   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   918   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   919   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   920   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   921   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   922   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   923   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   924   real_le_linear ~> linear
   925   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   926   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   927   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   928   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   929   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   930   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   931   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   932   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   933   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   934   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   935   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   936   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   937   expi_add ~> exp_add
   938   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   939   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   940   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   941   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   942   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   943   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   944   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   945   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   946   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   947   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   948   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   949   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   950   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   951   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   952   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   953   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   954   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   955   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   956   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   957   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   958   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   959   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   960   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   961   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   962   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   963   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   964   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   965   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   966   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   967   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   968   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   969   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   970   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   971   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   972   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   973   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   974   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   975   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   976   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   977   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   978   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   979   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   980   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   981   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   982   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   983   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   984   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   985   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   986   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   987   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   988   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   989   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   990   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   991 
   992 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   993 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   994 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   995 
   996 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   997 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   998 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   999 
  1000 * Code generation:
  1001 
  1002   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1003     characters in the target language.
  1004 
  1005   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1006     instead.
  1007 
  1008   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1009 
  1010   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1011     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1012 
  1013       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1014 
  1015 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1018 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1019 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1020 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1021 syntax.
  1022 
  1023 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1024 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1025 
  1026 * Nitpick:
  1027   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1028   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1029   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1030     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * Sledgehammer:
  1033   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1034   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1035     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1036   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1037     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1038   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1039     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1041     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1042   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1043     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Metis:
  1046   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1047   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1048     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1049 
  1050 * Command 'try':
  1051   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1052     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1054     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1055 
  1056 * Quickcheck:
  1057   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1058     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1059   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1060     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1061   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1062     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1063     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1064     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1065   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1066     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1067 
  1068 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1069 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1070 
  1071 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1072 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1073 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1074 
  1075 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1076 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1078 
  1079 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1080 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1083 arithmetic.
  1084 
  1085 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1086 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1087 and lattice type classes.
  1088 
  1089 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1090 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1091 
  1092 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1093 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1094 
  1095 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1096 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1097 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1100   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1101   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1102   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1103 
  1104 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1105 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1106 constants:
  1107 
  1108   type inat   ~> type enat
  1109   Fin         ~> enat
  1110   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1111   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1112   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1113 
  1114 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1115 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1118 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1119 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1120 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1121 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1122 
  1123 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1124 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1125 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1126 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1127 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1128 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1129 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1130 
  1131   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1132   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1133   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1134   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1135 
  1136 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1137 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1138 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1141   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1142   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1143   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1144   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1145   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1146   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1147   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1148   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1149   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1150   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1151   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1152   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1153   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1154   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1155   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1156   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1157   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1158   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1159   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1160   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1161   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1162   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1163   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1164   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1165   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1166   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1167   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1168   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1169   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1170   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1171   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1172   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1173   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1174   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1175   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1176   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1177   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1178   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1179   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1180   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1181   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1182   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1183   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1184   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1185   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1186   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1187   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1188   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1189   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1190   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1191 
  1192 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1193   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1194   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1195   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1196   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1197     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1200 
  1201   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1202   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1203   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1204   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1205   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1206   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1207   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1208   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1209   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1210   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1211   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1212   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1213   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1214   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1215   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1216   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1217   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1218   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1219   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1220   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1221   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1222   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1223   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1224   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1225   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1226 
  1227 
  1228 *** Document preparation ***
  1229 
  1230 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1231 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1232 same.
  1233 
  1234 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1235 result.
  1236 
  1237 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1238 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1239 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1240 
  1241 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1242 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1243 
  1244 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1245 like this:
  1246 
  1247   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1248   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1249 
  1250 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1251 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1252 layouts.
  1253 
  1254 
  1255 *** ML ***
  1256 
  1257 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1258 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1259 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1260 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1261 under external program control.
  1262 
  1263 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1264 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1265 
  1266 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1267 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1268 (better known as Proof General).
  1269 
  1270 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1271 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1272 
  1273 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1274 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1275 
  1276 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1277 (including quotes etc.).
  1278 
  1279 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1280 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1281 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1282 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1283 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1284 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1285 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1286 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1287 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1288 
  1289 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1290 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1291 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1292 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1293 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1294 
  1295 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1296 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1297 
  1298 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1299 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1300 
  1301 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1302 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1303 
  1304 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1305 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1306 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1307 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1308 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1309 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1310 proper Proof.context.
  1311 
  1312 
  1313 *** System ***
  1314 
  1315 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1316 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1317 
  1318 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1319 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1320 
  1321 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1322 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1323 
  1324   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1325   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1326   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1327   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1328   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1329 
  1330 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1331 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1332 
  1333 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1334 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1335 example:
  1336 
  1337   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1338 
  1339 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1340 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1341 
  1342 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1343 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1344 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1345 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1346 
  1347 
  1348 
  1349 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1350 ----------------------------------
  1351 
  1352 *** General ***
  1353 
  1354 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1355 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1356 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1357 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1358 like this:
  1359 
  1360   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1361 
  1362 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1363 
  1364 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1365 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1366 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1367 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1368 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1369 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1370 
  1371 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1372 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1373 the following package declarations:
  1374 
  1375   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1376   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1377 
  1378 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1379 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1380 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1381 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1382 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1383 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1384 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1385 
  1386 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1387 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1388 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1389 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1390 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1391 
  1392 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1393 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1394 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1395 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1396 
  1397 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1398 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1399 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1400 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1401 
  1402   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1403 
  1404   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1405   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1406   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1407   show_types                    show_types
  1408   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1409   show_consts                   show_consts
  1410   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1411 
  1412   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1413   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1414   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1415 
  1416   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1417   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1418 
  1419   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1420 
  1421   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1422   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1423   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1424   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1425   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1426 
  1427 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1428 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1429 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1430 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1431 
  1432 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1436   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1437 
  1438 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1439 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1440 float_token.
  1441 
  1442 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1443 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1445 
  1446 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1447 DejaVu Sans.
  1448 
  1449 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1450 
  1451 
  1452 *** Pure ***
  1453 
  1454 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1455 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1456 time.
  1457 
  1458 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1459 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1462 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1465 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1466 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1467 command already provided this functionality.
  1468 
  1469 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1470 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1471 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1472 without interpretations.
  1473 
  1474 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1475 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1476 
  1477 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1478 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1479 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1480 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1481 
  1482 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1483 'definition' instead.
  1484 
  1485 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1486 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1487 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1488 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1489 
  1490 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1491 constructors.
  1492 
  1493 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1494 the local file system.
  1495 
  1496 
  1497 *** HOL ***
  1498 
  1499 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1500 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1501 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1502 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1503 
  1504   declare [[coercion f]]
  1505 
  1506 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1507 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1508 
  1509   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1510 
  1511 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1512 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1513 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1514 other theories like this:
  1515 
  1516   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1517 
  1518 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1519 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1520 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1521 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1522 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1523 for examples.
  1524 
  1525 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1526 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1527 
  1528 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1529 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1530 
  1531 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1532 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1533 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1534 
  1535 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1536 functorial structure of types.
  1537 
  1538 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1539 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1540 
  1541 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1542 languages.
  1543 
  1544 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1545 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1549 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1550 
  1551 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1552 combinators any longer.
  1553 
  1554 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1555 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1556 
  1557 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1558 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1559 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1560 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1561 
  1562   record 'a foo = ...
  1563   ...
  1564   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1565 
  1566 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1567 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1571 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1572 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1573 
  1574 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1575 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1576 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1577 
  1578 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1579 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1582 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1583 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1584 independently.
  1585 
  1586 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1587 counter example search.
  1588 
  1589 * Sledgehammer:
  1590   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1591     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1592     sledgehammer").
  1593   - Renamed commands:
  1594     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1595     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1596     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1597     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598   - Renamed options:
  1599     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1600     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1601     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1602     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1603     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1604 
  1605 * Nitpick:
  1606   - Renamed options:
  1607     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1608     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1609     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1610   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1611   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1612   - Added "whack" option.
  1613   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1614   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1615   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1616   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1617     higher cardinalities.
  1618   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1619 
  1620 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1621 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1622 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1623 
  1624     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1625 
  1626 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1627 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1628 
  1629 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1630 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1631 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1632 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1633 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1634 "smt_solver".
  1635 
  1636 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1637 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1638 
  1639 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1640 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1641 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1642 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1645   - Renamed:
  1646     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1647     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1648     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1649   - Added:
  1650     smt_verbose
  1651     smt_random_seed
  1652     smt_datatypes
  1653     smt_infer_triggers
  1654     smt_monomorph_limit
  1655     cvc3_options
  1656     remote_cvc3_options
  1657     remote_z3_options
  1658     yices_options
  1659 
  1660 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1661 header.
  1662 
  1663 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1664 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1665 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1666 
  1667   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1668 
  1669 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1672 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1675 
  1676 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1677 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1678 
  1679 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1680 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1681 
  1682 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1683 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1686 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1687 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1690 
  1691 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1695 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1696 
  1697 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1698 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1699 for congruent(2)).
  1700 
  1701 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1702 
  1703   types
  1704     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1705     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1706 
  1707   constants
  1708     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1709     True ~> HOL.True
  1710     False ~> HOL.False
  1711     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1712     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1713     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1714     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1715     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1716     The ~> HOL.The
  1717     All ~> HOL.All
  1718     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1719     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1720     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1721     If ~> HOL.If
  1722     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1723     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1724     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1725     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1726     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1727     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1728     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1729     op : ~> Set.member
  1730     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1731 
  1732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1733 
  1734 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1735 
  1736     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1737     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1738     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1739     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1740     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1741     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1742     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1743     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1744 
  1745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * More stylized fact names:
  1748 
  1749   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1750   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1751   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1752   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1753 
  1754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1755 
  1756 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1757 
  1758   constants
  1759     null ~> List.null
  1760 
  1761   facts
  1762     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1763     null_empty ~> null_def
  1764 
  1765 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1766 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1767 generation.
  1768 
  1769 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1770 Haskell code.
  1771 
  1772 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1773 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1774 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1777 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1780 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1781 
  1782 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1783 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1784 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1785 
  1786 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1787 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1791 
  1792 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1793 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1794 referred to by its qualified name.
  1795 
  1796   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1797   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1798   product ~>  Enum.product
  1799 
  1800 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1801 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1803 
  1804 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1805 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1806 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1808 
  1809 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1810 sort_key.
  1811 
  1812 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1814 
  1815 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1816 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1817 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1818 
  1819   types
  1820     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1821               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1822               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1823         (depends on your needs)
  1824 
  1825   constants
  1826      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1827      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1828      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1829 
  1830 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1831 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1832 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1833 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1836 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1837 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1838 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1839 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1845 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1846 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1847 
  1848 
  1849 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1850 
  1851 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1852 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1853 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1854 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1855 compatibility.
  1856 
  1857 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1858 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1859 
  1860 
  1861 *** HOLCF ***
  1862 
  1863 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1864 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1865 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1867 
  1868 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1869 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1870 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1873   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1874   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1875 
  1876 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1877 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1878 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1879 
  1880 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1881 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1882 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1883 domain definition now works:
  1884 
  1885   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1886 
  1887 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1888 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1889 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1890 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1891 
  1892   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1893     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1894 
  1895   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1896 
  1897 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1898 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1899 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1902 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1905 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1906 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1907 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1908 
  1909 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1910 
  1911 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914 
  1915 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1919 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1920 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1921 
  1922 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1923 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1924 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1927 still supported as an input translation.
  1928 
  1929 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1930 
  1931   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1932   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1933   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1934   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1935   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1936   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1937   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1938 
  1939 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1940 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941 
  1942   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1943   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1944   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1945   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1946   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1947   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1948 
  1949 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1950 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1951 
  1952 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1953 
  1954   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1955   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1956   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1957   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1958 
  1959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1960 
  1961 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1962 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1965 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1966 
  1967   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1968   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1969   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1970   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1971   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1972   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1973   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1974   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1975   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1976   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1977   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1978   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1979   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1980   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1981   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1982   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1983   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1984   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1985   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1986   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1987 
  1988 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1991   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1992   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1993   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1994   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1995   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1996   box_less             ~> box_below
  1997   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1998   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1999   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2000   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2001   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2002   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2003   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2004   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2005   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2006   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2007   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2008   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2009   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2010   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2011   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2012   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2013   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2014   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2015   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2016   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2017   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2018   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2019   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2020   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2021   up_less              ~> up_below
  2022   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2023   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2024   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2025   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2026   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2027   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2028   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2029   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2030   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2031   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2032   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2033   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2034   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2035 
  2036 
  2037 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2038 
  2039 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2040 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 
  2043 *** ML ***
  2044 
  2045 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2046 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2047 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2048 
  2049 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2050 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2051 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2052 
  2053 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2054 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2055 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2056 
  2057 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2058 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2059 
  2060 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2061 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2062 
  2063 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2064 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2065 
  2066 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2067 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2068 
  2069 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2070 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2071 almost all situations.
  2072 
  2073 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2074 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2075 Isabelle/ML.
  2076 
  2077 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2078 meaning.
  2079 
  2080 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2081 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2082 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2083 
  2084 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2085 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2086 
  2087 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2088 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2089 
  2090 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2091 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2092 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2093 
  2094 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2095 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2096 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2097 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2098 configuration options.
  2099 
  2100 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2101 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2102 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2103 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2104 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2105 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2106 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2107 
  2108 
  2109 
  2110 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2111 ---------------------------------
  2112 
  2113 *** General ***
  2114 
  2115 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2116 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2117 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2118 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2119 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2120 their full internal name.
  2121 
  2122 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2123 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2124 Some hints on upgrading:
  2125 
  2126   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2127     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2128     which are independent of this issue.
  2129 
  2130   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2131     provides the following special forms:
  2132 
  2133       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2134       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2135       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2136 
  2137     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2138     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2139     extra variables".
  2140 
  2141     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2142     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2143     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2144     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2145     "logic".
  2146 
  2147   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2148     antiquotations:
  2149 
  2150       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2151       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2152       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2153       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2154 
  2155   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2156     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2157     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2158     antiquotations.
  2159 
  2160 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2161 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2162 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2163 diagnose syntax problems.
  2164 
  2165 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2166 
  2167 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2168 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2169 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2170 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2171 
  2172 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2173 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2174 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2175 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2178 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2179 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2180 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2181 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2184 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2185 
  2186 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2187 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2188 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2189 
  2190   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2191 
  2192 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2193 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2194 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2195 
  2196 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2197 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2199 
  2200 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2201 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2202 
  2203 
  2204 *** Pure ***
  2205 
  2206 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2207 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2208 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2209 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2210 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2211 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2212 inspect proof terms.
  2213 
  2214 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2215 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2216 are added internally.  For example:
  2217 
  2218   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2219 
  2220 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2221 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2226 'class' instead.
  2227 
  2228 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2229 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2233 invariants.
  2234 
  2235 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2236 user space functionality any longer.
  2237 
  2238 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2239 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2243 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2244 
  2245 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2246 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2247 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2248 
  2249 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2250 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2251 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2252 
  2253 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2254 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 
  2257 *** HOL ***
  2258 
  2259 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2260 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2261 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2262 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2263 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2264 
  2265 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2266 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2267 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2268 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2269 
  2270   fun
  2271     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2272   where
  2273     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2274 
  2275   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2276     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2277 
  2278   quotient_definition
  2279     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2280 
  2281 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2282 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2283 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2284 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2285 
  2286 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2287 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2288 
  2289 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2290 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2291 
  2292 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2296 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2297 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2298 
  2299 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2300 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2304 
  2305 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2307 
  2308 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2309 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2310 
  2311 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2312 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2313 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2316   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2317   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2318   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2319   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2320   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2321   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2322   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2323   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2324   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2325   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2326   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2327   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2328   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2329   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2330   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2331   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2332   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2333   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2334   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2335   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2336   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2337   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2338   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2339   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2340   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2341   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2342   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2343   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2344   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2345 
  2346 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2347 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2348 
  2349 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2350 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2351 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2352 
  2353 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2354 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2355 
  2356 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2357 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2360 
  2361 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2362 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363 
  2364 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2365 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2368 
  2369 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2370 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2371 
  2372 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2373 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2374 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2375 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2378   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2379   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2380   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2384 lattices):
  2385 
  2386     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2387     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2388 
  2389     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2390 
  2391     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2392     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2393     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2394     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2395     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2396     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2397     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2398     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2399     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2400     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2401     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2402     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2403     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2404 
  2405     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2406     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2407     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2408     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2409     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2410     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2411     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2412     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2413     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2414     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2415     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2416     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2417     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2418     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2419     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2420     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2421     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2422     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2423 
  2424   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2425   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2426 
  2427     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2428     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2429     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2430     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2431     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2432 
  2433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * Refined field classes:
  2436   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2437     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2438     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2439   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2443   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2444   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2445   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2446     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2447   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2448     equal_neg_zero.
  2449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2452 sets to lattices:
  2453 
  2454   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2455   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2456   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2457   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2458   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2459   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2460   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2461   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2462   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2463   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2464 
  2465 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2466 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2467 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2468 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2469 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2470 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2471 
  2472 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2473 multiset order:
  2474 
  2475   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2476     <= and <;
  2477   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2478     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2479     multiset_order;
  2480   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2481     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2482     generation;
  2483   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2484     if needed.
  2485 
  2486 Renamed:
  2487 
  2488   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2489   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2490   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2491 
  2492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2495 
  2496 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2497 
  2498 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2499 
  2500 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2501 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2502 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504   Constants:
  2505   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2506   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2507   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2508   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2509   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2510   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2511   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2512   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2513   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2514   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2515   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2516   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2517   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2518 
  2519   Lemmas:
  2520   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2521   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2522   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2523   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2524   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2525   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2526   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2527   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2528   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2529   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2530   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2531   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2532   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2533 
  2534 * Sledgehammer:
  2535   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2536     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2537     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2538     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2539     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2540     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2541     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2542   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2543   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2544     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2545   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2546     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2547     is still experimental.)
  2548   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2549     full-typed mode.
  2550   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2551 
  2552 * Nitpick:
  2553   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2554   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2555   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2556     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2557   - Added support for quotient types.
  2558   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2559     constructs.
  2560   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2561     "termination" proofs).
  2562   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2563   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2564   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2565   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2566     record getters.
  2567   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2568   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2569   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2570   - Added "atoms" option.
  2571   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2572     problems.
  2573   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2574     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2575     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2577     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2581   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2582   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2583   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2584   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2585   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2586   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2587   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2588   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2589   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2590 
  2591 
  2592 *** HOLCF ***
  2593 
  2594 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2595 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2596 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2599 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2600 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2601 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2602 
  2603 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2604 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2605 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2606 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2607 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2610 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2611 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2614 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2617   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2618 
  2619 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2620 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2623   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2624   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2625   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2626   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2627 
  2628 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2629 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2632   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2633   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2634 
  2635 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2636 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2640 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2645 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2646 
  2647 
  2648 *** ML ***
  2649 
  2650 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2651 
  2652     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2653     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2654 
  2655     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2656     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2657     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2658     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2659 
  2660     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2661     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2662     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2663 
  2664 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2665 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2666 
  2667 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2668 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2669 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2670 
  2671 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2672 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2673 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2674 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2675 
  2676 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2677 the context or even global references.
  2678 
  2679 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2680 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2681 
  2682 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2683 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2684 
  2685   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2686   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2687   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2688   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2689   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2690   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2691   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2692   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2693   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2694   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2695 
  2696 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2697 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2698 
  2699 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2700 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2701 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2702 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2703 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2704 
  2705 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2706 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2707 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2708 Theory_Data version.
  2709 
  2710 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2711 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2712 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2713 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2714 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2715 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2716 explicitly in rare situations.
  2717 
  2718 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2719 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2723 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2726 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2727 quite rare).
  2728 
  2729 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2730 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2733 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2734 terms.
  2735 
  2736 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2737 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2738 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2739 
  2740 
  2741 *** System ***
  2742 
  2743 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2744 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2745 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2746 
  2747 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2748 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2749 respectively.
  2750 
  2751 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2752 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2753 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2754 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2755 
  2756   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2757 
  2758 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2759 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2760 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2761 component.
  2762 
  2763 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2764 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2765 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2766 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2767 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2768 the user for manual installation.
  2769 
  2770 
  2771 
  2772 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2773 -------------------------------------
  2774 
  2775 *** General ***
  2776 
  2777 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2778 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2779 
  2780 
  2781 *** Pure ***
  2782 
  2783 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2784 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2785 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2786 
  2787 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2788 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2789 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2790 
  2791 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2792 interpretation.
  2793 
  2794 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2795 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 
  2798 *** Document preparation ***
  2799 
  2800 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2801 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2802 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2803 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2804 
  2805 
  2806 *** HOL ***
  2807 
  2808 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2809 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2810 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2811 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2812 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2813 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2814 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2815 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2816 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2817 
  2818 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2819 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2820 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2821 
  2822 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2823 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2824 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2825 
  2826 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2827 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2828 
  2829 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2830 
  2831 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2832 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2833 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2834 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2835 
  2836 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2837 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2838 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2839 "mirabelle" utility.
  2840 
  2841 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2842 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2843 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2844 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2845 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2846 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2847 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2848 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2849 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2850 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2851 
  2852 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2853 procedure only.
  2854 
  2855 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2856 
  2857 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2858 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2859 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2860 that fail later.
  2861 
  2862 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2863 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2864 
  2865 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2866 the same method as the approximation method.
  2867 
  2868 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2869 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2870 series expansion.
  2871 
  2872 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2873 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2874 
  2875 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2876 reals.
  2877 
  2878 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2879 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2880 
  2881 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2882 fixpoint theorem.
  2883 
  2884 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2885   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2886     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2887   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2888     accordingly
  2889   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2890     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2891   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2892     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2893 
  2894 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2895 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2896 lattice.
  2897 
  2898 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2899 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2900 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2901 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2902 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2903 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905 
  2906 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2907   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2908     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2909   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2910     le_inf_iff
  2911   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2912     sup_aci)
  2913   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2914   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2915   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2916     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2917     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2918     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2919     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2920     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2921     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2922     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2923     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2924     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2925     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2926   - authentic syntax for
  2927     Set.Pow
  2928     Set.image
  2929   - mere abbreviations:
  2930     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2931     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2932     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2933     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2934     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2935     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2936     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2937     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2938   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2939 
  2940 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2941 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2942 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2943 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2944 
  2945 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2946 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2947 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2948 
  2949 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2950 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2953 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2954 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2955 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2958 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2959 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2960 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2961 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2962 
  2963 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2964 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2968 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2971 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2972 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2973 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2974 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2975 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2976 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978 
  2979 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2980     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2981     code_post       replaces    code post
  2982     etc.
  2983   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Renamed methods:
  2986     sizechange -> size_change
  2987     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2988   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2991 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2992 
  2993 * Renamed theorems:
  2994     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2995     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2996     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2997     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2998     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2999   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000 
  3001 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 
  3008 *** HOLCF ***
  3009 
  3010 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3011 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3012 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3013 
  3014 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3015 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3016 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3017 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3018 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3019 
  3020 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3021 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3022 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3023 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3024 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3025 
  3026 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3027 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3028 constructor are pre-configured.
  3029 
  3030 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3031 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3032 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3033 
  3034 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3035 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3036 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3037 as well.)
  3038 
  3039 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3040 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3041 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3042 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3043 examples.
  3044 
  3045 
  3046 *** ML ***
  3047 
  3048 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3049 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3050 
  3051 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3052 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3053 position, logical grouping etc.
  3054 
  3055 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3056 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3057 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3058 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3059 
  3060 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3061 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3062 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3063 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3064 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3065 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3066 
  3067 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3068 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3069 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3070 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3071 experiments with references.
  3072 
  3073 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3074 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3075 
  3076 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3077 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3078 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3079 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3080 
  3081 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3082 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3083 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3084 
  3085 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3086 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3087 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3095 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3096 
  3097 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3098 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3099 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3100 
  3101 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3102 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3103 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3106 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3107 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3111 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3112 instead of global theory.
  3113 
  3114 
  3115 *** System ***
  3116 
  3117 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3118 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3119 usedir option -q.
  3120 
  3121 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3122 also the system manual.
  3123 
  3124 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3125 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3126 
  3127 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3128 this is always enabled.
  3129 
  3130 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3131 
  3132 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3133 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3134 currently supported on Linux only.
  3135 
  3136 
  3137 
  3138 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3139 --------------------------------
  3140 
  3141 *** General ***
  3142 
  3143 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3144 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3145 
  3146   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3147     "isatool."
  3148 
  3149   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3150     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3151 
  3152   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3153     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3154 
  3155 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3156 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3157 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3158 
  3159 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3160 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3161 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3162 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3163 via "isabelle emacs".
  3164 
  3165 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3166 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3167 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3168 
  3169 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3170 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3171 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3172 
  3173 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3174 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3175 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3176 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3177 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3178 
  3179 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3180 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3181 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3182 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3183 
  3184 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3185 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3186 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3187 
  3188 
  3189 *** Pure ***
  3190 
  3191 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3192 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3193 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3194 
  3195 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3196 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3197 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3198 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3199 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3200 
  3201 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3202 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3203 useful in locale declarations.
  3204 
  3205 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3206 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3207 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3208 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3209 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3210 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3211 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3212 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3213 no longer generated.
  3214 
  3215 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3216 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3217 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3218 
  3219 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3220 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3221 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3222 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3223 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3224 
  3225 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3227 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3228 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3229 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3230 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3231 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3232 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3233 
  3234 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3235 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3236 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3237 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3238 
  3239 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3240 
  3241 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3243 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3244 
  3245 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3246 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3249 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3250 in HOL, write
  3251 
  3252     class foo = ...
  3253 
  3254 instead of
  3255 
  3256     class foo = type + ...
  3257 
  3258 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3259 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3262 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3263 
  3264 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3265 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3266 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3267 
  3268 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3269 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3270 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3271 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3272 directly in regular applications.
  3273 
  3274 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3275 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3276 
  3277 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3278 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3279 
  3280 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3281 theory context.
  3282 
  3283 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3284 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3287 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3288 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3289 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3290 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3291 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3292 
  3293   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3294 
  3295 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3296 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3297 normalization.
  3298 
  3299 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3300 addressing etc.
  3301 
  3302 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3303 
  3304   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3305   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3306 
  3307 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3308 
  3309   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3310      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3311      parts of the code generator framework).
  3312 
  3313   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3314      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3315      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3316 
  3317 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3320 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3323 patterns, e.g.
  3324 
  3325     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3326 
  3327 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3328 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3329 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3330 hyphen:
  3331 
  3332     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3333 
  3334 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3335 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3336 
  3337 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3338 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3339 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3340 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3341 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3342 higher-order unification.
  3343 
  3344 
  3345 *** Document preparation ***
  3346 
  3347 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3348 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3349 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3350 
  3351 
  3352 *** HOL ***
  3353 
  3354 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3355 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3356 
  3357 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3358 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3359 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3360 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3361 Main, as before.
  3362 
  3363 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3364 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3365 
  3366 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3367 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3368 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3369 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3370 
  3371 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3372 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3373 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3374 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3375 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3376 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3377 
  3378 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3379 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3380 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3381 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3382 
  3383 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3384 menu.
  3385 
  3386 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3387 (contains the empty clause).
  3388 
  3389 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3390 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3391 
  3392 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3393 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3394 
  3395 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3396 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3397 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3400 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3401 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3402 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3403 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3404 
  3405 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3406 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3407 
  3408 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3409 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3410 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3411 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3412 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3413 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3414 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3415 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3416 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3417 
  3418 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3419 
  3420 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3421 
  3422 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3423 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3426 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3427 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3428 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3429 
  3430 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3431 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3432 
  3433     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3434     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3435     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3436     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3437     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3438     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3439     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3440     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3441 
  3442 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3443 theory Set.
  3444 
  3445 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3446 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3447 
  3448 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3449 
  3450 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3451 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3452 
  3453 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3454 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3455 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3456 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3457 allowed. For examples see
  3458 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3459 
  3460 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3461 
  3462 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3466 structure:
  3467 
  3468     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3469     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3470     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3471     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3472     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3473     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3474     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3475     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3476     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3477     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3478     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3479     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3480     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3481     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3482     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3483     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3484     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3485     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3486     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3487     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3488     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3489     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3490     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3491     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3492     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3493     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3494     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3495     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3496     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3497     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3498     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3499     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3500     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3501 
  3502     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3503     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3504     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3505     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3506     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3507     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3508     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3509     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3510     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3511     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3512 
  3513     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3514     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3515     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3516     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3517     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3518     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3519 
  3520 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3521 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3522 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3523 
  3524 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3525 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3526 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3527 
  3528 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3529 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3530 
  3531 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3532 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3533 
  3534 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3535 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3536 proofs, e.g.
  3537 
  3538   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3539 
  3540 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3541 
  3542 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3543 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3544 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3547 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3551 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3552 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3557 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3558 preorder_class.*.
  3559 
  3560 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3561 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3562 
  3563 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3564 
  3565   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3566 
  3567 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3568 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3569 fold_image.
  3570 
  3571 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3572 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3573 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3574 the former will disappear at some point.
  3575 
  3576 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3577 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3578 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3579 
  3580 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3581 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3582 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3583 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3584 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3585 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3586 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3587 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3588 
  3589 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3590 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3591 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3592 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3593 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3594 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3595 
  3596     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3597     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3598     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3599     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3600     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3601     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3602     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3603 
  3604 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3605 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3606 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3607 
  3608 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3609 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3610 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3611 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3612 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3613 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3614 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3615 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3616 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3617 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3618 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3619 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3620 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3621 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3622 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3623 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3624 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3625 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3626 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3627 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3628 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3629 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3630 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3631 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3632 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3633 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3634 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3635 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3636 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3637 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3638 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3639 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3640 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3641 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3642 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3643 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3644 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3645 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3646 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3647 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3648 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3649 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3650 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3651 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3652 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3653 
  3654 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3657 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3658 
  3659 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3660 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3661 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3662 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3663 
  3664 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3665 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3666 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3667 theory RealVector.
  3668 
  3669 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3670 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3671 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3672 and inner products are included.
  3673 
  3674 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3675 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3676 supported.
  3677 
  3678 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3679 first diagonalization argument.
  3680 
  3681 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3682 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3683 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3684 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3685 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3686 
  3687     hide (open) const gcd
  3688     abbreviation gcd where
  3689       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3690     notation (output)
  3691       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3692 
  3693 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3694 
  3695 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3696 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3697 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3700 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3701 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3702 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3703 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3704 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3705 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3706 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3707 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3708 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3709 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3710 cases.
  3711 
  3712 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3713 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3714 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3715 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3716 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3717 
  3718     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3719     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3720     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3721     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3722     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3723 
  3724 
  3725 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3726 
  3727 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3728 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3729 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3730 
  3731 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3732 
  3733 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3734 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3735 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3736 
  3737 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3738 
  3739 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3740 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3741 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3742 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3743 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3744 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3745 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3746 
  3747 
  3748 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3749 
  3750 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3751 
  3752 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3753 theory targets.
  3754 
  3755 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3756 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3757 'inductive' etc.
  3758 
  3759 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3760 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3761 
  3762 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3763 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3764 
  3765 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3766 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3767 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3768 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3769 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3770 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3771 the algorithm W:
  3772 
  3773  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3774  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3775          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3776 
  3777 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3778 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3779 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3780 
  3781 
  3782 *** HOLCF ***
  3783 
  3784 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3785 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3786 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3787 
  3788 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3789 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3790 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3791 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3792 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3795 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3796 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 
  3799 *** ZF ***
  3800 
  3801 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3802 
  3803 
  3804 *** ML ***
  3805 
  3806 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3807 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3808 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3809 5.2.1!
  3810 
  3811 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3812 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3813 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3814 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3815 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3816 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3817 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3818 
  3819 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3820 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3821 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3822 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3823 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3824 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3825 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3826 
  3827 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3828 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3829 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3830 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3831 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3832 
  3833 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3834 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3835 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3836 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3837 Method.add_method.
  3838 
  3839 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3840 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3841 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3842 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3843 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3844 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3845 
  3846 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3847 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3848 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3849 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3850 examples.
  3851 
  3852 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3853 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3854 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3855 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3856 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3857 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3858 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3859 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3860 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3861 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3862 
  3863 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3864 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3865 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3866 
  3867 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3868 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3869 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3870 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3871 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3872 resort for legacy applications.
  3873 
  3874 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3875 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3876 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3877 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3878 explicit runtime argument.
  3879 
  3880 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3881 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3882 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3883 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3884 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3887 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3888 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3889 theory state.
  3890 
  3891 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3892 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3893 
  3894   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3895   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3896   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3897   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3898   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3899   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3900   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3901   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3902   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3903   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3904 
  3905 
  3906 *** System ***
  3907 
  3908 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3909 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3910 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3911 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3912 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3913 
  3914 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3915 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3916 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3917 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3918 
  3919 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3920 
  3921 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3922 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3923 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3924 prover operations.
  3925 
  3926 
  3927 
  3928 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3929 -------------------------------
  3930 
  3931 *** General ***
  3932 
  3933 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3934 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3935 
  3936 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3937 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3938 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3939 provides a proper context already.
  3940 
  3941 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3942 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3943 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3944 
  3945 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3946 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3947 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3948 swap theory imports.
  3949 
  3950 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3951 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3952 
  3953 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3954 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3955 white space without escapes.
  3956 
  3957 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3958 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3959 "foo_bar".
  3960 
  3961 
  3962 *** Pure ***
  3963 
  3964 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3965 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3966 
  3967 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3968 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3969 
  3970 (1) unused_thms
  3971      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3972 
  3973 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3974      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3975      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3976 
  3977 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3978      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3979      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3980      their ancestors.
  3981 
  3982 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3983 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3984 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3985 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3986 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3987 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3988 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3989 
  3990 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3991 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3992 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3993 
  3994 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3995 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3996 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3997 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3998 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3999 
  4000 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4001 
  4002 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4003 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4004 update of theories within ML code.
  4005 
  4006 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4007 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4008 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4009 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4010 
  4011 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4012 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4013 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4017 
  4018 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4019 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4020 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4021 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4022 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4023 
  4024 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4025 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4026 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4027 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4028 situations.
  4029 
  4030 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4031 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4032 proof text.
  4033 
  4034 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4035 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4036 
  4037 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4038 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4039 predicates.
  4040 
  4041 
  4042 *** Document preparation ***
  4043 
  4044 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4045 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4046 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4047 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4048 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4049 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4050 
  4051 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4052 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4053 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4054 
  4055 
  4056 *** HOL ***
  4057 
  4058 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4059 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4060 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4061 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4062 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4063 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4064 
  4065 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4066 with multithreading.
  4067 
  4068 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4069 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4070 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4071 
  4072 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4073 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4074 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4075 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4078 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4079 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4080 and makes them available separately.  See
  4081 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4082 
  4083 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4084 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4085 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4086 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4087 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4088 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4089 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4090 the declared rules.
  4091 
  4092 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4093 
  4094   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4095 
  4096 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4097 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4098 
  4099 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4100 
  4101   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4102 
  4103   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4104     definitions on => and bool.
  4105 
  4106   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4107     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4108     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4109 
  4110       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4111       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4112       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4113       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4114       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4115       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4116       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4117       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4118 
  4119   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4120     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4121     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4122 
  4123   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4124     The proof pattern
  4125 
  4126       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4127       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4128 
  4129     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4130     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4131 
  4132       have "EX S. P S"
  4133       proof
  4134         show "P S" <...>
  4135       qed
  4136 
  4137   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4138     The proof pattern
  4139 
  4140       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4141       also have "S = T" <...>
  4142       finally have "P T" .
  4143 
  4144     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4145     must be replaced by something like
  4146 
  4147       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4148       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4149       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4150 
  4151   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4152     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4153 
  4154       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4155 
  4156     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4157     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4158     type of the form
  4159 
  4160       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4161 
  4162     rather than
  4163 
  4164       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4165 
  4166 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4167 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4168 
  4169 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4172 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4176 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4177 
  4178 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4179 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4180 
  4181 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4182 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4183 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184 
  4185 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4186 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4187 
  4188   less_trans
  4189   less_linear
  4190   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4191   le_less_trans
  4192   less_le_trans
  4193   less_not_sym
  4194   less_asym
  4195 
  4196 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4197 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4198 and different variable names.
  4199 
  4200 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4201 
  4202 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4203 finite maps.
  4204 
  4205 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4206 
  4207 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4208 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4209 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4210 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4211 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4212 accordingly.
  4213 
  4214 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4215 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4216 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4217 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4218 
  4219 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4220 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4221 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4222 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4223 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4227 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4230 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4231 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4232 
  4233 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4237 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4238 
  4239 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4240 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4243 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4246 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4250 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4253 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4254 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4255 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4256 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4257 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4260 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4261 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4262 
  4263 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4264 
  4265 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4266 
  4267 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4268 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4269 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4270 
  4271 
  4272 *** ZF ***
  4273 
  4274 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4275 same session:
  4276 
  4277   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4278   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4279   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4280   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4281   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4282   List      -> List_ZF
  4283   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4284 
  4285 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4286 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4287 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4288 
  4289 
  4290 *** ML ***
  4291 
  4292 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4293 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4294 
  4295 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4296 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4297 
  4298 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4299 
  4300 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4301 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4302 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4303 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4304 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4307 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4308 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4309 
  4310 
  4311 *** System ***
  4312 
  4313 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4314 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4315 
  4316 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4317 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4318 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4319 
  4320 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4321 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4322 
  4323 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4324 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4325 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4326 
  4327 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4328 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4329 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4330 
  4331 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4332 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4333 
  4334 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4335 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4336 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4337 script.
  4338 
  4339 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4340 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4341 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4342 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4343 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4344 
  4345 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4346 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4347 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4348 
  4349 
  4350 
  4351 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4352 -----------------------------------
  4353 
  4354 *** General ***
  4355 
  4356 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4357 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4358 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4359 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4360 
  4361 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4362 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4363 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4366 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4367 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4368 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4371 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4372 quotes.
  4373 
  4374 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4375 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4376 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4377 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4378 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4379 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4380 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4381 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4382 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4383 
  4384 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4385 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4386 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4387 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4388 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4389 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4390 
  4391 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4392 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4393 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4394 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4395 
  4396 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4397 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4398 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4399 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4400 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4401 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4402 
  4403 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4404 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4405 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4406 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4407 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4408 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4409 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4410 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4411 
  4412 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4413 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4414 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4415 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4416 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4417 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4418 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4419 
  4420 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4421 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4422 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4423 
  4424 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4425 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4426 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4427 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4428 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4429 limit is imposed.
  4430 
  4431 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4432 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4433 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4434 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4435 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4436 and scalability.
  4437 
  4438 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4439 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4440 
  4441 
  4442 *** Document preparation ***
  4443 
  4444 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4445 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4446 current context.
  4447 
  4448 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4449 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4450 
  4451 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4452 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4453 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4454 
  4455 
  4456 *** Pure ***
  4457 
  4458 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4459 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4460 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4461 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4462 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4463 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4464 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4465 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4466 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4467 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4468 
  4469 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4470 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4471 sketch:
  4472 
  4473     internal compilation:
  4474         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4475     writing SML code to a file:
  4476         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4477     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4478         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4479     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4480         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4481 
  4482     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4483         method ``eval''
  4484 
  4485 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4486 
  4487 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4488 
  4489     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4490     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4491     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4492     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4493 
  4494 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4495 
  4496     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4497       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4498 
  4499     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4500       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4501 
  4502     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4503       {(target)}+
  4504         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4505 
  4506     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4507       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4508         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4509 
  4510 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4511 
  4512 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4513 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4514 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4515 codegen".
  4516 
  4517 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4518 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4519 annotations).
  4520 
  4521 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4522 syntax.
  4523 
  4524 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4525 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4526 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4527 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4528 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4529 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4530 
  4531 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4532 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4533 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4534 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4535 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4536 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4537 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4538 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4539 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4540 equations, see section "definitions".
  4541 
  4542 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4543 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4544 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4545 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4546 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4547 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4548 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4549 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4550 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4551 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4552 
  4553 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4554 configuration options:
  4555 
  4556   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4557   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4558   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4559   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4560   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4561   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4562   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4563   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4564   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4565 
  4566 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4567 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4568 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4569 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4570 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4571 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4572 order.
  4573 
  4574 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4575 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4576 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4577 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4578 context encountered later on.
  4579 
  4580 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4581 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4582 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4583 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4584 
  4585 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4586 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4587 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4588 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4589 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4590 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4591 
  4592 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4593 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4594 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4595 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4596 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4597 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4598 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4599 more permissive.
  4600 
  4601 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4602 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4603 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4604 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4605 maintainability of proof texts.
  4606 
  4607 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4608 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4609 
  4610   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4611   then guess x and y by clarify
  4612 
  4613 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4614 proof tools being involved here.
  4615 
  4616 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4617 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4618 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4619 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4620 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4621 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4622 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4623 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4624 
  4625 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4626 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4627 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4628 
  4629   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4630   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4631   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4632   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4633 
  4634 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4635 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4636 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4637 
  4638 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4639 both named and unnamed ones.
  4640 
  4641 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4642 
  4643   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4644 
  4645 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4646 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4647 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4648 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4649 
  4650 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4651 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4652 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4653 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4654 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4655 
  4656 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4657 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4658 
  4659 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4660 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4661 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4662 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4663 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4664 originally first one.
  4665 
  4666 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4667 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4668 expected.
  4669 
  4670 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4671 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4672 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4673 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4674 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4675 
  4676   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4677     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4678     obtains x where "P x"
  4679 
  4680   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4681     assumes "A & B"
  4682     obtains A and B
  4683 
  4684   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4685     assumes "A | B"
  4686     obtains
  4687       A
  4688     | B
  4689 
  4690 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4691 explicitly:
  4692 
  4693   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4694     obtains "~ thesis"
  4695 
  4696   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4697     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4698 
  4699 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4700 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4701 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4702 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4703 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4704 case_names).
  4705 
  4706 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4707 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4708 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4709 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4710 
  4711 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4712 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4713 top-level lemma.
  4714 
  4715 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4716 introduction rule (default "that").
  4717 
  4718 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4719 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4720 to occur.
  4721 
  4722 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4723 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4724 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4725 representations independently of name spaces.
  4726 
  4727 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4728 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4729 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4732 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4733 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4734 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4735 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4736 current context.
  4737 
  4738 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4739 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4740 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4741 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4742 
  4743   axiomatization
  4744     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4745     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4746 
  4747   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4748   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4749 
  4750   abbreviation
  4751     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4752     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4753 
  4754 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4755 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4756 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4757 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4758 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4759 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4760 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4761 
  4762 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4763 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4764 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4765 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4766 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4767 
  4768 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4769 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4770 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4771 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4772 
  4773 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4774 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4775 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4776 
  4777   definition "K x _ = x"
  4778 
  4779   inductive conj for A B
  4780   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4781 
  4782 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4783 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4784 abbreviations on output.
  4785 
  4786 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4787 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4788 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4789 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4790 
  4791 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4792 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4793 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4794 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4795 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4796 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4797 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4798 
  4799 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4800 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4801 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4802 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4803 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4804 
  4805 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4806 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4807 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4808 
  4809 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4810 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4811 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4812 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4813 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4814 
  4815   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4816     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4817 
  4818 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4819 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4820 partial_order.
  4821 
  4822 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4823 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4824 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4825 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4826 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4827 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4828 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4829 examples.
  4830 
  4831 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4832 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4833 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4834 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4835 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4836 
  4837 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4838 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4839 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4840 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4841 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4842 
  4843   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4844   (induct set: foo bar)
  4845   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4846   (induct type: foo bar)
  4847 
  4848 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4849 new format.
  4850 
  4851 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4852 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4853 
  4854 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4855 considered a legacy feature.
  4856 
  4857 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4858 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4861 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4862 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4863 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4864   
  4865 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4866 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4867 manipulating the claset.
  4868 
  4869 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4870 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4871 least one premise.
  4872 
  4873 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4874 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4875 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4876 rule steps.
  4877 
  4878 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4879 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4880 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4881 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4882 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4883 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4884 
  4885 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4886 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4887 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4888 
  4889 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4890 the graph browser tool.
  4891 
  4892 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4893 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4894 
  4895 
  4896 *** HOL ***
  4897 
  4898 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4899 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4900 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4901 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4902 multi-threading.
  4903   
  4904 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4905 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4906 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4907 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4908 work with multi-threading.
  4909 
  4910 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4911 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4912 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4913 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4914 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4915 
  4916 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4917 
  4918 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4919 equality.
  4920 
  4921 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4922 the new 'class' package:
  4923 
  4924     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4925     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4926     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4927     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4928     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4929     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4930     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4931     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4932     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4933     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4934     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4935     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4936     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4937     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4938     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4939     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4940     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4941     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4942     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4943     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4944 
  4945 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4946 
  4947 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4948 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4949 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4950 names.
  4951 
  4952 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4953 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4954 
  4955 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4956 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4957 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4958 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4959 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4960 
  4961 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4962 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4963 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4964 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4965 
  4966 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4967 
  4968 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4969 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4970 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4971 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4973 
  4974 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4975 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4976 
  4977 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4978 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4979 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4980 
  4981 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4982 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4983 
  4984 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4985 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4986 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4987 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4988 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4989 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4990 in the current context.
  4991 
  4992 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4993 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4995 
  4996 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4997 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4998 
  4999 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5000 
  5001     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5002     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5003 
  5004     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5005       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5006     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5007     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5008 
  5009     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5010     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5011 
  5012   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5013 
  5014     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5015     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5016     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5017     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5018     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5019     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5020     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5021     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5022     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5023     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5024     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5025     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5026     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5027     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5028     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5029     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5030     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5031     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5032     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5033     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5034     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5035     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5036     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5037     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5038     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5039     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5040     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5041     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5042     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5043     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5044     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5045     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5046     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5047     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5048     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5049 
  5050     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5051     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5052     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5053     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5054     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5055     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5056     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5057     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5058     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5059     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5060     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5061     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5062     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5063     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5064     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5065     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5066     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5067 
  5068     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5069     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5070     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5071     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5072     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5073     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5074     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5075     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5076     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5077     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5078     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5079     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5080     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5081     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5082     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5083     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5084     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5085     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5086     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5087     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5088     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5089     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5090     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5091     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5092     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5093     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5094     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5095     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5096 
  5097     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5098     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5099     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5100     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5101     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5102     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5103 
  5104     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5105     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5106     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5107     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5108 
  5109     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5110     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5111 
  5112     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5113     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5114 
  5115 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5116 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5117 
  5118 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5119 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5120 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5121 "*.size".
  5122 
  5123 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5127 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5128 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5131 
  5132 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5133 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5134 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5135 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5136 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5137 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5138 numerals on all operations.
  5139 
  5140 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5141 
  5142 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5143 
  5144 * Code generator library theories:
  5145   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5146     languages.
  5147   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5148     languages.
  5149   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5150     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5151   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5152   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5153     denominator).
  5154   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5155     representable by rational numbers.
  5156   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5157     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5158     includes Code_Integer.
  5159   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5160     target-language built-in integers.
  5161   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5162     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5163 
  5164 * New package for inductive predicates
  5165 
  5166   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5167 
  5168     inductive
  5169       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5170       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5171     where
  5172       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5173     | ...
  5174 
  5175   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5176 
  5177     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5178 
  5179     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5180     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5181 
  5182     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5183     intros
  5184       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5185       ...
  5186 
  5187   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5188   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5189 
  5190     inductive_set
  5191       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5192       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5193     where
  5194       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5195     | ...
  5196 
  5197   or
  5198 
  5199     inductive_set
  5200       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5201       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5202       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5203     where
  5204       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5205     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5206     | ...
  5207 
  5208   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5209 
  5210   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5211   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5212 
  5213   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5214 
  5215   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5216     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5217     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5218     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5219     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5220 
  5221   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5222     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5223     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5224     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5225     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5226     statements of the form
  5227 
  5228       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5229 
  5230     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5231     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5232 
  5233       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5234 
  5235   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5236 
  5237       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5238         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5239         ==> ... ==> P
  5240 
  5241     for predicates and
  5242 
  5243       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5244         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5245         ==> ... ==> P
  5246 
  5247     for sets rather than
  5248 
  5249       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5250         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5251         ==> ... ==> P
  5252 
  5253     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5254     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5255     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5256 
  5257   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5258     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5259     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5260 
  5261 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5262 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5263 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5264 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5265 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5266 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5267 
  5268 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5269 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5270 
  5271 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5272 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5273 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5274 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5275 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5276 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5277 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5278 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5279 variable.
  5280 
  5281 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5282 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5283 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5284 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5285   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5286   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5287 
  5288 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5289 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5290 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5291 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5292 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5293 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5294 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5295 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5296 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5297 
  5298 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5299 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5300 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5301 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5302 rat, etc.
  5303 
  5304 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5305 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5306 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5307 
  5308 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5309 
  5310 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5311 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5312 
  5313 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5314 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5315 
  5316 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5317 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5318 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5319 
  5320 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5321 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5323 
  5324 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5325 
  5326 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5327 
  5328 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5329 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5330 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5331 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5332 
  5333 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5334 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5335 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5336 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5337 
  5338 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5339 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5340 algebraic operations.
  5341 
  5342 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5344 
  5345 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5347 
  5348 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5349 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5350 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5351 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5352 adapted.
  5353  
  5354 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5355 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5356 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5357 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5358 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5359 
  5360 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5361 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5362 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5363 
  5364 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5365 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5366 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5367 
  5368 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5371 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5372 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5373   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5374       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5375   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5376   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5377   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5378 
  5379 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5380 
  5381 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5382 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5383 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5384 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5385 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5386 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5387 
  5388 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5389 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5390 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5391 
  5392 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5393 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5394 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5395 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5396 
  5397 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5398 
  5399 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5400 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5403 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5404 
  5405 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5406 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5407 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5408 
  5409 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5410 True/False.
  5411 
  5412 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5413 
  5414 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5415 
  5416 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5417 ``rule'' method.
  5418 
  5419 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5420 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5421 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5422 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5423 
  5424 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5425 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5426 
  5427 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5428 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5429 
  5430 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5431 Library.
  5432 
  5433 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5434 
  5435 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5436 as greatest fixed-point.
  5437 
  5438 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5439 association lists.
  5440 
  5441 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5442 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5443 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5444 
  5445 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5446 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5447 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5448 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5449 behavior.
  5450 
  5451 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5452 
  5453 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5454 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5455 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5456 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5457 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5458 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5459 
  5460 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5461 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5462 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5463 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5464 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5465 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5466 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5467 
  5468 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5469 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5470 
  5471 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5472 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5473 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5474 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5475 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5476 
  5477 
  5478 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5479 
  5480 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5481 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5482 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5483 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5487 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5488 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5489 
  5490 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5491 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5492 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5495 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5496 
  5497 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5498 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5499 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5501 
  5502   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5503   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5504   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5505   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5506   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5507   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5508   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5509   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5510   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5511   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5512   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5513   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5514   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5515   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5516   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5517 
  5518 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5519 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5520 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5521 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5522 
  5523   approx        <-- capprox
  5524   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5525   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5526   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5527   monad         <-- cmonad
  5528   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5529   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5530   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5531   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5532 
  5533 
  5534 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5535 
  5536 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5537 
  5538 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5542 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5543 
  5544 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5545 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5546 of algebraic structures.
  5547 
  5548 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5549 
  5550 
  5551 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5552 
  5553 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5554 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5555 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5556 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5557 
  5558 
  5559 *** ML ***
  5560 
  5561 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5562 (even on SML/NJ).
  5563 
  5564 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5565 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5566 compile-time.  For example:
  5567 
  5568 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5569 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5570 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5571 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5572 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5573 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5574 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5575 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5576 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5577 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5578 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5579 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5580 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5581 ML {* @{context} *}
  5582 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5583 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5584 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5585 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5586 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5587 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5588 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5589 
  5590 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5591 
  5592 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5593 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5594 
  5595 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5596 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5597 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5598 
  5599 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5600 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5601 
  5602 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5603 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5604 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5605 
  5606 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5607 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5608 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5609 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5610 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5611 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5612 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5613 declarations and definitions.
  5614 
  5615 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5616 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5617 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5618 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5619 
  5620 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5621 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5622 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5623 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5624 
  5625 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5626 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5627 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5628 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5629 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5630 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5631 
  5632 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5633 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5634 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5635 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5636 attributes, methods, etc.
  5637 
  5638 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5639 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5640 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5641 fold_map combinators.
  5642 
  5643 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5644 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5645 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5646 derivation.
  5647 
  5648 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5649 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5650 achieve the old behaviour.
  5651 
  5652 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5653 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5654 statements.
  5655 
  5656 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5657 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5658 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5659 
  5660 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5661 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5662 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5663 
  5664   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5665   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5666   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5667 
  5668 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5669 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5670 
  5671 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5672 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5673 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5674 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5675 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5676 
  5677 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5678 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5679 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5680 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5681 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5682 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5683 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5684 in a locale context).
  5685 
  5686 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5687 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5688 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5689 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5690 
  5691 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5692 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5693 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5694 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5695 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5696 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5697 
  5698 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5699 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5700 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5701 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5702 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5703 
  5704   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5705 
  5706 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5707 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5708 this:
  5709 
  5710   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5711 
  5712 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5713 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5714 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5715 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5716 
  5717 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5718 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5719 
  5720 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5721 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5722 
  5723 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5724 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5725 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5726 batch mode.
  5727 
  5728 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5729 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5730 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5731 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732 
  5733 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5734 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5735 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5736 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5737 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5738 
  5739 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5740 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5741 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5742 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5743 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5744 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5745 
  5746 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5747 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5748 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5750 
  5751 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5752 "Trueprop" etc.
  5753 
  5754 
  5755 *** System ***
  5756 
  5757 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5758 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5759 Isabelle installations.
  5760 
  5761 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5762 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5763 code.
  5764 
  5765 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5766 
  5767 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5768 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5769 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5770 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5771 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5772 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5773 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5774 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5775 Implementation manual.
  5776 
  5777 
  5778 
  5779 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5780 ----------------------------------
  5781 
  5782 *** General ***
  5783 
  5784 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5785 
  5786   theory <name>
  5787   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5788   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5789   begin
  5790 
  5791 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5792 
  5793   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5794 
  5795 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5796 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5797 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5798 
  5799 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5800 relative and absolute paths.
  5801 
  5802 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5803 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5804 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5805 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5806 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5807 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5808 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5809 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5810 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5811 
  5812   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5813 
  5814 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5815 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5816 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5817 
  5818 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5819 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5820 
  5821 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5822 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5823 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5824 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5825 
  5826   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5827   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5828 
  5829 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5830 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5831 faster.
  5832 
  5833 
  5834 *** Document preparation ***
  5835 
  5836 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5837 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5838 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5839 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5840 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5841 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5842 
  5843 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5844 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5845 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5846 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5847 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5848 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5849 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5850 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5851 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5852 \isadroptag.
  5853 
  5854 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5855 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5856 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5857 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5858 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5859 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5860 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5861 specified above.
  5862 
  5863 * Several new antiquotations:
  5864 
  5865   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5866 
  5867   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5868 
  5869   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5870   argument is a known logical constant;
  5871 
  5872   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5873   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5874 
  5875   @{ML text}
  5876 
  5877 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5878 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5879 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5880 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5881 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5882 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5883 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5884 
  5885 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5886 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5887 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5888 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5889 
  5890 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5891 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5892 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5893 
  5894 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5895 a proof context.
  5896 
  5897 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5898 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5899 
  5900 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5901 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5902 
  5903 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5904 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5905 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5906 
  5907 
  5908 *** Pure ***
  5909 
  5910 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5911 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5912 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5913 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5914 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5915 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5916 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5917 
  5918 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5919 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5920 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5921 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5922 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5923 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5924 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5925 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5926 
  5927 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5928 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5929 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5930 
  5931 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5932 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5933 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5934 
  5935 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5936 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5937 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5938 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5942 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5943 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5944 axclasses vs. locales.
  5945 
  5946 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5947 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5948 
  5949 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5950 marks in schematic variable names.
  5951 
  5952 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5953 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5954 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5955 
  5956   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5957     by simp
  5958 
  5959 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5960 
  5961 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5962 annotations as "(00...)".
  5963 
  5964 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5965 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5966 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5967 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5968 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5969 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5970 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5971 
  5972 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5973 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5974 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5975 specifications.
  5976 
  5977 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5978 locally fixed variables as well.
  5979 
  5980 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5981 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5982 Limit.
  5983 
  5984 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5985 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5986 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5987 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5988 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5989 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5990 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5991 
  5992 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5993 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5994 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5995 
  5996 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5997 
  5998 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5999 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  6000 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  6001 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  6002 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  6003 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  6004 
  6005 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  6006 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  6007 
  6008 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  6009 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  6010 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  6011 
  6012 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  6013 
  6014 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  6015 theory development.
  6016 
  6017 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  6018 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  6019 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  6020 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  6021 
  6022 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  6023 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  6024 quoted when used as identifier.
  6025 
  6026 
  6027 *** Locales ***
  6028 
  6029 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  6030 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  6031 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  6032 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  6033 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  6034 commands is a follows:
  6035 
  6036   (1) interpretation expr inst
  6037   (2) interpretation target < expr
  6038   (3) interpret expr inst
  6039 
  6040 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  6041 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  6042 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  6043 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  6044 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  6045 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  6046 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  6047 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  6048 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  6049 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  6050 
  6051 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  6052 'interpret' instead.
  6053 
  6054 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  6055 parameters.
  6056 
  6057 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  6058 redeclaration.
  6059 
  6060 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  6061 
  6062 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  6063 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  6064 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  6065 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  6066 to attribute arguments as expected.
  6067 
  6068 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  6069 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  6070 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  6071 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  6072 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  6073 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  6074 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  6075 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  6076 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  6077 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  6078 
  6079 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  6080 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  6081 theorem statement in rare situations.
  6082 
  6083 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  6084 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  6085 
  6086 
  6087 *** Provers ***
  6088 
  6089 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  6090 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  6091 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  6092 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  6093 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  6094 
  6095 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  6096 and quasi orders.
  6097 
  6098 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  6099 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  6100 
  6101 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  6102 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  6103 
  6104 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  6105 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  6106 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6107 
  6108 
  6109 *** HOL ***
  6110 
  6111 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  6112 
  6113   syntax (epsilon)
  6114     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  6115 
  6116 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  6117 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  6118 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  6119 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6120 
  6121 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  6122 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  6123 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  6124 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  6125 
  6126 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  6127 instead of ":".
  6128 
  6129 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  6130 
  6131   Old       New
  6132   {..n(}    {..<n}
  6133   {)n..}    {n<..}
  6134   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  6135   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  6136   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  6137 
  6138 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  6139 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  6140 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  6141 
  6142   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  6143   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  6144 
  6145 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  6146 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  6147 interface.
  6148 
  6149 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  6150 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  6151 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  6152 be a tuple pattern.
  6153 
  6154 Some new syntax forms are available:
  6155 
  6156   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  6157   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  6158   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  6159   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  6160 
  6161 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  6162 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  6163 
  6164 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  6165 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  6166 (insert F x)'.
  6167 
  6168 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  6169 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  6170 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  6171 
  6172 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  6173 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  6174 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  6175 
  6176 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  6177 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  6178 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  6179 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6180 in unstructured proof scripts.
  6181 
  6182 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  6183 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  6184 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  6185 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  6186 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  6187 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  6188 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  6189 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  6190 <record_name>_ext_type.
  6191 
  6192 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  6193 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  6194 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  6195 quite long.
  6196 
  6197 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  6198 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  6199 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  6200 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6201 
  6202 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  6203 type-variables in the term.
  6204 
  6205 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  6206 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  6207 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6208 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  6209 goals than previously.
  6210 
  6211 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  6212 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  6213 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  6214 just like y <= x.
  6215 
  6216 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  6217 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  6218 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  6219 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  6220 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  6221 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  6222 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6223 
  6224 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  6225 
  6226 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  6227 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  6228 
  6229 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  6230 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  6231 inequalities.
  6232 
  6233 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6234 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6235 
  6236   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  6237   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  6238   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  6239   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  6240   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  6241   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  6242   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  6243   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  6244   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  6245   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  6246   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  6247 
  6248 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  6249      
  6250      zero_le_square
  6251      not_square_less_zero 
  6252 
  6253   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  6254   
  6255      realpow_zero_zero
  6256