NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Jan 03 16:42:15 2019 +0100 (10 months ago)
changeset 69580 6f755e3cd95d
parent 69569 2d88bf80c84f
child 69585 0484086194ce
permissions -rw-r--r--
mixfix annotations may use cartouches;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60).
    36 
    37 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    38 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    39 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    40 
    41 
    42 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    43 
    44 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    45 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    46 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    47 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    48 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    49 defaults to 0.
    50 
    51 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    52 OpenJDK 11.
    53 
    54 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    55 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    56 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    57 Isabelle component).
    58 
    59 
    60 *** Isar ***
    61 
    62 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    63 precedence over goal/proof.
    64 
    65 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    66 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    67 
    68 
    69 *** HOL ***
    70 
    71 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
    72 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
    73 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
    74 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
    75 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    76 
    77 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
    78 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
    79 
    80 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
    81 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
    82 
    83 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
    84 
    85 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
    86 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
    87 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    88 
    89 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
    90 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
    91 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    92 
    93 * Sledgehammer: The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote
    94 provers, has been updated.
    95 
    96 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
    97 
    98 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
    99 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   100 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   101 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   102 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   104 
   105 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   106 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   107 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   108 
   109   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   110 
   111 
   112 *** ML ***
   113 
   114 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   115 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   116 
   117 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   118 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   119 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   120 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   121 ">" as separator. For example:
   122 
   123   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   124   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   125 
   126   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   127   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   128 
   129   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   130   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   131 
   132 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   133 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   134 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   135 observes the official standard).
   136 
   137 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   138 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   139 
   140 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   141 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   142 useful.
   143 
   144 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   145 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   146 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   147 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   148 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   149 
   150   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   151   module Isabelle.Pure where
   152     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   153     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   154     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   155     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   156   \<close>
   157 
   158 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   159 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   160 external compiler is applied.
   161 
   162 
   163 
   164 *** System ***
   165 
   166 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   167 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   168 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   169 component).
   170 
   171 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   172 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   173 Isabelle/PIDE.
   174 
   175 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   176 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   177 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   178 
   179 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   180 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   181 is no longer required.
   182 
   183 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   184 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   185 
   186   isabelle ghc_setup
   187   isabelle ghc_stack
   188 
   189   isabelle ocaml_setup
   190   isabelle ocaml_opam
   191 
   192 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   193 (and corresponding directory contents):
   194 
   195   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   196   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   197   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   198 
   199   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   200   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   201 
   202 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   203 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   204 
   205   ISABELLE_GHC
   206 
   207   ISABELLE_OCAML
   208   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   209 
   210 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   211 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   212 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   213 
   214 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   215 
   216 
   217 
   218 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   219 ---------------------------------
   220 
   221 *** General ***
   222 
   223 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   224 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   225 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   226 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   227 
   228 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   229 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   230 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   231 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   232 
   233 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   234 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   237 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   238 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   239 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   240 avoid this.
   241 
   242 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   243 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   244 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   245 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   246 
   247 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   248 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   249 instead.
   250 
   251 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   252 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   253 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   255 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   256 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   257 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   258 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   259 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   260 syntax), use option "-m".
   261 
   262 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   266 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   267 without specific Prover IDE management.
   268 
   269 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   270 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   271 context.
   272 
   273 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   274 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   275 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   276 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   277 
   278   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   279 
   280 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   281 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   282 
   283 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   284 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   285 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   286 output.
   287 
   288 
   289 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   290 
   291 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   292 for session management:
   293 
   294   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   295     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   296 
   297   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   298     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   299 
   300   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   301     and -S
   302 
   303   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   304     theories
   305 
   306   Examples:
   307     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   308     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   309     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   310     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   311     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   312 
   313 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   314 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   315 
   316 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   317 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   318 
   319 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   320 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   321 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   322 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   323 arguments into this format.
   324 
   325 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   326 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   327 
   328 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   329 functions (e.g. State output).
   330 
   331 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   332 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   333 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   334 
   335 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   336 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   337 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   340 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   341 
   342 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   343 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   344 Isabelle".
   345 
   346 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   347 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   348 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   349 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   350 Unicode content when saving the file.
   351 
   352 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   353 
   354 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   355 
   356 
   357 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   358 
   359 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   360 Isabelle/jEdit.
   361 
   362 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   363 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   364 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   365 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   366 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   367 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 
   370 *** Document preparation ***
   371 
   372 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   373 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   374 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   375 are supported:
   376 
   377   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   378   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   379   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   380 
   381 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   382 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   383 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   384 
   385 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   386 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   387 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   388 
   389 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   390 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   391 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   392 
   393 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   394 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   395 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   396 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   397 
   398 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   399 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   400 
   401 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   402 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   403 normally need to import.
   404 
   405 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   406 session name verbatim.
   407 
   408 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   409 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   410 
   411 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   412 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   413 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   416 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   417 anymore.
   418 
   419 
   420 *** Isar ***
   421 
   422 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   423 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   424 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   425 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   426 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   427 
   428 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   429 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   430 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   431 
   432 
   433 *** Pure ***
   434 
   435 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   436 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   437 
   438 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   439 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   440 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   441 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   442 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   443 
   444 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   445 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   446 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   447 duplicate constant declarations.
   448 
   449 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   450 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   451 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   452 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   453 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   454 
   455 
   456 *** HOL ***
   457 
   458 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   459 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   460 
   461 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   462 
   463   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   464 
   465   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   466     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   467     constraints instead.
   468 
   469   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   470 
   471   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   472     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   473     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   474     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   475 
   476   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   477     standard target languages.
   478 
   479   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   480     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   481     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   482     HOL string values and vice versa.
   483 
   484   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   485     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   486 
   487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   488 
   489 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   490 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   491 
   492 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   493 
   494 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   495 former axioms:
   496 
   497   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   498 
   499 are replaced by:
   500 
   501   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   502 
   503 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   504 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   505 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   506 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   507 
   508 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   509 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   510 
   511 * Clarifed theorem names:
   512 
   513   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   514   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   515 
   516 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   517 
   518 * SMT module:
   519 
   520   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   521     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   522 
   523   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   524     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   525     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   528 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   529 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   530 
   531 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   538 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   542 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   543 Renamed:
   544 
   545   span_inc ~> span_superset
   546   span_superset ~> span_base
   547   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   548 
   549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   550 
   551 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   552 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   553 
   554 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   555 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   556 
   557 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   558 
   559   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   560     input syntax
   561 
   562   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   563 
   564 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   565 
   566 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   569 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   571 
   572 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   573   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   574   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   575   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   576 
   577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   580 
   581   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   582   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   583   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   584   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   585   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   586 
   587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   590 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   591 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   592 broken proofs.
   593 
   594 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   595 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   596 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   597 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   598 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   599 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   600 
   601 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   602 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   603 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   604 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   605 examples.
   606 
   607 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   608 
   609 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   610 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   613 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   614 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   618 infix/prefix notation.
   619 
   620 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   621 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   625 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   629 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   633 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   634 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   635 
   636 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   637 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   638 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   639 
   640 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   641 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   642 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   643 
   644 
   645 *** ML ***
   646 
   647 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   648 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   649 
   650 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   651 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   652 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   653 "isabelle process".
   654 
   655 
   656 *** System ***
   657 
   658 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   659 longer supported.
   660 
   661 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   662 support has been discontinued.
   663 
   664 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   665 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   666 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   667 
   668 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   669 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   670 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   671 quotes):
   672 
   673   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   674   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   675 
   676   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   677   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   678 
   679   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   680   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   681 
   682 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   683   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   684   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   685   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   686 
   687 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   688 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   689 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   690 only.
   691 
   692 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   693 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   694 up-to-date status of a session.
   695 
   696 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   697 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   698 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   699 directory.
   700 
   701 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   702 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   703 
   704 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   705 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   706 
   707 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   708 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   709 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   710 See also the "system" manual.
   711 
   712 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   713 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   714 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   715 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   716 been discontinued.
   717 
   718 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   719 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   720 
   721 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   722 repository for the generated session files.
   723 
   724 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   725 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   726 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   727 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   728 ISABELLE_HOME).
   729 
   730 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   731 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   732 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   733 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   734 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   735 
   736 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   737 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   738 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   739 
   740 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   741 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   742 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   743 32/64 bit.
   744 
   745 
   746 
   747 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   748 ----------------------------------
   749 
   750 *** General ***
   751 
   752 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   753 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   754 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   755 
   756 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   757 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   758 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   759 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   760 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   761 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   762 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   763 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   764 
   765 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   766 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   767 just the theory base name as before).
   768 
   769 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   770 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   771 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   772 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   773 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   774 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   775 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   776 
   777 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   778 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   779 leads to the follow renamings:
   780 
   781   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   782   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   783   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   784   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   785   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   786 
   787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   790 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   791 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   792 
   793 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   794 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   795 
   796 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   797 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   798 antiquotations:
   799 
   800   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   801     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   802   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   803     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   804   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   805 
   806 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   807 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   808 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   809 tutorial on code generation.
   810 
   811 
   812 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   813 
   814 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   815 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   816 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   817 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   818 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   819 
   820 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   821 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   822 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   823 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   824 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   825 effectively always enabled.
   826 
   827 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   828 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   829 buffers.
   830 
   831 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   832 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   833 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   834 represented by a different border color.
   835 
   836 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   837 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   838 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   839 
   840 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   841 document in the default web browser.
   842 
   843 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   844 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   845 used for formal checking.
   846 
   847 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   848 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   849 enabled at all times.
   850 
   851 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   852 
   853 
   854 *** Pure ***
   855 
   856 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   857 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   858 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   859 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   862   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   863     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   864   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   865     malformed.
   866   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   867     malformed.
   868 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   871 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   872 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 
   875 *** HOL ***
   876 
   877 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   878 
   879 * SMT module:
   880   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   881     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   882     disabled by default.
   883   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   884   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   885 
   886 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   887 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   888 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   892 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   893 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   897 of "Complex_Main").
   898 
   899 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   900 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   901 
   902 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   906 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
   909 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
   912 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
   913 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
   914 
   915 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
   916 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
   919 
   920 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
   921 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   922 
   923 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
   924 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
   925 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
   926 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Generalized some facts:
   929     measure_induct_rule
   930     measure_induct
   931     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
   932     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
   933     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
   934     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
   935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
   938 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
   939 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
   940 euclidean size.
   941 
   942 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
   943   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
   944   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
   945     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
   946     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
   947   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
   948     available as "bezout_coefficients".
   949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950 
   951 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
   952 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
   953 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
   954 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   955 
   956 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
   957   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
   958   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
   959 
   960 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
   961 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
   964 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
   965 
   966 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
   967 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
   968 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   969 
   970 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
   971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
   974 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
   975 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
   976 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
   977 
   978 syntax (ASCII)
   979   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
   980   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
   981   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
   982 
   983 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
   984 multisets have been renamed:
   985 
   986   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
   987   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
   988 
   989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   990 
   991 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
   992 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
   993 
   994 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
   995 
   996 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
   997 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
   998 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
   999 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1000 
  1001 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1002 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1003 
  1004 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1005 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1006 
  1007 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1008 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1009 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1010 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 
  1014 *** System ***
  1015 
  1016 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1017 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1018 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1019 
  1020 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1021 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1022 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1023 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1024 
  1025 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1026 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1027 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1028 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1029 
  1030 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1031 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1032 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1033 unchanged.
  1034 
  1035 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1036 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1039 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1040 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1041 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1042 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1043 
  1044 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1045 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1046 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1047 
  1048 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1049 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1050 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1051 
  1052 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1053 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1054 
  1055   isabelle imports -I -a
  1056   isabelle imports -U -a
  1057   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1058   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1059 
  1060 
  1061 
  1062 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1063 -------------------------------------
  1064 
  1065 *** General ***
  1066 
  1067 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1068   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1069     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1071     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1072     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1073     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1074     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1075 
  1076 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1077 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1078 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1079 
  1080 bundle foo
  1081 begin
  1082   declare a [simp]
  1083   declare b [intro]
  1084 end
  1085 
  1086 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1087 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1088 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1089 
  1090 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1091 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1092 discontinued.
  1093 
  1094 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1095 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1096 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1097 
  1098 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1099 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1100 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1101 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1102 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1105 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1106 
  1107 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1108 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1109 
  1110 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1111 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1112 examples.
  1113 
  1114 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1115 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1116 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1117 
  1118 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1119 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1120 
  1121 
  1122 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1123 
  1124 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1125 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1126 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1127 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1128 
  1129 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1130 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1131 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1132 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1133 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1134 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1135 
  1136 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1137 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1138 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1139 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1140 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1141 
  1142 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1143 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1144 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1145 
  1146 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1147 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1148 
  1149 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1150 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1151 
  1152 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1153 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1154 
  1155 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1156 
  1157 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1158 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1159 systematic renaming.
  1160 
  1161 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1162 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1163 theorem statement.
  1164 
  1165 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1166 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1167 
  1168 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1169 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1170 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1171 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1172 
  1173 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1174 following independent stages:
  1175 
  1176   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1177   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1178   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1179   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1180 
  1181 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1182 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1183 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1184 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1185 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1186 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1187 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1188 
  1189 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1190 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1191 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1192 
  1193 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1194 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1195 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1196 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1197 
  1198 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1199 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1200 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1201 
  1202 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1203 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1204 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1205 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1206 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1207 old keymaps.
  1208 
  1209 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1210 and diverse:
  1211 
  1212   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1213   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1214   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1215 
  1216 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1217 have to be changed.
  1218 
  1219 
  1220 *** Document preparation ***
  1221 
  1222 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1223 
  1224 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1225 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1226 
  1227 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1228 this allows special forms of document output.
  1229 
  1230 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1231 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1232 derivatives.
  1233 
  1234 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1235 
  1236 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1237 Isabelle2015).
  1238 
  1239 
  1240 *** Isar ***
  1241 
  1242 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1243 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1244 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1245 
  1246 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1247 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1248 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1249 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1250 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1253 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1254 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1255 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1256 
  1257 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1258 context.
  1259 
  1260 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1261 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1262 
  1263 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1264 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1265 
  1266 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1267 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1268 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1269 
  1270 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1271 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1273 
  1274 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1275 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1276 definitions.
  1277 
  1278 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1279 expression, e.g.
  1280 
  1281   (use facts in simp)
  1282   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1283 
  1284 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1285 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1286 
  1287 
  1288 *** Pure ***
  1289 
  1290 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1291 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1292 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1293 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1294 
  1295 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1296 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1297 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1298 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1299 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1300 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1301 
  1302 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1303 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1304 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1305 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1306 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1307 types where this is really intended.
  1308 
  1309 
  1310 *** HOL ***
  1311 
  1312 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1313 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1314 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1315 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1316 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1317 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1318 
  1319 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1320 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1321 
  1322 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1323 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * Sledgehammer:
  1326   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1327   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1328 
  1329 * (Co)datatype package:
  1330   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1331     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1332     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1333     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1334   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1335     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1336   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1337     to the map function.
  1338   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1339   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1340        terms of map and set
  1341        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1342   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1343        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1344     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1345   - Renamed lemmas:
  1346       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1347       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1348     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1350   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1351     equivalent) form.
  1352     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1353 
  1354 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1355 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1356 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1357 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1358 
  1359 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1360 
  1361   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1362   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1363 
  1364 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1365 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1366 eliminated altogether.
  1367 
  1368 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1369 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1370 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1371 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1372 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1373 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1374 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1375 
  1376 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1380 
  1381     setsum ~> sum
  1382     setprod ~> prod
  1383     listsum ~> sum_list
  1384     listprod ~> prod_list
  1385 
  1386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1387 
  1388 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1389     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1390     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1391     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1392     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1393     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1394     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1395     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1396     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1397     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1398     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1399     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1400     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1401     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1402     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1403     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1404     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1405     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1406     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1407     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1408     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1409     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1410     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1411     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1412     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1413     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1414     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1415     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1416     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1417     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1419 
  1420 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1421 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1422 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1423 
  1424 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1425 
  1426 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1427 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1428 
  1429   - Logical representation:
  1430     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1431     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1432       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1433     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1434       are non-canonical.
  1435   - Printing and parsing:
  1436     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1437       (as before).
  1438     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1439     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1440       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1441       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1442     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1443       printed as their logical representation.
  1444   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1445     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1446   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1447 
  1448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1451 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1452 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1453 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454 
  1455 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1456 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1457 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1458 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1459 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1460 
  1461 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1462 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1463 
  1464 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1465 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1466 
  1467 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1468 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1469 interface for the generated code.
  1470 
  1471 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1472 spelt out explicitly.
  1473 
  1474 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1475 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1476 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1477 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1478 
  1479 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1480 products.
  1481 
  1482 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1483 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1484 
  1485 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1486 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1487 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1488 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1489 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1490 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1491 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1493 
  1494 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1495 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1496 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1502   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1503   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1504 
  1505 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1506   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1507     le_add_same_cancel1
  1508     le_add_same_cancel2
  1509     less_add_same_cancel1
  1510     less_add_same_cancel2
  1511     add_le_same_cancel1
  1512     add_le_same_cancel2
  1513     add_less_same_cancel1
  1514     add_less_same_cancel2
  1515 
  1516 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1517   superseeded by a more general version:
  1518     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1519     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1520     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1521     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1522     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1523     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1524     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1525     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1527 
  1528 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1529 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1532 
  1533 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1534 
  1535   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1536   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1537 
  1538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1544 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1545 A)".
  1546 
  1547 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548 
  1549 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1550 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1551 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1552 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553 
  1554 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1555 dioid.
  1556 
  1557 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1558 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1559 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1560 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1563 of a more general type also:
  1564   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1565   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1566   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1567   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1568   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1569   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1570   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1571   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1572   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1573   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1574   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1575   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1576   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1577   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1578   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1579   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1580   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1581   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1582   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1583   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1584   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1585   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1586   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1587   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1588   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1589   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1590   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1591   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1592   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1593   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1594   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1595   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1596   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1597   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1598   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1599   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1600   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1601   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1602   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1603   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1604   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1605   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1606   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1607   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1608   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1609   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1610   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1611   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1612   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1613   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1614   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1615   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1616   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1617   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1618   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1619   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1620   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1621   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1622   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1623   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1624   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1625   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1626   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1627   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1628   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1629   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1630   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1631   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1632   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1633   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1634   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1635   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1636   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1637   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1638   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1639   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1640   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1641   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1642   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1643   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1644   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1645   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1646   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1647   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1648   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1649   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1650   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1651   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1655 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1658 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1659 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1660 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1661 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1662 
  1663 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1664 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1665 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1666 once.
  1667 
  1668 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1669 set_mset rather than count.
  1670 
  1671   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1672     by default.
  1673 
  1674   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1675     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1676 
  1677   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1678     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1679 
  1680   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1681     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1682 
  1683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1686 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1687 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1688 underscores.
  1689 
  1690 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1691 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1692 relation.
  1693 
  1694 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1695 everywhere fix bijections.
  1696 
  1697 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1698 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1699 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1700 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1701 
  1702 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1703 
  1704 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1705 
  1706 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1707 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1708 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1709 
  1710 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1711 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1712 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1713 
  1714 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1715 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1716 
  1717 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1718 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1719 domain.
  1720 
  1721 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1722 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1723 
  1724   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1725   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1726 
  1727 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1728 Probability Mass Functions.
  1729 
  1730 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1731 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1732 folding over a list in random order.
  1733 
  1734 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1735 subprobability distributions.
  1736 
  1737 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1738 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1739 
  1740     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1741     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1742     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1743     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1744     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1745     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1746     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1747     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1748     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1749     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1750     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1751     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1752     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1753     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1754     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1755     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1756     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1757     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1758     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1759     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1760     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1761     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1762 
  1763 Some functions have been renamed:
  1764     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1765 
  1766 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1767     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1768     #\<subset># ~> <
  1769     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1770     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1774 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1775 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1776 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1777 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1780 been renamed:
  1781 
  1782     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1783     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1784     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1785     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1786     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1787     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1788     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1789     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1790     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1791 
  1792     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1793     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1794     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1795     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1796     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1797     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1798     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1799     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1800     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1801     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1802     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1804 
  1805 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1809 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1810 
  1811     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1812     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1813     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1814     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1815     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1816     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1817     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1818     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1819     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1820     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1821     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1822     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1823     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1824     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1825     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1826     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1827     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1828 
  1829 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1830 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1831 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1832 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1833 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1834 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835 
  1836 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1837 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1839 
  1840 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1841 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1842 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1843 
  1844 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1845 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1846 removed or changed:
  1847 
  1848   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1849   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1850   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1851   union_single_eq_diff
  1852   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1853   diff_single_eq_union
  1854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855 
  1856 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1857 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1858 
  1859   mset_add
  1860   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1861   diff_single_eq_union
  1862   union_single_eq_diff
  1863   union_single_eq_member
  1864   add_eq_conv_diff
  1865   insert_noteq_member
  1866   add_eq_conv_ex
  1867   multi_member_split
  1868   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1869   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1870   mset_subset_insertD
  1871   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1872   insert_union_subset_iff
  1873   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1874   inter_add_left1
  1875   inter_add_left2
  1876   inter_add_right1
  1877   inter_add_right2
  1878   sup_union_left1
  1879   sup_union_left2
  1880   sup_union_right1
  1881   sup_union_right2
  1882   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1883   multi_nonempty_split
  1884   mset_insort
  1885   mset_update
  1886   mult1I
  1887   less_add
  1888   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1889   rel_mset_Zero
  1890   msed_map_invL
  1891   msed_map_invR
  1892   msed_rel_invL
  1893   msed_rel_invR
  1894   le_multiset_right_total
  1895   multiset_induct
  1896   multiset_induct2_size
  1897   multiset_induct2
  1898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1901 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1902 element:
  1903 
  1904   image_mset
  1905   mset
  1906   replicate_mset
  1907   mult1
  1908   pred_mset
  1909   rel_mset'
  1910   mset_insort
  1911 
  1912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1913 
  1914 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  1915 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  1916 
  1917   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  1918   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  1919   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  1920   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  1921   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  1922   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1923   count_single [simp] ~> []
  1924   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1925   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  1926   size_single [simp] ~> []
  1927   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1928   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1929   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1930   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1931   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  1932   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  1933   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  1934   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  1935   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  1936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1937 
  1938 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  1939 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  1940 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  1941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1942 
  1943 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  1944 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  1945 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  1948 multisets:
  1949 
  1950   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  1951   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  1952 
  1953 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  1954 and union of multisets have been changed:
  1955 
  1956   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  1957   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  1958 
  1959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1960 
  1961 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  1962 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  1963 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1964 
  1965 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  1966 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  1967 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  1968 
  1969 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  1970 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  1971 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  1972 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  1973 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  1974 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  1977 the following renaming
  1978 
  1979   prefixeq -> prefix
  1980   prefix -> strict_prefix
  1981   suffixeq -> suffix
  1982   suffix -> strict_suffix
  1983 
  1984 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  1985 
  1986 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  1987 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  1988 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  1989 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  1990 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  1991 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1992 
  1993 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  1994 theories.
  1995 
  1996 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  1997 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  1998 
  1999 
  2000 *** ML ***
  2001 
  2002 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2003 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2004 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2005 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2007 
  2008 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2009 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2010 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2011 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2012 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2013 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2014 superseded by General.Div.
  2015 
  2016 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2017 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2018 
  2019 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2020 with approximative output quality.
  2021 
  2022 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2023 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2026 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2027 requiring separate files.
  2028 
  2029 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2030 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2031 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2032 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2033 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2034 
  2035 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2036 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2037 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2038 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2039 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2040 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2041 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2044 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2045 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2046 
  2047 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2048 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2049 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2050 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2051 
  2052 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2053 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 
  2056 *** System ***
  2057 
  2058 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2059 
  2060 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2061 much less disk space.
  2062 
  2063 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2064 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2065 particular:
  2066 
  2067   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2068     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2069   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2070   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2071 
  2072 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2073 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2074 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2077 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2078 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2079 return code 1.
  2080 
  2081 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2082 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2083 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2084 
  2085 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2086 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2087 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2088 
  2089 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2090 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2091 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2092 by default).
  2093 
  2094 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2095 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2096 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2097 resulting log files.
  2098 
  2099 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2100 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2101 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2102 implicit default via option -p.
  2103 
  2104 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2105 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2106 
  2107 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2108 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2109 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2110 
  2111 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2112 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2113 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2114 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2115 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2118 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2119 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2120 
  2121 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2122 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2123 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2124 
  2125 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2126 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2127 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2128 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2129 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2130 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2131 been discontinued.
  2132 
  2133 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2134 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2135 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2136 
  2137 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2138 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2139 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2140 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2141 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2142 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2143 
  2144 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2145 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2146 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2147 connection).
  2148 
  2149 
  2150 
  2151 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2152 -----------------------------------
  2153 
  2154 *** General ***
  2155 
  2156 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2157 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2158 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2159 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2160 examples that do require HOL.
  2161 
  2162 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2163 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2164 
  2165 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2166 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2167 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2168 has been removed (see below).
  2169 
  2170 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2171 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2172 
  2173 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2174 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2175 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2176 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2177 
  2178 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2179 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2180 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2181 meaning.
  2182 
  2183 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2184 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2185 to update old sources.
  2186 
  2187 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2188 
  2189   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2190   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2191   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2192   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2193 
  2194 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2195 accordingly.
  2196 
  2197 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2198 'theorem'.
  2199 
  2200 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2201 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2202 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2203 
  2204 
  2205 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2206 
  2207 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2208 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2209 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2210 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2211 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2212 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2213 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2214 any effect on the running ML program.
  2215 
  2216 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2217 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2218 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2219 update.
  2220 
  2221 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2222 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2223 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2224 
  2225 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2226 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2227 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2228 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2229 visibility.
  2230 
  2231 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2232 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2233 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2234 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2235 panel.
  2236 
  2237 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2238 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2239 
  2240 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2241 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2242 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2243 
  2244 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2245 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2246 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2247 
  2248 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2249 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2250 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2251 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2252 
  2253 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2254 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2255 the editor.
  2256 
  2257 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2258 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2259 
  2260 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2261 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2262 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2263 instead.
  2264 
  2265 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2266 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2267 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2268 
  2269 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2270 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2271 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2272 
  2273 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2274 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2275 
  2276 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2277 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2278 
  2279 
  2280 *** Document preparation ***
  2281 
  2282 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2283 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2284 
  2285 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2286 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2287 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2288 
  2289 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2290 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2291 follows:
  2292 
  2293   \<^item>  itemize
  2294   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2295   \<^descr>  description
  2296 
  2297 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2298 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2299 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2300 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2301 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2302 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2303 
  2304 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2305 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2306 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2307 
  2308 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2309 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2310 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2311 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2312 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2313 
  2314 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2315 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2316 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2317 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2318 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2319 
  2320 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2321 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2322 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2323 
  2324 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2325 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2326 
  2327 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2328 
  2329 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2330 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2331 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2332 
  2333 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2334 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2335 
  2336 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2337 entities of the Isar language.
  2338 
  2339 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2340 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2341 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2342 
  2343 
  2344 *** Isar ***
  2345 
  2346 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2347 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2348 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2349 example:
  2350 
  2351   have result: "C x y"
  2352     if "A x" and "B y"
  2353     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2354     <proof>
  2355 
  2356 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2357 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2358 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2359 
  2360   {
  2361     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2362     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2363     have "C x y" <proof>
  2364   }
  2365   note result = this
  2366 
  2367 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2368 instead of 'assume' above.
  2369 
  2370 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2371 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2372 
  2373   assume result: "C x y"
  2374     if "A x" and "B y"
  2375     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2376 
  2377 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2378 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2379 
  2380 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2381 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2382 example:
  2383 
  2384   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2385 
  2386 is equivalent to:
  2387 
  2388   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2389 
  2390 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2391 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2392 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2393 follows:
  2394 
  2395   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2396 
  2397 or:
  2398 
  2399   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2400 
  2401 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2402 
  2403   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2404 
  2405 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2406 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2407 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2408 of the local context elements yet.
  2409 
  2410 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2411 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2412 
  2413   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2414   then have something
  2415   proof cases
  2416     case a
  2417     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2418   next
  2419     case b
  2420     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2421   next
  2422     case c
  2423     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2424   qed
  2425 
  2426 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2427 
  2428   case a: (c xs)
  2429   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2430 
  2431 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2432 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2433 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2434 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2435 and always put attributes in front.
  2436 
  2437 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2438 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2439 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2440 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2441 
  2442 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2443 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2444 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2445 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2446 
  2447   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2448     supply [simp] = a
  2449   proof
  2450     show A by simp
  2451   next
  2452     show A by simp
  2453   qed
  2454 
  2455 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2456 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2457 
  2458 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2459 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2460 
  2461 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2462 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2463 
  2464 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2465 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2466 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2467 manual.
  2468 
  2469 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2470 ('apply' scripts).
  2471 
  2472 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2473 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2474 example:
  2475 
  2476 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2477   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2478 proof goal_cases
  2479   case (1 x)
  2480   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2481 next
  2482   case (2 y z)
  2483   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2484 qed
  2485 
  2486 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2487   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2488 proof goal_cases
  2489   case prems: 1
  2490   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2491 next
  2492   case prems: 2
  2493   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2494 qed
  2495 
  2496 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2497 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2498 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2499 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2500 
  2501 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2502 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2503 
  2504 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2505 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2506 
  2507 
  2508 *** Pure ***
  2509 
  2510 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2511 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2512 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2513 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2514 
  2515 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2516 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2519 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2520 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2521 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2522 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2523 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2524 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2525 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2526 
  2527   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2528   begin
  2529     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2530   end
  2531 
  2532   locale morphism =
  2533     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2534     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2535   begin
  2536     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2537   end
  2538 
  2539 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2540 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2541 
  2542 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2543 'defines'.
  2544 
  2545 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2546 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2549 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2550 
  2551 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2552 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2555 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2556 exploited.
  2557 
  2558 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2559 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2560 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2561 
  2562 
  2563 *** HOL ***
  2564 
  2565 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2566 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2567 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2568 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2569 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2570 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2573 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2574 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2575 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2576 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2577 
  2578 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2579 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2580 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2581 simplify porting old theories:
  2582 
  2583   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2584 
  2585   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2586 
  2587   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2588   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2589 
  2590   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2591 
  2592   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2593   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2594 
  2595   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2596 
  2597   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2598     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2599 
  2600   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2601   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2602   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2603 
  2604   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2605   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2606   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2607 
  2608 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2609 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2610 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2611 
  2612 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2613 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2614 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2615 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2616 
  2617 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2618 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2619 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2620 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2623 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2624 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2625 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2628 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2629 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2633 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2634 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2635 
  2636 Consolidated facts:
  2637   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2638   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2639   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2640   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2641   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2642   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2643   split_split ~> prod.split
  2644   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2645   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2646   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2647   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2648   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2649   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2650   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2651   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2652   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2653   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2654   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2655   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2656   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2657   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2658   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2659   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2660   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2661   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2662   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2663   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2664   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2665   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2666   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2667   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2668   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2669   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2670   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2671   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2672 
  2673 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2674   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2675   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2676   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2677   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2678 
  2679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2682 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2683 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2684 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2685 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2686 
  2687 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2688   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2689   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2690   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2691   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2692   real_of_one of_int_1
  2693   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2694   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2695   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2696   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2697   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2698   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2699   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2700   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2701   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2702   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2703   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2704   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2705   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2706   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2707   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2708   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2709   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2710 
  2711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2714 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2717 
  2718 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2719 
  2720 * Sledgehammer:
  2721   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2722   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2723     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2724   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2725   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2726   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2727     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2729 
  2730 * Nitpick:
  2731   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2732   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2733   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2734   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2735   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2736 
  2737 * (Co)datatype package:
  2738   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2739     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2740   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2741   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2742     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2744     being defined.
  2745   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2746 
  2747 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2748 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2749 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2750 
  2751 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2752 
  2753 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2754 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2755 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2756 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2757 
  2758 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2762 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2763 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2764 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2765 
  2766 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2767 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2768 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2769 
  2770 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2771 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2772 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2773 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2774 
  2775 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2776 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2777 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2778 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2779 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2780 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2781 during instantiation.
  2782 
  2783 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2784 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2785 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2788 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2789 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2790 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2791 
  2792   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2793   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2794 
  2795 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * Library/Multiset:
  2798   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2799       < ~> <#
  2800       > ~> >#
  2801       <= ~> <=#
  2802       >= ~> >=#
  2803       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2804       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2805     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2807       \<subset>#
  2808       \<subseteq>#
  2809       \<supset>#
  2810       \<supseteq>#
  2811   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2812     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2813     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2814     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2815     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2816     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2817     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818   - Renamed conversions:
  2819       multiset_of ~> mset
  2820       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2821       set_of ~> set_mset
  2822     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2823   - Renamed lemmas:
  2824       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2825       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2826       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2827     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2828   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2829     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2830     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2831     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2832 
  2833 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2834 
  2835 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2836 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2837 chain-complete partial orders.
  2838 
  2839 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2840 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2841 
  2842 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2843 periodic functions.
  2844 
  2845 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2846 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2847 GCD.
  2848 
  2849 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2850 
  2851 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2852 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2853 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2854 
  2855 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2856 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2857 
  2858 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2859 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2860 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2861 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2862 
  2863 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2864 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2865 
  2866 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2867 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2868 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2869 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2870 properties.
  2871 
  2872 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2873 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2874 
  2875 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2876 structures.
  2877 
  2878 
  2879 *** ML ***
  2880 
  2881 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2882 system are available:
  2883 
  2884   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2885   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2886   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2887 
  2888 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2889 
  2890 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2891 Isar proof method.
  2892 
  2893 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2894 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2895 breaks.
  2896 
  2897 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2898 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2899 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900 
  2901 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2902 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2903 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2904 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2905 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2908 
  2909   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  2910   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  2911 
  2912   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  2913   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  2914 
  2915 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  2916 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  2917 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  2918 
  2919 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  2920 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  2921 instead (with proper context).
  2922 
  2923 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  2924 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  2925 
  2926 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  2927 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  2928 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  2929 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  2930 the proof context discipline.
  2931 
  2932 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  2933 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  2934 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  2935 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  2936 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 
  2939 *** System ***
  2940 
  2941 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  2942 
  2943 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  2944 conflations:
  2945 
  2946     hence  ~>  then have
  2947     thus   ~>  then show
  2948 
  2949 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  2950 maintainability of proofs.
  2951 
  2952 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  2953 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  2954 performance.
  2955 
  2956 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  2957 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  2958 
  2959     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  2960 
  2961 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  2962 space.
  2963 
  2964 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  2965 platforms as follows.
  2966 
  2967   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  2968     associated with the main app bundle
  2969 
  2970   - isabelle jedit: settings
  2971     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  2972     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2973 
  2974   - isabelle build: settings
  2975     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2976 
  2977 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  2978 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  2979 
  2980 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  2981 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  2982 required after change.
  2983 
  2984 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  2985 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  2986 
  2987 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  2988 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  2989 
  2990 
  2991 
  2992 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  2993 ------------------------------
  2994 
  2995 *** General ***
  2996 
  2997 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  2998 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  2999 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3000 
  3001   context
  3002   begin
  3003 
  3004   private definition ...
  3005   private lemma ...
  3006 
  3007   qualified definition ...
  3008   qualified lemma ...
  3009 
  3010   lemma ...
  3011   theorem ...
  3012 
  3013   end
  3014 
  3015 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3016 naming policy.
  3017 
  3018 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3019 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3020 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3021 
  3022 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3023 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3024 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3025 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3026 
  3027 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3028 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3029 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3033 theory context.
  3034 
  3035 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3036 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3037 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3038 
  3039 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3040 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3041 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3042 sources.
  3043 
  3044 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3045 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3046 
  3047 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3048 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3049 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3050 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3051 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3052 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3053 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3054 
  3055 
  3056 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3057 
  3058 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3059 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3060 
  3061 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3062 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3063 in the buffer.
  3064 
  3065 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3066 marker, SideKick parser.
  3067 
  3068 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3069 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3070 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3071 
  3072 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3073 Options / Text Area).
  3074 
  3075 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3076 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3077 
  3078 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3079 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3080 
  3081 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3082 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3083 
  3084 
  3085 *** Document preparation ***
  3086 
  3087 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3088 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3089 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3090 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3091 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3092 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3093 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3094 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3097 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3098 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3099 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3100 
  3101 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3102 style.
  3103 
  3104 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3105 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3106 
  3107 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3108 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3109 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3110 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3111 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3112 
  3113 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3114 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3115 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3116 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3117 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3118 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3119 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3120 
  3121 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3122 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3123 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3125 
  3126 
  3127 *** Pure ***
  3128 
  3129 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3130 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3131 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3132 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3133 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3134 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3135 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3136 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3137 
  3138 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3139 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3140 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3141 
  3142 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3143 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3144 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3145 different index.
  3146 
  3147 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3148 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3149 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3150 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3151 
  3152 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3153 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3154 token category instead.
  3155 
  3156 
  3157 *** HOL ***
  3158 
  3159 * New (co)datatype package:
  3160   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3161     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3162     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3163     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3164     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165   - Renamed theorems:
  3166       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3167       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3168       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3169       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3170       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3171       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3172       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3173       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3174       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3175       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3176       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3177       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3178       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3179     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3181     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3182     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3184     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3187     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3188     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3189     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3190     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3191     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3192     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193   - Renamed theories:
  3194       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3195       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3196       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3197       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3198       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3199       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3200     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3202     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3203     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3204     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3205     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3206     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3207     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3208     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3209     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3210   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3211     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3212     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3213     rules.
  3214 
  3215 * Old datatype package:
  3216   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3217     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3218     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3219     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3220     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221   - Renamed theorems:
  3222       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3223     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224   - Renamed theory:
  3225       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3226     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227 
  3228 * Nitpick:
  3229   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3230     operations.
  3231 
  3232 * Sledgehammer:
  3233   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3234     default.
  3235   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3236     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3237   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3238     Removed sub-command:
  3239       min
  3240   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3241     dramatically improved.
  3242   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3243 
  3244 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3245   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3246     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3247     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3248     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3249     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3250     point to it.
  3251     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3255     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3256   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3257     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3258 
  3259 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3260 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3261 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3262 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3263 
  3264 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3265 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3266 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3269 
  3270 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3271 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3272 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3273 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3276 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3282 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3283 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3286 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3289 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3290 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3291 
  3292 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3293 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3294 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3295 needed.
  3296 
  3297 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3298 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3299 
  3300 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3301 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3302 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3303 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3304 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3305 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3306 
  3307 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3308 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3309 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3310 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3311 
  3312 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3313 type class hierarchy:
  3314   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3315   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3316   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3317   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3318 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3321   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3322   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3323 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3326 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3327 
  3328 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3329   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3330   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3331   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3332 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3335 and part of theory Main.
  3336   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3343 Fact rename:
  3344     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346 
  3347 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3348 
  3349 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3350 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3351 
  3352 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3353 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3354 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3355 
  3356 * Library/Multiset:
  3357   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3358   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3359     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3360   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3361       <# ~> #<#
  3362       <=# ~> #<=#
  3363       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3364       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3367       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3368       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3369     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370   - Renamed
  3371       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3372       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3373       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3376   - Added attributes:
  3377       image_mset.id [simp]
  3378       image_mset_id [simp]
  3379       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3380       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3381       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3382       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3383       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3384       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3385     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3388 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3389 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3390 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3393 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3394 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3395 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3396 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3397 examples.
  3398 
  3399 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3400   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3401   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3402   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3403     projection
  3404 
  3405 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3406 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3407 
  3408 
  3409 *** ML ***
  3410 
  3411 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3412 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3413 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3414 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3415 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3416 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3418 
  3419 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3420 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3421 
  3422 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3423 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3424 
  3425 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3429 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3430 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3431 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3432 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3433 nested.
  3434 
  3435 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3436 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3439 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3440 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3444 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3445 Thm.term_of etc.
  3446 
  3447 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3448 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3449 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3452 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3453 
  3454 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3455 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3456 
  3457 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3458 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3459 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3462 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3463 
  3464 
  3465 *** System ***
  3466 
  3467 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3468 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3469 
  3470 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3471 
  3472 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3473 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3474 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3475 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3479 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3480 
  3481 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3482 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3483 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3484 
  3485 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3486 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3487 
  3488 
  3489 
  3490 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3491 ---------------------------------
  3492 
  3493 *** General ***
  3494 
  3495 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3496 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3497 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3498 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3499 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3500 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3501 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3502 some examples.
  3503 
  3504 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3505 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3506 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3507 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3508 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3509 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3510 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3511 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3512 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3513 
  3514 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3515 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3516 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3517 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3518 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3519 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3520 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3521 proof tools.
  3522 
  3523 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3524 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3525 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3526 
  3527 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3528 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3529 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3530 
  3531 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3532 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3533 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3534 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535 
  3536 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3537 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3538 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3542 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3543 
  3544 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3545 not check existence within the file-system.
  3546 
  3547 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3548 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3549 
  3550 
  3551 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3552 
  3553 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3554 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3555 buffer.
  3556 
  3557 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3558 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3559 
  3560 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3561 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3562 
  3563 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3564 auxiliary ML files.
  3565 
  3566 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3567 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3568 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3569 
  3570 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3571 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3572 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3573 
  3574 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3575 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3576 
  3577 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3578 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3579 caret".
  3580 
  3581 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3582 completion popup and context-menu.
  3583 
  3584 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3585 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3586 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3587 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3588 
  3589 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3590 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3591 
  3592 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3593 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3594 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3595 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3596 
  3597 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3598 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3599 
  3600 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3601 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3602 
  3603 * Improved monitor panel.
  3604 
  3605 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3606 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3607 
  3608 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3609 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3610 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3611 
  3612 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3613 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3614 within the context.
  3615 
  3616 
  3617 *** Pure ***
  3618 
  3619 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3620 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3621 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3622 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3623 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3624 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3625 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3626 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3627 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3628 
  3629 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3630 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3631 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3632 renaming needs to be applied:
  3633 
  3634   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3635   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3636   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3637   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3638   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3639 
  3640 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3641 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3642 old constants:
  3643 
  3644 setup {*
  3645   fn thy => thy
  3646     |> Sign.root_path
  3647     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3648     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3649     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3650     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3651 *}
  3652 
  3653 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3654 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3655 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3656 
  3657 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3658 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3659 instantiated theorem.
  3660 
  3661 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3662 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3663 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3664 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3665 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3666 
  3667   attribute_setup standard =
  3668     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3669 
  3670 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3671 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3672 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3673 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3674 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3675 
  3676 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3677 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3678 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3679 
  3680 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3681 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3682 
  3683 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3684 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3685 
  3686 
  3687 *** HOL ***
  3688 
  3689 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3690 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3699 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3705 with the given constants.
  3706 
  3707 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3708 operations on records.
  3709 
  3710 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3711 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3716 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3717 
  3718 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3721 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3722 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3723 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3724 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3727 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3730   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3731   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3732   part of theory "Main".
  3733 
  3734   Theory renamings:
  3735     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3736     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3737     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3738     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3739     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3740     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3741     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3742     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3743     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3744     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3745     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3746     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3747     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3748     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3749     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3750     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3751     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3752     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3753     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3754     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3755     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3756     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3757 
  3758   New theories:
  3759     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3760     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3761     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3762     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3763     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3764 
  3765   Discontinued theories:
  3766     BNF/BNF.thy
  3767     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3768 
  3769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * New (co)datatype package:
  3772   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3773   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3774     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3775   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3776     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3777   - Renamed commands:
  3778       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3779       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3780       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3781     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3783     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3784     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3786     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3787     using "prim(co)rec".
  3788     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3790     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3791     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3793     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3794     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3795     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3796 
  3797 * Old datatype package:
  3798   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3799     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3800     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3802     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3803     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3806   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3807   BNF-based datatype package.
  3808 
  3809   Renamed constants:
  3810     Option.set ~> set_option
  3811     Option.map ~> map_option
  3812     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3813 
  3814   Renamed theorems:
  3815     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3816     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3817     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3818     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3819     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3820     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3821     map.simps ~> list.map
  3822     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3823     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3824     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3825 
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3829     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3830     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3831     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3832     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3833     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3834     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3835     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3836     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3837     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3838     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3839 
  3840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3843   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3844   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3845   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3846   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3847     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3848     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3849       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3850       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3851       automatically
  3852     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3853     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3854       automatically for datatypes
  3855   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3856     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3857       more
  3858       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3860       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3861       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3863       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3864       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3866     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3868     form
  3869     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3871     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3873     Code_Numeral.natural
  3874     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3876     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3879 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3880 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3881 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3882 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3883 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3884 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3887 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3888 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3889 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3890 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3891 
  3892 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3893 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3894 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3895 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3896 
  3897 * Sledgehammer:
  3898   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3899   - MaSh overhaul:
  3900     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3901       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3902     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3903       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3904       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3905       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3906   - New option:
  3907       smt_proofs
  3908   - Renamed options:
  3909       isar_compress ~> compress
  3910       isar_try0 ~> try0
  3911 
  3912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  3915 
  3916 * Nitpick:
  3917   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  3918     take infinite values.
  3919   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  3920     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  3921   - Removed "std" option.
  3922   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  3923     "hide_types".
  3924 
  3925 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  3926 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  3929 
  3930 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  3931   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  3932   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  3933     SUP instead uniformly.
  3934   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  3935     or SUP and Sup.
  3936   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  3937   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  3938   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  3939     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  3940     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  3941 
  3942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  3945 
  3946 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  3947 
  3948   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3949   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3950   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3951   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3952 
  3953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  3956 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  3957 
  3958 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  3959 
  3960     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  3961     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  3962     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  3963     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  3964     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  3965     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  3966     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  3967     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  3968     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  3969     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  3970     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  3971     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  3972     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  3973     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  3974     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3975     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3976     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  3977     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  3978     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  3979     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  3980     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  3981     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  3982     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  3983     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  3984     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  3985     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  3986     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  3987     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  3988     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  3989     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  3990     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  3991     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  3992     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  3993     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  3994     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  3995     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  3996     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  3997     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  3998     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  3999     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4000     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4001     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4002     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4003     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4004     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4005     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4006     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4007     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4008     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4009     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4010     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4011     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4012     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4013     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4014     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4015     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4016     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4017     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4018     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4019 
  4020   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4021   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4022   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4023     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4024 
  4025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4028 
  4029   Fact consolidations:
  4030     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4031     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4032     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4033     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4034     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4035     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4036     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4037     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4038     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4039     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4040     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4041     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4042     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4043     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4044     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4045     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4046     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4047     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4048     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4049     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4050     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4051     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4052     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4053     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4054     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4055     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4056     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4057     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4058     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4059     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4060     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4061     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4062     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4063     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4064     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4065     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4066     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4067     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4068     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4069     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4070 
  4071 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4072 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4073 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4074 
  4075 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4076 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4077 
  4078 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4079 
  4080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4083 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4089     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4090 
  4091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4094   consolidation:
  4095     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4096     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4097 
  4098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4101   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4102   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4103   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4104     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4105   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4106     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4107   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4108 
  4109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4112 
  4113     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4114     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4115     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4116     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4117     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4118     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4119     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4120     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4121     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4122     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4123     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4124     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4125     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4126 
  4127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4130 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4131 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4132 
  4133 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4134     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4135     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4136     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4137     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4138 
  4139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * Fact name consolidation:
  4142     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4143     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4144     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4145     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4146     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4147 
  4148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4149 
  4150 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4151 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4152 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4153 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4154 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4155 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4156 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4158 
  4159 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4160 
  4161 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4162 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4163 
  4164 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4165 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4166 
  4167 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4168 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4169 or the brute way with
  4170 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4171 
  4172 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4173 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4174 stating boundedness of sets.
  4175 
  4176 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4177 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4178 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4181   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4182   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4183   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4184   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4185   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4186   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4187   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4188   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4189   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4190   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4191   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4192 
  4193   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4194 
  4195   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4196 
  4197     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4198     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4199     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4200     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4201     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4202 
  4203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4204 
  4205 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4206   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4207 
  4208   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4209 
  4210   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4211 
  4212   - removed constant isDiff
  4213 
  4214   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4215     input syntax.
  4216 
  4217   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4218 
  4219   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4220 
  4221   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4222 
  4223   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4224 
  4225   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4226     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4227     has_vector_derivative.
  4228 
  4229   - Other renamings:
  4230     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4231     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4232     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4233     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4234     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4235     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4236     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4237 
  4238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4241 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4242 in continuous_intros.
  4243 
  4244 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4245 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4246 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4247 
  4248 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4249 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4250 especially removes
  4251 
  4252     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4253 
  4254 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4255     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4256 
  4257 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4258 
  4259   Renamings:
  4260     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4261     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4262     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4263     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4264     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4265     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4266     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4267     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4268     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4269     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4270     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4271     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4272 
  4273     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4274     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4275     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4276 
  4277   Removed theorems:
  4278     complex_zero_def
  4279     complex_add_def
  4280     complex_minus_def
  4281     complex_diff_def
  4282     complex_one_def
  4283     complex_mult_def
  4284     complex_inverse_def
  4285     complex_scaleR_def
  4286 
  4287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4290 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4291 
  4292 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4293 
  4294 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4295 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4296 
  4297 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4298 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4299 
  4300 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4301 
  4302 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * HOL-Word:
  4306   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4307     of "word_arith_wis".
  4308   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4309     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4310     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4311 
  4312 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4313   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4314   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4315   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4316     (except the AFP)
  4317 
  4318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4321   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4322   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4323     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4324   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4325     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4326     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4327     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4328     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4329     intervals.
  4330   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4331     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4332     - renamed theorems:
  4333         interval ~> box
  4334         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4335         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4336         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4337         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4338         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4339         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4340         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4341         open_interval ~> open_box
  4342         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4343         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4344         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4345         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4346         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4347         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4348         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4349         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4350         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4351         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4352         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4353         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4354         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4355         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4356         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4357         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4358         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4359         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4360         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4361         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4362         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4363         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4364         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4365         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4366 
  4367     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4368         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4369         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4370         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4371         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4372         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4373         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4374         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4375         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4376         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4377         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4378         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4379         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4380         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4381         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4382         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4383         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4384         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4385 
  4386   - renamed theorems:
  4387     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4388     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4389     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4390 
  4391 * HOL-Probability:
  4392   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4393 
  4394     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4395       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4396 
  4397     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4398 
  4399   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4400     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4401 
  4402     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4403     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4404     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4405     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4406     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4407     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4408     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4409     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4410     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4411     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4412     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4413     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4414     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4415     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4416     integral_indicator          ~>
  4417          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4418     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4419     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4420     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4421 
  4422     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4423          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4424 
  4425     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4426          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4427 
  4428     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4429          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4430 
  4431     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4432          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4433          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4434 
  4435     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4436          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4437 
  4438     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4439          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4440 
  4441     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4442          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4443          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4444 
  4445     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4446          nn_integral_real_affine
  4447 
  4448     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4449          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4450 
  4451     The following theorems where removed:
  4452 
  4453     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4454     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4455     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4456     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4457     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4458     integral_cmul_indicator
  4459     integral_real
  4460 
  4461   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4462     distributed random variables.
  4463 
  4464 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4465 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468 
  4469 *** Scala ***
  4470 
  4471 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4472 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4473 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4474 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4475 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4478 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 
  4481 *** ML ***
  4482 
  4483 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4484 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4485 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4486 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4487 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4488 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4489 
  4490 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4491 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4492 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4493 actually belongs to it).
  4494 
  4495 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4496 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4497 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4498 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4499 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4500 of schematic variables.
  4501 
  4502 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4503 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4504 
  4505 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4506 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4507 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4508 
  4509 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511 
  4512 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4513 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4514 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4516 
  4517 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4518 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4519 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4520 formal context.
  4521 
  4522 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4523 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4526 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4527 
  4528 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4529 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4530 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4531 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4532 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4533 
  4534 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4535 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4536 purposes.
  4537 
  4538 
  4539 *** System ***
  4540 
  4541 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4542 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4543 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4544 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4545 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4546 
  4547 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4548 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4549 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4550 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4551 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4552 settings variable.
  4553 
  4554 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4555 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4556 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4557 
  4558 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4559 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4560 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4561 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4562 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4563 
  4564 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4565 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4566 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4567 
  4568 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4569 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4570 
  4571 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4572 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4573 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4574 
  4575 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4576 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4577 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4578 processing is started.
  4579 
  4580 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4581 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4582 
  4583 
  4584 
  4585 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4586 -------------------------------------
  4587 
  4588 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4589 
  4590 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4591 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4592 
  4593 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4594 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4595 
  4596 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4597 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4598 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4599 
  4600 
  4601 *** System ***
  4602 
  4603 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4604 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4605 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4606 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4607 
  4608 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4609 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4610 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4611 
  4612 
  4613 
  4614 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4615 -------------------------------------
  4616 
  4617 *** General ***
  4618 
  4619 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4620 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4621 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4622 
  4623 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4624 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4627 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4628 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4629 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4630 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4631 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4632 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4633 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4634 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4635 syntax.
  4636 
  4637 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4638 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4639 
  4640 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4641 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4642 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4643 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4644 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4645 
  4646 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4650 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4651 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4652 
  4653 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4654 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4655 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4656 
  4657 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4658 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4659 
  4660 
  4661 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4662 
  4663 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4664 Documentation panel.
  4665 
  4666 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4667 documentation.
  4668 
  4669 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4670 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4671 
  4672 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4673 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4674 normal editing and checking process.
  4675 
  4676 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4677 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4678 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4679 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4680 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4681 
  4682 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4683 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4684 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4685 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4686 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4687 
  4688 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4689 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4690 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4691 
  4692 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4693 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4694 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4695 to resolve conflict.
  4696 
  4697 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4698 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4699 
  4700 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4701 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4702 such command executions while editing.
  4703 
  4704 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4705 document content.
  4706 
  4707 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4708 toplevel theorem statements.
  4709 
  4710 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4711 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4712 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4713 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4714 
  4715 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4716 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4717 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4718 
  4719 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4720 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4721 
  4722 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4723 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4724 
  4725 
  4726 *** Pure ***
  4727 
  4728 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4729 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4730 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4731 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4732 details.
  4733 
  4734 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4735 
  4736 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4737 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4738 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4739 
  4740 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4744 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4745 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4746 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4747 
  4748 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4749 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4750 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4753 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4754 
  4755 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4756 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4757 situations.
  4758 
  4759 
  4760 *** HOL ***
  4761 
  4762 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4763 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4767 
  4768 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4769 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4770 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4771 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4772 
  4773   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4774 
  4775 * Code generator:
  4776   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4777     'code_instance'.
  4778   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4779     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4780 
  4781 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4782 examples.
  4783 
  4784 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4785 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4786 to distinguish both when desired.
  4787 
  4788 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4789 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4790 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4791 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4792 
  4793 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4794 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4795 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4796 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4797 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4798 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4801 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4802 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4803 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4804 
  4805 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4806 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4807 
  4808 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4809 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4810 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4811 
  4812 * Lifting:
  4813   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4814     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4815       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4816       transfer rules
  4817     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4818       correspondence relation can be generated
  4819     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4820       parametricity
  4821     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4822   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4823   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4824     copies
  4825   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4826     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4827     anonymous context)
  4828   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4829     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4830   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4831     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4832   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4833     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4834 
  4835 * Transfer:
  4836   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4837     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4838   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4839   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4840     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4841   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4842 
  4843 * Reification and reflection:
  4844   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4845     "Reification".
  4846   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4847   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4851   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4852     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4853     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4854   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4855     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4856   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4857     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4858     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4859     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4860     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4861     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4862     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4863     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4864   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4865     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4866   - Fact renames:
  4867       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4868       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4872 
  4873 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4874 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4875 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4877 
  4878 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4879 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4880 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4881 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4882 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4883 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4884 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4885 lemmas.
  4886 
  4887 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4888 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4889 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4892 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4893 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4894 
  4895 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4896 top and bottom elements.
  4897 
  4898 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4899 
  4900 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4901 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4902 
  4903  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4904    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4905    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4906 
  4907  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4908    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  4909    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  4910 
  4911    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  4912    arbitrary filter.
  4913 
  4914  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  4915    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  4916    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  4917    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  4918    on a compact set.
  4919 
  4920  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  4921    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  4922    linear_continuum_topology).
  4923 
  4924  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  4925    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  4926    on all sequences converging to x.
  4927 
  4928  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  4929    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  4930    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  4931    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  4932    left or right.
  4933 
  4934  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  4935 
  4936      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  4937 
  4938  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  4939    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  4940 
  4941  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  4942    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  4943    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  4944    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  4945    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  4946    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  4947 
  4948  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  4949 
  4950    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  4951 
  4952    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  4953      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  4954 
  4955    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  4956 
  4957    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  4958      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  4959 
  4960    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  4961 
  4962    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  4963 
  4964  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  4965 
  4966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4967 
  4968 * Nitpick:
  4969   - Added option "spy".
  4970   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  4971 
  4972 * Sledgehammer:
  4973   - Renamed option:
  4974       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  4975     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4976   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  4977   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  4978   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  4979 
  4980 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  4981 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  4982 
  4983 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  4984   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  4985   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  4986     generated code.
  4987   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  4988   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  4989   - Fact renames:
  4990     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  4991     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  4992     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  4993 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4994 
  4995 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  4996 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  4997 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  4998 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  4999 
  5000 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5001 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5002 
  5003 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5006 
  5007     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5008     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5009 
  5010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5013 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5014 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5015 
  5016 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5017 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5018 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5019 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5020 
  5021 * HOL-BNF:
  5022   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5023     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5024     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5025     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5026   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5027     coinduct).
  5028   - Renamed keywords:
  5029     data ~> datatype_new
  5030     codata ~> codatatype
  5031     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5032   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5033     discs ~> disc
  5034     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5035     map_id' ~> map_id
  5036     sels ~> sel
  5037     set_map' ~> set_map
  5038     sets ~> set
  5039 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5040 
  5041 
  5042 *** ML ***
  5043 
  5044 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5045 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5046 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5047 Examples.thy in particular.
  5048 
  5049 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5050 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5051 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5052 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5053 
  5054 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5055 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5056 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5057 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5061 
  5062     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5063     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5064 
  5065 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066 
  5067 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5068 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5069 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5070 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5071 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5072 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5073 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5074 
  5075 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5076 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5077 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5078 clasets separately from the context.
  5079 
  5080 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5082 
  5083 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5084 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5085 
  5086 
  5087 *** System ***
  5088 
  5089 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5090 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5091 
  5092 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5093 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5094 
  5095 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5096 settings variable.
  5097 
  5098 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5099 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5100 always pdf.
  5101 
  5102 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5103 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5104 
  5105 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5106 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5107 
  5108 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5109 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5110 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5111 
  5112 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5113 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5114 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5115 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5116 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5117 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5118 
  5119 
  5120 
  5121 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5122 -----------------------------------
  5123 
  5124 *** General ***
  5125 
  5126 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5127 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5128 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5129 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5130 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5131 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5132 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5133 
  5134 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5135 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5136 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5137 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5138 
  5139 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5140 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5141 
  5142 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5143 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5144 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5145 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5146 dependencies properly.
  5147 
  5148 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5149 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5150 
  5151 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5152 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5153 
  5154 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5155 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5156 and "class ... context ...".
  5157 
  5158 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5159 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5160 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5161 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5162 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5163 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5164 
  5165 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5166 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5167 
  5168 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5169 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5170 
  5171 
  5172 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5173 
  5174 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5175 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5176 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5177 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5178 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5179 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5180 
  5181 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5182 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5183 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5184 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5185 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5186 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5187 
  5188 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5189 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5190 browser on demand.
  5191 
  5192 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5193 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5194 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5195 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5196 
  5197 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5198 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5199 
  5200 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5201 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5202 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5203 potentially infinite message streams.
  5204 
  5205 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5206 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5207 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5208 schemes.
  5209 
  5210 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5211 symbols.
  5212 
  5213 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5214 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5215 
  5216 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5217 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5218 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5219 
  5220 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5221 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5222 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5223 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5224 
  5225 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5226 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5227 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5228 
  5229 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5230 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5231 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5232 Isabelle distribution.
  5233 
  5234 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5235 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5236 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5237 
  5238 
  5239 *** Pure ***
  5240 
  5241 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5242 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5243 
  5244 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5245 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5246 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5247 
  5248 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5249 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5250 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5251 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5252 with some care where this is really required.
  5253 
  5254 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5255 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5256 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5257 
  5258   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5259 
  5260 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5261 a Hasse diagram.
  5262 
  5263 
  5264 *** HOL ***
  5265 
  5266 * Sledgehammer:
  5267 
  5268   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5269     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5270   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5271   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5272   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5273   - Renamed options:
  5274       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5275       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5276       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5277       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5278 
  5279 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5280 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5281 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5282 
  5283 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5285 
  5286 * Lifting:
  5287   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5288   - quot_del attribute
  5289   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5290 
  5291 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5292 expressions.
  5293 
  5294 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5295 pointfree expressions.
  5296 
  5297 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5298 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5299 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5300 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5302 
  5303 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5304 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5305 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5306 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5307 accordingly.
  5308 
  5309 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5310 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5313 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5318 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5319 
  5320 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5321 
  5322 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5323 
  5324   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5325   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5326 
  5327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5330 
  5331   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5332   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5333 
  5334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5335 
  5336 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5337 
  5338   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5339     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5340     output f x converges to G.
  5341 
  5342   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5343     infinity (at_bot).
  5344 
  5345   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5346     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5347 
  5348   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5349     at_top".
  5350 
  5351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5354 lattice type classes.
  5355 
  5356 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5357 
  5358     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5359     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5360 
  5361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5362 
  5363 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5364 changes as follows.
  5365 
  5366   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5367 
  5368       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5369       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5370 
  5371   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5372     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5373     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5374     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5375 
  5376   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5377     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5378     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5379 
  5380   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5381     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5382     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5383     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5384 
  5385   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5386     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5387 
  5388       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5389       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5390       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5391       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5392       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5393       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5394       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5395       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5396       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5397       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5398       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5399       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5400       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5401       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5402       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5403       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5404 
  5405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5408 
  5409 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5410 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5411 
  5412 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5413 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5414 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5415 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5416 
  5417   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5418   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5419   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5420   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5421   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5422   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5423   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5424   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5425   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5426   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5427 
  5428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5429 
  5430 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5431 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5432 Data").
  5433 
  5434 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5435 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5436 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5437 code.
  5438 
  5439 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5440 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5441 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 
  5444 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5445 
  5446 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5447 
  5448 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5449 
  5450   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5451   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5452 
  5453 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5454 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5455 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5456 
  5457   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5458 
  5459     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5460     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5461     cart_base i  removed
  5462     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5463 
  5464   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5465 
  5466   Renamed lemmas:
  5467 
  5468     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5469     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5470     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5471     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5472     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5473     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5474     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5475     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5476     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5477     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5478 
  5479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5480 
  5481 * HOL/Probability:
  5482 
  5483   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5484 
  5485   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5486     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5487     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5488 
  5489   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5490     projective family).
  5491 
  5492 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5493 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5494 
  5495 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5496 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5497 datatypes.
  5498 
  5499 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5500 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5501 
  5502 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5503 trees for the code generator.
  5504 
  5505 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5506 Lifting/Transfer.
  5507 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5511 
  5512 
  5513 *** Document preparation ***
  5514 
  5515 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5516 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5517 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5518 
  5519 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5520 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5521 
  5522 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5523 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5524 document/root.tex.
  5525 
  5526 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5527 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5528 
  5529 
  5530 *** ML ***
  5531 
  5532 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5533 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5534 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5535 
  5536 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5537 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5538 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5539 
  5540 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5541 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5542 necessarily printing visible text.
  5543 
  5544 
  5545 *** System ***
  5546 
  5547 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5548 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5549 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5550 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5551 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5552 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5553 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5554 
  5555 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5556 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5557 
  5558   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5559 
  5560 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5561 
  5562 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5563 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5564 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5565 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5566 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5567 
  5568 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5569 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5570 
  5571 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5572 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5573 
  5574 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5576 
  5577 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5578 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5579 version of Isabelle.
  5580 
  5581 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5582 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5583 
  5584 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5585 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5586 for home-made settings.
  5587 
  5588 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5589 
  5590 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5591 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5592 configuration.
  5593 
  5594 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5595 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5596 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5597 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5598 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5599 
  5600 
  5601 
  5602 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5603 ------------------------------
  5604 
  5605 *** General ***
  5606 
  5607 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5608 
  5609   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5610     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5611   - markup for bound variables
  5612   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5613   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5614   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5615     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5616 
  5617 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5618 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5619 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5620 
  5621 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5622 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5623 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5624 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5625 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5626 
  5627   context
  5628     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5629     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5630   begin
  5631 
  5632   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5633 
  5634   end
  5635 
  5636   thm my_trans
  5637 
  5638 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5639 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5640 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5641 
  5642 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5643 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5644 
  5645 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5646 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5647 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5648 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5649 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5650 
  5651 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5652 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5653 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5654 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5655 indices of schematic variables.
  5656 
  5657 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5658 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5659 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5660 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5661 etc. was exploited.
  5662 
  5663 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5664 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5665 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5666 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5667 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5668 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5669 
  5670 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5671 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5672 manual.
  5673 
  5674 
  5675 *** Pure ***
  5676 
  5677 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5678 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5679 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5680 
  5681 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5682 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5683 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5684 undocumented feature.)
  5685 
  5686 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5687 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5688 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5689 
  5690   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5691 
  5692   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5693     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5694 
  5695 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5696 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5697 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5698 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5699 
  5700 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5701 
  5702     num ~> num_token
  5703     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5704     xstr ~> str_token
  5705 
  5706 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5707 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5708 position information via constraints).
  5709 
  5710 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5711 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5712 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5715 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5716 
  5717 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5718 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5719 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5720 
  5721 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5722 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5723 
  5724 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5725 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5726 
  5727   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5728 
  5729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5732 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5735 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5736 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5737 
  5738 
  5739 *** HOL ***
  5740 
  5741 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5742 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5743 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5744 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5745 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5746 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5747 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5748 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5749 possible.
  5750 
  5751 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5752 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5753 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5754 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5755 
  5756 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5757 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5758 
  5759 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5760 
  5761 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5762 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5763 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5764 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5765 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5766 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5767 
  5768   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5769     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5770 
  5771   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5772     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5773     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5774 
  5775   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5776     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5777 
  5778   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5779     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5780     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5781 
  5782   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5783     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5784 
  5785 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5786 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5787 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5788 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5789 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5790 
  5791   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5792     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5793     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5794     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5795     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5796 
  5797     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5798     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5799 
  5800   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5801     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5802     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5803     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5804     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5805     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5806     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5807     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5808 
  5809   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5810     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5811     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5812     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5813 
  5814   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5815     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5816     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5817     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5818 
  5819   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5820     from type nat to type int.
  5821 
  5822 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5823 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5824 
  5825   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5826     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5827     type.  Example syntax:
  5828 
  5829     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5830       is List.insert
  5831 
  5832     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5833     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5834     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5835     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5836     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5837     by the package.
  5838 
  5839   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5840     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5841     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5842     code generation for each constant.
  5843 
  5844   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5845     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5846     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5847     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5848     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5849 
  5850   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5851     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5852     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5853 
  5854 * Quotient package:
  5855 
  5856   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5857     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5858 
  5859   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5860     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5861 
  5862   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5863     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5864     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5865 
  5866   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5867     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868 
  5869 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5870 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5871 
  5872 * Quickcheck:
  5873 
  5874   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5875     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5876     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5877     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5878     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5879 
  5880     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5881     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5882     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5883 
  5884     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5885     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5886 
  5887     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5888     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5889     show genuine counterexamples.
  5890 
  5891   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5892     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5893 
  5894     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5895     constructors of that type.
  5896 
  5897   - Support for multisets.
  5898 
  5899   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5900 
  5901   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5902     conjectures in a locale context.
  5903 
  5904 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5905 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5906 
  5907 * Sledgehammer:
  5908   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  5909     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  5910   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  5911   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  5912     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  5913   - Sped up the minimizer.
  5914   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  5915   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  5916   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  5917 
  5918 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  5919 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  5920 
  5921 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  5922 
  5923 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5924 
  5925 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  5926 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  5927 
  5928   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  5929 
  5930 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  5931 a list and a nat.
  5932 
  5933 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  5934 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  5935 
  5936 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  5937 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  5938 default.
  5939 
  5940 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  5941 
  5942   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  5943 
  5944 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  5945 
  5946 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  5947 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  5948 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  5949 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  5950 one_case.
  5951 
  5952 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  5953 the result of the fact expression.
  5954 
  5955 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  5956 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  5957 of some relation theorems:
  5958 
  5959   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  5960   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5961   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  5962   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  5963   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  5964   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  5965 
  5966 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  5967 
  5968 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  5969 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  5970 
  5971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5972 
  5973 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  5974 to match the constant's name:
  5975 
  5976   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  5977   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  5978   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  5979   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  5980   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  5981   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  5982   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  5983   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  5984   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  5985   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  5986   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  5987   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  5988   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  5989   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  5990   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  5991   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  5992   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  5993   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  5994   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  5995   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  5996   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  5997   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5998   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5999   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6000 
  6001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6002 
  6003 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6004 and corresponding theorem names:
  6005 
  6006   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6007 
  6008   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6009 
  6010   - Renamed theorems:
  6011 
  6012     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6013     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6014     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6015     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6016     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6017     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6018     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6019     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6020     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6021     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6022     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6023     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6024     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6025     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6026     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6027     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6028     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6029     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6030     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6031     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6032     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6033     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6034     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6035 
  6036     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6037 
  6038     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6039 
  6040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6041 
  6042 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6043 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6044 
  6045   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6046   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6047   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6048   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6049   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6050   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6051   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6052   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6053   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6054   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6055   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6056   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6057   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6058   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6059   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6060   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6061   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6062   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6063   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6064   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6065   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6066 
  6067 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6068 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6071 
  6072 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6073 
  6074   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6075   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6076   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6077   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6078   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6079   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6080   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6081   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6082   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6083   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6084   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6085   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6086   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6087   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6088   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6089   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6090   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6091   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6092 
  6093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6094 
  6095 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6096 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6097 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6098 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6099 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6100 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6101 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6102 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6103 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6104 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6105 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6106 
  6107 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6108 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6109 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6110 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6111 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6112 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6113 
  6114 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6115 through option types.
  6116 
  6117 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6118 relations.
  6119 
  6120 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6121 
  6122 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6123 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6124 
  6125   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6126   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6127   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6128   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6129   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6130   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6131   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6132   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6133   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6134   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6135   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6136   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6137   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6138   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6139   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6140   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6141   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6142   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6143   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6144   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6145   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6146   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6147   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6148   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6149   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6150   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6151   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6152   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6153   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6154   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6155   zless_le ~> less_le
  6156   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6157   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6158   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6159 
  6160 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6161 
  6162   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6163 
  6164 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  6165 
  6166 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  6167 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  6168 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  6169 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  6170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6171 
  6172 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6173 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  6174 
  6175 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  6176 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  6177 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  6178 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  6179 follows:
  6180 
  6181   Operations:
  6182   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  6183   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  6184   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  6185   del -> rbt_del
  6186   delete -> rbt_delete
  6187   ins -> rbt_ins
  6188   insert -> rbt_insert
  6189   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  6190   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  6191   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  6192   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  6193   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  6194   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  6195   tree_less -> rbt_less
  6196   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  6197   union -> rbt_union
  6198   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  6199   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  6200 
  6201   Lemmas:
  6202   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  6203   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  6204   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  6205   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  6206   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  6207   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  6208   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  6209   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  6210   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  6211   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  6212   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  6213   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  6214   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  6215   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  6216   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  6217   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  6218   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  6219   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  6220   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  6221   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  6222   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  6223   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  6224   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  6225   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  6226   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  6227   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  6228   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  6229   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  6230   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  6231   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  6232   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  6233   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  6234   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  6235   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  6236   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  6237   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  6238   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  6239   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  6240   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  6241   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  6242   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  6243   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  6244   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  6245   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  6246   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  6247   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  6248   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  6249   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  6250   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  6251   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  6252   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  6253   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  6254   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  6255   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  6256   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  6257   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  6258   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  6259   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  6260   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  6261   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  6262   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  6263   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  6264   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  6265   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  6266   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  6267   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  6268   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  6269   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  6270   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  6271   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  6272   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  6273   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  6274   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  6275   tree_less_nit -&g