NEWS
author blanchet
Sun Feb 16 21:33:28 2014 +0100 (2014-02-16)
changeset 55525 70b7e91fa1f9
parent 55524 f41ef840f09d
child 55533 6260caf1d612
permissions -rw-r--r--
folded 'rel_option' into 'option_rel'
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    41 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    42 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Pure ***
    46 
    47 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    48 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    49 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    50 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    51 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    52 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    53 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    54 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    55 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    56 
    57 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    58 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    59 instantiated theorem.
    60 
    61 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    62 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    63 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    64 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    65 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    66 
    67   attribute_setup standard =
    68     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    69 
    70 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    71 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    72 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    73 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    74 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    75 
    76 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    77 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    78 differently).
    79 
    80 
    81 *** HOL ***
    82 
    83 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    84 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    85 
    86 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    87   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    88   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    89   "Main".
    90   Theory renamings:
    91     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    92     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    93     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    94     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    95     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    96     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    97     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    98     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    99     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   100     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   101     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   102     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   103     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   104     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   105     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   106     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   107     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   108     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   109     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   110     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   111     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   112     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   113   New theories:
   114     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
   115     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   116     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   117     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   118     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   119     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   120   Discontinued theories:
   121     BNF/BNF.thy
   122     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   123   Renamed command:
   124     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   125   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Old datatype package:
   128   * Generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed "case_xxx"
   129     and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   130     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   133   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based datatype
   134   package.
   135   Renamed constants:
   136     Option.set ~> set_option
   137     Option.map ~> map_option
   138     option_rel ~> rel_option
   139   Renamed theorems:
   140     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   141     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   142     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   143     map.simps ~> list.map
   144     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   145     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   146     the.simps ~> option.sel
   147   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149 * New theory:
   150     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   151 
   152 * Theory reorganizations:
   153   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   154 
   155 * Sledgehammer:
   156   - New option:
   157       smt_proofs
   158   - Renamed options:
   159       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   160       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   161     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   162 
   163 * Metis:
   164   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   165     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   168 
   169 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   172 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   173 
   174 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   175 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   176 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   177 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   178 
   179 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   181 
   182 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   183 with the given constants.
   184 
   185 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   186 
   187 Fact consolidations:
   188     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   189     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   190     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   191     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   192     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   193     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   194     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   195     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   196     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   197     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   198     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   199     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   200     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   201     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   202     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   203     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   204     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   205     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   206     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   207     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   208     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   209     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   210     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   211     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   212     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   213     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   214     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   215     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   216     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   217     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   218     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   219     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   220     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   221     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   222     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   223     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   224     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   225     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   226     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   227     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   228 
   229 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   230 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   231 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   232 
   233 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   234 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   235 
   236 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   237 
   238 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   239 
   240 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   247 operations on records.
   248 
   249 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   253     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   257     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   258     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   259 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   262   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   263   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   264   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   265     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   266   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   267     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   268   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   269 INCOMPATBILITY.
   270 
   271 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   272     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   273     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   274     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   275     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Fact name consolidation:
   279     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   280     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   281     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   282     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   283     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285 
   286 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   287 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   288 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   289 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   290 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   291 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   292 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   293 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294 
   295 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   296 
   297 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   298 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   299 
   300 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   301 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   302 
   303 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   304 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   305 or the brute way with
   306 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   307 
   308 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   309 
   310 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   311 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   314 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   315 
   316 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   317 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   318 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   319 INCOMPATIBILITY
   320 
   321 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   322 
   323 * Nitpick:
   324   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   325     infinite values.
   326 
   327 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   328   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   329   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   330     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   331     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   332     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   333     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   334     intervals.
   335 
   336 
   337 *** ML ***
   338 
   339 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   340 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   341 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   342 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   343 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   344 of schematic variables.
   345 
   346 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   347 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   349 formal context.
   350 
   351 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   352 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   353 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   354 actually belongs to it).
   355 
   356 
   357 *** System ***
   358 
   359 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   360 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   361 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   362 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   363 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   364 
   365 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   366 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   367 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   368 
   369 
   370 
   371 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   372 -------------------------------------
   373 
   374 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   375 
   376 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   377 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   378 
   379 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   380 after edits surrounding the command location.
   381 
   382 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   383 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   384 e.g. out-of-memory).
   385 
   386 
   387 *** System ***
   388 
   389 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   390 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   391 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   392 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   393 
   394 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   395 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   396 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   397 
   398 
   399 
   400 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   401 -------------------------------------
   402 
   403 *** General ***
   404 
   405 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   406 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   407 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   410 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   411 
   412 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   413 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   414 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   415 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   416 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   417 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   418 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   419 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   420 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   421 syntax.
   422 
   423 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   424 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   427 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   428 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   429 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   430 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   431 
   432 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   436 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   437 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   438 
   439 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   440 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   441 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   442 
   443 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   444 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   445 
   446 
   447 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   448 
   449 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   450 Documentation panel.
   451 
   452 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   453 documentation.
   454 
   455 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   456 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   457 
   458 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   459 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   460 normal editing and checking process.
   461 
   462 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   463 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   464 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   465 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   466 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   467 
   468 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   469 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   470 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   471 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   472 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   473 
   474 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   475 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   476 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   477 
   478 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   479 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   480 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   481 to resolve conflict.
   482 
   483 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   484 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   485 
   486 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   487 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   488 such command executions while editing.
   489 
   490 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   491 document content.
   492 
   493 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   494 toplevel theorem statements.
   495 
   496 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   497 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   498 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   499 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   500 
   501 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   502 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   503 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   504 
   505 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   506 / Global Options / Appearance".
   507 
   508 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   509 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   510 
   511 
   512 *** Pure ***
   513 
   514 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   515 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   516 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   517 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   518 details.
   519 
   520 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   521 
   522 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   523 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   524 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   525 
   526 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   530 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   531 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   532 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   535 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   536 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   537 
   538 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   539 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   540 
   541 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   542 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   543 situations.
   544 
   545 
   546 *** HOL ***
   547 
   548 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   549 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   553 
   554 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   555 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   556 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   557 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   558 
   559   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   560 
   561 * Code generator:
   562   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   563     'code_instance'.
   564   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   565     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   566 
   567 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   568 examples.
   569 
   570 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   571 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   572 to distinguish both when desired.
   573 
   574 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   575 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   576 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   577 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   580 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   581 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   582 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   583 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   584 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   587 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   588 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   589 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   590 
   591 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   592 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   593 
   594 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   595 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   596 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   597 
   598 * Lifting:
   599   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   600     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   601       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   602       transfer rules
   603     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   604       correspondence relation can be generated
   605     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   606       parametricity
   607     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   608   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   609   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   610     copies
   611   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   612     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   613     anonymous context)
   614   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   615     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   616   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   617     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   618   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   619     INCOMPATIBILITY
   620 
   621 * Transfer:
   622   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   623     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   624   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   625   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   626     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   627   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   628 
   629 * Reification and reflection:
   630   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   631     "Reification".
   632   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   633   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   637   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   638     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   639     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   640   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   641     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   642   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   643     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   644     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   645     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   646     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   647     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   648     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   649     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   650   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   651     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   652   - Fact renames:
   653       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   654       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   658 
   659 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   660 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   661 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   663 
   664 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   665 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   666 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   667 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   668 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   669 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   670 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   671 lemmas.
   672 
   673 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   674 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   675 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   678 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   679 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   680 
   681 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   682 top and bottom elements.
   683 
   684 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   685 
   686 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   687 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   688 
   689  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   690    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   691    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   692 
   693  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   694    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   695    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   696 
   697    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   698    arbitrary filter.
   699 
   700  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   701    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   702    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   703    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   704    on a compact set.
   705 
   706  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   707    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   708    linear_continuum_topology).
   709 
   710  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   711    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   712    on all sequences converging to x.
   713 
   714  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   715    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   716    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   717    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   718    left or right.
   719 
   720  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   721 
   722      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   723 
   724  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   725    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   726 
   727  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   728    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   729    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   730    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   731    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   732    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   733 
   734  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   735 
   736    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   737 
   738    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   739      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   740 
   741    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   742 
   743    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   744      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   745 
   746    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   747 
   748    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   749 
   750  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   751 
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Nitpick:
   755   - Added option "spy"
   756   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   757 
   758 * Sledgehammer:
   759   - Renamed option:
   760       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   761     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   763   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   764   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   765 
   766 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   767 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   768 
   769 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   770   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   771   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   772     generated code.
   773   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   774   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   775   - Fact renames:
   776     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   777     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   778     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   779 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   780 
   781 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   782 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   783 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   784 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   785 
   786 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   787 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   788 
   789 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   792 
   793     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   794     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   795 
   796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797 
   798 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   799 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   800 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   801 
   802 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   803 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   804 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   805 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * HOL-BNF:
   808   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   809     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   810     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   811     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   812   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   813     coinduct).
   814   - Renamed keywords:
   815     data ~> datatype_new
   816     codata ~> codatatype
   817     bnf_def ~> bnf
   818   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   819     discs ~> disc
   820     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   821     map_id' ~> map_id
   822     sels ~> sel
   823     set_map' ~> set_map
   824     sets ~> set
   825 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 
   828 *** ML ***
   829 
   830 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   831 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   832 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   833 Examples.thy in particular.
   834 
   835 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   836 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   837 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   838 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   839 
   840 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   841 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   842 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   843 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   847 
   848     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   849     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   850 
   851 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   854 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   855 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   856 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   857 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   858 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   859 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   860 
   861 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   862 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   863 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   864 clasets separately from the context.
   865 
   866 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   868 
   869 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   870 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   871 
   872 
   873 *** System ***
   874 
   875 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   876 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   879 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   882 settings variable.
   883 
   884 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   885 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   886 always pdf.
   887 
   888 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   889 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   890 
   891 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   892 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   893 
   894 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   895 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   896 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   897 
   898 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   899 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   900 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   901 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   902 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   903 for HTML presentation of theories.
   904 
   905 
   906 
   907 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   908 -----------------------------------
   909 
   910 *** General ***
   911 
   912 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   913 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   914 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   915 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   916 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   917 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   918 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   919 
   920 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   921 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   922 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   923 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   924 
   925 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   926 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   927 
   928 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   929 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   930 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   931 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   932 dependencies properly.
   933 
   934 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   935 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   936 
   937 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   938 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   939 
   940 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   941 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   942 and "class ... context ...".
   943 
   944 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   945 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   946 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   947 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   948 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   949 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   950 
   951 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   952 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   953 
   954 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   955 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   956 
   957 
   958 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   959 
   960 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   961 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   962 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   963 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   964 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   965 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   966 
   967 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   968 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   969 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   970 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   971 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   972 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   973 
   974 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   975 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   976 browser on demand.
   977 
   978 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   979 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   980 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   981 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   982 
   983 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   984 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   985 
   986 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   987 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   988 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   989 potentially infinite message streams.
   990 
   991 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   992 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   993 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   994 schemes.
   995 
   996 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   997 symbols.
   998 
   999 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1000 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1001 
  1002 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1003 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1004 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1005 
  1006 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1007 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1008 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1009 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1010 
  1011 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1012 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1013 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1014 
  1015 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1016 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1017 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1018 Isabelle distribution.
  1019 
  1020 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1021 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1022 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1023 
  1024 
  1025 *** Pure ***
  1026 
  1027 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1028 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1029 
  1030 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1031 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1032 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1035 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1036 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1037 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1038 with some care where this is really required.
  1039 
  1040 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1041 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1042 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1043 
  1044   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1045 
  1046 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1047 a Hasse diagram.
  1048 
  1049 
  1050 *** HOL ***
  1051 
  1052 * Sledgehammer:
  1053 
  1054   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1055     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1056   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1057   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1058   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1059   - Renamed options:
  1060       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1061       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1062       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1063       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1064 
  1065 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1066 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1067 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1068 
  1069 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Lifting:
  1073   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1074   - quot_del attribute
  1075   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1076 
  1077 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1078 expressions.
  1079 
  1080 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1081 pointfree expressions.
  1082 
  1083 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1084 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1085 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1086 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1090 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1091 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1092 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1093 accordingly.
  1094 
  1095 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1096 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1099 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1104 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1105 
  1106 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1107 
  1108 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1109 
  1110   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1111   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1112 
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1116 
  1117   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1118   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1119 
  1120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1121 
  1122 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1123 
  1124   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1125     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1126     output f x converges to G.
  1127 
  1128   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1129     infinity (at_bot).
  1130 
  1131   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1132     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1133 
  1134   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1135     at_top".
  1136 
  1137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1140 lattice type classes.
  1141 
  1142 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1143 
  1144     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1145     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1146 
  1147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1150 changes as follows.
  1151 
  1152   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1153 
  1154       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1155       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1156 
  1157   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1158     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1159     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1160     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1161 
  1162   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1163     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1164     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1165 
  1166   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1167     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1168     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1169     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1170 
  1171   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1172     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1173 
  1174       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1175       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1176       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1177       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1178       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1179       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1180       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1181       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1182       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1183       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1184       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1185       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1186       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1187       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1188       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1189       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1190 
  1191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192 
  1193 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1194 
  1195 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1196 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1197 
  1198 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1199 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1200 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1201 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1202 
  1203   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1204   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1205   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1206   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1207   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1208   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1209   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1210   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1211   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1212   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1213 
  1214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1215 
  1216 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1217 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1218 Data").
  1219 
  1220 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1221 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1222 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1223 code.
  1224 
  1225 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1226 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1227 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1231 
  1232 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1233 
  1234 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1235 
  1236   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1237   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1238 
  1239 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1240 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1241 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1242 
  1243   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1244 
  1245     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1246     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1247     cart_base i  removed
  1248     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1249 
  1250   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1251 
  1252   Renamed lemmas:
  1253 
  1254     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1255     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1256     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1257     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1258     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1259     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1260     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1261     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1262     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1263     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1264 
  1265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * HOL/Probability:
  1268 
  1269   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1270 
  1271   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1272     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1273     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1274 
  1275   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1276     projective family).
  1277 
  1278 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1279 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1280 
  1281 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1282 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1283 datatypes.
  1284 
  1285 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1286 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1287 
  1288 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1289 trees for the code generator.
  1290 
  1291 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1292 Lifting/Transfer.
  1293 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1297 
  1298 
  1299 *** Document preparation ***
  1300 
  1301 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1302 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1303 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1304 
  1305 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1306 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1307 
  1308 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1309 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1310 document/root.tex.
  1311 
  1312 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1313 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315 
  1316 *** ML ***
  1317 
  1318 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1319 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1320 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1321 
  1322 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1323 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1324 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1325 
  1326 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1327 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1328 necessarily printing visible text.
  1329 
  1330 
  1331 *** System ***
  1332 
  1333 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1334 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1335 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1336 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1337 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1338 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1339 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1340 
  1341 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1342 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1343 
  1344   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1345 
  1346 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1347 
  1348 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1349 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1350 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1351 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1352 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1353 
  1354 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1355 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1356 
  1357 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1358 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1359 
  1360 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1364 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1365 version of Isabelle.
  1366 
  1367 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1368 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1369 
  1370 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1371 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1372 for home-made settings.
  1373 
  1374 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1375 
  1376 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1377 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1378 configuration.
  1379 
  1380 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1381 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1382 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1383 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1384 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1385 
  1386 
  1387 
  1388 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1389 ------------------------------
  1390 
  1391 *** General ***
  1392 
  1393 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1394 
  1395   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1396     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1397   - markup for bound variables
  1398   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1399   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1400   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1401     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1402 
  1403 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1404 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1405 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1406 
  1407 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1408 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1409 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1410 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1411 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1412 
  1413   context
  1414     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1415     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1416   begin
  1417 
  1418   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1419 
  1420   end
  1421 
  1422   thm my_trans
  1423 
  1424 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1425 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1426 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1427 
  1428 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1429 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1430 
  1431 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1432 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1433 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1434 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1435 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1436 
  1437 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1438 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1439 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1440 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1441 indices of schematic variables.
  1442 
  1443 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1444 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1445 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1446 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1447 etc. was exploited.
  1448 
  1449 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1450 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1451 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1452 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1453 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1454 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1455 
  1456 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1457 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1458 manual.
  1459 
  1460 
  1461 *** Pure ***
  1462 
  1463 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1464 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1465 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1466 
  1467 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1468 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1469 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1470 undocumented feature.)
  1471 
  1472 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1473 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1474 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1475 
  1476   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1477 
  1478   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1479     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1480 
  1481 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1482 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1483 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1484 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1485 
  1486 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1487 
  1488     num ~> num_token
  1489     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1490     xstr ~> str_token
  1491 
  1492 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1493 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1494 position information via constraints).
  1495 
  1496 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1497 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1498 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1499 
  1500 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1501 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1502 
  1503 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1504 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1505 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1506 
  1507 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1508 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1511 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1512 
  1513   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1514 
  1515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1518 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1521 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1522 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1523 
  1524 
  1525 *** HOL ***
  1526 
  1527 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1528 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1529 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1530 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1531 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1532 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1533 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1534 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1535 possible.
  1536 
  1537 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1538 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1539 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1540 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1541 
  1542 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1543 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1546 
  1547 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1548 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1549 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1550 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1551 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1552 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1553 
  1554   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1555     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1556 
  1557   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1558     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1559     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1560 
  1561   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1562     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1563 
  1564   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1565     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1566     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1567 
  1568   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1569     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1570 
  1571 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1572 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1573 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1574 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1575 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1576 
  1577   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1578     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1579     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1580     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1581     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1582 
  1583     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1584     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1585 
  1586   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1587     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1588     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1589     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1590     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1591     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1592     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1593     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1594 
  1595   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1596     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1597     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1598     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1599 
  1600   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1601     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1602     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1603     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1604 
  1605   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1606     from type nat to type int.
  1607 
  1608 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1609 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1610 
  1611   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1612     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1613     type.  Example syntax:
  1614 
  1615     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1616       is List.insert
  1617 
  1618     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1619     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1620     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1621     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1622     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1623     by the package.
  1624 
  1625   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1626     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1627     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1628     code generation for each constant.
  1629 
  1630   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1631     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1632     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1633     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1634     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1635 
  1636   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1637     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1638     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1639 
  1640 * Quotient package:
  1641 
  1642   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1643     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1644 
  1645   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1646     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1647 
  1648   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1649     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1650     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1653     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1656 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1657 
  1658 * Quickcheck:
  1659 
  1660   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1661     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1662     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1663     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1664     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1665 
  1666     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1667     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1668     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1669 
  1670     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1671     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1672 
  1673     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1674     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1675     show genuine counterexamples.
  1676 
  1677   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1678     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1679 
  1680     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1681     constructors of that type.
  1682 
  1683   - Support for multisets.
  1684 
  1685   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1686 
  1687   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1688     conjectures in a locale context.
  1689 
  1690 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1691 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1692 
  1693 * Sledgehammer:
  1694   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1695     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1696   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1697   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1698     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1699   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1700   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1701   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1702   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1703 
  1704 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1705 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1706 
  1707 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1708 
  1709 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1710 
  1711 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1712 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1713 
  1714   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1715 
  1716 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1717 a list and a nat.
  1718 
  1719 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1720 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1721 
  1722 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1723 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1724 default.
  1725 
  1726 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1727 
  1728   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1729 
  1730 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1731 
  1732 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1733 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1734 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1735 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1736 one_case.
  1737 
  1738 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1739 the result of the fact expression.
  1740 
  1741 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1742 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1743 of some relation theorems:
  1744 
  1745   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1746   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1747   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1748   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1749   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1750   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1751 
  1752 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1753 
  1754 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1755 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1756 
  1757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1760 to match the constant's name:
  1761 
  1762   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1763   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1764   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1765   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1766   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1767   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1768   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1769   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1770   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1771   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1772   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1773   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1774   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1775   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1776   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1777   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1778   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1779   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1780   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1781   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1782   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1783   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1784   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1785   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1786 
  1787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1788 
  1789 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1790 and corresponding theorem names:
  1791 
  1792   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1793 
  1794   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1795 
  1796   - Renamed theorems:
  1797 
  1798     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1799     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1800     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1801     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1802     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1803     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1804     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1805     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1806     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1807     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1808     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1809     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1810     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1811     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1812     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1813     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1814     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1815     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1816     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1817     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1818     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1819     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1820     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1821 
  1822     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1823 
  1824     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1825 
  1826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1827 
  1828 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1829 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1830 
  1831   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1832   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1833   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1834   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1835   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1836   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1837   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1838   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1839   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1840   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1841   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1842   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1843   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1844   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1845   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1846   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1847   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1848   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1849   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1850   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1851   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1852 
  1853 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1854 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855 
  1856 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1857 
  1858 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1859 
  1860   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1861   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1862   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1863   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1864   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1865   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1866   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1867   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1868   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1869   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1870   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1871   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1872   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1873   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1874   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1875   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1876   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1877   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1878 
  1879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1882 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1883 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1884 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1885 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1886 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1887 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1888 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1889 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1890 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1891 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1892 
  1893 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1894 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1895 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1896 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1897 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1898 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1899 
  1900 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1901 through option types.
  1902 
  1903 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1904 relations.
  1905 
  1906 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1909 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1910 
  1911   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1912   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1913   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1914   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1915   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1916   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1917   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1918   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1919   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1920   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1921   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1922   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1923   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1924   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1925   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1926   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1927   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1928   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1929   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1930   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1931   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1932   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1933   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1934   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1935   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1936   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1937   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1938   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1939   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1940   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1941   zless_le ~> less_le
  1942   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1943   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1944   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1945 
  1946 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1947 
  1948   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1949 
  1950 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1951 
  1952 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1953 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1954 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1955 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1957 
  1958 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1959 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1960 
  1961 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1962 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1963 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1964 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1965 follows:
  1966 
  1967   Operations:
  1968   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1969   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1970   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1971   del -> rbt_del
  1972   delete -> rbt_delete
  1973   ins -> rbt_ins
  1974   insert -> rbt_insert
  1975   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1976   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1977   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1978   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1979   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1980   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1981   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1982   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1983   union -> rbt_union
  1984   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1985   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1986 
  1987   Lemmas:
  1988   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1989   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1990   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1991   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1992   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1993   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1994   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1995   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1996   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1997   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1998   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1999   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2000   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2001   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2002   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2003   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2004   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2005   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2006   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2007   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2008   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2009   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2010   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2011   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2012   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2013   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2014   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2015   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2016   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2017   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2018   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2019   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2020   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2021   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2022   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2023   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2024   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2025   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2026   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2027   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2028   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2029   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2030   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2031   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2032   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2033   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2034   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2035   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2036   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2037   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2038   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2039   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2040   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2041   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2042   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2043   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2044   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2045   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2046   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2047   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2048   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2049   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2050   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2051   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2052   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2053   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2054   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2055   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2056   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2057   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2058   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2059   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2060   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2061   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2062   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2063   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2064   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2065   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2066   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2067   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2068   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2069   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2070   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2071 
  2072 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2073 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2074 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2075 
  2076   Changed Operations:
  2077   float_abs -> abs
  2078   float_nprt -> nprt
  2079   float_pprt -> pprt
  2080   pow2 -> use powr
  2081   round_down -> float_round_down
  2082   round_up -> float_round_up
  2083   scale -> exponent
  2084 
  2085   Removed Operations:
  2086   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2087 
  2088   Renamed Lemmas:
  2089   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2090   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2091   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2092   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2093   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2094   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2095   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2096   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2097   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2098   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2099   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2100   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2101   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2102   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2103   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2104   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2105   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2106   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2107   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2108   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2109   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2110   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2111   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2112   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2113   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2114   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2115   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2116   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2117   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2118   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2119   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2120   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2121   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2122   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2123   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2124   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2125 
  2126   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2127   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2128   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2129   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2130   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2131   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2132   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2133   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2134   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2135   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2136 
  2137 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2138 association lists with distinct keys.
  2139 
  2140 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2141 annotated commands.
  2142 
  2143 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2144 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2145 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2146 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2147 
  2148 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2149 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2150 instead.
  2151 
  2152   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2153   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2154   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2155   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2156   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2157   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2158   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2159   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2160   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2161   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2162   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2163   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2164   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2165   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2166   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2167   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2168   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2169   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2170   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2171   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2172   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2173   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2174   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2175   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2176   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2177   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2178   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2179   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2180   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2181   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2182   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2183   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2184   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2185   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2186   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2187   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2188   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2189   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2190   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2191   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2192   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2193 
  2194 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2195 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2196 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2197 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2198 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2199 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2200 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2201 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2202 
  2203 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2204 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2205 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2206 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2207 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2208 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2209 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2210 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2211 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2212 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2213 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2214 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216   Renamed constants:
  2217   measure -> emeasure
  2218   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2219   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2220   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2221   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2222 
  2223   Removed locales:
  2224   completeable_measure_space
  2225   finite_measure_space
  2226   finite_prob_space
  2227   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2228   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2229   finite_sigma_algebra
  2230   measure_space
  2231   pair_finite_prob_space
  2232   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2233   pair_finite_space
  2234   pair_sigma_algebra
  2235   product_sigma_algebra
  2236 
  2237   Removed constants:
  2238   conditional_space
  2239   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2240   image_space
  2241   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2242   pair_measure_generator
  2243   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2244   subvimage
  2245 
  2246   Replacement theorems:
  2247   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2248   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2249   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2250   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2251   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2252   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2253   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2254   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2255   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2256   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2257   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2258   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2259   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2260   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2261   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2262   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2263   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2264   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2265   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2266   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2267   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2268   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2269   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2270   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2271   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2272   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2273   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2274   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2275   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2276   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2277   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2278   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2279   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2280   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2281   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2282   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2283   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2284   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2285   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2286   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2287   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2288   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2289   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2290   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2291   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2292   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2293   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2294   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2295   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2296   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2297   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2298   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2299   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2300   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2301   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2302   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2303   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2304   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2305   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2306   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2307   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2308   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2309   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2310   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2311   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2312   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2313   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2314   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2315   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2316   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2317   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2318   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2319   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2320   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2321   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2322   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2323   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2324   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2325   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2326   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2327   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2328   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2329   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2330   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2331   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2332   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2333   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2334   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2335   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2336   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2337   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2338   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2339   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2340   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2341   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2342   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2343   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2344   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2345   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2346   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2347   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2348   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2349   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2350   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2351   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2352   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2353   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2354   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2355   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2356   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2357   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2358   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2359   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2360   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2361   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2362   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2363   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2364   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2365   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2366   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2367   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2368   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2369   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2370   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2371   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2372   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2373   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2374   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2375 
  2376 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2377 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2378 
  2379 
  2380 *** FOL ***
  2381 
  2382 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2383 
  2384 
  2385 *** ZF ***
  2386 
  2387 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2388 analysis.
  2389 
  2390 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2391 
  2392 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 
  2395 *** ML ***
  2396 
  2397 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2398 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2399 
  2400 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2401 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2402 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2403 
  2404 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2405 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2406 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2407 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2408 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2409 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2410 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2411 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2412 
  2413 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2414 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2415 
  2416 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2417 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2418 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2419 
  2420 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2421 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2422 
  2423 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2424 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2425 context as well.
  2426 
  2427 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2428 
  2429   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2430   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2431   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2432   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2433   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2434   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2435   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2436   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2437   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2438   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2439   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2440   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2441 
  2442 
  2443 *** System ***
  2444 
  2445 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2446 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2447 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2448 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2449 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2450 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2451 the generic user home was intended.
  2452 
  2453 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2454 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2455 
  2456 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2457 (not just JRE).
  2458 
  2459 
  2460 
  2461 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2462 ------------------------------------
  2463 
  2464 *** General ***
  2465 
  2466 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2467 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2468 
  2469   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2470     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2471     files for checking).
  2472 
  2473   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2474     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2475     positions.
  2476 
  2477   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2478     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2479     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2480 
  2481   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2482     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2483     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2484 
  2485   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2486     cores.
  2487 
  2488   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2489     versions (garbage collection).
  2490 
  2491 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2492 including some remaining limitations.
  2493 
  2494 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2495 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2496 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2497 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2498 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2502 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2503 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2504 
  2505 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2506 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2507 usedir option -Q.
  2508 
  2509 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2510 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2511 
  2512   long_names   ~> names_long
  2513   short_names  ~> names_short
  2514   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2515 
  2516 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2517 
  2518   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2519 
  2520 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2521 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2522 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2523 
  2524 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2525 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2526 
  2527 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2528   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2529   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2530   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2531     "Classical Reasoner".
  2532 
  2533 
  2534 *** HOL ***
  2535 
  2536 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2537 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2540 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2541 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2542 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2543 class complete_linorder.
  2544 
  2545 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2546 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2547 
  2548 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2549 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2550 
  2551   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2552   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2553   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2554   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2555   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2556   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2557   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2558   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2559   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2560   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2561   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2562 
  2563 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2564 
  2565   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2566   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2567   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2568   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2569   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2570   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2571   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2572   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2573   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2574   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2575   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2576   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2577   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2578   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2579   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2580   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2581 
  2582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2588 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2589 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2590 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2593 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2594 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2596 
  2597 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2598 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2599 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2600 
  2601 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2602 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2603 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2604 
  2605 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2606 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2607 
  2608 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2609 
  2610     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2611     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2612 
  2613 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2614 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2617 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2618 
  2619 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2620 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2621 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2622 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2625   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2626   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2627   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2628   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2629   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2630   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2631 
  2632 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2633 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2636   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2637   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2638   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2639   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2640   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2641   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2642   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2643   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2644   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2645   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2646   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2647   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2648   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2649   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2650   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2651   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2652   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2653   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2654   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2655   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2656   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2657   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2658   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2659   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2660   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2661   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2662   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2663   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2664   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2665   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2666   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2667   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2668   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2669   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2670   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2671   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2672   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2673   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2674   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2675   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2676   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2677   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2678   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2679   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2680   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2681   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2682   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2683   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2684   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2685   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2686   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2687   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2688   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2689   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2690   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2691   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2692   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2693   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2694   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2695   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2696   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2697   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2698   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2699   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2700   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2701   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2702   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2703   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2704   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2705   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2706   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2707   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2708   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2709   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2710   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2711   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2712   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2713   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2714   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2715   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2716   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2717 
  2718 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2719 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2720 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2721 
  2722 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2723 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2724 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2725 
  2726 * Code generation:
  2727 
  2728   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2729     characters in the target language.
  2730 
  2731   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2732     instead.
  2733 
  2734   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2735 
  2736   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2737     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2738 
  2739       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2740 
  2741 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742 
  2743 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2744 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2745 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2746 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2747 syntax.
  2748 
  2749 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2750 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2751 
  2752 * Nitpick:
  2753   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2754   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2755   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2756     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758 * Sledgehammer:
  2759   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2760   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2761     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2762   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2763     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2764   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2765     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2767     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2768   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2769     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * Metis:
  2772   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2774     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * Command 'try':
  2777   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2778     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2780     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2781 
  2782 * Quickcheck:
  2783   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2784     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2785   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2786     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2787   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2788     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2789     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2790     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2791   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2792     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2793 
  2794 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2795 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2796 
  2797 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2798 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2799 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2800 
  2801 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2802 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2806 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2809 arithmetic.
  2810 
  2811 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2812 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2813 and lattice type classes.
  2814 
  2815 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2816 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2817 
  2818 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2819 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2820 
  2821 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2822 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2823 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2824 
  2825   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2826   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2827   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2828   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2829 
  2830 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2831 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2832 constants:
  2833 
  2834   type inat   ~> type enat
  2835   Fin         ~> enat
  2836   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2837   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2838   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2839 
  2840 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2841 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2844 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2845 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2846 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2847 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2848 
  2849 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2850 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2851 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2852 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2853 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2854 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2855 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2856 
  2857   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2858   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2859   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2860   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2861 
  2862 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2863 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2864 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865 
  2866   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2867   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2868   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2869   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2870   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2871   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2872   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2873   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2874   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2875   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2876   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2877   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2878   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2879   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2880   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2881   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2882   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2883   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2884   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2885   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2886   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2887   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2888   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2889   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2890   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2891   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2892   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2893   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2894   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2895   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2896   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2897   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2898   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2899   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2900   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2901   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2902   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2903   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2904   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2905   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2906   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2907   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2908   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2909   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2910   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2911   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2912   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2913   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2914   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2915   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2916   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2917 
  2918 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2919   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2920   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2921   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2922   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2923     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2928   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2929   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2930   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2931   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2932   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2933   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2934   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2935   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2936   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2937   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2938   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2939   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2940   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2941   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2942   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2943   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2944   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2945   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2946   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2947   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2948   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2949   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2950   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2951   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2952 
  2953 
  2954 *** Document preparation ***
  2955 
  2956 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2957 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2958 same.
  2959 
  2960 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2961 result.
  2962 
  2963 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2964 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2965 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2966 
  2967 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2968 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2969 
  2970 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2971 like this:
  2972 
  2973   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2974   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2975 
  2976 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2977 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2978 layouts.
  2979 
  2980 
  2981 *** ML ***
  2982 
  2983 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2984 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2985 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2986 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2987 under external program control.
  2988 
  2989 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2990 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2991 
  2992 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2993 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2994 (better known as Proof General).
  2995 
  2996 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2997 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2998 
  2999 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3000 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3001 
  3002 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3003 (including quotes etc.).
  3004 
  3005 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3006 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3007 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3008 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3009 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3010 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3011 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3012 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3013 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3014 
  3015 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3016 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3017 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3018 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3019 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3020 
  3021 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3022 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3023 
  3024 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3025 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3026 
  3027 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3028 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3029 
  3030 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3031 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3032 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3033 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3034 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3035 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3036 proper Proof.context.
  3037 
  3038 
  3039 *** System ***
  3040 
  3041 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3042 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3043 
  3044 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3045 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3046 
  3047 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3048 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3049 
  3050   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3051   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3052   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3053   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3054   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3055 
  3056 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3057 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3060 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3061 example:
  3062 
  3063   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3064 
  3065 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3066 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3067 
  3068 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3069 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3070 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3071 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3072 
  3073 
  3074 
  3075 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3076 ----------------------------------
  3077 
  3078 *** General ***
  3079 
  3080 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3081 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3082 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3083 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3084 like this:
  3085 
  3086   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3087 
  3088 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3089 
  3090 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3091 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3092 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3093 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3094 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3095 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3096 
  3097 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3098 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3099 the following package declarations:
  3100 
  3101   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3102   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3103 
  3104 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3105 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3106 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3107 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3108 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3109 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3110 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3111 
  3112 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3113 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3114 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3115 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3116 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3117 
  3118 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3119 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3120 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3121 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3122 
  3123 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3124 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3125 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3126 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3127 
  3128   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3129 
  3130   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3131   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3132   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3133   show_types                    show_types
  3134   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3135   show_consts                   show_consts
  3136   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3137 
  3138   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3139   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3140   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3141 
  3142   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3143   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3144 
  3145   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3146 
  3147   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3148   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3149   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3150   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3151   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3152 
  3153 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3154 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3155 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3156 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3157 
  3158 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3162   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3163 
  3164 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3165 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3166 float_token.
  3167 
  3168 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3169 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3173 DejaVu Sans.
  3174 
  3175 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3176 
  3177 
  3178 *** Pure ***
  3179 
  3180 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3181 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3182 time.
  3183 
  3184 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3185 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3188 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3191 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3192 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3193 command already provided this functionality.
  3194 
  3195 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3196 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3197 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3198 without interpretations.
  3199 
  3200 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3201 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3202 
  3203 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3204 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3205 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3206 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3207 
  3208 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3209 'definition' instead.
  3210 
  3211 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3212 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3213 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3214 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3215 
  3216 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3217 constructors.
  3218 
  3219 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3220 the local file system.
  3221 
  3222 
  3223 *** HOL ***
  3224 
  3225 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3226 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3227 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3228 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3229 
  3230   declare [[coercion f]]
  3231 
  3232 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3233 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3234 
  3235   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3236 
  3237 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3238 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3239 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3240 other theories like this:
  3241 
  3242   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3243 
  3244 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3245 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3246 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3247 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3248 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3249 for examples.
  3250 
  3251 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3252 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3255 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3256 
  3257 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3258 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3259 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3260 
  3261 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3262 functorial structure of types.
  3263 
  3264 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3265 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3266 
  3267 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3268 languages.
  3269 
  3270 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3271 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3275 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3278 combinators any longer.
  3279 
  3280 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3281 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3282 
  3283 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3284 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3285 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3286 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3287 
  3288   record 'a foo = ...
  3289   ...
  3290   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3291 
  3292 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3293 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3297 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3298 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3299 
  3300 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3301 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3302 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3303 
  3304 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3305 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3308 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3309 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3310 independently.
  3311 
  3312 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3313 counter example search.
  3314 
  3315 * Sledgehammer:
  3316   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3317     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3318     sledgehammer").
  3319   - Renamed commands:
  3320     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3321     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3322     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324   - Renamed options:
  3325     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3326     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3327     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3328     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3329     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331 * Nitpick:
  3332   - Renamed options:
  3333     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3334     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3335     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3337   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3338   - Added "whack" option.
  3339   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3340   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3341   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3342   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3343     higher cardinalities.
  3344   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3345 
  3346 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3347 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3348 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3349 
  3350     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3351 
  3352 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3353 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3354 
  3355 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3356 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3357 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3358 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3359 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3360 "smt_solver".
  3361 
  3362 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3363 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3364 
  3365 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3366 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3367 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3368 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3371   - Renamed:
  3372     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3373     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375   - Added:
  3376     smt_verbose
  3377     smt_random_seed
  3378     smt_datatypes
  3379     smt_infer_triggers
  3380     smt_monomorph_limit
  3381     cvc3_options
  3382     remote_cvc3_options
  3383     remote_z3_options
  3384     yices_options
  3385 
  3386 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3387 header.
  3388 
  3389 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3390 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3391 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3392 
  3393   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3394 
  3395 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3398 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3403 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3406 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3407 
  3408 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3409 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3412 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3413 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3421 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3424 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3425 for congruent(2)).
  3426 
  3427 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3428 
  3429   types
  3430     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3431     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3432 
  3433   constants
  3434     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3435     True ~> HOL.True
  3436     False ~> HOL.False
  3437     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3438     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3439     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3440     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3441     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3442     The ~> HOL.The
  3443     All ~> HOL.All
  3444     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3445     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3446     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3447     If ~> HOL.If
  3448     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3449     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3450     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3451     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3452     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3453     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3454     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3455     op : ~> Set.member
  3456     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3457 
  3458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3461 
  3462     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3463     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3464     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3465     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3466     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3467     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3468     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3469     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3470 
  3471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3472 
  3473 * More stylized fact names:
  3474 
  3475   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3476   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3477   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3478   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3479 
  3480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3483 
  3484   constants
  3485     null ~> List.null
  3486 
  3487   facts
  3488     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3489     null_empty ~> null_def
  3490 
  3491 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3492 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3493 generation.
  3494 
  3495 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3496 Haskell code.
  3497 
  3498 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3499 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3500 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3503 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3506 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3507 
  3508 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3509 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3510 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3513 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3519 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3520 referred to by its qualified name.
  3521 
  3522   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3523   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3524   product ~>  Enum.product
  3525 
  3526 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3527 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3531 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3532 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3536 sort_key.
  3537 
  3538 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3542 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3543 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3544 
  3545   types
  3546     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3547               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3548               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3549         (depends on your needs)
  3550 
  3551   constants
  3552      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3553      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3554      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3555 
  3556 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3557 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3558 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3559 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3562 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3563 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3564 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3565 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3571 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3572 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3573 
  3574 
  3575 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3576 
  3577 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3578 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3579 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3580 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3581 compatibility.
  3582 
  3583 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3584 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3585 
  3586 
  3587 *** HOLCF ***
  3588 
  3589 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3590 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3591 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3595 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3596 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597 
  3598   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3599   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3600   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3601 
  3602 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3603 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3604 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3607 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3608 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3609 domain definition now works:
  3610 
  3611   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3612 
  3613 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3614 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3615 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3616 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3617 
  3618   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3619     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3620 
  3621   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3622 
  3623 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3624 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3625 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3628 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3631 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3632 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3633 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3634 
  3635 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3636 
  3637 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3645 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3646 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3647 
  3648 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3649 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3650 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3653 still supported as an input translation.
  3654 
  3655 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3656 
  3657   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3658   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3659   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3660   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3661   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3662   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3663   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3664 
  3665 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3666 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3669   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3670   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3671   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3672   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3673   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3674 
  3675 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3676 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3679 
  3680   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3681   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3682   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3683   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3684 
  3685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3688 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3691 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3694   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3695   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3696   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3697   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3698   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3699   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3700   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3701   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3702   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3703   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3704   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3705   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3706   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3707   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3708   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3709   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3710   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3711   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3712   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3713 
  3714 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3717   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3718   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3719   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3720   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3721   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3722   box_less             ~> box_below
  3723   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3724   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3725   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3726   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3727   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3728   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3729   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3730   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3731   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3732   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3733   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3734   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3735   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3736   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3737   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3738   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3739   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3740   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3741   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3742   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3743   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3744   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3745   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3746   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3747   up_less              ~> up_below
  3748   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3749   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3750   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3751   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3752   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3753   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3754   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3755   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3756   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3757   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3758   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3759   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3760   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3761 
  3762 
  3763 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3764 
  3765 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3766 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3767 
  3768 
  3769 *** ML ***
  3770 
  3771 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3772 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3773 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3774 
  3775 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3776 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3777 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3778 
  3779 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3780 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3781 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3782 
  3783 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3784 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3785 
  3786 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3787 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3788 
  3789 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3790 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3791 
  3792 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3793 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3794 
  3795 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3796 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3797 almost all situations.
  3798 
  3799 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3800 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3801 Isabelle/ML.
  3802 
  3803 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3804 meaning.
  3805 
  3806 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3807 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3808 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3809 
  3810 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3811 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3812 
  3813 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3814 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3815 
  3816 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3817 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3818 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3819 
  3820 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3821 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3822 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3823 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3824 configuration options.
  3825 
  3826 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3827 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3828 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3829 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3830 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3831 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3832 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3833 
  3834 
  3835 
  3836 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3837 ---------------------------------
  3838 
  3839 *** General ***
  3840 
  3841 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3842 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3843 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3844 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3845 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3846 their full internal name.
  3847 
  3848 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3849 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3850 Some hints on upgrading:
  3851 
  3852   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3853     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3854     which are independent of this issue.
  3855 
  3856   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3857     provides the following special forms:
  3858 
  3859       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3860       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3861       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3862 
  3863     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3864     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3865     extra variables".
  3866 
  3867     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3868     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3869     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3870     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3871     "logic".
  3872 
  3873   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3874     antiquotations:
  3875 
  3876       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3877       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3878       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3879       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3880 
  3881   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3882     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3883     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3884     antiquotations.
  3885 
  3886 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3887 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3888 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3889 diagnose syntax problems.
  3890 
  3891 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3892 
  3893 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3894 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3895 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3896 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3897 
  3898 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3899 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3900 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3901 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3904 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3905 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3906 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3907 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3910 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3911 
  3912 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3913 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3914 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3915 
  3916   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3917 
  3918 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3919 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3920 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3921 
  3922 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3923 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3927 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3928 
  3929 
  3930 *** Pure ***
  3931 
  3932 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3933 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3934 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3935 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3936 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3937 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3938 inspect proof terms.
  3939 
  3940 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3941 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3942 are added internally.  For example:
  3943 
  3944   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3945 
  3946 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3947 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948 
  3949 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3952 'class' instead.
  3953 
  3954 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3955 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3959 invariants.
  3960 
  3961 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3962 user space functionality any longer.
  3963 
  3964 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3965 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3969 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3970 
  3971 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3972 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3973 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3974 
  3975 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3976 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3977 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3978 
  3979 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3980 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 
  3983 *** HOL ***
  3984 
  3985 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3986 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3987 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3988 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3989 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3990 
  3991 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3992 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3993 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3994 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3995 
  3996   fun
  3997     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3998   where
  3999     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4000 
  4001   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4002     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4003 
  4004   quotient_definition
  4005     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4006 
  4007 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4008 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4009 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4010 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4011 
  4012 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4013 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4014 
  4015 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4016 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4017 
  4018 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4022 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4023 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4024 
  4025 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4026 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4033 
  4034 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4035 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4036 
  4037 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4038 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4039 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4042   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4043   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4044   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4045   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4046   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4047   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4048   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4049   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4050   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4051   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4052   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4053   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4054   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4055   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4056   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4057   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4058   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4059   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4060   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4061   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4062   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4063   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4064   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4065   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4066   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4067   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4068   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4069   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4070   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4071 
  4072 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4073 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4074 
  4075 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4076 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4077 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4078 
  4079 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4080 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4081 
  4082 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4083 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4086 
  4087 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4088 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4091 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4096 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4097 
  4098 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4099 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4100 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4101 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4104   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4105   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4106   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4110 lattices):
  4111 
  4112     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4113     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4114 
  4115     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4116 
  4117     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4118     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4119     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4120     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4121     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4122     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4123     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4124     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4125     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4126     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4127     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4128     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4129     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4130 
  4131     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4132     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4133     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4134     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4135     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4136     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4137     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4138     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4139     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4140     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4141     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4142     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4143     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4144     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4145     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4146     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4147     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4148     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4149 
  4150   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4151   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4152 
  4153     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4154     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4155     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4156     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4157     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4158 
  4159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * Refined field classes:
  4162   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4163     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4164     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4165   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4169   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4170   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4171   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4172     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4173   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4174     equal_neg_zero.
  4175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4178 sets to lattices:
  4179 
  4180   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4181   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4182   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4183   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4184   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4185   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4186   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4187   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4188   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4189   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4190 
  4191 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4192 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4193 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4194 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4195 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4196 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4199 multiset order:
  4200 
  4201   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4202     <= and <;
  4203   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4204     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4205     multiset_order;
  4206   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4207     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4208     generation;
  4209   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4210     if needed.
  4211 
  4212 Renamed:
  4213 
  4214   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4215   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4216   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4217 
  4218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4221 
  4222 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4223 
  4224 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4225 
  4226 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4227 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4228 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230   Constants:
  4231   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4232   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4233   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4234   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4235   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4236   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4237   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4238   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4239   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4240   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4241   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4242   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4243   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4244 
  4245   Lemmas:
  4246   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4247   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4248   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4249   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4250   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4251   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4252   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4253   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4254   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4255   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4256   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4257   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4258   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4259 
  4260 * Sledgehammer:
  4261   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4262     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4263     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4264     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4265     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4266     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4267     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4269   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4270     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4271   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4272     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4273     is still experimental.)
  4274   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4275     full-typed mode.
  4276   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4277 
  4278 * Nitpick:
  4279   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4280   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4281   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4282     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4283   - Added support for quotient types.
  4284   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4285     constructs.
  4286   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4287     "termination" proofs).
  4288   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4289   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4290   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4291   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4292     record getters.
  4293   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4294   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4295   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4296   - Added "atoms" option.
  4297   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4298     problems.
  4299   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4300     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4301     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4303     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4307   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4308   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4309   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4310   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4311   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4312   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4313   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4314   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4315   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317 
  4318 *** HOLCF ***
  4319 
  4320 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4321 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4322 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4325 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4326 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4327 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4330 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4331 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4332 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4333 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4334 
  4335 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4336 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4337 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338 
  4339 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4340 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4343   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4344 
  4345 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4346 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4349   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4350   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4351   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4352   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4353 
  4354 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4355 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4358   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4359   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4360 
  4361 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4362 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4366 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4371 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 
  4374 *** ML ***
  4375 
  4376 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4377 
  4378     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4379     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4380 
  4381     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4382     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4383     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4384     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4385 
  4386     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4387     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4388     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4389 
  4390 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4391 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4392 
  4393 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4394 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4395 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4396 
  4397 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4398 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4399 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4400 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4401 
  4402 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4403 the context or even global references.
  4404 
  4405 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4406 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4407 
  4408 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4409 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4410 
  4411   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4412   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4413   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4414   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4415   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4416   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4417   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4418   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4419   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4420   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4421 
  4422 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4423 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4424 
  4425 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4426 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4427 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4428 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4429 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4430 
  4431 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4432 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4433 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4434 Theory_Data version.
  4435 
  4436 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4437 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4438 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4439 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4440 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4441 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4442 explicitly in rare situations.
  4443 
  4444 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4445 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4449 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4452 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4453 quite rare).
  4454 
  4455 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4456 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4457 
  4458 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4459 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4460 terms.
  4461 
  4462 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4463 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4464 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4465 
  4466 
  4467 *** System ***
  4468 
  4469 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4470 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4471 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4472 
  4473 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4474 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4475 respectively.
  4476 
  4477 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4478 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4479 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4480 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4481 
  4482   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4483 
  4484 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4485 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4486 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4487 component.
  4488 
  4489 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4490 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4491 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4492 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4493 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4494 the user for manual installation.
  4495 
  4496 
  4497 
  4498 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4499 -------------------------------------
  4500 
  4501 *** General ***
  4502 
  4503 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4504 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4505 
  4506 
  4507 *** Pure ***
  4508 
  4509 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4510 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4511 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4512 
  4513 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4514 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4515 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4516 
  4517 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4518 interpretation.
  4519 
  4520 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4521 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 
  4524 *** Document preparation ***
  4525 
  4526 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4527 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4528 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4529 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4530 
  4531 
  4532 *** HOL ***
  4533 
  4534 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4535 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4536 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4537 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4538 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4539 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4540 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4541 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4542 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4543 
  4544 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4545 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4546 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4547 
  4548 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4549 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4550 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4551 
  4552 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4553 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4554 
  4555 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4556 
  4557 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4558 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4559 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4560 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4561 
  4562 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4563 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4564 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4565 "mirabelle" utility.
  4566 
  4567 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4568 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4569 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4570 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4571 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4572 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4573 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4574 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4575 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4576 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4577 
  4578 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4579 procedure only.
  4580 
  4581 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4582 
  4583 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4584 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4585 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4586 that fail later.
  4587 
  4588 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4589 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4590 
  4591 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4592 the same method as the approximation method.
  4593 
  4594 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4595 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4596 series expansion.
  4597 
  4598 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4599 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4600 
  4601 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4602 reals.
  4603 
  4604 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4605 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4606 
  4607 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4608 fixpoint theorem.
  4609 
  4610 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4611   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4612     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4613   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4614     accordingly
  4615   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4616     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4617   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4618     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4619 
  4620 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4621 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4622 lattice.
  4623 
  4624 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4625 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4626 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4627 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4628 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4629 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4633   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4634     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4635   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4636     le_inf_iff
  4637   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4638     sup_aci)
  4639   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4640   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4641   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4642     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4643     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4644     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4645     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4646     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4647     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4648     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4649     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4650     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4651     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4652   - authentic syntax for
  4653     Set.Pow
  4654     Set.image
  4655   - mere abbreviations:
  4656     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4657     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4658     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4659     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4660     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4661     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4662     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4663     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4664   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4665 
  4666 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4667 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4668 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4669 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4670 
  4671 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4672 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4673 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4674 
  4675 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4676 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4677 
  4678 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4679 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4680 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4681 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 
  4683 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4684 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4685 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4686 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4687 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4688 
  4689 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4690 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4694 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4697 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4698 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4699 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4700 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4701 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4702 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4706     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4707     code_post       replaces    code post
  4708     etc.
  4709   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Renamed methods:
  4712     sizechange -> size_change
  4713     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4714   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4717 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4718 
  4719 * Renamed theorems:
  4720     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4721     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4722     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4723     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4724     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4725   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 
  4734 *** HOLCF ***
  4735 
  4736 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4737 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4738 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4739 
  4740 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4741 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4742 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4743 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4744 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4745 
  4746 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4747 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4748 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4749 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4750 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4751 
  4752 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4753 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4754 constructor are pre-configured.
  4755 
  4756 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4757 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4758 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4759 
  4760 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4761 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4762 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4763 as well.)
  4764 
  4765 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4766 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4767 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4768 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4769 examples.
  4770 
  4771 
  4772 *** ML ***
  4773 
  4774 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4775 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4776 
  4777 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4778 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4779 position, logical grouping etc.
  4780 
  4781 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4782 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4783 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4784 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4785 
  4786 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4787 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4788 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4789 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4790 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4791 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4792 
  4793 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4794 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4795 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4796 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4797 experiments with references.
  4798 
  4799 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4800 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4801 
  4802 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4803 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4804 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4805 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4806 
  4807 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4808 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4809 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4810 
  4811 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4812 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4813 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4816 
  4817 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4821 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4822 
  4823 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4824 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4825 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4826 
  4827 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4828 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4829 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4832 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4833 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4837 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4838 instead of global theory.
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 *** System ***
  4842 
  4843 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4844 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4845 usedir option -q.
  4846 
  4847 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4848 also the system manual.
  4849 
  4850 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4851 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4852 
  4853 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4854 this is always enabled.
  4855 
  4856 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4857 
  4858 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4859 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4860 currently supported on Linux only.
  4861 
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4865 --------------------------------
  4866 
  4867 *** General ***
  4868 
  4869 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4870 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4871 
  4872   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4873     "isatool."
  4874 
  4875   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4876     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4877 
  4878   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4879     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4880 
  4881 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4882 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4883 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4884 
  4885 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4886 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4887 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4888 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4889 via "isabelle emacs".
  4890 
  4891 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4892 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4893 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4894 
  4895 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4896 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4897 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4898 
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4900 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4901 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4902 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4903 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4904 
  4905 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4906 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4907 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4908 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4909 
  4910 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4911 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4912 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4913 
  4914 
  4915 *** Pure ***
  4916 
  4917 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4918 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4919 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4920 
  4921 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4922 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4923 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4924 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4925 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4926 
  4927 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4928 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4929 useful in locale declarations.
  4930 
  4931 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4932 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4933 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4934 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4935 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4936 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4937 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4938 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4939 no longer generated.
  4940 
  4941 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4942 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4943 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4944 
  4945 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4946 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4947 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4948 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4949 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4950 
  4951 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4952 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4953 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4954 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4955 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4956 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4957 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4958 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4959 
  4960 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4961 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4962 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4963 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4964 
  4965 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4966 
  4967 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4968 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4969 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4970 
  4971 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4972 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4973 
  4974 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4975 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4976 in HOL, write
  4977 
  4978     class foo = ...
  4979 
  4980 instead of
  4981 
  4982     class foo = type + ...
  4983 
  4984 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4985 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4986 
  4987 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4988 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4989 
  4990 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4991 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4992 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4993 
  4994 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4995 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4996 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4997 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4998 directly in regular applications.
  4999 
  5000 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5001 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5002 
  5003 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5004 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5005 
  5006 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5007 theory context.
  5008 
  5009 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5010 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5013 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5014 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5015 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5016 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5017 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5018 
  5019   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5020 
  5021 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5022 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5023 normalization.
  5024 
  5025 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5026 addressing etc.
  5027 
  5028 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5029 
  5030   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5031   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5032 
  5033 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5034 
  5035   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5036      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5037      parts of the code generator framework).
  5038 
  5039   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5040      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5041      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5042 
  5043 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5046 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5049 patterns, e.g.
  5050 
  5051     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5052 
  5053 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5054 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5055 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5056 hyphen:
  5057 
  5058     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5059 
  5060 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5061 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5062 
  5063 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5064 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5065 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5066 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5067 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5068 higher-order unification.
  5069 
  5070 
  5071 *** Document preparation ***
  5072 
  5073 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5074 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5075 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5076 
  5077 
  5078 *** HOL ***
  5079 
  5080 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5081 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5082 
  5083 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5084 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5085 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5086 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5087 Main, as before.
  5088 
  5089 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5090 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5091 
  5092 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5093 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5094 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5095 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5096 
  5097 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5098 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5099 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5100 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5101 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5102 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5103 
  5104 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5105 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5106 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5107 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5108 
  5109 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5110 menu.
  5111 
  5112 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5113 (contains the empty clause).
  5114 
  5115 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5116 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5117 
  5118 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5119 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5120 
  5121 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5122 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5123 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5126 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5127 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5128 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5129 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5130 
  5131 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5132 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5133 
  5134 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5135 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5136 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5137 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5138 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5139 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5140 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5141 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5142 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5143 
  5144 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5145 
  5146 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5147 
  5148 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5149 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5150 
  5151 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5152 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5153 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5154 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5155 
  5156 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5157 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5158 
  5159     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5160     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5161     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5162     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5163     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5164     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5165     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5166     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5167 
  5168 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5169 theory Set.
  5170 
  5171 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5172 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5173 
  5174 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5175 
  5176 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5177 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5178 
  5179 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5180 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5181 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5182 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5183 allowed. For examples see
  5184 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5185 
  5186 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5187 
  5188 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5190 
  5191 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5192 structure:
  5193 
  5194     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5195     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5196     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5197     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5198     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5199     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5200     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5201     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5202     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5203     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5204     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5205     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5206     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5207     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5208     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5209     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5210     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5211     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5212     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5213     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5214     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5215     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5216     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5217     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5218     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5219     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5220     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5221     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5222     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5223     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5224     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5225     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5226     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5227 
  5228     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5229     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5230     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5231     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5232     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5233     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5234     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5235     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5236     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5237     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5238 
  5239     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5240     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5241     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5242     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5243     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5244     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5245 
  5246 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5247 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5248 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5249 
  5250 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5251 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5252 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5253 
  5254 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5255 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5256 
  5257 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5258 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5259 
  5260 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5261 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5262 proofs, e.g.
  5263 
  5264   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5265 
  5266 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5267 
  5268 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5269 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5270 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5271 
  5272 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5273 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5275 
  5276 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5277 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5278 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5280 
  5281 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5282 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5283 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5284 preorder_class.*.
  5285 
  5286 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5287 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5288 
  5289 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5290 
  5291   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5292 
  5293 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5294 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5295 fold_image.
  5296 
  5297 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5298 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5299 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5300 the former will disappear at some point.
  5301 
  5302 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5303 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5304 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5305 
  5306 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5307 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5308 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5309 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5310 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5311 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5312 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5313 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5314 
  5315 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5316 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5317 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5318 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5319 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5320 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5321 
  5322     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5323     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5324     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5325     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5326     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5327     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5328     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5329 
  5330 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5331 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5332 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5333 
  5334 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5335 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5336 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5337 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5338 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5339 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5340 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5341 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5342 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5343 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5344 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5345 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5346 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5347 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5348 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5349 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5350 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5351 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5352 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5353 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5354 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5355 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5356 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5357 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5358 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5359 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5360 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5361 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5362 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5363 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5364 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5365 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5366 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5367 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5368 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5369 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5370 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5371 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5372 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5373 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5374 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5375 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5376 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5377 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5378 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5379 
  5380 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5383 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5384 
  5385 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5386 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5387 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5388 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5389 
  5390 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5391 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5392 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5393 theory RealVector.
  5394 
  5395 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5396 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5397 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5398 and inner products are included.
  5399 
  5400 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5401 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5402 supported.
  5403 
  5404 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5405 first diagonalization argument.
  5406 
  5407 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5408 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5409 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5410 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5411 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5412 
  5413     hide (open) const gcd
  5414     abbreviation gcd where
  5415       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5416     notation (output)
  5417       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5418 
  5419 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5420 
  5421 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5422 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5423 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5424 
  5425 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5426 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5427 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5428 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5429 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5430 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5431 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5432 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5433 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5434 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5435 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5436 cases.
  5437 
  5438 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5439 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5440 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5441 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5442 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5443 
  5444     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5445     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5446     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5447     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5448     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5449 
  5450 
  5451 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5452 
  5453 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5454 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5455 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5456 
  5457 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5458 
  5459 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5460 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5461 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5462 
  5463 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5464 
  5465 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5466 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5467 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5468 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5469 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5470 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5471 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5472 
  5473 
  5474 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5475 
  5476 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5477 
  5478 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5479 theory targets.
  5480 
  5481 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5482 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5483 'inductive' etc.
  5484 
  5485 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5486 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5487 
  5488 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5489 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5490 
  5491 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5492 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5493 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5494 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5495 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5496 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5497 the algorithm W:
  5498 
  5499  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5500  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5501          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5502 
  5503 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5504 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5505 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5506 
  5507 
  5508 *** HOLCF ***
  5509 
  5510 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5511 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5512 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5513 
  5514 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5515 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5516 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5517 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5518 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5521 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5522 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5523 
  5524 
  5525 *** ZF ***
  5526 
  5527 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5528 
  5529 
  5530 *** ML ***
  5531 
  5532 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5533 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5534 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5535 5.2.1!
  5536 
  5537 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5538 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5539 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5540 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5541 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5542 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5543 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5544 
  5545 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5546 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5547 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5548 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5549 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5550 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5551 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5552 
  5553 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5554 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5555 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5556 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5557 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5558 
  5559 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5560 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5561 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5562 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5563 Method.add_method.
  5564 
  5565 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5566 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5567 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5568 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5569 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5570 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5571 
  5572 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5573 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5574 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5575 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5576 examples.
  5577 
  5578 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5579 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5580 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5581 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5582 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5583 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5584 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5585 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5586 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5587 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5588 
  5589 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5590 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5591 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5592 
  5593 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5594 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5595 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5596 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5597 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5598 resort for legacy applications.
  5599 
  5600 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5601 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5602 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5603 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5604 explicit runtime argument.
  5605 
  5606 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5607 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5608 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5609 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5610 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5611 
  5612 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5613 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5614 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5615 theory state.
  5616 
  5617 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5618 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5619 
  5620   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5621   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5622   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5623   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5624   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5625   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5626   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5627   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5628   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5629   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5630 
  5631 
  5632 *** System ***
  5633 
  5634 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5635 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5636 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5637 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5638 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5639 
  5640 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5641 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5642 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5643 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5644 
  5645 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5646 
  5647 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5648 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5649 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5650 prover operations.
  5651 
  5652 
  5653 
  5654 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5655 -------------------------------
  5656 
  5657 *** General ***
  5658 
  5659 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5660 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5661 
  5662 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5663 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5664 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5665 provides a proper context already.
  5666 
  5667 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5668 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5669 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5670 
  5671 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5672 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5673 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5674 swap theory imports.
  5675 
  5676 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5677 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5678 
  5679 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5680 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5681 white space without escapes.
  5682 
  5683 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5684 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5685 "foo_bar".
  5686 
  5687 
  5688 *** Pure ***
  5689 
  5690 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5691 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5692 
  5693 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5694 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5695 
  5696 (1) unused_thms
  5697      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5698 
  5699 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5700      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5701      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5702 
  5703 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5704      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5705      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5706      their ancestors.
  5707 
  5708 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5709 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5710 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5711 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5712 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5713 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5714 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5715 
  5716 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5717 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5718 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5719 
  5720 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5721 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5722 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5723 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5724 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5725 
  5726 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5727 
  5728 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5729 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5730 update of theories within ML code.
  5731 
  5732 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5733 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5734 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5735 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5736 
  5737 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5738 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5739 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5743 
  5744 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5745 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5746 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5747 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5748 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5749 
  5750 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5751 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5752 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5753 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5754 situations.
  5755 
  5756 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5757 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5758 proof text.
  5759 
  5760 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5761 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5762 
  5763 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5764 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5765 predicates.
  5766 
  5767 
  5768 *** Document preparation ***
  5769 
  5770 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5771 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5772 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5773 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5774 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5775 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5776 
  5777 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5778 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5779 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5780 
  5781 
  5782 *** HOL ***
  5783 
  5784 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5785 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5786 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5787 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5788 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5789 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5790 
  5791 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5792 with multithreading.
  5793 
  5794 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5795 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5796 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5797 
  5798 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5799 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5800 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5801 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5802 
  5803 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5804 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5805 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5806 and makes them available separately.  See
  5807 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5808 
  5809 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5810 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5811 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5812 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5813 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5814 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5815 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5816 the declared rules.
  5817 
  5818 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5819 
  5820   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5821 
  5822 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5823 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5824 
  5825 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5826 
  5827   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5828 
  5829   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5830     definitions on => and bool.
  5831 
  5832   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5833     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5834     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5835 
  5836       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5837       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5838       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5839       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5840       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5841       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5842       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5843       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5844 
  5845   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5846     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5847     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5848 
  5849   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5850     The proof pattern
  5851 
  5852       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5853       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5854 
  5855     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5856     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5857 
  5858       have "EX S. P S"
  5859       proof
  5860         show "P S" <...>
  5861       qed
  5862 
  5863   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5864     The proof pattern
  5865 
  5866       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5867       also have "S = T" <...>
  5868       finally have "P T" .
  5869 
  5870     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5871     must be replaced by something like
  5872 
  5873       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5874       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5875       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5876 
  5877   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5878     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5879 
  5880       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5881 
  5882     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5883     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5884     type of the form
  5885 
  5886       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5887 
  5888     rather than
  5889 
  5890       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5891 
  5892 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5893 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5894 
  5895 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5896 
  5897 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5898 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5902 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5905 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5906 
  5907 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5908 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5909 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 
  5911 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5912 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5913 
  5914   less_trans
  5915   less_linear
  5916   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5917   le_less_trans
  5918   less_le_trans
  5919   less_not_sym
  5920   less_asym
  5921 
  5922 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5923 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5924 and different variable names.
  5925 
  5926 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5927 
  5928 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5929 finite maps.
  5930 
  5931 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5932 
  5933 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5934 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5935 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5936 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5937 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5938 accordingly.
  5939 
  5940 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5941 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5942 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5943 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5944 
  5945 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5946 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5947 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5948 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5949 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5953 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5954 
  5955 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5956 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5957 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5958 
  5959 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5961 
  5962 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5963 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5964 
  5965 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5966 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5967 
  5968 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5969 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5970 
  5971 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5972 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5974 
  5975 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5976 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5977 
  5978 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5979 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5980 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5981 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5982 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5983 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5984 
  5985 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5986 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5987 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5988 
  5989 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5990 
  5991 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5992 
  5993 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5994 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5995 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5996 
  5997 
  5998 *** ZF ***
  5999 
  6000 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6001 same session:
  6002 
  6003   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6004   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6005   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6006   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6007   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6008   List      -> List_ZF
  6009   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6010 
  6011 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6012 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6013 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6014 
  6015 
  6016 *** ML ***
  6017 
  6018 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6019 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6020 
  6021 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6022 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6023 
  6024 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6025 
  6026 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6027 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6028 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6029 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6030 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6031 
  6032 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6033 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6034 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6035 
  6036 
  6037 *** System ***
  6038 
  6039 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6040 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6041 
  6042 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6043 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6044 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6045 
  6046 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6047 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6048 
  6049 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6050 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6051 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6052 
  6053 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6054 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6055 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6056 
  6057 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6058 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6059 
  6060 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6061 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6062 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6063 script.
  6064 
  6065 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6066 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6067 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6068 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6069 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6070 
  6071 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6072 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6073 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6074 
  6075 
  6076 
  6077 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6078 -----------------------------------
  6079 
  6080 *** General ***
  6081 
  6082 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6083 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6084 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6085 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6086 
  6087 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6088 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6089 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6090 
  6091 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6092 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6093 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6094 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6095 
  6096 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6097 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6098 quotes.
  6099 
  6100 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6101 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6102 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6103 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6104 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6105 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6106 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6107 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6108 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6109 
  6110 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6111 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6112 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6113 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6114 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6115 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6116 
  6117 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6118 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6119 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6120 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6121 
  6122 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6123 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6124 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6125 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6126 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6127 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6128 
  6129 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6130 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6131 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6132 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6133 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6134 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6135 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6136 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6137 
  6138 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6139 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6140 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6141 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6142 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6143 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6144 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6145 
  6146 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6147 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6148 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6149 
  6150 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6151 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6152 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6153 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6154 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6155 limit is imposed.
  6156 
  6157 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6158 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6159 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6160 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6161 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6162 and scalability.
  6163 
  6164 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6165 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6166 
  6167 
  6168 *** Document preparation ***
  6169 
  6170 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6171 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6172 current context.
  6173 
  6174 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6175 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6176 
  6177 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6178 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6179 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6180 
  6181 
  6182 *** Pure ***
  6183 
  6184 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6185 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6186 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6187 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6188 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6189 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6190 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6191 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6192 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6193 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6194 
  6195 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6196 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6197 sketch:
  6198 
  6199     internal compilation:
  6200         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6201     writing SML code to a file:
  6202         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6203     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6204         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6205     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6206         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6207 
  6208     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6209         method ``eval''
  6210 
  6211 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6212 
  6213 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6214 
  6215     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6216     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6217     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6218     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6219 
  6220 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6221 
  6222     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6223       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6224 
  6225     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6226       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6227 
  6228     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6229       {(target)}+
  6230         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6231 
  6232     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6233       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6234         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6235 
  6236 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6237 
  6238 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6239 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6240 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6241 codegen".
  6242 
  6243 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6244 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6245 annotations).
  6246 
  6247 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6248 syntax.
  6249 
  6250 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6251 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6252 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6253 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6254 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6255 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6256 
  6257 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6258 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6259 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6260 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6261 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6262 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6263 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6264 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6265 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6266 equations, see section "definitions".
  6267 
  6268 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory