NEWS
author haftmann
Sat Oct 20 09:12:16 2012 +0200 (2012-10-20)
changeset 49948 744934b818c7
parent 49918 cf441f4a358b
child 49963 326f87427719
permissions -rw-r--r--
moved quite generic material from theory Enum to more appropriate places
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10     . parallel terminal proofs ('by');
    11     . improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    12     . improved tooltips with nested tooltips, hyperlinks etc.;
    13     . more efficient painting, improved reactivity;
    14     . more robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial
    15       comments, malformed symbols);
    16     . smarter handling of tracing messages (via tracing_limit);
    17     . more plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala;
    18     . uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows;
    19 
    20 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    21 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    22 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    23 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    24 
    25 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    26 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    27 
    28 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    29 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    30 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    31 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    32 dependencies properly.
    33 
    34 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    35 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    36 
    37 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    38 in old "ref" manual.
    39 
    40 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    41 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    42 and "class ... context ...".
    43 
    44 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    45 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Pure ***
    49 
    50 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    51 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    52 
    53 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    54 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    55 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    56 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    57 
    58 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    59 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    60 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    61 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    62 with some care where this is really required.
    63 
    64 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    65 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    66 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    67 
    68   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    69 
    70 
    71 *** HOL ***
    72 
    73 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
    74 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    75 
    76 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
    77 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
    78 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
    79 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
    80 accordingly.
    81 
    82 
    83 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
    84 
    85   - Renamed constants
    86       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
    87 
    88   - Renamed facts
    89       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
    90 
    91 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    92 
    93 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    94 
    95 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
    96 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
    97 
    98 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
    99 to lattice type classes.
   100 
   101 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   102 
   103 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   104 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   105 
   106   - Renamed constants:
   107 
   108       prefix ~> prefixeq
   109       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   110 
   111     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   114     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   115     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   116     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   117 
   118   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   119     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   120 
   121   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   122     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   123     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   124     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   125 
   126   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   127     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   128 
   129       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   130       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   131       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   132       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   133       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   134       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   135       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   136       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   137       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   138       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   139       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   140       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   141       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   142       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   143       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   144       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   145 
   146     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   149 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   150 non-free datatypes.
   151 
   152 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   153 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   154 
   155 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   156 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   157 
   158 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   159 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   160 
   161 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   162 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   163 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   164 
   165 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   166 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   167 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   170 expressions.
   171 
   172 * Quickcheck:
   173 
   174   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   175     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   176     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   177 
   178 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   179 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   180 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   181 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   182 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Sledgehammer:
   185 
   186   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   187     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   188   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   189   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   190   - Renamed options:
   191       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   192       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrinkage
   193       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   194       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   195 
   196 
   197 *** Document preparation ***
   198 
   199 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   200 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   201 
   202 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   203 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   204 document/root.tex.
   205 
   206 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   207 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 
   210 *** ML ***
   211 
   212 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   213 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   214 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   215 
   216 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   217 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   218 necessarily printing visible text.
   219 
   220 
   221 *** System ***
   222 
   223 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   224 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   225 for home-made configurations.
   226 
   227 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   228 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   229 
   230 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   231 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   232 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   233 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   234 
   235 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   236 
   237 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   238 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   239 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   240 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   241 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   242 
   243 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   244 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   245 
   246   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   247 
   248 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   249 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   250 
   251 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   252 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   253 "isabelle usedir".
   254 
   255 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   256 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   257 version of Isabelle.
   258 
   259 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   260 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   261 configuration.
   262 
   263 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   264 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   265 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   266 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   267 bundled as Isabelle component.
   268 
   269 
   270 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   271 ------------------------------
   272 
   273 *** General ***
   274 
   275 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   276 
   277   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   278     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   279   - markup for bound variables
   280   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   281   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   282   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   283     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   284 
   285 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   286 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   287 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   288 
   289 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   290 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   291 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   292 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   293 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   294 
   295   context
   296     fixes x y z :: 'a
   297     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   298   begin
   299 
   300   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   301 
   302   end
   303 
   304   thm my_trans
   305 
   306 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   307 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   308 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   309 
   310 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   311 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   312 
   313 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   314 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   315 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   316 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   317 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   318 
   319 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   320 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   321 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   322 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   323 indices of schematic variables.
   324 
   325 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   326 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   327 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   328 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   329 etc. was exploited.
   330 
   331 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   332 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   333 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   334 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   335 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   336 of the material of that old tutorial.
   337 
   338 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   339 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   340 manual.
   341 
   342 
   343 *** Pure ***
   344 
   345 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   346 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   347 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   348 
   349 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   350 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   351 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   352 undocumented feature.)
   353 
   354 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   355 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   356 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   357 
   358   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   359 
   360   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   361     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   362 
   363 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   364 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   365 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   366 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   367 
   368 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   369 
   370     num ~> num_token
   371     xnum ~> xnum_token
   372     xstr ~> str_token
   373 
   374 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   375 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   376 position information via constraints).
   377 
   378 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   379 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   380 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   383 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   384 
   385 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   386 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   387 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   390 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   391 
   392 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   393 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   394 
   395   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   396 
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   400 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   403 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   404 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   405 
   406 
   407 *** HOL ***
   408 
   409 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   410 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   411 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   412 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   413 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   414 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   415 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   416 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   417 possible.
   418 
   419 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   420 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   421 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   422 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   423 
   424 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   425 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   428 
   429 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   430 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   431 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   432 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   433 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   434 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   435 
   436   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   437     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   438 
   439   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   440     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   441     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   442 
   443   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   444     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   445 
   446   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   447     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   448     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   449 
   450   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   451     Redefine using other integer operations.
   452 
   453 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   454 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   455 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   456 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   457 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   458 
   459   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   460     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   461     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   462     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   463     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   464 
   465     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   466     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   467 
   468   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   469     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   470     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   471     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   472     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   473     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   474     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   475     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   476 
   477   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   478     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   479     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   480     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   481 
   482   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   483     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   484     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   485     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   486 
   487   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   488     from type nat to type int.
   489 
   490 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   491 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   492 
   493   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   494     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   495     type.  Example syntax:
   496 
   497     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   498       is List.insert
   499 
   500     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   501     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   502     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   503     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   504     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   505     by the package.
   506 
   507   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   508     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   509     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   510     code generation for each constant.
   511 
   512   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   513     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   514     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   515     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   516     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   517 
   518   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   519     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   520     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   521 
   522 * Quotient package:
   523 
   524   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   525     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   526 
   527   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   528     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   529 
   530   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   531     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   532     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   535     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   538 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   539 
   540 * Quickcheck:
   541 
   542   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   543     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   544     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   545     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   546     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   547 
   548     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   549     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   550     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   551 
   552     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   553     continues searching for genuine ones.
   554 
   555     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   556     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   557     show genuine counterexamples.
   558 
   559   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   560     value generators for a given type and operations.
   561 
   562     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   563     constructors of that type.
   564 
   565   - Support for multisets.
   566 
   567   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   568 
   569   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   570     conjectures in a locale context.
   571 
   572 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   573 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   574 
   575 * Sledgehammer:
   576   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   577     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   578   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   579   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   580     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   581   - Sped up the minimizer.
   582   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   583   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   584   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   585 
   586 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   587 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   588 
   589 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   590 
   591 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   592 
   593 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   594 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   595 
   596   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   597 
   598 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   599 a list and a nat.
   600 
   601 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   602 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   603 
   604 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   605 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   606 default.
   607 
   608 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   609 
   610   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   611 
   612 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   613 
   614 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   615 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   616 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   617 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   618 one_case.
   619 
   620 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   621 the result of the fact expression.
   622 
   623 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   624 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   625 of some relation theorems:
   626 
   627   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   628   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   629   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   630   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   631   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   632   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   633 
   634 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   635 
   636 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   637 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   638 
   639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   642 to match the constant's name:
   643 
   644   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   645   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   646   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   647   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   648   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   649   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   650   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   651   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   652   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   653   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   654   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   655   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   656   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   657   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   658   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   659   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   660   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   661   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   662   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   663   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   664   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   665   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   666   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   667   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   668 
   669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   670 
   671 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   672 and corresponding theorem names:
   673 
   674   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   675 
   676   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   677 
   678   - Renamed theorems:
   679 
   680     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   681     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   682     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   683     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   684     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   685     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   686     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   687     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   688     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   689     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   690     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   691     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   692     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   693     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   694     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   695     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   696     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   697     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   698     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   699     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   700     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   701     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   702     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   703 
   704     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   705 
   706     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   707 
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   711 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   712 
   713   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   714   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   715   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   716   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   717   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   718   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   719   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   720   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   721   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   722   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   723   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   724   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   725   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   726   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   727   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   728   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   729   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   730   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   731   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   732   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   733   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   734 
   735 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   736 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   737 
   738 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   741 
   742   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   743   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   744   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   745   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   746   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   747   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   748   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   749   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   750   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   751   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   752   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   753   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   754   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   755   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   756   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   757   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   758   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   759   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   760 
   761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   764 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   765 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   766 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   767 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   768 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   769 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   771 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   772 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   773 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   774 
   775 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   776 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   777 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   778 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   779 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   780 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   781 
   782 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   783 through option types.
   784 
   785 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   786 relations.
   787 
   788 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   791 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   792 
   793   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   794   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   795   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   796   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   797   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   798   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   799   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   800   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   801   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   802   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   803   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   804   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   805   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   806   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   807   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   808   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   809   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   810   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   811   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   812   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   813   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   814   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   815   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   816   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   817   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   818   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   819   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   820   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   821   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   822   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   823   zless_le ~> less_le
   824   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   825   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   826   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   827 
   828 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   829 
   830   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   831 
   832 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   833 
   834 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   835 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   836 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   837 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   839 
   840 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   841 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   842 
   843 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   844 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   845 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   846 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   847 follows:
   848 
   849   Operations:
   850   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   851   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   852   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   853   del -> rbt_del
   854   delete -> rbt_delete
   855   ins -> rbt_ins
   856   insert -> rbt_insert
   857   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   858   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   859   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   860   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   861   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   862   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   863   tree_less -> rbt_less
   864   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   865   union -> rbt_union
   866   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   867   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   868 
   869   Lemmas:
   870   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   871   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   872   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   873   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   874   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   875   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   876   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   877   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   878   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   879   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   880   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   881   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   882   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   883   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   884   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   885   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   886   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   887   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   888   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   889   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   890   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   891   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   892   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   893   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   894   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   895   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   896   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   897   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   898   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   899   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   900   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   901   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   902   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   903   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   904   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   905   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   906   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   907   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   908   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   909   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   910   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   911   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   912   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   913   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   914   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   915   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   916   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   917   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   918   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   919   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   920   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   921   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   922   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   923   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   924   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   925   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   926   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   927   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   928   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   929   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   930   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   931   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   932   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   933   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   934   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   935   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   936   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   937   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   938   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   939   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   940   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   941   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   942   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   943   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   944   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   945   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   946   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   947   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   948   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   949   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   950   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   951   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   952   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   953 
   954 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   955 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   956 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   957 
   958   Changed Operations:
   959   float_abs -> abs
   960   float_nprt -> nprt
   961   float_pprt -> pprt
   962   pow2 -> use powr
   963   round_down -> float_round_down
   964   round_up -> float_round_up
   965   scale -> exponent
   966 
   967   Removed Operations:
   968   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   969 
   970   Renamed Lemmas:
   971   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   972   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   973   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   974   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   975   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   976   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   977   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   978   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   979   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   980   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   981   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   982   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   983   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   984   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   985   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   986   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   987   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   988   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   989   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   990   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   991   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   992   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   993   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   994   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   995   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   996   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   997   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   998   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   999   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1000   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1001   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1002   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1003   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1004   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1005   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1006   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1007 
  1008   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1009   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1010   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1011   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1012   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1013   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1014   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1015   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1016   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1017   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1018 
  1019 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1020 association lists with distinct keys.
  1021 
  1022 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1023 annotated commands.
  1024 
  1025 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1026 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1027 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1028 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1029 
  1030 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1031 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1032 instead.
  1033 
  1034   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1035   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1036   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1037   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1038   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1039   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1040   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1041   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1042   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1043   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1044   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1045   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1046   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1047   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1048   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1049   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1050   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1051   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1052   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1053   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1054   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1055   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1056   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1057   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1058   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1059   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1060   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1061   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1062   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1063   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1064   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1065   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1066   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1067   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1068   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1069   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1070   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1071   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1072   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1073   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1074   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1075 
  1076 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1077 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1078 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1079 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1080 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1081 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1082 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1083 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1084 
  1085 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1086 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1087 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1088 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1089 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1090 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1091 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1092 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1093 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1094 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1095 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1096 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098   Renamed constants:
  1099   measure -> emeasure
  1100   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1101   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1102   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1103   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1104 
  1105   Removed locales:
  1106   completeable_measure_space
  1107   finite_measure_space
  1108   finite_prob_space
  1109   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1110   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1111   finite_sigma_algebra
  1112   measure_space
  1113   pair_finite_prob_space
  1114   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1115   pair_finite_space
  1116   pair_sigma_algebra
  1117   product_sigma_algebra
  1118 
  1119   Removed constants:
  1120   conditional_space
  1121   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1122   image_space
  1123   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1124   pair_measure_generator
  1125   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1126   subvimage
  1127 
  1128   Replacement theorems:
  1129   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1130   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1131   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1132   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1133   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1134   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1135   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1136   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1137   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1138   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1139   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1140   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1141   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1142   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1143   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1144   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1145   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1146   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1147   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1148   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1149   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1150   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1151   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1152   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1153   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1154   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1155   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1156   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1157   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1158   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1159   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1160   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1161   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1162   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1163   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1164   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1165   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1166   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1167   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1168   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1169   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1170   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1171   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1172   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1173   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1174   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1175   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1176   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1177   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1178   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1179   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1180   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1181   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1182   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1183   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1184   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1185   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1186   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1187   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1188   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1189   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1190   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1191   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1192   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1193   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1194   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1195   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1196   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1197   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1198   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1199   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1200   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1201   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1202   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1203   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1204   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1205   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1206   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1207   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1208   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1209   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1210   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1211   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1212   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1213   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1214   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1215   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1216   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1217   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1218   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1219   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1220   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1221   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1222   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1223   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1224   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1225   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1226   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1227   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1228   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1229   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1230   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1231   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1232   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1233   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1234   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1235   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1236   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1237   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1238   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1239   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1240   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1241   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1242   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1243   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1244   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1245   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1246   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1247   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1248   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1249   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1250   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1251   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1252   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1253   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1254   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1255   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1256   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1257 
  1258 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1259 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1260 
  1261 
  1262 *** FOL ***
  1263 
  1264 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1265 
  1266 
  1267 *** ZF ***
  1268 
  1269 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1270 analysis.
  1271 
  1272 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1273 
  1274 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1275 
  1276 
  1277 *** ML ***
  1278 
  1279 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1280 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1281 
  1282 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1283 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1284 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1285 
  1286 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1287 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1288 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1289 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1290 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1291 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1292 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1293 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1294 
  1295 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1296 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1297 
  1298 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1299 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1300 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1301 
  1302 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1303 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1306 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1307 context as well.
  1308 
  1309 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1310 
  1311   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1312   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1313   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1314   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1315   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1316   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1317   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1318   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1319   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1320   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1321   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1322   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1323 
  1324 
  1325 *** System ***
  1326 
  1327 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1328 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1329 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1330 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1331 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1332 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1333 the generic user home was intended.
  1334 
  1335 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1336 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1337 
  1338 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1339 (not just JRE).
  1340 
  1341 
  1342 
  1343 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1344 ------------------------------------
  1345 
  1346 *** General ***
  1347 
  1348 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1349 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1350 
  1351   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1352     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1353     files for checking).
  1354 
  1355   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1356     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1357     positions.
  1358 
  1359   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1360     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1361     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1362 
  1363   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1364     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1365     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1366 
  1367   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1368     cores.
  1369 
  1370   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1371     versions (garbage collection).
  1372 
  1373 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1374 including some remaining limitations.
  1375 
  1376 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1377 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1378 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1379 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1380 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1382 
  1383 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1384 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1385 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1386 
  1387 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1388 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1389 usedir option -Q.
  1390 
  1391 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1392 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1393 
  1394   long_names   ~> names_long
  1395   short_names  ~> names_short
  1396   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1397 
  1398 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1399 
  1400   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1401 
  1402 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1403 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1404 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1405 
  1406 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1407 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1408 
  1409 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1410   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1411   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1412   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1413     "Classical Reasoner".
  1414 
  1415 
  1416 *** HOL ***
  1417 
  1418 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1419 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1422 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1423 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1424 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1425 class complete_linorder.
  1426 
  1427 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1428 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1429 
  1430 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1431 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1432 
  1433   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1434   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1435   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1436   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1437   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1438   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1439   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1440   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1441   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1442   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1443   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1444 
  1445 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1446 
  1447   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1448   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1449   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1450   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1451   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1452   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1453   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1454   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1455   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1456   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1457   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1458   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1459   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1460   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1461   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1462   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1463 
  1464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1470 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1471 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1472 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1475 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1476 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1480 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1481 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1482 
  1483 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1484 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1485 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1488 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1489 
  1490 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1491 
  1492     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1493     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1494 
  1495 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1496 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1499 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1502 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1503 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1504 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1505 
  1506   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1507   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1508   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1509   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1510   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1511   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1512   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1513 
  1514 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1515 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1518   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1519   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1520   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1521   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1522   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1523   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1524   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1525   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1526   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1527   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1528   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1529   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1530   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1531   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1532   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1533   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1534   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1535   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1536   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1537   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1538   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1539   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1540   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1541   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1542   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1543   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1544   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1545   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1546   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1547   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1548   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1549   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1550   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1551   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1552   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1553   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1554   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1555   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1556   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1557   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1558   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1559   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1560   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1561   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1562   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1563   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1564   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1565   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1566   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1567   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1568   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1569   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1570   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1571   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1572   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1573   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1574   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1575   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1576   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1577   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1578   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1579   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1580   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1581   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1582   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1583   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1584   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1585   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1586   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1587   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1588   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1589   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1590   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1591   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1592   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1593   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1594   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1595   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1596   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1597   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1598   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1599 
  1600 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1601 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1602 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1603 
  1604 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1605 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1606 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1607 
  1608 * Code generation:
  1609 
  1610   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1611     characters in the target language.
  1612 
  1613   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1614     instead.
  1615 
  1616   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1617 
  1618   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1619     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1620 
  1621       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1622 
  1623 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1626 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1627 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1628 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1629 syntax.
  1630 
  1631 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1632 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1633 
  1634 * Nitpick:
  1635   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1636   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1637   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1638     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640 * Sledgehammer:
  1641   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1642   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1643     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1644   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1645     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1646   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1647     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1648   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1649     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1650   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1651     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Metis:
  1654   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1655   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1656     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1657 
  1658 * Command 'try':
  1659   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1660     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1662     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1663 
  1664 * Quickcheck:
  1665   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1666     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1667   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1668     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1669   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1670     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1671     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1672     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1673   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1674     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1675 
  1676 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1677 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1678 
  1679 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1680 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1681 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1682 
  1683 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1684 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1686 
  1687 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1688 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1691 arithmetic.
  1692 
  1693 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1694 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1695 and lattice type classes.
  1696 
  1697 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1698 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1699 
  1700 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1701 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1702 
  1703 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1704 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1705 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1706 
  1707   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1708   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1709   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1710   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1711 
  1712 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1713 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1714 constants:
  1715 
  1716   type inat   ~> type enat
  1717   Fin         ~> enat
  1718   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1719   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1720   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1721 
  1722 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1723 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1726 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1727 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1728 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1729 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1730 
  1731 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1732 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1733 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1734 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1735 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1736 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1737 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1738 
  1739   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1740   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1741   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1742   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1743 
  1744 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1745 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1746 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1749   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1750   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1751   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1752   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1753   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1754   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1755   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1756   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1757   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1758   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1759   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1760   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1761   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1762   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1763   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1764   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1765   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1766   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1767   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1768   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1769   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1770   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1771   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1772   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1773   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1774   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1775   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1776   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1777   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1778   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1779   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1780   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1781   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1782   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1783   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1784   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1785   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1786   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1787   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1788   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1789   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1790   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1791   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1792   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1793   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1794   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1795   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1796   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1797   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1798   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1799 
  1800 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1801   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1802   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1803   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1804   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1805     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1806 
  1807 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1808 
  1809   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1810   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1811   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1812   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1813   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1814   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1815   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1816   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1817   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1818   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1819   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1820   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1821   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1822   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1823   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1824   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1825   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1826   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1827   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1828   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1829   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1830   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1831   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1832   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1833   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1834 
  1835 
  1836 *** Document preparation ***
  1837 
  1838 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1839 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1840 same.
  1841 
  1842 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1843 result.
  1844 
  1845 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1846 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1847 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1848 
  1849 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1850 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1851 
  1852 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1853 like this:
  1854 
  1855   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1856   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1857 
  1858 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1859 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1860 layouts.
  1861 
  1862 
  1863 *** ML ***
  1864 
  1865 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1866 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1867 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1868 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1869 under external program control.
  1870 
  1871 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1872 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1873 
  1874 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1875 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1876 (better known as Proof General).
  1877 
  1878 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1879 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1880 
  1881 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1882 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1883 
  1884 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1885 (including quotes etc.).
  1886 
  1887 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1888 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1889 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1890 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1891 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1892 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1893 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1894 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1895 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1896 
  1897 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1898 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1899 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1900 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1901 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1902 
  1903 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1904 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1905 
  1906 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1907 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1908 
  1909 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1910 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1911 
  1912 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1913 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1914 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1915 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1916 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1917 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1918 proper Proof.context.
  1919 
  1920 
  1921 *** System ***
  1922 
  1923 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1924 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1925 
  1926 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1927 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1928 
  1929 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1930 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1931 
  1932   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1933   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1934   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1935   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1936   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1937 
  1938 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1939 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1942 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1943 example:
  1944 
  1945   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1946 
  1947 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1948 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1949 
  1950 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1951 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1952 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1953 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1954 
  1955 
  1956 
  1957 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1958 ----------------------------------
  1959 
  1960 *** General ***
  1961 
  1962 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1963 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1964 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1965 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1966 like this:
  1967 
  1968   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1969 
  1970 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1971 
  1972 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1973 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1974 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1975 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1976 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1977 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1978 
  1979 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1980 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1981 the following package declarations:
  1982 
  1983   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1984   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1985 
  1986 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1987 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1988 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1989 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1990 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1991 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1992 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1993 
  1994 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1995 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1996 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1997 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1998 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1999 
  2000 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2001 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2002 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2003 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2004 
  2005 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2006 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2007 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2008 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2009 
  2010   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2011 
  2012   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2013   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2014   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2015   show_types                    show_types
  2016   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2017   show_consts                   show_consts
  2018   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2019 
  2020   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2021   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2022   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2023 
  2024   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2025   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2026 
  2027   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2028 
  2029   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2030   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2031   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2032   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2033   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2034 
  2035 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2036 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2037 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2038 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2039 
  2040 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2044   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2045 
  2046 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2047 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2048 float_token.
  2049 
  2050 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2051 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2053 
  2054 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2055 DejaVu Sans.
  2056 
  2057 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2058 
  2059 
  2060 *** Pure ***
  2061 
  2062 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2063 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2064 time.
  2065 
  2066 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2067 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068 
  2069 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2070 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2071 
  2072 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2073 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2074 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2075 command already provided this functionality.
  2076 
  2077 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2078 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2079 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2080 without interpretations.
  2081 
  2082 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2083 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2084 
  2085 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2086 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2087 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2088 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2089 
  2090 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2091 'definition' instead.
  2092 
  2093 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2094 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2095 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2096 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2097 
  2098 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2099 constructors.
  2100 
  2101 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2102 the local file system.
  2103 
  2104 
  2105 *** HOL ***
  2106 
  2107 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2108 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2109 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2110 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2111 
  2112   declare [[coercion f]]
  2113 
  2114 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2115 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2116 
  2117   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2118 
  2119 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2120 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2121 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2122 other theories like this:
  2123 
  2124   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2125 
  2126 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2127 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2128 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2129 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2130 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2131 for examples.
  2132 
  2133 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2134 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2137 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2138 
  2139 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2140 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2141 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2142 
  2143 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2144 functorial structure of types.
  2145 
  2146 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2147 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2148 
  2149 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2150 languages.
  2151 
  2152 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2153 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2157 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2160 combinators any longer.
  2161 
  2162 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2163 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2164 
  2165 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2166 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2167 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2168 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2169 
  2170   record 'a foo = ...
  2171   ...
  2172   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2173 
  2174 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2175 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2179 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2180 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2181 
  2182 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2183 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2184 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2185 
  2186 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2187 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2188 
  2189 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2190 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2191 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2192 independently.
  2193 
  2194 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2195 counter example search.
  2196 
  2197 * Sledgehammer:
  2198   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2199     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2200     sledgehammer").
  2201   - Renamed commands:
  2202     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2203     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2204     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2205     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206   - Renamed options:
  2207     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2208     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2209     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2210     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2211     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2212 
  2213 * Nitpick:
  2214   - Renamed options:
  2215     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2216     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2217     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2219   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2220   - Added "whack" option.
  2221   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2222   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2223   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2224   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2225     higher cardinalities.
  2226   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2227 
  2228 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2229 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2230 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2231 
  2232     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2233 
  2234 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2235 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2236 
  2237 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2238 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2239 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2240 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2241 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2242 "smt_solver".
  2243 
  2244 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2245 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2246 
  2247 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2248 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2249 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2250 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2253   - Renamed:
  2254     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2255     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257   - Added:
  2258     smt_verbose
  2259     smt_random_seed
  2260     smt_datatypes
  2261     smt_infer_triggers
  2262     smt_monomorph_limit
  2263     cvc3_options
  2264     remote_cvc3_options
  2265     remote_z3_options
  2266     yices_options
  2267 
  2268 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2269 header.
  2270 
  2271 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2272 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2273 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2274 
  2275   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2276 
  2277 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2280 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2285 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2288 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2289 
  2290 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2291 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2294 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2295 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2298 
  2299 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2303 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2304 
  2305 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2306 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2307 for congruent(2)).
  2308 
  2309 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2310 
  2311   types
  2312     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2313     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2314 
  2315   constants
  2316     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2317     True ~> HOL.True
  2318     False ~> HOL.False
  2319     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2320     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2321     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2322     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2323     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2324     The ~> HOL.The
  2325     All ~> HOL.All
  2326     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2327     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2328     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2329     If ~> HOL.If
  2330     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2331     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2332     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2333     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2334     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2335     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2336     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2337     op : ~> Set.member
  2338     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2339 
  2340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2343 
  2344     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2345     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2346     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2347     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2348     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2349     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2350     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2351     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2352 
  2353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2354 
  2355 * More stylized fact names:
  2356 
  2357   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2358   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2359   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2360   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2361 
  2362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363 
  2364 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2365 
  2366   constants
  2367     null ~> List.null
  2368 
  2369   facts
  2370     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2371     null_empty ~> null_def
  2372 
  2373 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2374 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2375 generation.
  2376 
  2377 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2378 Haskell code.
  2379 
  2380 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2381 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2382 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2385 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2388 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2389 
  2390 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2391 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2392 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2395 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2396 
  2397 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2401 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2402 referred to by its qualified name.
  2403 
  2404   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2405   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2406   product ~>  Enum.product
  2407 
  2408 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2409 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2411 
  2412 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2413 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2414 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2416 
  2417 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2418 sort_key.
  2419 
  2420 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2422 
  2423 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2424 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2425 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2426 
  2427   types
  2428     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2429               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2430               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2431         (depends on your needs)
  2432 
  2433   constants
  2434      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2435      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2436      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2437 
  2438 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2439 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2440 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2441 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2444 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2445 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2446 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2447 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451 
  2452 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2453 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2454 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2455 
  2456 
  2457 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2458 
  2459 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2460 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2461 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2462 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2463 compatibility.
  2464 
  2465 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2466 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2467 
  2468 
  2469 *** HOLCF ***
  2470 
  2471 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2472 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2473 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2477 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2478 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2481   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2482   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2483 
  2484 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2485 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2486 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2489 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2490 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2491 domain definition now works:
  2492 
  2493   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2494 
  2495 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2496 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2497 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2498 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2499 
  2500   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2501     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2502 
  2503   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2504 
  2505 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2506 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2507 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2510 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2513 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2514 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2515 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2516 
  2517 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2518 
  2519 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525 
  2526 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2527 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2528 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2529 
  2530 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2531 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2532 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2533 
  2534 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2535 still supported as an input translation.
  2536 
  2537 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2538 
  2539   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2540   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2541   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2542   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2543   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2544   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2545   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2546 
  2547 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2548 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2551   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2552   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2553   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2554   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2555   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2556 
  2557 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2558 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2561 
  2562   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2563   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2564   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2565   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2566 
  2567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2568 
  2569 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2570 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2573 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2576   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2577   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2578   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2579   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2580   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2581   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2582   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2583   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2584   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2585   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2586   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2587   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2588   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2589   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2590   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2591   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2592   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2593   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2594   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2595 
  2596 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2599   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2600   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2601   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2602   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2603   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2604   box_less             ~> box_below
  2605   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2606   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2607   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2608   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2609   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2610   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2611   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2612   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2613   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2614   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2615   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2616   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2617   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2618   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2619   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2620   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2621   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2622   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2623   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2624   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2625   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2626   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2627   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2628   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2629   up_less              ~> up_below
  2630   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2631   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2632   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2633   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2634   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2635   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2636   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2637   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2638   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2639   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2640   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2641   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2642   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2643 
  2644 
  2645 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2646 
  2647 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2648 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 
  2651 *** ML ***
  2652 
  2653 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2654 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2655 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2656 
  2657 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2658 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2659 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2660 
  2661 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2662 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2663 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2664 
  2665 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2666 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2667 
  2668 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2669 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2670 
  2671 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2672 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2673 
  2674 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2675 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2676 
  2677 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2678 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2679 almost all situations.
  2680 
  2681 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2682 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2683 Isabelle/ML.
  2684 
  2685 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2686 meaning.
  2687 
  2688 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2689 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2690 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2691 
  2692 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2693 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2694 
  2695 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2696 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2697 
  2698 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2699 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2700 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2701 
  2702 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2703 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2704 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2705 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2706 configuration options.
  2707 
  2708 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2709 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2710 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2711 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2712 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2713 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2714 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2715 
  2716 
  2717 
  2718 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2719 ---------------------------------
  2720 
  2721 *** General ***
  2722 
  2723 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2724 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2725 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2726 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2727 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2728 their full internal name.
  2729 
  2730 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2731 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2732 Some hints on upgrading:
  2733 
  2734   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2735     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2736     which are independent of this issue.
  2737 
  2738   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2739     provides the following special forms:
  2740 
  2741       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2742       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2743       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2744 
  2745     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2746     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2747     extra variables".
  2748 
  2749     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2750     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2751     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2752     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2753     "logic".
  2754 
  2755   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2756     antiquotations:
  2757 
  2758       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2759       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2760       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2761       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2762 
  2763   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2764     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2765     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2766     antiquotations.
  2767 
  2768 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2769 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2770 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2771 diagnose syntax problems.
  2772 
  2773 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2774 
  2775 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2776 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2777 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2778 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2779 
  2780 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2781 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2782 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2783 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2786 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2787 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2788 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2789 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2792 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2793 
  2794 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2795 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2796 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2797 
  2798   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2799 
  2800 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2801 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2802 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2803 
  2804 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2805 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2809 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2810 
  2811 
  2812 *** Pure ***
  2813 
  2814 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2815 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2816 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2817 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2818 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2819 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2820 inspect proof terms.
  2821 
  2822 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2823 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2824 are added internally.  For example:
  2825 
  2826   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2827 
  2828 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2829 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2834 'class' instead.
  2835 
  2836 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2837 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2841 invariants.
  2842 
  2843 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2844 user space functionality any longer.
  2845 
  2846 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2847 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2851 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2852 
  2853 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2854 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2855 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2856 
  2857 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2858 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2859 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2860 
  2861 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2862 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 
  2865 *** HOL ***
  2866 
  2867 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2868 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2869 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2870 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2871 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2872 
  2873 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2874 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2875 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2876 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2877 
  2878   fun
  2879     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2880   where
  2881     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2882 
  2883   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2884     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2885 
  2886   quotient_definition
  2887     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2888 
  2889 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2890 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2891 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2892 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2893 
  2894 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2895 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2896 
  2897 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2898 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2899 
  2900 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2902 
  2903 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2904 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2905 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2906 
  2907 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2908 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909 
  2910 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2917 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2920 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2921 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2922 
  2923   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2924   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2925   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2926   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2927   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2928   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2929   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2930   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2931   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2932   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2933   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2934   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2935   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2936   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2937   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2938   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2939   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2940   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2941   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2942   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2943   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2944   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2945   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2946   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2947   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2948   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2949   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2950   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2951   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2952   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2953 
  2954 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2955 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2956 
  2957 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2958 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2959 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2960 
  2961 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2962 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2963 
  2964 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2965 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2966 
  2967 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2968 
  2969 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2970 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2973 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2978 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2979 
  2980 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2981 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2982 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2983 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2986   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2987   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2988   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2992 lattices):
  2993 
  2994     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2995     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2996 
  2997     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2998 
  2999     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3000     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3001     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3002     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3003     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3004     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3005     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3006     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3007     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3008     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3009     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3010     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3011     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3012 
  3013     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3014     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3015     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3016     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3017     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3018     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3019     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3020     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3021     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3022     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3023     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3024     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3025     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3026     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3027     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3028     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3029     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3030     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3031 
  3032   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3033   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3034 
  3035     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3036     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3037     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3038     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3039     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3040 
  3041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * Refined field classes:
  3044   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3045     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3046     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3047   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3051   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3052   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3053   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3054     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3055   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3056     equal_neg_zero.
  3057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3060 sets to lattices:
  3061 
  3062   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3063   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3064   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3065   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3066   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3067   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3068   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3069   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3070   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3071   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3072 
  3073 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3074 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3075 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3076 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3077 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3078 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3081 multiset order:
  3082 
  3083   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3084     <= and <;
  3085   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3086     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3087     multiset_order;
  3088   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3089     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3090     generation;
  3091   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3092     if needed.
  3093 
  3094 Renamed:
  3095 
  3096   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3097   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3098   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3099 
  3100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3103 
  3104 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3105 
  3106 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3107 
  3108 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3109 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3110 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112   Constants:
  3113   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3114   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3115   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3116   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3117   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3118   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3119   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3120   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3121   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3122   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3123   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3124   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3125   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3126 
  3127   Lemmas:
  3128   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3129   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3130   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3131   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3132   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3133   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3134   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3135   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3136   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3137   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3138   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3139   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3140   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3141 
  3142 * Sledgehammer:
  3143   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3144     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3145     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3146     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3147     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3148     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3149     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3151   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3152     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3153   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3154     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3155     is still experimental.)
  3156   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3157     full-typed mode.
  3158   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3159 
  3160 * Nitpick:
  3161   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3162   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3163   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3164     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3165   - Added support for quotient types.
  3166   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3167     constructs.
  3168   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3169     "termination" proofs).
  3170   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3171   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3172   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3173   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3174     record getters.
  3175   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3176   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3177   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3178   - Added "atoms" option.
  3179   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3180     problems.
  3181   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3182     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3183     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3185     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3187 
  3188 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3189   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3190   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3191   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3192   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3193   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3194   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3195   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3196   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3197   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199 
  3200 *** HOLCF ***
  3201 
  3202 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3203 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3204 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3207 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3208 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3209 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3212 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3213 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3214 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3215 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216 
  3217 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3218 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3219 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3220 
  3221 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3222 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3223 
  3224   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3225   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3226 
  3227 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3228 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3231   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3232   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3233   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3234   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3235 
  3236 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3237 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3240   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3241   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3242 
  3243 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3244 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3248 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3253 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 
  3256 *** ML ***
  3257 
  3258 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3259 
  3260     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3261     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3262 
  3263     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3264     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3265     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3266     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3267 
  3268     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3269     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3270     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3271 
  3272 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3273 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3274 
  3275 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3276 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3277 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3278 
  3279 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3280 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3281 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3282 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3283 
  3284 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3285 the context or even global references.
  3286 
  3287 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3288 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3289 
  3290 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3291 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3292 
  3293   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3294   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3295   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3296   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3297   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3298   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3299   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3300   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3301   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3302   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3303 
  3304 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3305 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3306 
  3307 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3308 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3309 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3310 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3311 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3312 
  3313 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3314 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3315 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3316 Theory_Data version.
  3317 
  3318 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3319 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3320 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3321 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3322 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3323 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3324 explicitly in rare situations.
  3325 
  3326 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3327 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3331 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3332 
  3333 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3334 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3335 quite rare).
  3336 
  3337 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3338 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3341 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3342 terms.
  3343 
  3344 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3345 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3346 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3347 
  3348 
  3349 *** System ***
  3350 
  3351 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3352 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3353 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3354 
  3355 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3356 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3357 respectively.
  3358 
  3359 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3360 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3361 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3362 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3363 
  3364   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3365 
  3366 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3367 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3368 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3369 component.
  3370 
  3371 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3372 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3373 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3374 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3375 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3376 the user for manual installation.
  3377 
  3378 
  3379 
  3380 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3381 -------------------------------------
  3382 
  3383 *** General ***
  3384 
  3385 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3386 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3387 
  3388 
  3389 *** Pure ***
  3390 
  3391 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3392 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3393 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3394 
  3395 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3396 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3397 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3398 
  3399 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3400 interpretation.
  3401 
  3402 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3403 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 
  3406 *** Document preparation ***
  3407 
  3408 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3409 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3410 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3411 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3412 
  3413 
  3414 *** HOL ***
  3415 
  3416 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3417 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3418 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3419 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3420 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3421 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3422 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3423 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3424 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3425 
  3426 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3427 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3428 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3429 
  3430 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3431 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3432 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3433 
  3434 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3435 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3436 
  3437 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3438 
  3439 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3440 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3441 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3442 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3443 
  3444 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3445 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3446 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3447 "mirabelle" utility.
  3448 
  3449 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3450 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3451 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3452 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3453 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3454 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3455 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3456 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3457 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3458 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3459 
  3460 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3461 procedure only.
  3462 
  3463 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3464 
  3465 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3466 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3467 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3468 that fail later.
  3469 
  3470 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3471 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3472 
  3473 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3474 the same method as the approximation method.
  3475 
  3476 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3477 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3478 series expansion.
  3479 
  3480 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3481 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3482 
  3483 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3484 reals.
  3485 
  3486 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3487 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3488 
  3489 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3490 fixpoint theorem.
  3491 
  3492 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3493   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3494     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3495   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3496     accordingly
  3497   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3498     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3499   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3500     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3501 
  3502 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3503 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3504 lattice.
  3505 
  3506 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3507 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3508 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3509 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3510 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3511 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3515   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3516     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3517   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3518     le_inf_iff
  3519   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3520     sup_aci)
  3521   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3522   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3523   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3524     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3525     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3526     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3527     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3528     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3529     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3530     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3531     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3532     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3533     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3534   - authentic syntax for
  3535     Set.Pow
  3536     Set.image
  3537   - mere abbreviations:
  3538     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3539     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3540     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3541     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3542     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3543     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3544     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3545     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3546   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3547 
  3548 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3549 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3550 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3551 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3552 
  3553 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3554 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3555 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3558 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3561 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3562 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3563 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3566 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3567 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3568 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3569 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3570 
  3571 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3572 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3576 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3577 
  3578 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3579 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3580 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3581 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3582 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3583 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3584 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3586 
  3587 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3588     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3589     code_post       replaces    code post
  3590     etc.
  3591   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592 
  3593 * Renamed methods:
  3594     sizechange -> size_change
  3595     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3596   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597 
  3598 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3599 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3600 
  3601 * Renamed theorems:
  3602     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3603     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3604     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3605     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3606     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3607   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 
  3616 *** HOLCF ***
  3617 
  3618 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3619 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3620 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3621 
  3622 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3623 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3624 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3625 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3626 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3627 
  3628 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3629 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3630 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3631 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3632 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3633 
  3634 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3635 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3636 constructor are pre-configured.
  3637 
  3638 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3639 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3640 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3641 
  3642 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3643 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3644 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3645 as well.)
  3646 
  3647 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3648 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3649 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3650 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3651 examples.
  3652 
  3653 
  3654 *** ML ***
  3655 
  3656 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3657 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3658 
  3659 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3660 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3661 position, logical grouping etc.
  3662 
  3663 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3664 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3665 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3666 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3667 
  3668 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3669 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3670 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3671 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3672 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3673 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3674 
  3675 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3676 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3677 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3678 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3679 experiments with references.
  3680 
  3681 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3682 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3683 
  3684 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3685 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3686 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3687 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3688 
  3689 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3690 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3691 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3692 
  3693 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3694 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3695 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3703 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3704 
  3705 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3706 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3707 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3708 
  3709 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3710 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3711 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3714 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3715 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3719 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3720 instead of global theory.
  3721 
  3722 
  3723 *** System ***
  3724 
  3725 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3726 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3727 usedir option -q.
  3728 
  3729 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3730 also the system manual.
  3731 
  3732 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3733 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3734 
  3735 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3736 this is always enabled.
  3737 
  3738 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3739 
  3740 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3741 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3742 currently supported on Linux only.
  3743 
  3744 
  3745 
  3746 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3747 --------------------------------
  3748 
  3749 *** General ***
  3750 
  3751 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3752 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3753 
  3754   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3755     "isatool."
  3756 
  3757   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3758     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3759 
  3760   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3761     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3762 
  3763 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3764 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3765 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3766 
  3767 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3768 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3769 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3770 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3771 via "isabelle emacs".
  3772 
  3773 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3774 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3775 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3776 
  3777 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3778 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3779 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3780 
  3781 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3782 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3783 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3784 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3785 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3786 
  3787 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3788 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3789 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3790 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3791 
  3792 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3793 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3794 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3795 
  3796 
  3797 *** Pure ***
  3798 
  3799 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3800 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3801 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3802 
  3803 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3804 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3805 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3806 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3807 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3808 
  3809 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3810 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3811 useful in locale declarations.
  3812 
  3813 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3814 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3815 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3816 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3817 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3818 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3819 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3820 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3821 no longer generated.
  3822 
  3823 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3824 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3825 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3826 
  3827 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3828 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3829 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3830 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3831 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3832 
  3833 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3835 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3836 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3837 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3838 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3839 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3840 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3841 
  3842 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3843 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3844 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3845 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3846 
  3847 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3850 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3851 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3852 
  3853 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3854 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3855 
  3856 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3857 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3858 in HOL, write
  3859 
  3860     class foo = ...
  3861 
  3862 instead of
  3863 
  3864     class foo = type + ...
  3865 
  3866 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3867 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3871 
  3872 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3873 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3874 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3875 
  3876 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3877 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3878 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3880 directly in regular applications.
  3881 
  3882 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3883 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3884 
  3885 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3886 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3887 
  3888 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3889 theory context.
  3890 
  3891 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3892 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3895 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3896 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3897 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3898 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3899 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3900 
  3901   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3902 
  3903 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3904 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3905 normalization.
  3906 
  3907 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3908 addressing etc.
  3909 
  3910 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3911 
  3912   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3913   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3914 
  3915 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3916 
  3917   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3918      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3919      parts of the code generator framework).
  3920 
  3921   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3922      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3923      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3924 
  3925 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3928 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3931 patterns, e.g.
  3932 
  3933     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3934 
  3935 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3936 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3937 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3938 hyphen:
  3939 
  3940     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3941 
  3942 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3943 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3944 
  3945 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3946 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3947 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3948 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3949 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3950 higher-order unification.
  3951 
  3952 
  3953 *** Document preparation ***
  3954 
  3955 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3956 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3957 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3958 
  3959 
  3960 *** HOL ***
  3961 
  3962 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3963 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3964 
  3965 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3966 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3967 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3968 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3969 Main, as before.
  3970 
  3971 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3972 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3973 
  3974 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3975 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3976 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3977 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3978 
  3979 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3980 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3981 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3982 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3983 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3984 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3985 
  3986 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3987 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3988 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3989 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3990 
  3991 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3992 menu.
  3993 
  3994 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3995 (contains the empty clause).
  3996 
  3997 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3998 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3999 
  4000 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4001 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4002 
  4003 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4004 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4005 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4008 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4009 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4010 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4011 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4012 
  4013 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4014 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4015 
  4016 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4017 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4018 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4019 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4020 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4021 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4022 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4023 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4024 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4025 
  4026 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4027 
  4028 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4029 
  4030 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4031 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4034 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4035 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4036 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4037 
  4038 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4039 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4040 
  4041     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4042     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4043     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4044     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4045     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4046     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4047     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4048     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4049 
  4050 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4051 theory Set.
  4052 
  4053 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4054 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4055 
  4056 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4057 
  4058 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4059 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4060 
  4061 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4062 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4063 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4064 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4065 allowed. For examples see
  4066 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4067 
  4068 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4069 
  4070 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072 
  4073 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4074 structure:
  4075 
  4076     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4077     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4078     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4079     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4080     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4081     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4082     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4083     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4084     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4085     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4086     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4087     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4088     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4089     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4090     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4091     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4092     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4093     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4094     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4095     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4096     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4097     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4098     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4099     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4100     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4101     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4102     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4103     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4104     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4105     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4106     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4107     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4108     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4109 
  4110     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4111     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4112     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4113     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4114     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4115     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4116     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4117     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4118     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4119     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4120 
  4121     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4122     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4123     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4124     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4125     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4126     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4127 
  4128 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4129 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4130 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4131 
  4132 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4133 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4134 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4135 
  4136 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4137 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4138 
  4139 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4140 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4141 
  4142 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4143 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4144 proofs, e.g.
  4145 
  4146   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4147 
  4148 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4149 
  4150 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4151 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4152 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4155 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4159 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4160 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4164 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4165 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4166 preorder_class.*.
  4167 
  4168 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4169 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4170 
  4171 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4172 
  4173   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4174 
  4175 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4176 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4177 fold_image.
  4178 
  4179 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4180 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4181 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4182 the former will disappear at some point.
  4183 
  4184 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4185 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4186 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4187 
  4188 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4189 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4190 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4191 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4192 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4193 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4194 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4195 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4196 
  4197 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4198 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4199 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4200 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4201 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4202 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4203 
  4204     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4205     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4206     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4207     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4208     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4209     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4210     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4211 
  4212 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4213 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4214 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4215 
  4216 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4217 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4218 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4219 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4220 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4221 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4222 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4223 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4224 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4225 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4226 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4227 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4228 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4229 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4230 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4231 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4232 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4233 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4234 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4235 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4236 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4237 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4238 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4239 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4240 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4241 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4242 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4243 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4244 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4245 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4246 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4247 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4248 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4249 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4250 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4251 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4252 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4253 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4254 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4255 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4256 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4257 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4258 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4259 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4260 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4261 
  4262 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4263 
  4264 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4265 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4266 
  4267 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4268 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4269 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4270 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4271 
  4272 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4273 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4274 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4275 theory RealVector.
  4276 
  4277 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4278 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4279 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4280 and inner products are included.
  4281 
  4282 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4283 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4284 supported.
  4285 
  4286 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4287 first diagonalization argument.
  4288 
  4289 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4290 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4291 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4292 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4293 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4294 
  4295     hide (open) const gcd
  4296     abbreviation gcd where
  4297       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4298     notation (output)
  4299       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4300 
  4301 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4302 
  4303 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4304 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4305 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4308 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4309 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4310 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4311 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4312 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4313 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4314 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4315 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4316 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4317 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4318 cases.
  4319 
  4320 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4321 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4322 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4323 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4324 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4325 
  4326     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4327     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4328     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4329     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4330     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4331 
  4332 
  4333 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4334 
  4335 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4336 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4337 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4338 
  4339 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4340 
  4341 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4342 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4343 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4344 
  4345 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4346 
  4347 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4348 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4349 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4350 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4351 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4352 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4353 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4354 
  4355 
  4356 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4357 
  4358 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4359 
  4360 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4361 theory targets.
  4362 
  4363 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4364 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4365 'inductive' etc.
  4366 
  4367 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4368 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4369 
  4370 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4371 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4372 
  4373 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4374 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4375 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4376 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4377 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4378 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4379 the algorithm W:
  4380 
  4381  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4382  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4383          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4384 
  4385 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4386 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4387 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4388 
  4389 
  4390 *** HOLCF ***
  4391 
  4392 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4393 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4394 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4395 
  4396 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4397 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4398 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4399 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4400 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4403 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4404 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 
  4407 *** ZF ***
  4408 
  4409 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4410 
  4411 
  4412 *** ML ***
  4413 
  4414 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4415 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4416 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4417 5.2.1!
  4418 
  4419 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4420 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4421 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4422 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4423 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4424 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4425 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4426 
  4427 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4428 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4429 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4430 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4431 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4432 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4433 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4434 
  4435 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4436 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4437 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4438 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4439 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4440 
  4441 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4442 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4443 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4444 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4445 Method.add_method.
  4446 
  4447 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4448 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4449 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4450 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4451 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4452 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4453 
  4454 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4455 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4456 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4457 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4458 examples.
  4459 
  4460 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4461 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4462 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4463 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4464 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4465 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4466 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4467 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4468 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4469 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4470 
  4471 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4472 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4473 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4474 
  4475 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4476 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4477 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4478 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4479 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4480 resort for legacy applications.
  4481 
  4482 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4483 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4484 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4485 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4486 explicit runtime argument.
  4487 
  4488 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4489 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4490 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4491 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4492 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4495 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4496 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4497 theory state.
  4498 
  4499 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4500 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4501 
  4502   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4503   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4504   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4505   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4506   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4507   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4508   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4509   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4510   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4511   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4512 
  4513 
  4514 *** System ***
  4515 
  4516 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4517 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4518 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4519 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4520 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4521 
  4522 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4523 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4524 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4525 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4526 
  4527 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4528 
  4529 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4530 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4531 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4532 prover operations.
  4533 
  4534 
  4535 
  4536 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4537 -------------------------------
  4538 
  4539 *** General ***
  4540 
  4541 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4542 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4543 
  4544 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4545 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4546 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4547 provides a proper context already.
  4548 
  4549 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4550 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4551 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4552 
  4553 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4554 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4555 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4556 swap theory imports.
  4557 
  4558 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4559 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4560 
  4561 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4562 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4563 white space without escapes.
  4564 
  4565 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4566 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4567 "foo_bar".
  4568 
  4569 
  4570 *** Pure ***
  4571 
  4572 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4573 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4574 
  4575 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4576 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4577 
  4578 (1) unused_thms
  4579      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4580 
  4581 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4582      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4583      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4584 
  4585 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4586      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4587      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4588      their ancestors.
  4589 
  4590 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4591 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4592 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4593 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4594 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4595 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4596 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4597 
  4598 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4599 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4600 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4601 
  4602 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4603 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4604 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4605 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4606 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4607 
  4608 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4609 
  4610 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4611 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4612 update of theories within ML code.
  4613 
  4614 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4615 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4616 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4617 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4618 
  4619 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4620 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4621 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4623 
  4624 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4625 
  4626 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4627 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4628 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4629 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4630 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4631 
  4632 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4633 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4634 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4635 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4636 situations.
  4637 
  4638 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4639 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4640 proof text.
  4641 
  4642 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4643 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4644 
  4645 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4646 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4647 predicates.
  4648 
  4649 
  4650 *** Document preparation ***
  4651 
  4652 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4653 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4654 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4655 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4656 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4657 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4658 
  4659 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4660 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4661 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4662 
  4663 
  4664 *** HOL ***
  4665 
  4666 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4667 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4668 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4669 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4670 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4671 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4672 
  4673 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4674 with multithreading.
  4675 
  4676 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4677 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4678 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4679 
  4680 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4681 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4682 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4683 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4686 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4687 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4688 and makes them available separately.  See
  4689 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4690 
  4691 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4692 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4693 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4694 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4695 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4696 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4697 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4698 the declared rules.
  4699 
  4700 This setup also deals with rules like
  4701 
  4702   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4703 
  4704 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4705 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4706 
  4707 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4708 
  4709   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4710 
  4711   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4712     definitions on => and bool.
  4713 
  4714   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4715     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4716     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4717 
  4718       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4719       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4720       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4721       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4722       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4723       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4724       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4725       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4726 
  4727   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4728     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4729     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4730 
  4731   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4732     The proof pattern
  4733 
  4734       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4735       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4736 
  4737     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4738     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4739 
  4740       have "EX S. P S"
  4741       proof
  4742         show "P S" <...>
  4743       qed
  4744 
  4745   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4746     The proof pattern
  4747 
  4748       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4749       also have "S = T" <...>
  4750       finally have "P T" .
  4751 
  4752     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4753     must be replaced by something like
  4754 
  4755       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4756       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4757       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4758 
  4759   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4760     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4761 
  4762       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4763 
  4764     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4765     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4766     type of the form
  4767 
  4768       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4769 
  4770     rather than
  4771 
  4772       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4773 
  4774 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4775 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4776 
  4777 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4780 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4784 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4785 
  4786 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4787 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4790 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4791 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4792 
  4793 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4794 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4795 
  4796   less_trans
  4797   less_linear
  4798   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4799   le_less_trans
  4800   less_le_trans
  4801   less_not_sym
  4802   less_asym
  4803 
  4804 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4805 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4806 and different variable names.
  4807 
  4808 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4809 
  4810 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4811 finite maps.
  4812 
  4813 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4814 
  4815 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4816 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4817 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4818 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4819 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4820 accordingly.
  4821 
  4822 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4823 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4824 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4825 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4826 
  4827 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4828 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4829 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4830 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4831 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4833 
  4834 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4835 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4838 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4839 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4840 
  4841 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4845 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4846 
  4847 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4848 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4851 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4854 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4858 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4861 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4862 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4863 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4864 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4865 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4868 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4869 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4870 
  4871 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4872 
  4873 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4874 
  4875 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4876 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4877 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4878 
  4879 
  4880 *** ZF ***
  4881 
  4882 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4883 same session:
  4884 
  4885   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4886   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4887   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4888   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4889   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4890   List      -> List_ZF
  4891   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4892 
  4893 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4894 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4895 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4896 
  4897 
  4898 *** ML ***
  4899 
  4900 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4901 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4902 
  4903 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4904 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4905 
  4906 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4907 
  4908 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4909 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4910 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4911 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4912 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4915 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4916 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4917 
  4918 
  4919 *** System ***
  4920 
  4921 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4922 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4923 
  4924 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4925 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4926 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4927 
  4928 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4929 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4930 
  4931 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4932 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4933 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4934 
  4935 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4936 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4937 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4938 
  4939 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4940 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4941 
  4942 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4943 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4944 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4945 script.
  4946 
  4947 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4948 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4949 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4950 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4951 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4952 
  4953 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4954 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4955 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4956 
  4957 
  4958 
  4959 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4960 -----------------------------------
  4961 
  4962 *** General ***
  4963 
  4964 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4965 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4966 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4967 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4968 
  4969 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4970 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4971 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4974 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4975 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4976 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4977 
  4978 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4979 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4980 quotes.
  4981 
  4982 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4983 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4984 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4985 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4986 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4987 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4988 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4989 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4990 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4991 
  4992 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4993 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4994 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4995 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4996 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4997 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4998 
  4999 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5000 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5001 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5002 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5003 
  5004 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5005 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5006 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5007 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5008 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5009 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5010 
  5011 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5012 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5013 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5014 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5015 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5016 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5017 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5018 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5019 
  5020 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5021 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5022 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5023 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5024 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5025 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5026 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5027 
  5028 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5029 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5030 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5031 
  5032 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5033 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5034 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5035 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5036 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5037 limit is imposed.
  5038 
  5039 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5040 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5041 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5042 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5043 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5044 and scalability.
  5045 
  5046 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5047 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5048 
  5049 
  5050 *** Document preparation ***
  5051 
  5052 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5053 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5054 current context.
  5055 
  5056 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5057 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5058 
  5059 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5060 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5061 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5062 
  5063 
  5064 *** Pure ***
  5065 
  5066 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5067 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5068 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5069 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5070 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5071 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5072 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5073 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5074 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5075 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5076 
  5077 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5078 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5079 sketch:
  5080 
  5081     internal compilation:
  5082         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5083     writing SML code to a file:
  5084         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5085     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5086         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5087     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5088         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5089 
  5090     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5091         method ``eval''
  5092 
  5093 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5094 
  5095 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5096 
  5097     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5098     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5099     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5100     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5101 
  5102 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5103 
  5104     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5105       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5106 
  5107     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5108       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5109 
  5110     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5111       {(target)}+
  5112         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5113 
  5114     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5115       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5116         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5117 
  5118 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5119 
  5120 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5121 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5122 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5123 codegen".
  5124 
  5125 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5126 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5127 annotations).
  5128 
  5129 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5130 syntax.
  5131 
  5132 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5133 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5134 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5135 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5136 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5137 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5138 
  5139 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5140 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5141 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5142 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5143 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5144 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5145 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5146 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5147 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5148 equations, see section "definitions".
  5149 
  5150 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5151 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5152 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5153 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5154 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5155 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5156 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5157 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5158 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5159 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5160 
  5161 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5162 configuration options:
  5163 
  5164   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5165   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5166   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5167   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5168   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5169   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5170   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5171   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5172   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5173 
  5174 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5175 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5176 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5177 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5178 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5179 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5180 order.
  5181 
  5182 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5183 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5184 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5185 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5186 context encountered later on.
  5187 
  5188 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5189 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5190 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5191 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5192 
  5193 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5194 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5195 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5196 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5197 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5198 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5199 
  5200 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5201 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5202 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5203 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5204 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5205 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5206 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5207 more permissive.
  5208 
  5209 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5210 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5211 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5212 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5213 maintainability of proof texts.
  5214 
  5215 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5216 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5217 
  5218   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5219   then guess x and y by clarify
  5220 
  5221 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5222 proof tools being involved here.
  5223 
  5224 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5225 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5226 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5227 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5228 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5229 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5230 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5231 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5232 
  5233 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5234 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5235 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5236 
  5237   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5238   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5239   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5240   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5241 
  5242 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5243 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5244 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5245 
  5246 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5247 both named and unnamed ones.
  5248 
  5249 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5250 
  5251   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5252 
  5253 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5254 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5255 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5256 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5257 
  5258 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5259 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5260 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5261 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5262 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5263 
  5264 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5265 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5266 
  5267 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5268 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5269 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5270 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5271 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5272 originally first one.
  5273 
  5274 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5275 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5276 expected.
  5277 
  5278 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5279 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5280 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5281 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5282 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5283 
  5284   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5285     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5286     obtains x where "P x"
  5287 
  5288   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5289     assumes "A & B"
  5290     obtains A and B
  5291 
  5292   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5293     assumes "A | B"
  5294     obtains
  5295       A
  5296     | B
  5297 
  5298 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5299 explicitly:
  5300 
  5301   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5302     obtains "~ thesis"
  5303 
  5304   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5305     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5306 
  5307 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5308 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5309 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5310 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5311 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5312 case_names).
  5313 
  5314 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5315 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5316 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5317 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5318 
  5319 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5320 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5321 top-level lemma.
  5322 
  5323 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5324 introduction rule (default "that").
  5325 
  5326 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5327 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5328 to occur.
  5329 
  5330 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5331 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5332 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5333 representations independently of name spaces.
  5334 
  5335 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5336 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5337 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5338 
  5339 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5340 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5341 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5342 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5343 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5344 current context.
  5345 
  5346 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5347 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5348 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5349 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5350 
  5351   axiomatization
  5352     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5353     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5354 
  5355   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5356   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5357 
  5358   abbreviation
  5359     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5360     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5361 
  5362 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5363 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5364 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5365 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5366 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5367 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5368 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5369 
  5370 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5371 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5372 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5373 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5374 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5375 
  5376 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5377 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5378 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5379 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5380 
  5381 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5382 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5383 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5384 
  5385   definition "K x _ = x"
  5386 
  5387   inductive conj for A B
  5388   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5389 
  5390 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5391 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5392 abbreviations on output.
  5393 
  5394 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5395 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5396 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5397 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5398 
  5399 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5400 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5401 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5402 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5403 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5404 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5405 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5406 
  5407 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5408 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5409 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5410 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5411 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5412 
  5413 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5414 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5415 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5416 
  5417 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5418 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5419 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5420 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5421 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5422 
  5423   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5424     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5425 
  5426 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5427 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5428 partial_order.
  5429 
  5430 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5431 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5432 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5433 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5434 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5435 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5436 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5437 examples.
  5438 
  5439 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5440 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5441 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5442 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5443 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5444 
  5445 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5446 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5447 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5448 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5449 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5450 
  5451   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5452   (induct set: foo bar)
  5453   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5454   (induct type: foo bar)
  5455 
  5456 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5457 new format.
  5458 
  5459 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5460 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5461 
  5462 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5463 considered a legacy feature.
  5464 
  5465 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5466 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5469 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5470 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5471 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5472 
  5473 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5474 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5475 manipulating the claset.
  5476 
  5477 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5478 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5479 least one premise.
  5480 
  5481 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5482 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5483 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5484 rule steps.
  5485 
  5486 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5487 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5488 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5489 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5490 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5491 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5492 
  5493 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5494 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5495 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5496 
  5497 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5498 the graph browser tool.
  5499 
  5500 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5501 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5502 
  5503 
  5504 *** HOL ***
  5505 
  5506 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5507 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5508 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5509 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5510 multi-threading.
  5511 
  5512 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5513 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5514 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5515 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5516 work with multi-threading.
  5517 
  5518 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5519 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5520 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5521 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5522 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5523 
  5524 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5525 
  5526 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5527 equality.
  5528 
  5529 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5530 the new 'class' package:
  5531 
  5532     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5533     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5534     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5535     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5536     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5537     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5538     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5539     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5540     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5541     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5542     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5543     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5544     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5545     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5546     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5547     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5548     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5549     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5550     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5551     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5552 
  5553 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5554 
  5555 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5556 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5557 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5558 names.
  5559 
  5560 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5561 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5562 
  5563 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5564 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5565 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5566 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5567 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5568 
  5569 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5570 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5571 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5572 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5573 
  5574 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5575 
  5576 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5577 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5578 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5579 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5581 
  5582 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5583 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5586 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5587 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5588 
  5589 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5590 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5591 
  5592 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5593 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5594 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5595 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5596 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5597 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5598 in the current context.
  5599 
  5600 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5601 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5603 
  5604 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5605 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5606 
  5607 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5608 
  5609     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5610     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5611 
  5612     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5613       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5614     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5615     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5616 
  5617     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5618     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5619 
  5620   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5621 
  5622     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5623     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5624     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5625     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5626     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5627     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5628     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5629     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5630     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5631     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5632     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5633     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5634     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5635     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5636     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5637     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5638     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5639     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5640     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5641     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5642     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5643     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5644     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5645     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5646     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5647     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5648     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5649     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5650     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5651     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5652     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5653     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5654     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5655     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5656     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5657 
  5658     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5659     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5660     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5661     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5662     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5663     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5664     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5665     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5666     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5667     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5668     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5669     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5670     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5671     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5672     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5673     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5674     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5675 
  5676     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5677     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5678     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5679     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5680     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5681     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5682     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5683     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5684     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5685     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5686     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5687     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5688     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5689     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5690     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5691     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5692     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5693     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5694     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5695     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5696     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5697     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5698     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5699     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5700     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5701     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5702     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5703     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5704 
  5705     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5706     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5707     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5708     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5709     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5710     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5711 
  5712     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5713     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5714     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5715     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5716 
  5717     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5718     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5719 
  5720     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5721     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5722 
  5723 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5724 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5725 
  5726 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5727 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5728 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5729 "*.size".
  5730 
  5731 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5735 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5736 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5739 
  5740 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5741 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5742 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5743 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5744 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5745 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5746 numerals on all operations.
  5747 
  5748 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5749 
  5750 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5751 
  5752 * Code generator library theories:
  5753   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5754     languages.
  5755   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5756     languages.
  5757   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5758     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5759   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5760   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5761     denominator).
  5762   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5763     representable by rational numbers.
  5764   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5765     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5766     includes Code_Integer.
  5767   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5768     target-language built-in integers.
  5769   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5770     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5771 
  5772 * New package for inductive predicates
  5773 
  5774   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5775 
  5776     inductive
  5777       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5778       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5779     where
  5780       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5781     | ...
  5782 
  5783   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5784 
  5785     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5786 
  5787     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5788     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5789 
  5790     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5791     intros
  5792       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5793       ...
  5794 
  5795   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5796   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5797 
  5798     inductive_set
  5799       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5800       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5801     where
  5802       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5803     | ...
  5804 
  5805   or
  5806 
  5807     inductive_set
  5808       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5809       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5810       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5811     where
  5812       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5813     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5814     | ...
  5815 
  5816   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5817 
  5818   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5819   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5820 
  5821   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5822 
  5823   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5824     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5825     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5826     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5827     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5828 
  5829   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5830     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5831     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5832     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5833     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5834     statements of the form
  5835 
  5836       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5837 
  5838     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5839     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5840 
  5841       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5842 
  5843   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5844 
  5845       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5846         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5847         ==> ... ==> P
  5848 
  5849     for predicates and
  5850 
  5851       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5852         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5853         ==> ... ==> P
  5854 
  5855     for sets rather than
  5856 
  5857       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5858         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5859         ==> ... ==> P
  5860 
  5861     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5862     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5863     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5864 
  5865   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5866     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5867     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5868 
  5869 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5870 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5871 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5872 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5873 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5874 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5875 
  5876 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5877 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5878 
  5879 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5880 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5881 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5882 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5883 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5884 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5885 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5886 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5887 variable.
  5888 
  5889 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5890 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5891 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5892 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5893   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5894   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5895 
  5896 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5897 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5898 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5899 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5900 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5901 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5902 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5903 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5904 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5905 
  5906 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5907 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5908 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5909 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5910 rat, etc.
  5911 
  5912 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5913 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5914 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5915 
  5916 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5917 
  5918 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5919 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5920 
  5921 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5922 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5923 
  5924 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5925 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5926 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5927 
  5928 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5929 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5933 
  5934 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5935 
  5936 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5937 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5938 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5939 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5940 
  5941 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5942 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5943 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5944 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5945 
  5946 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5947 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5948 algebraic operations.
  5949 
  5950 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5957 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5958 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5959 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5960 adapted.
  5961 
  5962 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5963 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5964 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5965 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5966 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5967 
  5968 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5969 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5970 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5971 
  5972 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5973 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5974 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5975 
  5976 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5977 
  5978 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5979 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5980 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5981   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5982       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5983   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5984   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5985   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5986 
  5987 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5988 
  5989 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5990 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5991 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5992 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5993 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5994 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5995 
  5996 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5997 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5998 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5999 
  6000 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6001 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6002 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6004 
  6005 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6006 
  6007 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6008 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6011 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6012 
  6013 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6014 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6015 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6016 
  6017 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6018 True/False.
  6019 
  6020 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6021 
  6022 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6023 
  6024 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6025 ``rule'' method.
  6026 
  6027 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6028 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6029 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6030 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6031 
  6032 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6033 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6034 
  6035 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6036 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6037 
  6038 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6039 Library.
  6040 
  6041 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6042 
  6043 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6044 as greatest fixed-point.
  6045 
  6046 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6047 association lists.
  6048 
  6049 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6050 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6051 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6052 
  6053 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6054 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6055 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6057 behavior.
  6058 
  6059 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6060 
  6061 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6062 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6063 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6064 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6065 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6066 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6067 
  6068 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6069 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6070 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6071 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6072 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6073 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6074 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6075 
  6076 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6077 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6078 
  6079 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6080 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6081 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6082 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6083 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6084 
  6085 
  6086 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6087 
  6088 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6089 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6090 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6091 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6093 
  6094 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6095 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6096 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6097 
  6098 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6099 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6100 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6101 
  6102 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6103 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6104 
  6105 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6106 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6107 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6109 
  6110   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6111   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6112   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6113   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6114   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6115   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6116   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6117   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6118   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6119   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6120   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6121   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6122   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6123   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6124   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6125 
  6126 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6127 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6128 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6129 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6130 
  6131   approx        <-- capprox
  6132   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6133   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6134   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6135   monad         <-- cmonad
  6136   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6137   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6138   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6139   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6140 
  6141 
  6142 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6143 
  6144 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6145 
  6146 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6148 
  6149 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6150 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6151 
  6152 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6153 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6154 of algebraic structures.
  6155 
  6156 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6157 
  6158 
  6159 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6160 
  6161 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6162 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6163 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6164 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6165 
  6166 
  6167 *** ML ***
  6168 
  6169 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6170 (even on SML/NJ).
  6171 
  6172 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6173 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6174 compile-time.  For example:
  6175 
  6176 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6177 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6178 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6179 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6180 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6181 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6182 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6183 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6184 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6185 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6186 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6187 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6188 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6189 ML {* @{context} *}
  6190 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6191 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6192 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6193 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6194 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6195 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6196 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6197 
  6198 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6199 
  6200 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6201 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6202 
  6203 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6204 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6205 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6206 
  6207 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6208 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6209 
  6210 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6211 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6212 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6213 
  6214 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6215 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6216 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6217 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6218 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6219 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6220 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6221 declarations and definitions.
  6222 
  6223 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6224 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6225 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6226 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6227 
  6228 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6229 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6230 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6231 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6232 
  6233 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6234 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6235 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6236 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6237 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6238 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6239 
  6240 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6241 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.co