NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Dec 05 18:02:55 2013 +0100 (2013-12-05)
changeset 54672 748778ac0ab8
parent 54671 d64a4ef26edb
child 54683 cf48ddc266e5
permissions -rw-r--r--
relocate NEWS to post-release version (cf. 7a14f831d02d);
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
     8 
     9 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    10 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    11 
    12 
    13 *** HOL ***
    14 
    15 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    16 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    17 
    18 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    19     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    20 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    21 
    22 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    23     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    24     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    25 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    26 
    27 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    28   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    29   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    30   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    31     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    32   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    33     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    34   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    35 INCOMPATBILITY.
    36 
    37 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    38     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    39     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    40     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    41     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Fact name consolidation:
    45     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    46     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    47     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    48     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    49     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    51 
    52 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    53 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    54 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    55 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    56 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    57 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    58 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    59 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    60 
    61 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    62 
    63 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    64 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    65 
    66 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    67 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    68 
    69 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    70 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    71 or the brute way with
    72 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    73 
    74 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    75 
    76 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    77 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    78 
    79 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    80 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    81 
    82 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
    83 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
    84 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
    85 INCOMPATIBILITY
    86 
    87 * Nitpick:
    88   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
    89     infinite values.
    90 
    91 
    92 *** ML ***
    93 
    94 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
    95 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
    97 formal context.
    98 
    99 
   100 
   101 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   102 -------------------------------------
   103 
   104 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   105 
   106 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   107 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   108 
   109 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   110 after edits surrounding the command location.
   111 
   112 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   113 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   114 e.g. out-of-memory).
   115 
   116 
   117 *** System ***
   118 
   119 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   120 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   121 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   122 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   123 
   124 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   125 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   126 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   127 
   128 
   129 
   130 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   131 -------------------------------------
   132 
   133 *** General ***
   134 
   135 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   136 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   137 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   138 
   139 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   140 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141 
   142 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   143 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   144 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   145 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   146 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   147 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   148 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   149 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   150 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   151 syntax.
   152 
   153 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   154 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   157 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   158 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   159 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   160 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   161 
   162 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   166 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   167 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   168 
   169 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   170 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   171 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   172 
   173 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   174 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   175 
   176 
   177 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   178 
   179 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   180 Documentation panel.
   181 
   182 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   183 documentation.
   184 
   185 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   186 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   187 
   188 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   189 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   190 normal editing and checking process.
   191 
   192 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   193 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   194 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   195 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   196 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   197 
   198 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   199 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   200 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   201 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   202 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   203 
   204 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   205 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   206 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   207 
   208 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   209 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   210 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   211 to resolve conflict.
   212 
   213 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   214 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   215 
   216 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   217 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   218 such command executions while editing.
   219 
   220 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   221 document content.
   222 
   223 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   224 toplevel theorem statements.
   225 
   226 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   227 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   228 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   229 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   230 
   231 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   232 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   233 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   234 
   235 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   236 / Global Options / Appearance".
   237 
   238 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   239 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   240 
   241 
   242 *** Pure ***
   243 
   244 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   245 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   246 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   247 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   248 details.
   249 
   250 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   251 
   252 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   253 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   254 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   255 
   256 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   260 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   261 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   262 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   265 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   266 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   269 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   270 
   271 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   272 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   273 situations.
   274 
   275 
   276 *** HOL ***
   277 
   278 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   279 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281 
   282 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   283 
   284 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   285 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   286 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   287 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   288 
   289   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   290 
   291 * Code generator:
   292   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   293     'code_instance'.
   294   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   295     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   296 
   297 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   298 examples.
   299 
   300 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   301 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   302 to distinguish both when desired.
   303 
   304 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   305 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   306 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   307 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   310 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   311 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   312 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   313 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   314 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   317 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   318 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   319 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   320 
   321 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   322 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   323 
   324 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   325 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   326 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   327 
   328 * Lifting:
   329   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   330     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   331       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   332       transfer rules
   333     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   334       correspondence relation can be generated
   335     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   336       parametricity
   337     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   338   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   339   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   340     copies
   341   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   342     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   343     anonymous context)
   344   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   345     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   346   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   347     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   348   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   349     INCOMPATIBILITY
   350 
   351 * Transfer:
   352   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   353     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   354   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   355   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   356     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   357   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   358 
   359 * Reification and reflection:
   360   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   361     "Reification".
   362   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   363   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   365 
   366 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   367   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   368     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   369     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   370   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   371     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   372   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   373     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   374     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   375     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   376     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   377     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   378     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   379     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   380   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   381     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   382   - Fact renames:
   383       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   384       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   385 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   388 
   389 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   390 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   391 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   395 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   396 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   397 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   398 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   399 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   400 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   401 lemmas.
   402 
   403 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   404 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   405 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   408 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   409 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   410 
   411 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   412 top and bottom elements.
   413 
   414 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   415 
   416 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   417 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   418 
   419  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   420    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   421    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   422 
   423  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   424    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   425    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   426 
   427    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   428    arbitrary filter.
   429 
   430  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   431    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   432    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   433    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   434    on a compact set.
   435 
   436  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   437    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   438    linear_continuum_topology).
   439 
   440  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   441    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   442    on all sequences converging to x.
   443 
   444  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   445    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   446    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   447    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   448    left or right.
   449 
   450  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   451 
   452      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   453 
   454  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   455    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   456 
   457  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   458    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   459    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   460    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   461    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   462    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   463 
   464  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   465 
   466    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   467 
   468    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   469      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   470 
   471    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   472 
   473    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   474      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   475 
   476    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   477 
   478    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   479 
   480  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   481 
   482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Nitpick:
   485   - Added option "spy"
   486   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   487 
   488 * Sledgehammer:
   489   - Renamed option:
   490       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   491     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   493   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   494   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   495 
   496 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   497 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   498 
   499 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   500   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   501   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   502     generated code.
   503   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   504   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   505   - Fact renames:
   506     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   507     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   508     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   509 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   510 
   511 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   512 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   513 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   514 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   515 
   516 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   517 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   518 
   519 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520 
   521 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   522 
   523     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   524     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   525 
   526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527 
   528 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   529 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   530 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   531 
   532 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   533 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   534 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   535 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * HOL-BNF:
   538   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   539     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   540     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   541     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   542   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   543     coinduct).
   544   - Renamed keywords:
   545     data ~> datatype_new
   546     codata ~> codatatype
   547     bnf_def ~> bnf
   548   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   549     discs ~> disc
   550     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   551     map_id' ~> map_id
   552     sels ~> sel
   553     set_map' ~> set_map
   554     sets ~> set
   555 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 
   558 *** ML ***
   559 
   560 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   561 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   562 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   563 Examples.thy in particular.
   564 
   565 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   566 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   567 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   568 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   569 
   570 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   571 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   572 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   573 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   575 
   576 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   577 
   578     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   579     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   580 
   581 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   584 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   585 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   586 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   587 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   588 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   589 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   590 
   591 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   592 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   593 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   594 clasets separately from the context.
   595 
   596 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   597 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   598 
   599 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   600 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   601 
   602 
   603 *** System ***
   604 
   605 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   606 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   609 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   612 settings variable.
   613 
   614 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   615 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   616 always pdf.
   617 
   618 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   619 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   620 
   621 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   622 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   623 
   624 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   625 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   626 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   627 
   628 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   629 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   630 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   631 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   632 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   633 for HTML presentation of theories.
   634 
   635 
   636 
   637 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   638 -----------------------------------
   639 
   640 *** General ***
   641 
   642 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   643 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   644 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   645 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   646 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   647 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   648 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   649 
   650 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   651 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   652 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   653 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   654 
   655 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   656 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   657 
   658 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   659 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   660 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   661 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   662 dependencies properly.
   663 
   664 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   665 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   666 
   667 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   668 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   669 
   670 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   671 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   672 and "class ... context ...".
   673 
   674 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   675 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   676 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   677 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   678 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   679 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   680 
   681 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   682 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   683 
   684 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   685 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   686 
   687 
   688 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   689 
   690 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   691 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   692 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   693 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   694 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   695 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   696 
   697 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   698 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   699 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   700 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   701 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   702 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   703 
   704 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   705 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   706 browser on demand.
   707 
   708 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   709 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   710 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   711 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   712 
   713 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   714 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   715 
   716 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   717 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   718 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   719 potentially infinite message streams.
   720 
   721 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   722 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   723 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   724 schemes.
   725 
   726 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   727 symbols.
   728 
   729 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   730 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   731 
   732 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   733 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   734 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   735 
   736 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   737 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   738 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   739 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   740 
   741 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   742 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   743 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   744 
   745 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   746 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   747 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   748 Isabelle distribution.
   749 
   750 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   751 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   752 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   753 
   754 
   755 *** Pure ***
   756 
   757 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   758 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   759 
   760 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   761 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   762 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   763 
   764 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   765 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   766 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   767 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   768 with some care where this is really required.
   769 
   770 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   771 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   772 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   773 
   774   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   775 
   776 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   777 a Hasse diagram.
   778 
   779 
   780 *** HOL ***
   781 
   782 * Sledgehammer:
   783 
   784   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   785     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   786   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   787   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   788   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   789   - Renamed options:
   790       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   791       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   792       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   793       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   794 
   795 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   796 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   797 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   798 
   799 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802 * Lifting:
   803   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   804   - quot_del attribute
   805   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   806 
   807 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   808 expressions.
   809 
   810 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   811 pointfree expressions.
   812 
   813 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   814 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   815 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   816 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   820 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   821 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   822 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   823 accordingly.
   824 
   825 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   826 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   829 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   830 
   831 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   832 
   833 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   834 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   835 
   836 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   837 
   838 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   839 
   840   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   841   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   842 
   843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   846 
   847   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   848   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   849 
   850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   853 
   854   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   855     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   856     output f x converges to G.
   857 
   858   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   859     infinity (at_bot).
   860 
   861   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   862     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   863 
   864   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   865     at_top".
   866 
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   870 lattice type classes.
   871 
   872 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   873 
   874     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   875     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   876 
   877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   880 changes as follows.
   881 
   882   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   883 
   884       prefix ~> prefixeq
   885       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   886 
   887   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   888     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   889     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   890     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   891 
   892   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   893     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   894     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   895 
   896   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   897     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   898     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   899     Library/Prefix_Order.
   900 
   901   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   902     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   903 
   904       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   905       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   906       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   907       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   908       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   909       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   910       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   911       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   912       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   913       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   914       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   915       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   916       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   917       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   918       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   919       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   920 
   921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   922 
   923 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   924 
   925 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   926 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   927 
   928 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   929 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   930 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   931 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   932 
   933   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   934   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   935   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   936   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   937   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   938   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   939   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   940   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   941   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   942   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   943 
   944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   947 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   948 Data").
   949 
   950 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   951 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   952 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   953 code.
   954 
   955 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   956 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   957 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   961 
   962 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   963 
   964 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   965 
   966   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   967   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   968 
   969 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   970 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   971 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   972 
   973   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   974 
   975     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   976     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   977     cart_base i  removed
   978     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   979 
   980   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   981 
   982   Renamed lemmas:
   983 
   984     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   985     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   986     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   987     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   988     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   989     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   990     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   991     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   992     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   993     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   994 
   995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * HOL/Probability:
   998 
   999   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1000 
  1001   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1002     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1003     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1004 
  1005   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1006     projective family).
  1007 
  1008 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1009 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1010 
  1011 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1012 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1013 datatypes.
  1014 
  1015 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1016 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1017 
  1018 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1019 trees for the code generator.
  1020 
  1021 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1022 Lifting/Transfer.
  1023 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1024 
  1025 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 
  1029 *** Document preparation ***
  1030 
  1031 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1032 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1033 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1034 
  1035 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1036 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1037 
  1038 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1039 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1040 document/root.tex.
  1041 
  1042 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1043 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 
  1046 *** ML ***
  1047 
  1048 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1049 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1050 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1051 
  1052 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1053 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1054 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1055 
  1056 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1057 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1058 necessarily printing visible text.
  1059 
  1060 
  1061 *** System ***
  1062 
  1063 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1064 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1065 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1066 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1067 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1068 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1069 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1070 
  1071 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1072 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1073 
  1074   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1075 
  1076 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1077 
  1078 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1079 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1080 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1081 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1082 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1083 
  1084 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1085 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1086 
  1087 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1088 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1089 
  1090 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1094 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1095 version of Isabelle.
  1096 
  1097 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1098 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1099 
  1100 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1101 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1102 for home-made settings.
  1103 
  1104 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1105 
  1106 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1107 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1108 configuration.
  1109 
  1110 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1111 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1112 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1113 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1114 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1115 
  1116 
  1117 
  1118 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1119 ------------------------------
  1120 
  1121 *** General ***
  1122 
  1123 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1124 
  1125   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1126     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1127   - markup for bound variables
  1128   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1129   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1130   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1131     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1132 
  1133 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1134 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1135 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1136 
  1137 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1138 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1139 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1140 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1141 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1142 
  1143   context
  1144     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1145     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1146   begin
  1147 
  1148   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1149 
  1150   end
  1151 
  1152   thm my_trans
  1153 
  1154 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1155 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1156 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1157 
  1158 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1159 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1160 
  1161 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1162 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1163 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1164 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1165 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1166 
  1167 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1168 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1169 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1170 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1171 indices of schematic variables.
  1172 
  1173 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1174 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1175 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1176 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1177 etc. was exploited.
  1178 
  1179 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1180 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1181 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1182 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1183 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1184 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1185 
  1186 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1187 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1188 manual.
  1189 
  1190 
  1191 *** Pure ***
  1192 
  1193 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1194 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1195 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1196 
  1197 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1198 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1199 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1200 undocumented feature.)
  1201 
  1202 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1203 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1204 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1205 
  1206   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1207 
  1208   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1209     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1210 
  1211 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1212 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1213 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1214 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1215 
  1216 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1217 
  1218     num ~> num_token
  1219     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1220     xstr ~> str_token
  1221 
  1222 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1223 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1224 position information via constraints).
  1225 
  1226 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1227 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1228 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1231 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1232 
  1233 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1234 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1235 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1236 
  1237 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1238 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1241 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1242 
  1243   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1244 
  1245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1246 
  1247 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1248 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1249 
  1250 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1251 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1252 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1253 
  1254 
  1255 *** HOL ***
  1256 
  1257 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1258 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1259 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1260 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1261 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1262 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1263 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1264 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1265 possible.
  1266 
  1267 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1268 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1269 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1270 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1271 
  1272 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1273 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1276 
  1277 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1278 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1279 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1280 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1281 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1282 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1283 
  1284   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1285     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1286 
  1287   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1288     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1289     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1290 
  1291   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1292     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1293 
  1294   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1295     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1296     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1297 
  1298   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1299     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1300 
  1301 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1302 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1303 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1304 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1305 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1306 
  1307   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1308     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1309     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1310     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1311     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1312 
  1313     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1314     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1315 
  1316   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1317     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1318     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1319     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1320     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1321     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1322     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1323     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1324 
  1325   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1326     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1327     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1328     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1329 
  1330   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1331     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1332     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1333     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1334 
  1335   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1336     from type nat to type int.
  1337 
  1338 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1339 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1340 
  1341   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1342     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1343     type.  Example syntax:
  1344 
  1345     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1346       is List.insert
  1347 
  1348     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1349     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1350     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1351     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1352     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1353     by the package.
  1354 
  1355   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1356     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1357     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1358     code generation for each constant.
  1359 
  1360   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1361     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1362     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1363     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1364     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1365 
  1366   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1367     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1368     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1369 
  1370 * Quotient package:
  1371 
  1372   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1373     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1374 
  1375   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1376     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1377 
  1378   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1379     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1380     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1383     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384 
  1385 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1386 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1387 
  1388 * Quickcheck:
  1389 
  1390   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1391     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1392     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1393     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1394     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1395 
  1396     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1397     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1398     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1399 
  1400     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1401     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1402 
  1403     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1404     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1405     show genuine counterexamples.
  1406 
  1407   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1408     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1409 
  1410     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1411     constructors of that type.
  1412 
  1413   - Support for multisets.
  1414 
  1415   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1416 
  1417   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1418     conjectures in a locale context.
  1419 
  1420 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1421 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1422 
  1423 * Sledgehammer:
  1424   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1425     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1426   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1427   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1428     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1429   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1430   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1431   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1432   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1433 
  1434 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1435 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1436 
  1437 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1438 
  1439 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1442 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1443 
  1444   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1445 
  1446 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1447 a list and a nat.
  1448 
  1449 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1450 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1451 
  1452 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1453 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1454 default.
  1455 
  1456 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1457 
  1458   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1459 
  1460 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1461 
  1462 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1463 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1464 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1465 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1466 one_case.
  1467 
  1468 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1469 the result of the fact expression.
  1470 
  1471 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1472 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1473 of some relation theorems:
  1474 
  1475   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1476   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1477   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1478   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1479   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1480   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1481 
  1482 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1483 
  1484 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1485 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1486 
  1487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1490 to match the constant's name:
  1491 
  1492   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1493   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1494   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1495   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1496   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1497   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1498   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1499   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1500   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1501   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1502   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1503   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1504   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1505   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1506   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1507   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1508   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1509   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1510   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1511   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1512   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1513   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1514   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1515   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1516 
  1517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1520 and corresponding theorem names:
  1521 
  1522   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1523 
  1524   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1525 
  1526   - Renamed theorems:
  1527 
  1528     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1529     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1530     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1531     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1532     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1533     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1534     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1535     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1536     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1537     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1538     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1539     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1540     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1541     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1542     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1543     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1544     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1545     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1546     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1547     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1548     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1549     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1550     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1551 
  1552     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1553 
  1554     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1555 
  1556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1559 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1560 
  1561   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1562   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1563   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1564   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1565   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1566   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1567   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1568   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1569   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1570   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1571   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1572   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1573   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1574   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1575   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1576   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1577   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1578   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1579   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1580   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1581   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1582 
  1583 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1584 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585 
  1586 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1589 
  1590   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1591   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1592   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1593   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1594   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1595   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1596   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1597   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1598   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1599   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1600   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1601   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1602   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1603   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1604   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1605   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1606   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1607   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1608 
  1609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1610 
  1611 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1612 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1613 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1614 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1615 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1616 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1617 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1618 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1619 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1620 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1621 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1622 
  1623 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1624 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1625 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1626 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1627 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1628 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1629 
  1630 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1631 through option types.
  1632 
  1633 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1634 relations.
  1635 
  1636 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1639 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1640 
  1641   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1642   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1643   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1644   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1645   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1646   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1647   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1648   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1649   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1650   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1651   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1652   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1653   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1654   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1655   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1656   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1657   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1658   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1659   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1660   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1661   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1662   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1663   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1664   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1665   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1666   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1667   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1668   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1669   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1670   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1671   zless_le ~> less_le
  1672   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1673   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1674   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1675 
  1676 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1677 
  1678   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1679 
  1680 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1681 
  1682 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1683 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1684 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1685 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1689 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1690 
  1691 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1692 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1693 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1694 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1695 follows:
  1696 
  1697   Operations:
  1698   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1699   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1700   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1701   del -> rbt_del
  1702   delete -> rbt_delete
  1703   ins -> rbt_ins
  1704   insert -> rbt_insert
  1705   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1706   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1707   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1708   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1709   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1710   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1711   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1712   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1713   union -> rbt_union
  1714   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1715   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1716 
  1717   Lemmas:
  1718   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1719   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1720   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1721   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1722   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1723   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1724   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1725   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1726   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1727   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1728   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1729   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1730   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1731   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1732   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1733   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1734   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1735   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1736   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1737   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1738   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1739   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1740   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1741   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1742   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1743   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1744   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1745   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1746   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1747   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1748   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1749   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1750   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1751   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1752   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1753   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1754   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1755   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1756   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1757   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1758   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1759   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1760   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1761   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1762   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1763   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1764   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1765   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1766   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1767   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1768   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1769   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1770   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1771   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1772   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1773   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1774   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1775   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1776   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1777   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1778   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1779   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1780   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1781   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1782   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1783   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1784   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1785   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1786   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1787   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1788   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1789   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1790   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1791   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1792   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1793   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1794   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1795   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1796   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1797   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1798   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1799   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1800   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1801 
  1802 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1803 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1804 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1805 
  1806   Changed Operations:
  1807   float_abs -> abs
  1808   float_nprt -> nprt
  1809   float_pprt -> pprt
  1810   pow2 -> use powr
  1811   round_down -> float_round_down
  1812   round_up -> float_round_up
  1813   scale -> exponent
  1814 
  1815   Removed Operations:
  1816   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1817 
  1818   Renamed Lemmas:
  1819   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1820   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1821   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1822   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1823   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1824   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1825   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1826   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1827   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1828   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1829   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1830   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1831   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1832   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1833   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1834   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1835   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1836   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1837   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1838   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1839   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1840   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1841   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1842   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1843   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1844   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1845   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1846   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1847   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1848   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1849   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1850   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1851   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1852   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1853   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1854   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1855 
  1856   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1857   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1858   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1859   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1860   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1861   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1862   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1863   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1864   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1865   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1866 
  1867 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1868 association lists with distinct keys.
  1869 
  1870 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1871 annotated commands.
  1872 
  1873 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1874 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1875 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1876 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1879 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1880 instead.
  1881 
  1882   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1883   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1884   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1885   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1886   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1887   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1888   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1889   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1890   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1891   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1892   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1893   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1894   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1895   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1896   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1897   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1898   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1899   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1900   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1901   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1902   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1903   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1904   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1905   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1906   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1907   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1908   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1909   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1910   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1911   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1912   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1913   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1914   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1915   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1916   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1917   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1918   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1919   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1920   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1921   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1922   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1923 
  1924 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1925 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1926 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1927 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1928 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1929 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1930 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1931 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1932 
  1933 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1934 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1935 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1936 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1937 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1938 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1939 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1940 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1941 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1942 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1943 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1944 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946   Renamed constants:
  1947   measure -> emeasure
  1948   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1949   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1950   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1951   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1952 
  1953   Removed locales:
  1954   completeable_measure_space
  1955   finite_measure_space
  1956   finite_prob_space
  1957   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1958   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1959   finite_sigma_algebra
  1960   measure_space
  1961   pair_finite_prob_space
  1962   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1963   pair_finite_space
  1964   pair_sigma_algebra
  1965   product_sigma_algebra
  1966 
  1967   Removed constants:
  1968   conditional_space
  1969   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1970   image_space
  1971   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1972   pair_measure_generator
  1973   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1974   subvimage
  1975 
  1976   Replacement theorems:
  1977   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1978   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1979   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1980   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1981   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1982   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1983   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1984   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1985   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1986   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1987   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1988   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1989   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1990   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1991   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1992   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1993   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1994   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1995   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1996   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1997   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1998   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1999   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2000   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2001   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2002   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2003   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2004   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2005   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2006   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2007   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2008   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2009   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2010   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2011   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2012   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2013   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2014   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2015   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2016   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2017   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2018   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2019   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2020   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2021   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2022   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2023   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2024   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2025   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2026   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2027   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2028   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2029   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2030   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2031   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2032   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2033   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2034   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2035   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2036   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2037   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2038   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2039   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2040   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2041   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2042   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2043   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2044   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2045   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2046   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2047   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2048   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2049   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2050   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2051   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2052   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2053   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2054   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2055   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2056   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2057   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2058   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2059   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2060   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2061   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2062   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2063   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2064   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2065   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2066   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2067   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2068   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2069   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2070   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2071   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2072   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2073   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2074   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2075   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2076   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2077   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2078   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2079   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2080   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2081   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2082   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2083   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2084   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2085   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2086   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2087   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2088   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2089   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2090   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2091   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2092   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2093   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2094   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2095   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2096   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2097   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2098   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2099   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2100   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2101   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2102   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2103   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2104   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2105 
  2106 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2107 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2108 
  2109 
  2110 *** FOL ***
  2111 
  2112 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2113 
  2114 
  2115 *** ZF ***
  2116 
  2117 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2118 analysis.
  2119 
  2120 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2121 
  2122 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 
  2125 *** ML ***
  2126 
  2127 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2128 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2129 
  2130 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2131 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2132 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2133 
  2134 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2135 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2136 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2137 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2138 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2139 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2140 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2141 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2142 
  2143 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2144 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2145 
  2146 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2147 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2148 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2149 
  2150 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2151 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2152 
  2153 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2154 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2155 context as well.
  2156 
  2157 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2158 
  2159   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2160   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2161   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2162   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2163   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2164   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2165   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2166   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2167   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2168   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2169   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2170   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2171 
  2172 
  2173 *** System ***
  2174 
  2175 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2176 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2177 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2178 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2179 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2180 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2181 the generic user home was intended.
  2182 
  2183 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2184 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2185 
  2186 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2187 (not just JRE).
  2188 
  2189 
  2190 
  2191 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2192 ------------------------------------
  2193 
  2194 *** General ***
  2195 
  2196 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2197 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2198 
  2199   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2200     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2201     files for checking).
  2202 
  2203   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2204     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2205     positions.
  2206 
  2207   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2208     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2209     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2210 
  2211   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2212     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2213     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2214 
  2215   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2216     cores.
  2217 
  2218   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2219     versions (garbage collection).
  2220 
  2221 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2222 including some remaining limitations.
  2223 
  2224 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2225 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2226 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2227 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2228 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2232 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2233 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2234 
  2235 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2236 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2237 usedir option -Q.
  2238 
  2239 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2240 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2241 
  2242   long_names   ~> names_long
  2243   short_names  ~> names_short
  2244   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2245 
  2246 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2247 
  2248   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2249 
  2250 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2251 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2252 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2253 
  2254 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2255 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2256 
  2257 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2258   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2259   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2260   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2261     "Classical Reasoner".
  2262 
  2263 
  2264 *** HOL ***
  2265 
  2266 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2267 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2270 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2271 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2272 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2273 class complete_linorder.
  2274 
  2275 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2276 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2277 
  2278 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2279 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2280 
  2281   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2282   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2283   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2284   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2285   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2286   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2287   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2288   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2289   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2290   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2291   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2292 
  2293 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2294 
  2295   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2296   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2297   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2298   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2299   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2300   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2301   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2302   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2303   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2304   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2305   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2306   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2307   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2308   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2309   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2310   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2311 
  2312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2318 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2319 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2320 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2323 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2324 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2326 
  2327 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2328 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2329 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2330 
  2331 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2332 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2333 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2336 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2337 
  2338 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2339 
  2340     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2341     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2342 
  2343 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2344 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2347 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2350 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2351 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2352 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2355   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2356   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2357   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2358   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2359   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2360   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2361 
  2362 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2363 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2366   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2367   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2368   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2369   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2370   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2371   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2372   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2373   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2374   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2375   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2376   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2377   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2378   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2379   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2380   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2381   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2382   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2383   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2384   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2385   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2386   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2387   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2388   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2389   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2390   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2391   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2392   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2393   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2394   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2395   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2396   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2397   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2398   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2399   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2400   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2401   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2402   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2403   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2404   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2405   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2406   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2407   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2408   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2409   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2410   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2411   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2412   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2413   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2414   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2415   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2416   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2417   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2418   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2419   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2420   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2421   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2422   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2423   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2424   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2425   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2426   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2427   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2428   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2429   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2430   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2431   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2432   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2433   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2434   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2435   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2436   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2437   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2438   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2439   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2440   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2441   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2442   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2443   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2444   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2445   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2446   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2447 
  2448 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2449 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2450 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2451 
  2452 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2453 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2454 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2455 
  2456 * Code generation:
  2457 
  2458   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2459     characters in the target language.
  2460 
  2461   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2462     instead.
  2463 
  2464   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2465 
  2466   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2467     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2468 
  2469       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2470 
  2471 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2472 
  2473 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2474 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2475 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2476 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2477 syntax.
  2478 
  2479 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2480 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2481 
  2482 * Nitpick:
  2483   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2484   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2485   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2486     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Sledgehammer:
  2489   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2490   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2491     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2492   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2493     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2494   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2495     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2497     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2498   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2499     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Metis:
  2502   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2504     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * Command 'try':
  2507   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2508     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2510     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2511 
  2512 * Quickcheck:
  2513   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2514     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2515   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2516     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2517   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2518     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2519     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2520     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2521   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2522     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2523 
  2524 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2525 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2526 
  2527 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2528 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2529 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2530 
  2531 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2532 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2536 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2539 arithmetic.
  2540 
  2541 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2542 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2543 and lattice type classes.
  2544 
  2545 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2546 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2547 
  2548 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2549 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2550 
  2551 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2552 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2553 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2554 
  2555   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2556   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2557   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2558   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2559 
  2560 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2561 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2562 constants:
  2563 
  2564   type inat   ~> type enat
  2565   Fin         ~> enat
  2566   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2567   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2568   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2569 
  2570 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2571 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2574 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2575 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2576 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2577 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2578 
  2579 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2580 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2581 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2582 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2583 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2584 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2585 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2586 
  2587   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2588   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2589   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2590   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2591 
  2592 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2593 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2594 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2597   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2598   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2599   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2600   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2601   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2602   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2603   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2604   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2605   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2606   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2607   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2608   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2609   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2610   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2611   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2612   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2613   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2614   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2615   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2616   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2617   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2618   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2619   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2620   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2621   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2622   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2623   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2624   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2625   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2626   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2627   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2628   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2629   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2630   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2631   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2632   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2633   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2634   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2635   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2636   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2637   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2638   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2639   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2640   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2641   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2642   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2643   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2644   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2645   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2646   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2647 
  2648 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2649   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2650   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2651   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2652   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2653     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2658   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2659   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2660   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2661   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2662   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2663   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2664   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2665   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2666   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2667   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2668   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2669   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2670   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2671   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2672   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2673   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2674   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2675   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2676   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2677   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2678   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2679   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2680   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2681   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2682 
  2683 
  2684 *** Document preparation ***
  2685 
  2686 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2687 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2688 same.
  2689 
  2690 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2691 result.
  2692 
  2693 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2694 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2695 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2696 
  2697 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2698 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2699 
  2700 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2701 like this:
  2702 
  2703   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2704   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2705 
  2706 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2707 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2708 layouts.
  2709 
  2710 
  2711 *** ML ***
  2712 
  2713 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2714 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2715 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2716 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2717 under external program control.
  2718 
  2719 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2720 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2721 
  2722 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2723 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2724 (better known as Proof General).
  2725 
  2726 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2727 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2728 
  2729 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2730 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2731 
  2732 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2733 (including quotes etc.).
  2734 
  2735 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2736 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2737 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2738 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2739 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2740 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2741 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2742 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2743 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2744 
  2745 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2746 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2747 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2748 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2749 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2750 
  2751 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2752 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2753 
  2754 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2755 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2756 
  2757 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2758 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2759 
  2760 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2761 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2762 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2763 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2764 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2765 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2766 proper Proof.context.
  2767 
  2768 
  2769 *** System ***
  2770 
  2771 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2772 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2773 
  2774 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2775 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2776 
  2777 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2778 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2779 
  2780   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2781   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2782   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2783   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2784   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2785 
  2786 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2787 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2790 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2791 example:
  2792 
  2793   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2794 
  2795 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2796 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2797 
  2798 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2799 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2800 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2801 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2802 
  2803 
  2804 
  2805 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2806 ----------------------------------
  2807 
  2808 *** General ***
  2809 
  2810 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2811 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2812 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2813 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2814 like this:
  2815 
  2816   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2817 
  2818 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2819 
  2820 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2821 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2822 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2823 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2824 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2825 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2826 
  2827 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2828 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2829 the following package declarations:
  2830 
  2831   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2832   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2833 
  2834 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2835 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2836 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2837 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2838 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2839 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2840 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2841 
  2842 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2843 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2844 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2845 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2846 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2847 
  2848 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2849 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2850 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2851 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2852 
  2853 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2854 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2855 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2856 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2857 
  2858   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2859 
  2860   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2861   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2862   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2863   show_types                    show_types
  2864   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2865   show_consts                   show_consts
  2866   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2867 
  2868   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2869   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2870   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2871 
  2872   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2873   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2874 
  2875   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2876 
  2877   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2878   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2879   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2880   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2881   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2882 
  2883 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2884 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2885 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2886 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2887 
  2888 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2890 
  2891   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2892   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2893 
  2894 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2895 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2896 float_token.
  2897 
  2898 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2899 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2903 DejaVu Sans.
  2904 
  2905 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2906 
  2907 
  2908 *** Pure ***
  2909 
  2910 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2911 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2912 time.
  2913 
  2914 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2915 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2918 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2919 
  2920 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2921 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2922 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2923 command already provided this functionality.
  2924 
  2925 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2926 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2927 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2928 without interpretations.
  2929 
  2930 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2931 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2932 
  2933 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2934 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2935 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2936 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2937 
  2938 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2939 'definition' instead.
  2940 
  2941 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2942 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2943 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2944 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2945 
  2946 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2947 constructors.
  2948 
  2949 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2950 the local file system.
  2951 
  2952 
  2953 *** HOL ***
  2954 
  2955 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2956 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2957 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2958 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2959 
  2960   declare [[coercion f]]
  2961 
  2962 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2963 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2964 
  2965   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2966 
  2967 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2968 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2969 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2970 other theories like this:
  2971 
  2972   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2973 
  2974 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2975 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2976 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2977 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2978 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2979 for examples.
  2980 
  2981 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2982 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2985 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2986 
  2987 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2988 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2989 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2990 
  2991 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2992 functorial structure of types.
  2993 
  2994 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2995 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2996 
  2997 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2998 languages.
  2999 
  3000 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3001 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3005 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3008 combinators any longer.
  3009 
  3010 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3011 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3012 
  3013 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3014 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3015 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3016 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3017 
  3018   record 'a foo = ...
  3019   ...
  3020   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3021 
  3022 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3023 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3027 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3028 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3029 
  3030 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3031 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3032 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3033 
  3034 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3035 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3038 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3039 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3040 independently.
  3041 
  3042 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3043 counter example search.
  3044 
  3045 * Sledgehammer:
  3046   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3047     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3048     sledgehammer").
  3049   - Renamed commands:
  3050     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3051     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3052     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3053     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3054   - Renamed options:
  3055     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3056     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3057     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3058     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3059     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Nitpick:
  3062   - Renamed options:
  3063     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3064     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3065     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3067   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3068   - Added "whack" option.
  3069   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3070   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3071   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3072   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3073     higher cardinalities.
  3074   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3075 
  3076 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3077 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3078 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3079 
  3080     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3081 
  3082 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3083 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3084 
  3085 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3086 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3087 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3088 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3089 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3090 "smt_solver".
  3091 
  3092 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3093 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3094 
  3095 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3096 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3097 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3098 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3101   - Renamed:
  3102     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3103     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3104     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105   - Added:
  3106     smt_verbose
  3107     smt_random_seed
  3108     smt_datatypes
  3109     smt_infer_triggers
  3110     smt_monomorph_limit
  3111     cvc3_options
  3112     remote_cvc3_options
  3113     remote_z3_options
  3114     yices_options
  3115 
  3116 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3117 header.
  3118 
  3119 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3120 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3121 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3122 
  3123   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3124 
  3125 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3128 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3133 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3134 
  3135 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3136 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3137 
  3138 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3139 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3142 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3143 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3149 
  3150 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3151 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3152 
  3153 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3154 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3155 for congruent(2)).
  3156 
  3157 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3158 
  3159   types
  3160     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3161     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3162 
  3163   constants
  3164     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3165     True ~> HOL.True
  3166     False ~> HOL.False
  3167     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3168     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3169     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3170     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3171     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3172     The ~> HOL.The
  3173     All ~> HOL.All
  3174     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3175     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3176     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3177     If ~> HOL.If
  3178     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3179     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3180     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3181     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3182     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3183     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3184     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3185     op : ~> Set.member
  3186     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3187 
  3188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3191 
  3192     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3193     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3194     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3195     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3196     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3197     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3198     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3199     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3200 
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * More stylized fact names:
  3204 
  3205   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3206   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3207   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3208   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3209 
  3210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3213 
  3214   constants
  3215     null ~> List.null
  3216 
  3217   facts
  3218     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3219     null_empty ~> null_def
  3220 
  3221 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3222 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3223 generation.
  3224 
  3225 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3226 Haskell code.
  3227 
  3228 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3229 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3230 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3231 
  3232 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3233 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3234 
  3235 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3236 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3237 
  3238 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3239 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3240 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3243 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3249 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3250 referred to by its qualified name.
  3251 
  3252   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3253   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3254   product ~>  Enum.product
  3255 
  3256 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3257 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3261 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3262 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3266 sort_key.
  3267 
  3268 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3272 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3273 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3274 
  3275   types
  3276     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3277               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3278               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3279         (depends on your needs)
  3280 
  3281   constants
  3282      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3283      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3284      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3285 
  3286 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3287 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3288 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3289 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3292 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3293 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3294 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3295 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3301 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3302 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3303 
  3304 
  3305 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3306 
  3307 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3308 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3309 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3310 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3311 compatibility.
  3312 
  3313 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3314 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3315 
  3316 
  3317 *** HOLCF ***
  3318 
  3319 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3320 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3321 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323 
  3324 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3325 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3326 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3329   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3330   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3331 
  3332 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3333 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3334 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3335 
  3336 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3337 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3338 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3339 domain definition now works:
  3340 
  3341   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3342 
  3343 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3344 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3345 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3346 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3347 
  3348   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3349     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3350 
  3351   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3352 
  3353 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3354 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3355 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3356 
  3357 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3358 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3361 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3362 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3363 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3364 
  3365 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3366 
  3367 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373 
  3374 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3375 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3376 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3377 
  3378 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3379 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3380 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3383 still supported as an input translation.
  3384 
  3385 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3386 
  3387   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3388   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3389   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3390   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3391   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3392   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3393   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3394 
  3395 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3396 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397 
  3398   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3399   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3400   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3401   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3402   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3403   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3404 
  3405 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3406 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3409 
  3410   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3411   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3412   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3413   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3414 
  3415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3418 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3421 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3424   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3425   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3426   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3427   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3428   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3429   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3430   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3431   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3432   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3433   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3434   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3435   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3436   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3437   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3438   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3439   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3440   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3441   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3442   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3443 
  3444 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3447   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3448   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3449   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3450   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3451   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3452   box_less             ~> box_below
  3453   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3454   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3455   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3456   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3457   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3458   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3459   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3460   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3461   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3462   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3463   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3464   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3465   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3466   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3467   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3468   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3469   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3470   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3471   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3472   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3473   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3474   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3475   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3476   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3477   up_less              ~> up_below
  3478   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3479   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3480   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3481   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3482   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3483   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3484   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3485   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3486   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3487   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3488   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3489   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3490   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3491 
  3492 
  3493 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3494 
  3495 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3496 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3497 
  3498 
  3499 *** ML ***
  3500 
  3501 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3502 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3503 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3504 
  3505 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3506 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3507 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3508 
  3509 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3510 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3511 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3512 
  3513 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3514 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3515 
  3516 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3517 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3518 
  3519 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3520 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3521 
  3522 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3523 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3524 
  3525 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3526 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3527 almost all situations.
  3528 
  3529 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3530 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3531 Isabelle/ML.
  3532 
  3533 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3534 meaning.
  3535 
  3536 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3537 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3538 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3539 
  3540 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3541 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3542 
  3543 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3544 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3545 
  3546 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3548 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3549 
  3550 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3551 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3552 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3553 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3554 configuration options.
  3555 
  3556 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3557 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3558 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3559 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3560 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3561 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3562 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3563 
  3564 
  3565 
  3566 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3567 ---------------------------------
  3568 
  3569 *** General ***
  3570 
  3571 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3572 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3573 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3574 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3575 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3576 their full internal name.
  3577 
  3578 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3579 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3580 Some hints on upgrading:
  3581 
  3582   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3583     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3584     which are independent of this issue.
  3585 
  3586   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3587     provides the following special forms:
  3588 
  3589       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3590       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3591       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3592 
  3593     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3594     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3595     extra variables".
  3596 
  3597     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3598     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3599     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3600     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3601     "logic".
  3602 
  3603   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3604     antiquotations:
  3605 
  3606       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3607       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3608       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3609       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3610 
  3611   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3612     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3613     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3614     antiquotations.
  3615 
  3616 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3617 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3618 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3619 diagnose syntax problems.
  3620 
  3621 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3622 
  3623 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3624 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3625 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3626 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3627 
  3628 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3629 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3630 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3631 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3634 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3635 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3636 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3637 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3640 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3641 
  3642 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3643 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3644 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3645 
  3646   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3647 
  3648 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3649 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3650 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3651 
  3652 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3653 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3655 
  3656 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3657 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3658 
  3659 
  3660 *** Pure ***
  3661 
  3662 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3663 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3664 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3665 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3666 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3667 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3668 inspect proof terms.
  3669 
  3670 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3671 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3672 are added internally.  For example:
  3673 
  3674   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3675 
  3676 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3677 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3678 
  3679 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3680 
  3681 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3682 'class' instead.
  3683 
  3684 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3685 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3689 invariants.
  3690 
  3691 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3692 user space functionality any longer.
  3693 
  3694 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3695 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3699 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3700 
  3701 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3702 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3703 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3704 
  3705 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3706 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3707 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3708 
  3709 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3710 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 
  3713 *** HOL ***
  3714 
  3715 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3716 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3717 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3718 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3719 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3720 
  3721 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3722 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3723 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3724 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3725 
  3726   fun
  3727     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3728   where
  3729     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3730 
  3731   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3732     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3733 
  3734   quotient_definition
  3735     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3736 
  3737 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3738 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3739 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3740 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3741 
  3742 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3743 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3744 
  3745 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3746 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3747 
  3748 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3752 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3753 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3754 
  3755 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3756 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3763 
  3764 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3765 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3768 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3769 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3772   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3773   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3774   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3775   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3776   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3777   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3778   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3779   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3780   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3781   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3782   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3783   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3784   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3785   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3786   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3787   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3788   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3789   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3790   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3791   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3792   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3793   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3794   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3795   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3796   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3797   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3798   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3799   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3800   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3801 
  3802 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3803 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3804 
  3805 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3806 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3807 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3808 
  3809 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3810 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3811 
  3812 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3813 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3814 
  3815 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3816 
  3817 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3818 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3821 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3822 
  3823 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3826 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3827 
  3828 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3829 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3830 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3831 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3832 
  3833 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3834   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3835   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3836   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3838 
  3839 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3840 lattices):
  3841 
  3842     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3843     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3844 
  3845     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3846 
  3847     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3848     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3849     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3850     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3851     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3852     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3853     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3854     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3855     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3856     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3857     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3858     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3859     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3860 
  3861     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3862     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3863     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3864     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3865     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3866     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3867     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3868     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3869     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3870     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3871     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3872     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3873     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3874     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3875     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3876     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3877     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3878     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3879 
  3880   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3881   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3882 
  3883     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3884     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3885     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3886     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3887     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3888 
  3889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890 
  3891 * Refined field classes:
  3892   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3893     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3894     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3895   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3897 
  3898 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3899   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3900   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3901   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3902     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3903   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3904     equal_neg_zero.
  3905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3908 sets to lattices:
  3909 
  3910   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3911   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3912   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3913   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3914   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3915   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3916   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3917   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3918   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3919   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3920 
  3921 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3922 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3923 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3924 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3925 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3926 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3929 multiset order:
  3930 
  3931   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3932     <= and <;
  3933   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3934     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3935     multiset_order;
  3936   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3937     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3938     generation;
  3939   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3940     if needed.
  3941 
  3942 Renamed:
  3943 
  3944   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3945   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3946   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3947 
  3948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3951 
  3952 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3953 
  3954 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3955 
  3956 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3957 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3958 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960   Constants:
  3961   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3962   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3963   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3964   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3965   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3966   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3967   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3968   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3969   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3970   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3971   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3972   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3973   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3974 
  3975   Lemmas:
  3976   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3977   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3978   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3979   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3980   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3981   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3982   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3983   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3984   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3985   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3986   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3987   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3988   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3989 
  3990 * Sledgehammer:
  3991   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3992     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3993     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3994     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3995     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3996     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3997     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3998   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3999   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4000     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4001   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4002     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4003     is still experimental.)
  4004   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4005     full-typed mode.
  4006   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4007 
  4008 * Nitpick:
  4009   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4010   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4011   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4012     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4013   - Added support for quotient types.
  4014   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4015     constructs.
  4016   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4017     "termination" proofs).
  4018   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4019   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4020   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4021   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4022     record getters.
  4023   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4024   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4025   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4026   - Added "atoms" option.
  4027   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4028     problems.
  4029   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4030     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4031     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4033     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4037   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4038   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4039   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4040   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4041   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4042   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4043   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4044   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4045   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4046 
  4047 
  4048 *** HOLCF ***
  4049 
  4050 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4051 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4052 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4055 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4056 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4057 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4060 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4061 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4062 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4063 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4066 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4067 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4070 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4073   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4074 
  4075 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4076 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4077 
  4078   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4079   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4080   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4081   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4082   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4083 
  4084 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4085 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4088   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4089   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4090 
  4091 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4092 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4096 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4101 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 
  4104 *** ML ***
  4105 
  4106 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4107 
  4108     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4109     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4110 
  4111     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4112     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4113     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4114     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4115 
  4116     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4117     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4118     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4119 
  4120 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4121 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4122 
  4123 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4124 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4125 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4126 
  4127 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4128 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4129 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4130 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4131 
  4132 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4133 the context or even global references.
  4134 
  4135 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4136 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4137 
  4138 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4139 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4140 
  4141   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4142   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4143   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4144   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4145   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4146   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4147   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4148   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4149   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4150   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4151 
  4152 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4153 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4154 
  4155 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4156 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4157 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4158 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4159 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4160 
  4161 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4162 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4163 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4164 Theory_Data version.
  4165 
  4166 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4167 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4168 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4169 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4170 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4171 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4172 explicitly in rare situations.
  4173 
  4174 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4175 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4177 
  4178 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4179 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4180 
  4181 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4182 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4183 quite rare).
  4184 
  4185 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4186 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4187 
  4188 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4189 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4190 terms.
  4191 
  4192 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4193 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4194 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4195 
  4196 
  4197 *** System ***
  4198 
  4199 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4200 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4201 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4202 
  4203 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4204 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4205 respectively.
  4206 
  4207 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4208 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4209 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4210 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4211 
  4212   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4213 
  4214 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4215 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4216 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4217 component.
  4218 
  4219 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4220 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4221 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4222 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4223 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4224 the user for manual installation.
  4225 
  4226 
  4227 
  4228 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4229 -------------------------------------
  4230 
  4231 *** General ***
  4232 
  4233 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4234 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4235 
  4236 
  4237 *** Pure ***
  4238 
  4239 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4240 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4241 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4242 
  4243 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4244 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4245 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4246 
  4247 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4248 interpretation.
  4249 
  4250 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4251 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 
  4254 *** Document preparation ***
  4255 
  4256 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4257 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4258 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4259 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4260 
  4261 
  4262 *** HOL ***
  4263 
  4264 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4265 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4266 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4267 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4268 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4269 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4270 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4271 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4272 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4273 
  4274 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4275 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4276 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4277 
  4278 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4279 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4280 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4281 
  4282 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4283 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4284 
  4285 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4286 
  4287 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4288 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4289 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4290 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4291 
  4292 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4293 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4294 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4295 "mirabelle" utility.
  4296 
  4297 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4298 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4299 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4300 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4301 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4302 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4303 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4304 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4305 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4306 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4307 
  4308 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4309 procedure only.
  4310 
  4311 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4312 
  4313 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4314 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4315 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4316 that fail later.
  4317 
  4318 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4319 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4320 
  4321 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4322 the same method as the approximation method.
  4323 
  4324 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4325 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4326 series expansion.
  4327 
  4328 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4329 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4330 
  4331 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4332 reals.
  4333 
  4334 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4335 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4336 
  4337 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4338 fixpoint theorem.
  4339 
  4340 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4341   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4342     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4343   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4344     accordingly
  4345   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4346     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4347   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4348     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4349 
  4350 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4351 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4352 lattice.
  4353 
  4354 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4355 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4356 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4357 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4358 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4359 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4363   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4364     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4365   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4366     le_inf_iff
  4367   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4368     sup_aci)
  4369   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4370   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4371   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4372     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4373     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4374     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4375     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4376     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4377     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4378     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4379     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4380     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4381     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4382   - authentic syntax for
  4383     Set.Pow
  4384     Set.image
  4385   - mere abbreviations:
  4386     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4387     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4388     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4389     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4390     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4391     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4392     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4393     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4394   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4395 
  4396 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4397 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4398 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4399 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4400 
  4401 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4402 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4403 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4406 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4409 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4410 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4411 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4414 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4415 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4416 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4417 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4418 
  4419 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4420 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4422 
  4423 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4424 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4427 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4428 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4429 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4430 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4431 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4432 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4436     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4437     code_post       replaces    code post
  4438     etc.
  4439   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4440 
  4441 * Renamed methods:
  4442     sizechange -> size_change
  4443     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4444   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4447 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4448 
  4449 * Renamed theorems:
  4450     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4451     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4452     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4453     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4454     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4455   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4459 
  4460 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 
  4464 *** HOLCF ***
  4465 
  4466 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4467 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4468 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4469 
  4470 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4471 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4472 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4473 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4474 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4475 
  4476 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4477 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4478 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4479 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4480 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4481 
  4482 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4483 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4484 constructor are pre-configured.
  4485 
  4486 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4487 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4488 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4489 
  4490 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4491 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4492 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4493 as well.)
  4494 
  4495 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4496 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4497 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4498 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4499 examples.
  4500 
  4501 
  4502 *** ML ***
  4503 
  4504 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4505 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4506 
  4507 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4508 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4509 position, logical grouping etc.
  4510 
  4511 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4512 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4513 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4514 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4515 
  4516 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4517 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4518 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4519 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4520 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4521 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4522 
  4523 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4524 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4525 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4526 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4527 experiments with references.
  4528 
  4529 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4530 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4531 
  4532 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4533 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4534 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4535 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4536 
  4537 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4538 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4539 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4540 
  4541 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4542 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4543 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4544 
  4545 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4546 
  4547 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4549 
  4550 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4551 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4552 
  4553 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4554 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4555 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4556 
  4557 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4558 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4559 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4562 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4563 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4567 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4568 instead of global theory.
  4569 
  4570 
  4571 *** System ***
  4572 
  4573 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4574 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4575 usedir option -q.
  4576 
  4577 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4578 also the system manual.
  4579 
  4580 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4581 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4582 
  4583 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4584 this is always enabled.
  4585 
  4586 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4587 
  4588 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4589 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4590 currently supported on Linux only.
  4591 
  4592 
  4593 
  4594 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4595 --------------------------------
  4596 
  4597 *** General ***
  4598 
  4599 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4600 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4601 
  4602   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4603     "isatool."
  4604 
  4605   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4606     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4607 
  4608   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4609     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4610 
  4611 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4612 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4613 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4614 
  4615 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4616 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4617 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4618 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4619 via "isabelle emacs".
  4620 
  4621 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4622 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4623 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4624 
  4625 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4626 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4627 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4628 
  4629 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4630 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4631 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4632 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4633 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4634 
  4635 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4636 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4637 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4638 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4639 
  4640 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4641 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4642 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4643 
  4644 
  4645 *** Pure ***
  4646 
  4647 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4648 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4649 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4650 
  4651 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4652 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4653 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4654 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4655 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4656 
  4657 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4658 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4659 useful in locale declarations.
  4660 
  4661 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4662 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4663 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4664 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4665 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4666 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4667 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4668 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4669 no longer generated.
  4670 
  4671 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4672 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4673 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4674 
  4675 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4676 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4677 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4678 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4679 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4680 
  4681 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4683 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4684 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4685 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4686 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4687 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4688 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4689 
  4690 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4691 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4692 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4693 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4694 
  4695 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4698 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4699 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4700 
  4701 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4702 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4705 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4706 in HOL, write
  4707 
  4708     class foo = ...
  4709 
  4710 instead of
  4711 
  4712     class foo = type + ...
  4713 
  4714 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4715 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4718 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4719 
  4720 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4721 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4722 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4723 
  4724 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4725 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4726 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4727 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4728 directly in regular applications.
  4729 
  4730 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4731 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4732 
  4733 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4734 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4735 
  4736 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4737 theory context.
  4738 
  4739 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4740 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 
  4742 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4743 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4744 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4745 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4746 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4747 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4748 
  4749   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4750 
  4751 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4752 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4753 normalization.
  4754 
  4755 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4756 addressing etc.
  4757 
  4758 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4759 
  4760   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4761   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4762 
  4763 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4764 
  4765   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4766      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4767      parts of the code generator framework).
  4768 
  4769   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4770      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4771      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4772 
  4773 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774 
  4775 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4776 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4777 
  4778 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4779 patterns, e.g.
  4780 
  4781     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4782 
  4783 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4784 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4785 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4786 hyphen:
  4787 
  4788     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4789 
  4790 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4791 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4792 
  4793 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4794 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4795 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4796 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4797 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4798 higher-order unification.
  4799 
  4800 
  4801 *** Document preparation ***
  4802 
  4803 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4804 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4805 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 *** HOL ***
  4809 
  4810 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4811 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4812 
  4813 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4814 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4815 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4816 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4817 Main, as before.
  4818 
  4819 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4820 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4821 
  4822 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4823 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4824 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4825 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4826 
  4827 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4828 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4829 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4830 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4831 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4832 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4833 
  4834 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4835 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4836 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4837 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4838 
  4839 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4840 menu.
  4841 
  4842 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4843 (contains the empty clause).
  4844 
  4845 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4846 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4847 
  4848 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4849 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4850 
  4851 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4852 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4853 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4856 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4857 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4858 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4859 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4860 
  4861 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4862 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4863 
  4864 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4865 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4866 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4867 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4868 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4869 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4870 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4871 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4872 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4873 
  4874 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4875 
  4876 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4877 
  4878 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4879 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4880 
  4881 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4882 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4883 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4884 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4885 
  4886 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4887 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4888 
  4889     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4890     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4891     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4892     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4893     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4894     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4895     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4896     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4897 
  4898 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4899 theory Set.
  4900 
  4901 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4902 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4903 
  4904 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4905 
  4906 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4907 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4908 
  4909 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4910 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4911 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4912 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4913 allowed. For examples see
  4914 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4915 
  4916 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4917 
  4918 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4920 
  4921 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4922 structure:
  4923 
  4924     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4925     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4926     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4927     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4928     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4929     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4930     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4931     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4932     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4933     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4934     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4935     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4936     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4937     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4938     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4939     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4940     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4941     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4942     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4943     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4944     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4945     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4946     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4947     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4948     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4949     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4950     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4951     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4952     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4953     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4954     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4955     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4956     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4957 
  4958     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4959     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4960     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4961     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4962     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4963     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4964     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4965     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4966     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4967     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4968 
  4969     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4970     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4971     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4972     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4973     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4974     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4975 
  4976 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4977 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4978 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4979 
  4980 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4981 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4982 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4983 
  4984 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4985 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4986 
  4987 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4988 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4989 
  4990 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4991 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4992 proofs, e.g.
  4993 
  4994   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4995 
  4996 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4997 
  4998 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4999 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5000 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5001 
  5002 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5003 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5007 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5008 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5010 
  5011 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5012 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5013 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5014 preorder_class.*.
  5015 
  5016 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5017 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5018 
  5019 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5020 
  5021   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5022 
  5023 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5024 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5025 fold_image.
  5026 
  5027 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5028 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5029 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5030 the former will disappear at some point.
  5031 
  5032 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5033 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5034 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5035 
  5036 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5037 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5038 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5039 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5040 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5041 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5042 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5043 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5044 
  5045 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5046 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5047 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5048 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5049 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5050 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5051 
  5052     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5053     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5054     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5055     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5056     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5057     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5058     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5059 
  5060 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5061 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5062 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5063 
  5064 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5065 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5066 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5067 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5068 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5069 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5070 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5071 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5072 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5073 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5074 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5075 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5076 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5077 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5078 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5079 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5080 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5081 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5082 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5083 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5084 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5085 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5086 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5087 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5088 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5089 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5090 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5091 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5092 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5093 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5094 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5095 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5096 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5097 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5098 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5099 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5100 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5101 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5102 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5103 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5104 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5105 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5106 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5107 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5108 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5109 
  5110 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5111 
  5112 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5113 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5114 
  5115 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5116 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5117 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5118 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5119 
  5120 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5121 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5122 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5123 theory RealVector.
  5124 
  5125 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5126 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5127 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5128 and inner products are included.
  5129 
  5130 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5131 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5132 supported.
  5133 
  5134 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5135 first diagonalization argument.
  5136 
  5137 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5138 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5139 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5140 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5141 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5142 
  5143     hide (open) const gcd
  5144     abbreviation gcd where
  5145       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5146     notation (output)
  5147       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5148 
  5149 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5150 
  5151 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5152 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5153 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5154 
  5155 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5156 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5157 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5158 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5159 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5160 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5161 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5162 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5163 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5164 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5165 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5166 cases.
  5167 
  5168 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5169 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5170 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5171 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5172 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5173 
  5174     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5175     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5176     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5177     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5178     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5179 
  5180 
  5181 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5182 
  5183 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5184 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5185 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5186 
  5187 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5188 
  5189 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5190 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5191 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5192 
  5193 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5194 
  5195 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5196 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5197 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5198 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5199 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5200 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5201 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5202 
  5203 
  5204 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5205 
  5206 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5207 
  5208 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5209 theory targets.
  5210 
  5211 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5212 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5213 'inductive' etc.
  5214 
  5215 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5216 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5217 
  5218 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5219 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5220 
  5221 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5222 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5223 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5224 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5225 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5226 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5227 the algorithm W:
  5228 
  5229  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5230  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5231          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5232 
  5233 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5234 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5235 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5236 
  5237 
  5238 *** HOLCF ***
  5239 
  5240 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5241 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5242 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5243 
  5244 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5245 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5246 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5247 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5248 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5249 
  5250 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5251 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5252 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5253 
  5254 
  5255 *** ZF ***
  5256 
  5257 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5258 
  5259 
  5260 *** ML ***
  5261 
  5262 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5263 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5264 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5265 5.2.1!
  5266 
  5267 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5268 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5269 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5270 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5271 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5272 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5273 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5274 
  5275 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5276 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5277 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5278 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5279 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5280 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5281 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5282 
  5283 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5284 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5285 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5286 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5287 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5288 
  5289 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5290 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5291 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5292 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5293 Method.add_method.
  5294 
  5295 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5296 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5297 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5298 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5299 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5300 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5301 
  5302 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5303 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5304 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5305 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5306 examples.
  5307 
  5308 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5309 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5310 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5311 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5312 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5313 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5314 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5315 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5316 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5317 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5318 
  5319 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5320 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5321 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5322 
  5323 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5324 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5325 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5326 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5327 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5328 resort for legacy applications.
  5329 
  5330 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5331 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5332 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5333 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5334 explicit runtime argument.
  5335 
  5336 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5337 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5338 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5339 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5340 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5341 
  5342 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5343 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5344 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5345 theory state.
  5346 
  5347 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5348 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5349 
  5350   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5351   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5352   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5353   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5354   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5355   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5356   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5357   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5358   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5359   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5360 
  5361 
  5362 *** System ***
  5363 
  5364 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5365 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5366 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5367 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5368 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5369 
  5370 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5371 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5372 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5373 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5374 
  5375 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5376 
  5377 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5378 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5379 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5380 prover operations.
  5381 
  5382 
  5383 
  5384 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5385 -------------------------------
  5386 
  5387 *** General ***
  5388 
  5389 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5390 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5391 
  5392 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5393 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5394 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5395 provides a proper context already.
  5396 
  5397 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5398 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5399 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5400 
  5401 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5402 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5403 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5404 swap theory imports.
  5405 
  5406 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5407 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5408 
  5409 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5410 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5411 white space without escapes.
  5412 
  5413 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5414 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5415 "foo_bar".
  5416 
  5417 
  5418 *** Pure ***
  5419 
  5420 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5421 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5422 
  5423 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5424 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5425 
  5426 (1) unused_thms
  5427      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5428 
  5429 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5430      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5431      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5432 
  5433 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5434      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5435      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5436      their ancestors.
  5437 
  5438 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5439 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5440 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5441 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5442 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5443 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5444 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5445 
  5446 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5447 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5448 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5449 
  5450 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5451 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5452 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5453 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5454 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5455 
  5456 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5457 
  5458 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5459 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5460 update of theories within ML code.
  5461 
  5462 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5463 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5464 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5465 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5466 
  5467 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5468 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5469 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5471 
  5472 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5473 
  5474 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5475 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5476 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5477 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5478 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5479 
  5480 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5481 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5482 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5483 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5484 situations.
  5485 
  5486 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5487 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5488 proof text.
  5489 
  5490 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5491 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5492 
  5493 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5494 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5495 predicates.
  5496 
  5497 
  5498 *** Document preparation ***
  5499 
  5500 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5501 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5502 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5503 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5504 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5505 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5506 
  5507 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5508 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5509 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5510 
  5511 
  5512 *** HOL ***
  5513 
  5514 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5515 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5516 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5517 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5518 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5519 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5520 
  5521 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5522 with multithreading.
  5523 
  5524 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5525 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5526 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5527 
  5528 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5529 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5530 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5531 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5532 
  5533 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5534 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5535 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5536 and makes them available separately.  See
  5537 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5538 
  5539 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5540 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5541 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5542 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5543 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5544 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5545 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5546 the declared rules.
  5547 
  5548 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5549 
  5550   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5551 
  5552 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5553 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5554 
  5555 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5556 
  5557   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5558 
  5559   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5560     definitions on => and bool.
  5561 
  5562   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5563     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5564     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5565 
  5566       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5567       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5568       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5569       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5570       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5571       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5572       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5573       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5574 
  5575   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5576     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5577     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5578 
  5579   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5580     The proof pattern
  5581 
  5582       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5583       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5584 
  5585     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5586     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5587 
  5588       have "EX S. P S"
  5589       proof
  5590         show "P S" <...>
  5591       qed
  5592 
  5593   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5594     The proof pattern
  5595 
  5596       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5597       also have "S = T" <...>
  5598       finally have "P T" .
  5599 
  5600     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5601     must be replaced by something like
  5602 
  5603       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5604       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5605       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5606 
  5607   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5608     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5609 
  5610       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5611 
  5612     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5613     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5614     type of the form
  5615 
  5616       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5617 
  5618     rather than
  5619 
  5620       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5621 
  5622 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5623 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5624 
  5625 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5628 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5630 
  5631 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5632 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5633 
  5634 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5635 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5636 
  5637 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5638 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5639 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5640 
  5641 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5642 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5643 
  5644   less_trans
  5645   less_linear
  5646   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5647   le_less_trans
  5648   less_le_trans
  5649   less_not_sym
  5650   less_asym
  5651 
  5652 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5653 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5654 and different variable names.
  5655 
  5656 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5657 
  5658 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5659 finite maps.
  5660 
  5661 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5662 
  5663 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5664 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5665 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5666 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5667 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5668 accordingly.
  5669 
  5670 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5671 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5672 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5673 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5674 
  5675 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5676 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5677 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5678 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5679 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5681 
  5682 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5683 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5684 
  5685 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5686 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5687 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5688 
  5689 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5691 
  5692 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5693 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5694 
  5695 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5696 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5699 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5700 
  5701 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5702 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5704 
  5705 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5706 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5707 
  5708 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5709 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5710 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5711 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5712 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5713 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5714 
  5715 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5716 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5717 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5718 
  5719 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5720 
  5721 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5722 
  5723 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5724 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5725 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5726 
  5727 
  5728 *** ZF ***
  5729 
  5730 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5731 same session:
  5732 
  5733   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5734   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5735   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5736   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5737   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5738   List      -> List_ZF
  5739   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5740 
  5741 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5742 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5743 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5744 
  5745 
  5746 *** ML ***
  5747 
  5748 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5749 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5750 
  5751 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5752 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5753 
  5754 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5755 
  5756 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5757 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5758 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5759 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5760 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5761 
  5762 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5763 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5764 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5765 
  5766 
  5767 *** System ***
  5768 
  5769 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5770 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5771 
  5772 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5773 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5774 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5775 
  5776 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5777 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5778 
  5779 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5780 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5781 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5782 
  5783 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5784 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5785 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5786 
  5787 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5788 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5789 
  5790 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5791 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5792 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5793 script.
  5794 
  5795 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5796 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5797 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5798 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5799 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5800 
  5801 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5802 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5803 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5804 
  5805 
  5806 
  5807 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5808 -----------------------------------
  5809 
  5810 *** General ***
  5811 
  5812 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5813 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5814 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5815 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5816 
  5817 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5818 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5819 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5820 
  5821 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5822 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5823 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5824 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5827 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5828 quotes.
  5829 
  5830 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5831 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5832 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5833 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5834 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5835 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5836 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5837 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5838 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5839 
  5840 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5841 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5842 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5843 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5844 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5845 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5846 
  5847 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5848 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5849 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5850 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5851 
  5852 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5853 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5854 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5855 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5856 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5857 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5858 
  5859 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5860 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5861 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5862 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5863 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5864 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5865 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5866 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5867 
  5868 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5869 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5870 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5871 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5872 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5873 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5874 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5875 
  5876 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5877 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5878 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5879 
  5880 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5881 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5882 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5883 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5884 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5885 limit is imposed.
  5886 
  5887 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5888 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5889 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5890 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5891 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5892 and scalability.
  5893 
  5894 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5895 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5896 
  5897 
  5898 *** Document preparation ***
  5899 
  5900 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5901 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5902 current context.
  5903 
  5904 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5905 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5906 
  5907 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5908 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5909 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5910 
  5911 
  5912 *** Pure ***
  5913 
  5914 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5915 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5916 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5917 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5918 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5919 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5920 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5921 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5922 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5923 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5924 
  5925 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5926 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5927 sketch:
  5928 
  5929     internal compilation:
  5930         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5931     writing SML code to a file:
  5932         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5933     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5934         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5935     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5936         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5937 
  5938     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5939         method ``eval''
  5940 
  5941 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5942 
  5943 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5944 
  5945     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5946     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5947     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5948     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5949 
  5950 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5951 
  5952     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5953       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5954 
  5955     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5956       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5957 
  5958     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5959       {(target)}+
  5960         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5961 
  5962     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5963       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5964         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5965 
  5966 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5967 
  5968 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5969 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5970 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5971 codegen".
  5972 
  5973 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5974 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5975 annotations).
  5976 
  5977 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5978 syntax.
  5979 
  5980 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5981 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5982 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5983 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5984 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5985 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5986 
  5987 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5988 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5989 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5990 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5991 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5992 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5993 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5994 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5995 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5996 equations, see section "definitions".
  5997 
  5998 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5999 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6000 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6001 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6002 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6003 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6004 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6005 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6006 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6007 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6008 
  6009 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6010 configuration options:
  6011 
  6012   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6013   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6014   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6015   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6016   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6017   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6018   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6019   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6020   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6021 
  6022 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6023 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6024 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6025 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6026 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6027 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6028 order.
  6029 
  6030 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6031 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6032 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6033 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6034 context encountered later on.
  6035 
  6036 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6037 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6038 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6039 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6040 
  6041 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6042 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6043 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6044 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6045 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6046 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6047 
  6048 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6049 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6050 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6051 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6052 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6053 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6054 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6055 more permissive.
  6056 
  6057 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6058 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6059 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6060 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6061 maintainability of proof texts.
  6062 
  6063 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6064 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6065 
  6066   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6067   then guess x and y by clarify
  6068 
  6069 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6070 proof tools being involved here.
  6071 
  6072 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6073 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6074 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6075 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6076 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6077 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6078 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6079 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6080 
  6081 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6082 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6083 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6084 
  6085   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6086   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6087   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6088   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6089 
  6090 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6091 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6092 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6093 
  6094 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6095 both named and unnamed ones.
  6096 
  6097 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6098 
  6099   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6100 
  6101 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6102 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6103 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6104 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6105 
  6106 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6107 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6108 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6109 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6110 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6111 
  6112 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6113 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6114 
  6115 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6116 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6117 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6118 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6119 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6120 originally first one.
  6121 
  6122 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6123 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6124 expected.
  6125 
  6126 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6127 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6128 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6129 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6130 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6131 
  6132   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6133     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6134     obtains x where "P x"
  6135 
  6136   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6137     assumes "A & B"
  6138     obtains A and B
  6139 
  6140   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6141     assumes "A | B"
  6142     obtains
  6143       A
  6144     | B
  6145 
  6146 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6147 explicitly:
  6148 
  6149   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6150     obtains "~ thesis"
  6151 
  6152   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6153     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6154 
  6155 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6156 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6157 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6158 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6159 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6160 case_names).
  6161 
  6162 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6163 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6164 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6165 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6166 
  6167 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6168 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6169 top-level lemma.
  6170 
  6171 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6172 introduction rule (default "that").
  6173 
  6174 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6175 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6176 to occur.
  6177 
  6178 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6179 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6180 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6181 representations independently of name spaces.
  6182 
  6183 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6184 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6185 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6186 
  6187 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6188 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6189 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6190 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6191 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6192 current context.
  6193 
  6194 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6195 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6196 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6197 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6198 
  6199   axiomatization
  6200     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6201     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6202 
  6203   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6204   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6205 
  6206   abbreviation
  6207     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6208     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6209 
  6210 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6211 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6212 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6213 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6214 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6215 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6216 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6217 
  6218 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6219 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6220 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6221 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6222 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6223 
  6224 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6225 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6226 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6227 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6228 
  6229 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6230 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6231 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6232 
  6233   definition "K x _ = x"
  6234 
  6235   inductive conj for A B
  6236   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6237 
  6238 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6239 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6240 abbreviations on output.
  6241 
  6242 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6243 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6244 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6245 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6246 
  6247 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6248 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6249 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6250 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6251 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6252 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6253 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6254 
  6255 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6256 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6257 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6258 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not