NEWS
author haftmann
Thu Feb 21 09:15:06 2019 +0000 (6 months ago)
changeset 69828 74d673b7d40e
parent 69827 7c0a2ab90786
child 69829 3bfa28b3a5b2
permissions -rw-r--r--
sligthly more interpunctation and qualification
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    45 
    46 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    47 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    48 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    49 
    50 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    51 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    52 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    53 ongoing document processing.
    54 
    55 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    56 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    57 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    58 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    59 
    60 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    61 overview column.
    62 
    63 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    64 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    65 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    66 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    67 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    68 defaults to 0.
    69 
    70 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    71 OpenJDK 11.
    72 
    73 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    74 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    75 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    76 Isabelle component).
    77 
    78 
    79 *** Isar ***
    80 
    81 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    82 precedence over goal/proof.
    83 
    84 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    85 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    86 
    87 
    88 *** HOL ***
    89 
    90 * Formal Laurent series and overhaul of Formal power series 
    91 in session HOL-Computational_Algebra.
    92 
    93 * Exponentiation by squaring in session HOL-Library; used for computing
    94 powers in class monoid_mult and modular exponentiation in session
    95 HOL-Number_Theory.
    96 
    97 * More material on residue rings in session HOL-Number_Theory:
    98 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
    99 
   100 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter>
   101 (not the corresponding binding operators) now have the same precedence
   102 as any other prefix function symbol.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * Slightly more conventional naming schema in structure Inductive.
   105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
   108 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
   109 command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build -e" (with
   110 'export_files' in the session ROOT), or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via
   111 the "isabelle-export:" file-system. To get generated code dumped into
   112 output, use "file \<open>\<close>". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   113 
   114 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   115 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   118 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   120 
   121 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for
   122 'code_stmts' antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   125 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*,
   126 are not used by default any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using
   127 declare image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   128 
   129 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   130 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   131 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   132 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   133 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   136 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   137 
   138 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
   139 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   140 
   141 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
   142 
   143 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
   144 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146 
   147 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   148 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   149 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   150 
   151 * Sledgehammer:
   152   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has
   153     been updated.
   154   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   155     less time (in most cases).
   156 
   157 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   158 
   159 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   160 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   161 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   162 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   163 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   167 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   168 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   169 
   170   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   171 
   172 
   173 *** ML ***
   174 
   175 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   176 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   177 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead,
   178 or the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   179 
   180 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   181 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   182 
   183 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   184 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   185 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   186 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   187 ">" as separator. For example:
   188 
   189   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   190   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   191 
   192   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   193   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   194 
   195   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   196   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   197 
   198 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   199 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   200 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   201 observes the official standard).
   202 
   203 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   204 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   205 
   206 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   207 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   208 useful.
   209 
   210 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   211 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   212 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   213 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   214 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   215 
   216   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   217   module Isabelle.Pure where
   218     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   219     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   220     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   221     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   222   \<close>
   223 
   224 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   225 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   226 external compiler is applied.
   227 
   228 
   229 *** System ***
   230 
   231 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   232 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   233 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   234 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   235 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   236 dump".
   237 
   238 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   239 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   240 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   241 
   242 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   243 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   244 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   245 component).
   246 
   247 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   248 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   249 Isabelle/PIDE.
   250 
   251 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   252 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   253 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   254 
   255 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   256 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   257 is no longer required.
   258 
   259 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   260 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   261 
   262   isabelle ghc_setup
   263   isabelle ghc_stack
   264 
   265   isabelle ocaml_setup
   266   isabelle ocaml_opam
   267 
   268 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   269 (and corresponding directory contents):
   270 
   271   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   272   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   273   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   274 
   275   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   276   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   277 
   278 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   279 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   280 
   281   ISABELLE_GHC
   282 
   283   ISABELLE_OCAML
   284   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   285 
   286 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   287 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   288 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   289 
   290 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   291 
   292 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   293 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   294 
   295 * Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without the full
   296 overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32 mode
   297 provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are allocated
   298 elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   299 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   300 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   301 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   302 are gradually phased out.
   303 
   304 
   305 
   306 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   307 ---------------------------------
   308 
   309 *** General ***
   310 
   311 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   312 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   313 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   314 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   315 
   316 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   317 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   318 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   319 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   320 
   321 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   322 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   325 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   326 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   327 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   328 avoid this.
   329 
   330 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   331 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   332 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   333 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   334 
   335 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   336 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   337 instead.
   338 
   339 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   340 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   341 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   342 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   343 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   344 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   345 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   346 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   347 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   348 syntax), use option "-m".
   349 
   350 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352 
   353 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   354 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   355 without specific Prover IDE management.
   356 
   357 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   358 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   359 context.
   360 
   361 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   362 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   363 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   364 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   365 
   366   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   367 
   368 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   369 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   370 
   371 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   372 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   373 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   374 output.
   375 
   376 
   377 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   378 
   379 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   380 for session management:
   381 
   382   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   383     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   384 
   385   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   386     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   387 
   388   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   389     and -S
   390 
   391   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   392     theories
   393 
   394   Examples:
   395     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   396     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   397     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   398     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   399     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   400 
   401 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   402 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   403 
   404 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   405 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   406 
   407 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   408 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   409 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   410 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   411 arguments into this format.
   412 
   413 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   414 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   415 
   416 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   417 functions (e.g. State output).
   418 
   419 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   420 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   421 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   422 
   423 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   424 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   425 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   428 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   429 
   430 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   431 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   432 Isabelle".
   433 
   434 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   435 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   436 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   437 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   438 Unicode content when saving the file.
   439 
   440 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   441 
   442 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   443 
   444 
   445 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   446 
   447 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   448 Isabelle/jEdit.
   449 
   450 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   451 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   452 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   453 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   454 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   455 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 
   458 *** Document preparation ***
   459 
   460 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   461 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   462 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   463 are supported:
   464 
   465   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   466   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   467   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   468 
   469 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   470 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   471 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   472 
   473 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   474 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   475 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   476 
   477 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   478 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   479 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   480 
   481 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   482 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   483 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   484 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   485 
   486 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   487 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   488 
   489 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   490 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   491 normally need to import.
   492 
   493 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   494 session name verbatim.
   495 
   496 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   497 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   498 
   499 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   500 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   501 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   504 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   505 anymore.
   506 
   507 
   508 *** Isar ***
   509 
   510 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   511 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   512 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   513 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   514 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   515 
   516 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   517 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   518 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   519 
   520 
   521 *** Pure ***
   522 
   523 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   524 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   525 
   526 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   527 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   528 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   529 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   530 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   531 
   532 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   533 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   534 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   535 duplicate constant declarations.
   536 
   537 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   538 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   539 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   540 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   541 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   542 
   543 
   544 *** HOL ***
   545 
   546 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   547 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   548 
   549 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   550 
   551   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   552 
   553   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   554     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   555     constraints instead.
   556 
   557   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   558 
   559   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   560     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   561     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   562     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   563 
   564   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   565     standard target languages.
   566 
   567   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   568     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   569     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   570     HOL string values and vice versa.
   571 
   572   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   573     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   574 
   575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   576 
   577 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   578 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   579 
   580 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   581 
   582 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   583 former axioms:
   584 
   585   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   586 
   587 are replaced by:
   588 
   589   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   590 
   591 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   592 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   593 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   594 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   595 
   596 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   597 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   598 
   599 * Clarifed theorem names:
   600 
   601   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   602   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   603 
   604 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 * SMT module:
   607 
   608   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   609     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   612     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   613     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614 
   615 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   616 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   617 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   618 
   619 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   620 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   621 
   622 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   626 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   630 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   631 Renamed:
   632 
   633   span_inc ~> span_superset
   634   span_superset ~> span_base
   635   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   636 
   637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   640 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   641 
   642 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   643 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   644 
   645 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   646 
   647   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   648     input syntax
   649 
   650   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   651 
   652 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   653 
   654 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   657 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   661   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   662   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   663   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   664 
   665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   668 
   669   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   670   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   671   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   672   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   673   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   674 
   675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   678 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   679 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   680 broken proofs.
   681 
   682 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   683 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   684 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   685 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   686 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   687 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   688 
   689 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   690 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   691 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   692 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   693 examples.
   694 
   695 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   696 
   697 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   698 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 
   700 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   701 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   702 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   706 infix/prefix notation.
   707 
   708 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   709 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   713 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   715 
   716 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   717 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   721 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   722 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   723 
   724 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   725 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   726 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   727 
   728 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   729 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   730 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   731 
   732 
   733 *** ML ***
   734 
   735 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   736 are stored persistently in the session build database. Command-line
   737 tools "isabelle export" and "isabelle build -e" allow to materialize
   738 exports in the physical file-system.
   739 
   740 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   741 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   742 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   743 "isabelle process".
   744 
   745 
   746 *** System ***
   747 
   748 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   749 longer supported.
   750 
   751 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   752 support has been discontinued.
   753 
   754 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   755 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   756 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   757 
   758 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   759 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   760 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   761 quotes):
   762 
   763   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   764   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   765 
   766   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   767   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   768 
   769   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   770   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   771 
   772 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   773   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   774   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   775   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   776 
   777 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   778 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   779 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   780 only.
   781 
   782 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   783 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   784 up-to-date status of a session.
   785 
   786 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   787 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   788 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   789 directory.
   790 
   791 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   792 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   793 
   794 * The command-line tool "export" and "isabelle build -e" (with
   795 'export_files' in session ROOT entries) retrieve theory exports from the
   796 session build database.
   797 
   798 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   799 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   800 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   801 See also the "system" manual.
   802 
   803 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   804 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   805 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   806 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   807 been discontinued.
   808 
   809 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   810 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   811 
   812 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   813 repository for the generated session files.
   814 
   815 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   816 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   817 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   818 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   819 ISABELLE_HOME).
   820 
   821 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   822 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   823 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   824 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   825 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   826 
   827 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   828 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   829 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   830 
   831 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   832 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   833 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   834 32/64 bit.
   835 
   836 
   837 
   838 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   839 ----------------------------------
   840 
   841 *** General ***
   842 
   843 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   844 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   845 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   846 
   847 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   848 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   849 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   850 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   851 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   852 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   853 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   854 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   855 
   856 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   857 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   858 just the theory base name as before).
   859 
   860 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   861 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   862 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   863 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   864 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   865 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   866 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   867 
   868 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   869 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   870 leads to the follow renamings:
   871 
   872   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   873   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   874   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   875   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   876   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   877 
   878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   881 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   882 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   883 
   884 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   885 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   886 
   887 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   888 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   889 antiquotations:
   890 
   891   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   892     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   893   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   894     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   895   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   896 
   897 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   898 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   899 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   900 tutorial on code generation.
   901 
   902 
   903 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   904 
   905 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   906 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   907 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   908 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   909 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   910 
   911 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   912 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   913 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   914 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   915 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   916 effectively always enabled.
   917 
   918 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   919 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   920 buffers.
   921 
   922 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   923 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   924 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   925 represented by a different border color.
   926 
   927 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   928 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   929 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   930 
   931 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   932 document in the default web browser.
   933 
   934 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   935 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   936 used for formal checking.
   937 
   938 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   939 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   940 enabled at all times.
   941 
   942 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   943 
   944 
   945 *** Pure ***
   946 
   947 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   948 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   949 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   950 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   951 
   952 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   953   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   954     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   955   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   956     malformed.
   957   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   958     malformed.
   959 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   960 
   961 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   962 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   963 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   964 
   965 
   966 *** HOL ***
   967 
   968 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   969 
   970 * SMT module:
   971   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   972     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   973     disabled by default.
   974   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   975   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   976 
   977 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   978 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   979 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   983 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   984 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   988 of "Complex_Main").
   989 
   990 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   991 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   995 
   996 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   997 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1000 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1001 
  1002 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1003 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1004 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1005 
  1006 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1007 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1008 
  1009 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1010 
  1011 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1012 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013 
  1014 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1015 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1016 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1017 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * Generalized some facts:
  1020     measure_induct_rule
  1021     measure_induct
  1022     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1023     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1024     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1025     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1029 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1030 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1031 euclidean size.
  1032 
  1033 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1034   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1035   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1036     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1037     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1038   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1039     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1041 
  1042 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1043 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1044 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1045 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1048   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1049   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1050 
  1051 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1052 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1055 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1056 
  1057 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1058 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1059 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1065 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1066 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1067 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1068 
  1069 syntax (ASCII)
  1070   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1071   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1072   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1073 
  1074 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1075 multisets have been renamed:
  1076 
  1077   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1078   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1079 
  1080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1083 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1084 
  1085 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1086 
  1087 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1088 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1089 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1090 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1091 
  1092 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1093 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1094 
  1095 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1096 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1097 
  1098 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1099 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1100 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1101 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 
  1105 *** System ***
  1106 
  1107 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1108 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1109 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1110 
  1111 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1112 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1113 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1114 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1115 
  1116 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1117 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1118 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1119 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1120 
  1121 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1122 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1123 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1124 unchanged.
  1125 
  1126 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1127 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1130 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1131 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1132 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1133 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1134 
  1135 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1136 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1137 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1138 
  1139 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1140 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1141 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1142 
  1143 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1144 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1145 
  1146   isabelle imports -I -a
  1147   isabelle imports -U -a
  1148   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1149   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1150 
  1151 
  1152 
  1153 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1154 -------------------------------------
  1155 
  1156 *** General ***
  1157 
  1158 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1159   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1160     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1161   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1162     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1163     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1164     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1165     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1166 
  1167 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1168 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1169 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1170 
  1171 bundle foo
  1172 begin
  1173   declare a [simp]
  1174   declare b [intro]
  1175 end
  1176 
  1177 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1178 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1179 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1180 
  1181 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1182 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1183 discontinued.
  1184 
  1185 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1186 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1187 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1188 
  1189 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1190 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1191 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1192 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1193 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1196 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1197 
  1198 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1199 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1200 
  1201 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1202 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1203 examples.
  1204 
  1205 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1206 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1207 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1208 
  1209 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1210 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1211 
  1212 
  1213 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1214 
  1215 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1216 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1217 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1218 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1219 
  1220 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1221 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1222 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1223 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1224 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1225 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1226 
  1227 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1228 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1229 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1230 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1231 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1232 
  1233 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1234 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1235 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1236 
  1237 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1238 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1239 
  1240 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1241 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1242 
  1243 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1244 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1245 
  1246 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1247 
  1248 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1249 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1250 systematic renaming.
  1251 
  1252 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1253 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1254 theorem statement.
  1255 
  1256 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1257 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1258 
  1259 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1260 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1261 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1262 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1263 
  1264 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1265 following independent stages:
  1266 
  1267   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1268   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1269   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1270   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1271 
  1272 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1273 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1274 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1275 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1276 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1277 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1278 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1279 
  1280 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1281 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1282 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1283 
  1284 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1285 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1286 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1287 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1288 
  1289 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1290 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1291 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1292 
  1293 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1294 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1295 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1296 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1297 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1298 old keymaps.
  1299 
  1300 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1301 and diverse:
  1302 
  1303   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1304   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1305   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1306 
  1307 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1308 have to be changed.
  1309 
  1310 
  1311 *** Document preparation ***
  1312 
  1313 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1314 
  1315 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1316 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1317 
  1318 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1319 this allows special forms of document output.
  1320 
  1321 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1322 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1323 derivatives.
  1324 
  1325 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1326 
  1327 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1328 Isabelle2015).
  1329 
  1330 
  1331 *** Isar ***
  1332 
  1333 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1334 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1335 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1336 
  1337 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1338 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1339 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1340 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1341 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1344 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1345 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1346 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1347 
  1348 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1349 context.
  1350 
  1351 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1352 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1353 
  1354 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1355 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1356 
  1357 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1358 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1359 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1360 
  1361 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1362 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1364 
  1365 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1366 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1367 definitions.
  1368 
  1369 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1370 expression, e.g.
  1371 
  1372   (use facts in simp)
  1373   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1374 
  1375 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1376 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1377 
  1378 
  1379 *** Pure ***
  1380 
  1381 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1382 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1383 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1384 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1385 
  1386 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1387 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1388 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1389 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1390 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1391 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1392 
  1393 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1394 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1395 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1396 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1397 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1398 types where this is really intended.
  1399 
  1400 
  1401 *** HOL ***
  1402 
  1403 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1404 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1405 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1406 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1407 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1408 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1409 
  1410 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1411 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1412 
  1413 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1414 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1415 
  1416 * Sledgehammer:
  1417   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1418   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1419 
  1420 * (Co)datatype package:
  1421   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1422     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1423     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1424     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1425   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1426     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1427   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1428     to the map function.
  1429   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1430   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1431        terms of map and set
  1432        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1433   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1434        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1435     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1436   - Renamed lemmas:
  1437       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1438       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1439     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1441   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1442     equivalent) form.
  1443     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1446 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1447 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1448 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1451 
  1452   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1453   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1454 
  1455 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1456 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1457 eliminated altogether.
  1458 
  1459 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1460 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1461 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1462 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1463 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1464 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1465 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1466 
  1467 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1471 
  1472     setsum ~> sum
  1473     setprod ~> prod
  1474     listsum ~> sum_list
  1475     listprod ~> prod_list
  1476 
  1477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1480     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1481     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1482     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1483     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1484     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1485     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1486     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1487     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1488     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1489     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1490     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1491     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1492     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1493     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1494     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1495     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1496     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1497     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1498     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1499     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1500     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1501     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1502     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1503     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1504     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1505     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1506     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1507     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1508     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1512 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1513 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1514 
  1515 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1516 
  1517 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1518 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1519 
  1520   - Logical representation:
  1521     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1522     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1523       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1524     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1525       are non-canonical.
  1526   - Printing and parsing:
  1527     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1528       (as before).
  1529     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1530     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1531       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1532       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1533     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1534       printed as their logical representation.
  1535   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1536     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1537   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1538 
  1539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1540 
  1541 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1542 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1543 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1544 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1547 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1548 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1549 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1550 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1551 
  1552 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1553 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1556 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1557 
  1558 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1559 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1560 interface for the generated code.
  1561 
  1562 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1563 spelt out explicitly.
  1564 
  1565 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1566 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1567 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1568 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1569 
  1570 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1571 products.
  1572 
  1573 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1574 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1575 
  1576 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1577 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1578 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1579 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1580 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1581 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1582 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1586 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1587 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588 
  1589 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1591 
  1592   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1593   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1594   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1595 
  1596 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1597   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1598     le_add_same_cancel1
  1599     le_add_same_cancel2
  1600     less_add_same_cancel1
  1601     less_add_same_cancel2
  1602     add_le_same_cancel1
  1603     add_le_same_cancel2
  1604     add_less_same_cancel1
  1605     add_less_same_cancel2
  1606 
  1607 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1608   superseeded by a more general version:
  1609     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1610     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1611     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1612     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1613     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1614     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1615     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1616     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1618 
  1619 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1620 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1621 
  1622 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1623 
  1624 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1625 
  1626   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1627   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1628 
  1629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630 
  1631 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1635 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1636 A)".
  1637 
  1638 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1639 
  1640 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1641 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1642 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1643 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1646 dioid.
  1647 
  1648 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1649 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1650 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1651 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1654 of a more general type also:
  1655   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1656   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1657   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1658   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1659   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1660   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1661   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1662   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1663   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1664   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1665   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1666   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1667   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1668   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1669   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1670   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1671   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1672   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1673   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1674   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1675   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1676   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1677   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1678   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1679   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1680   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1681   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1682   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1683   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1684   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1685   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1686   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1687   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1688   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1689   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1690   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1691   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1692   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1693   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1694   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1695   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1696   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1697   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1698   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1699   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1700   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1701   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1702   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1703   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1704   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1705   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1706   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1707   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1708   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1709   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1710   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1711   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1712   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1713   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1714   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1715   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1716   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1717   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1718   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1719   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1720   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1721   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1722   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1723   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1724   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1725   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1726   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1727   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1728   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1729   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1730   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1731   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1732   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1733   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1734   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1735   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1736   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1737   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1738   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1739   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1740   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1741   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1742   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1746 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1747 
  1748 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1749 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1750 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1751 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1752 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1753 
  1754 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1755 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1756 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1757 once.
  1758 
  1759 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1760 set_mset rather than count.
  1761 
  1762   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1763     by default.
  1764 
  1765   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1766     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1767 
  1768   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1769     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1770 
  1771   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1772     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1773 
  1774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1777 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1778 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1779 underscores.
  1780 
  1781 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1782 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1783 relation.
  1784 
  1785 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1786 everywhere fix bijections.
  1787 
  1788 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1789 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1790 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1791 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1792 
  1793 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1794 
  1795 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1796 
  1797 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1798 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1799 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1802 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1803 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1804 
  1805 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1806 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1807 
  1808 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1809 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1810 domain.
  1811 
  1812 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1813 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1814 
  1815   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1816   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1817 
  1818 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1819 Probability Mass Functions.
  1820 
  1821 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1822 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1823 folding over a list in random order.
  1824 
  1825 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1826 subprobability distributions.
  1827 
  1828 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1829 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1830 
  1831     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1832     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1833     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1834     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1835     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1836     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1837     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1838     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1839     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1840     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1841     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1842     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1843     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1844     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1845     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1846     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1847     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1848     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1849     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1850     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1851     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1852     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1853 
  1854 Some functions have been renamed:
  1855     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1856 
  1857 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1858     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1859     #\<subset># ~> <
  1860     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1861     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1865 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1866 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1867 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1868 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869 
  1870 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1871 been renamed:
  1872 
  1873     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1874     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1875     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1876     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1877     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1878     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1879     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1880     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1881     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1882 
  1883     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1884     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1885     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1886     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1887     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1888     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1889     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1890     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1891     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1892     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1893     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1898 
  1899 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1900 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1901 
  1902     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1903     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1904     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1905     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1906     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1907     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1908     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1909     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1910     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1911     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1912     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1913     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1914     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1915     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1916     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1917     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1918     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1919 
  1920 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1921 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1922 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1923 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1924 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1925 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1928 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1930 
  1931 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1932 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1933 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1936 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1937 removed or changed:
  1938 
  1939   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1940   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1941   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1942   union_single_eq_diff
  1943   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1944   diff_single_eq_union
  1945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1948 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1949 
  1950   mset_add
  1951   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1952   diff_single_eq_union
  1953   union_single_eq_diff
  1954   union_single_eq_member
  1955   add_eq_conv_diff
  1956   insert_noteq_member
  1957   add_eq_conv_ex
  1958   multi_member_split
  1959   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1960   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1961   mset_subset_insertD
  1962   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1963   insert_union_subset_iff
  1964   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1965   inter_add_left1
  1966   inter_add_left2
  1967   inter_add_right1
  1968   inter_add_right2
  1969   sup_union_left1
  1970   sup_union_left2
  1971   sup_union_right1
  1972   sup_union_right2
  1973   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1974   multi_nonempty_split
  1975   mset_insort
  1976   mset_update
  1977   mult1I
  1978   less_add
  1979   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1980   rel_mset_Zero
  1981   msed_map_invL
  1982   msed_map_invR
  1983   msed_rel_invL
  1984   msed_rel_invR
  1985   le_multiset_right_total
  1986   multiset_induct
  1987   multiset_induct2_size
  1988   multiset_induct2
  1989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1990 
  1991 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1992 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1993 element:
  1994 
  1995   image_mset
  1996   mset
  1997   replicate_mset
  1998   mult1
  1999   pred_mset
  2000   rel_mset'
  2001   mset_insort
  2002 
  2003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2006 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2007 
  2008   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2009   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2010   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2011   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2012   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2013   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2014   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2015   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2016   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2017   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2018   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2019   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2020   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2021   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2022   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2023   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2024   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2025   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2026   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2030 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2031 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2033 
  2034 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2035 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2036 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2039 multisets:
  2040 
  2041   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2042   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2043 
  2044 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2045 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2046 
  2047   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2048   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2049 
  2050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2051 
  2052 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2053 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2054 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2057 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2058 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2059 
  2060 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2061 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2062 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2063 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2064 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2065 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2066 
  2067 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2068 the following renaming
  2069 
  2070   prefixeq -> prefix
  2071   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2072   suffixeq -> suffix
  2073   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2074 
  2075 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2076 
  2077 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2078 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2079 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2080 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2081 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2082 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2083 
  2084 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2085 theories.
  2086 
  2087 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2088 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2089 
  2090 
  2091 *** ML ***
  2092 
  2093 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2094 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2095 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2096 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2100 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2101 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2102 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2103 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2104 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2105 superseded by General.Div.
  2106 
  2107 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2108 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2111 with approximative output quality.
  2112 
  2113 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2114 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2115 
  2116 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2117 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2118 requiring separate files.
  2119 
  2120 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2121 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2122 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2123 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2124 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2125 
  2126 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2127 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2128 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2129 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2130 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2131 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2132 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133 
  2134 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2135 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2137 
  2138 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2139 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2140 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2141 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2144 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145 
  2146 
  2147 *** System ***
  2148 
  2149 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2150 
  2151 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2152 much less disk space.
  2153 
  2154 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2155 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2156 particular:
  2157 
  2158   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2159     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2160   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2161   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2162 
  2163 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2164 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2165 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2168 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2169 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2170 return code 1.
  2171 
  2172 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2173 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2174 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2175 
  2176 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2177 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2178 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2179 
  2180 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2181 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2182 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2183 by default).
  2184 
  2185 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2186 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2187 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2188 resulting log files.
  2189 
  2190 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2191 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2192 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2193 implicit default via option -p.
  2194 
  2195 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2196 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2197 
  2198 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2199 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2200 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2201 
  2202 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2203 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2204 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2205 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2206 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2209 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2210 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2211 
  2212 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2213 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2214 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2215 
  2216 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2217 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2218 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2219 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2220 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2221 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2222 been discontinued.
  2223 
  2224 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2225 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2226 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2227 
  2228 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2229 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2230 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2231 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2232 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2233 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2234 
  2235 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2236 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2237 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2238 connection).
  2239 
  2240 
  2241 
  2242 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2243 -----------------------------------
  2244 
  2245 *** General ***
  2246 
  2247 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2248 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2249 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2250 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2251 examples that do require HOL.
  2252 
  2253 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2254 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2255 
  2256 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2257 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2258 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2259 has been removed (see below).
  2260 
  2261 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2262 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2263 
  2264 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2265 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2266 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2267 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2268 
  2269 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2270 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2271 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2272 meaning.
  2273 
  2274 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2275 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2276 to update old sources.
  2277 
  2278 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2279 
  2280   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2281   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2282   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2283   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2284 
  2285 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2286 accordingly.
  2287 
  2288 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2289 'theorem'.
  2290 
  2291 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2292 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2293 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2294 
  2295 
  2296 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2297 
  2298 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2299 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2300 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2301 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2302 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2303 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2304 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2305 any effect on the running ML program.
  2306 
  2307 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2308 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2309 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2310 update.
  2311 
  2312 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2313 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2314 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2315 
  2316 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2317 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2318 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2319 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2320 visibility.
  2321 
  2322 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2323 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2324 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2325 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2326 panel.
  2327 
  2328 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2329 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2330 
  2331 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2332 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2333 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2334 
  2335 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2336 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2337 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2338 
  2339 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2340 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2341 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2342 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2343 
  2344 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2345 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2346 the editor.
  2347 
  2348 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2349 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2350 
  2351 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2352 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2353 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2354 instead.
  2355 
  2356 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2357 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2358 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2359 
  2360 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2361 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2362 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2363 
  2364 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2365 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2366 
  2367 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2368 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2369 
  2370 
  2371 *** Document preparation ***
  2372 
  2373 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2374 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2375 
  2376 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2377 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2378 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2379 
  2380 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2381 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2382 follows:
  2383 
  2384   \<^item>  itemize
  2385   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2386   \<^descr>  description
  2387 
  2388 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2389 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2390 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2391 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2392 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2393 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2394 
  2395 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2396 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2397 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2398 
  2399 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2400 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2401 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2402 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2403 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2404 
  2405 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2406 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2407 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2408 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2409 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2410 
  2411 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2412 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2413 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2414 
  2415 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2416 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2417 
  2418 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2419 
  2420 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2421 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2422 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2423 
  2424 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2425 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2426 
  2427 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2428 entities of the Isar language.
  2429 
  2430 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2431 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2432 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2433 
  2434 
  2435 *** Isar ***
  2436 
  2437 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2438 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2439 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2440 example:
  2441 
  2442   have result: "C x y"
  2443     if "A x" and "B y"
  2444     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2445     <proof>
  2446 
  2447 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2448 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2449 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2450 
  2451   {
  2452     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2453     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2454     have "C x y" <proof>
  2455   }
  2456   note result = this
  2457 
  2458 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2459 instead of 'assume' above.
  2460 
  2461 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2462 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2463 
  2464   assume result: "C x y"
  2465     if "A x" and "B y"
  2466     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2467 
  2468 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2469 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2470 
  2471 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2472 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2473 example:
  2474 
  2475   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2476 
  2477 is equivalent to:
  2478 
  2479   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2480 
  2481 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2482 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2483 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2484 follows:
  2485 
  2486   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2487 
  2488 or:
  2489 
  2490   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2491 
  2492 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2493 
  2494   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2495 
  2496 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2497 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2498 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2499 of the local context elements yet.
  2500 
  2501 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2502 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2503 
  2504   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2505   then have something
  2506   proof cases
  2507     case a
  2508     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2509   next
  2510     case b
  2511     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2512   next
  2513     case c
  2514     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2515   qed
  2516 
  2517 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2518 
  2519   case a: (c xs)
  2520   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2521 
  2522 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2523 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2524 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2525 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2526 and always put attributes in front.
  2527 
  2528 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2529 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2530 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2531 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2532 
  2533 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2534 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2535 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2536 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2537 
  2538   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2539     supply [simp] = a
  2540   proof
  2541     show A by simp
  2542   next
  2543     show A by simp
  2544   qed
  2545 
  2546 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2547 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2548 
  2549 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2550 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2551 
  2552 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2553 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2554 
  2555 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2556 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2557 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2558 manual.
  2559 
  2560 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2561 ('apply' scripts).
  2562 
  2563 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2564 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2565 example:
  2566 
  2567 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2568   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2569 proof goal_cases
  2570   case (1 x)
  2571   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2572 next
  2573   case (2 y z)
  2574   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2575 qed
  2576 
  2577 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2578   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2579 proof goal_cases
  2580   case prems: 1
  2581   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2582 next
  2583   case prems: 2
  2584   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2585 qed
  2586 
  2587 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2588 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2589 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2590 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2591 
  2592 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2593 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2594 
  2595 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2596 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2597 
  2598 
  2599 *** Pure ***
  2600 
  2601 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2602 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2603 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2604 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2605 
  2606 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2607 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2610 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2611 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2612 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2613 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2614 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2615 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2616 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2617 
  2618   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2619   begin
  2620     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2621   end
  2622 
  2623   locale morphism =
  2624     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2625     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2626   begin
  2627     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2628   end
  2629 
  2630 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2631 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2632 
  2633 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2634 'defines'.
  2635 
  2636 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2637 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2640 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2641 
  2642 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2643 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2646 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2647 exploited.
  2648 
  2649 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2650 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2651 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2652 
  2653 
  2654 *** HOL ***
  2655 
  2656 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2657 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2658 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2659 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2660 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2661 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2664 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2665 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2666 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2667 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2668 
  2669 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2670 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2671 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2672 simplify porting old theories:
  2673 
  2674   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2675 
  2676   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2677 
  2678   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2679   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2680 
  2681   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2682 
  2683   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2684   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2685 
  2686   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2687 
  2688   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2689     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2690 
  2691   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2692   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2693   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2694 
  2695   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2696   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2697   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2698 
  2699 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2700 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2701 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2702 
  2703 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2704 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2705 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2706 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2707 
  2708 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2709 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2710 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2711 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2714 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2715 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2716 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2719 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2720 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2724 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2725 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2726 
  2727 Consolidated facts:
  2728   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2729   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2730   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2731   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2732   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2733   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2734   split_split ~> prod.split
  2735   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2736   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2737   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2738   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2739   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2740   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2741   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2742   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2743   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2744   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2745   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2746   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2747   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2748   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2749   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2750   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2751   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2752   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2753   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2754   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2755   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2756   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2757   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2758   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2759   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2760   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2761   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2762   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2763 
  2764 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2765   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2766   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2767   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2768   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2769 
  2770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2771 
  2772 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2773 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2774 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2775 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2776 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2777 
  2778 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2779   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2780   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2781   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2782   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2783   real_of_one of_int_1
  2784   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2785   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2786   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2787   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2788   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2789   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2790   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2791   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2792   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2793   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2794   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2795   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2796   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2797   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2798   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2799   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2800   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2801 
  2802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2805 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2808 
  2809 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Sledgehammer:
  2812   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2813   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2814     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2815   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2816   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2817   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2818     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2819   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2820 
  2821 * Nitpick:
  2822   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2823   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2824   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2825   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2826   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2827 
  2828 * (Co)datatype package:
  2829   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2830     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2831   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2832   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2833     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2835     being defined.
  2836   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2837 
  2838 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2839 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2840 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2841 
  2842 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2843 
  2844 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2845 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2846 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2847 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2848 
  2849 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2851 
  2852 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2853 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2854 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2855 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2856 
  2857 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2858 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2859 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2860 
  2861 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2862 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2863 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2864 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2865 
  2866 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2867 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2868 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2869 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2870 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2871 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2872 during instantiation.
  2873 
  2874 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2875 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2876 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2879 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2880 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2881 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2882 
  2883   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2884   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2885 
  2886 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2887 
  2888 * Library/Multiset:
  2889   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2890       < ~> <#
  2891       > ~> >#
  2892       <= ~> <=#
  2893       >= ~> >=#
  2894       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2895       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2896     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2898       \<subset>#
  2899       \<subseteq>#
  2900       \<supset>#
  2901       \<supseteq>#
  2902   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2903     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2904     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2905     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2906     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2907     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2908     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909   - Renamed conversions:
  2910       multiset_of ~> mset
  2911       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2912       set_of ~> set_mset
  2913     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2914   - Renamed lemmas:
  2915       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2916       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2917       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2918     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2919   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2920     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2921     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2922     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2923 
  2924 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2925 
  2926 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2927 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2928 chain-complete partial orders.
  2929 
  2930 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2931 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2932 
  2933 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2934 periodic functions.
  2935 
  2936 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2937 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2938 GCD.
  2939 
  2940 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2941 
  2942 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2943 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2944 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2945 
  2946 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2947 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2948 
  2949 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2950 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2951 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2952 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2953 
  2954 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2955 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2956 
  2957 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2958 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2959 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2960 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2961 properties.
  2962 
  2963 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2964 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2965 
  2966 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2967 structures.
  2968 
  2969 
  2970 *** ML ***
  2971 
  2972 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2973 system are available:
  2974 
  2975   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2976   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2977   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2978 
  2979 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2980 
  2981 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2982 Isar proof method.
  2983 
  2984 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2985 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2986 breaks.
  2987 
  2988 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2989 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2990 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2993 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2994 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2995 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2996 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2997 
  2998 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2999 
  3000   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3001   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3002 
  3003   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3004   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3005 
  3006 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3007 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3009 
  3010 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3011 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3012 instead (with proper context).
  3013 
  3014 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3015 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3016 
  3017 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3018 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3019 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3020 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3021 the proof context discipline.
  3022 
  3023 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3024 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3025 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3026 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3027 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 
  3030 *** System ***
  3031 
  3032 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3033 
  3034 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3035 conflations:
  3036 
  3037     hence  ~>  then have
  3038     thus   ~>  then show
  3039 
  3040 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3041 maintainability of proofs.
  3042 
  3043 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3044 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3045 performance.
  3046 
  3047 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3048 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3049 
  3050     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3051 
  3052 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3053 space.
  3054 
  3055 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3056 platforms as follows.
  3057 
  3058   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3059     associated with the main app bundle
  3060 
  3061   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3062     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3063     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3064 
  3065   - isabelle build: settings
  3066     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3067 
  3068 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3069 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3070 
  3071 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3072 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3073 required after change.
  3074 
  3075 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3076 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3077 
  3078 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3079 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3080 
  3081 
  3082 
  3083 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3084 ------------------------------
  3085 
  3086 *** General ***
  3087 
  3088 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3089 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3090 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3091 
  3092   context
  3093   begin
  3094 
  3095   private definition ...
  3096   private lemma ...
  3097 
  3098   qualified definition ...
  3099   qualified lemma ...
  3100 
  3101   lemma ...
  3102   theorem ...
  3103 
  3104   end
  3105 
  3106 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3107 naming policy.
  3108 
  3109 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3110 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3111 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3112 
  3113 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3114 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3115 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3116 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3117 
  3118 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3119 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3120 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3124 theory context.
  3125 
  3126 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3127 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3129 
  3130 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3131 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3132 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3133 sources.
  3134 
  3135 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3136 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3137 
  3138 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3139 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3140 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3141 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3142 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3143 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3144 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3145 
  3146 
  3147 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3148 
  3149 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3150 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3151 
  3152 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3153 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3154 in the buffer.
  3155 
  3156 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3157 marker, SideKick parser.
  3158 
  3159 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3160 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3161 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3162 
  3163 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3164 Options / Text Area).
  3165 
  3166 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3167 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3168 
  3169 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3170 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3171 
  3172 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3173 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3174 
  3175 
  3176 *** Document preparation ***
  3177 
  3178 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3179 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3180 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3181 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3182 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3183 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3184 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3185 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3188 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3189 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3190 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3191 
  3192 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3193 style.
  3194 
  3195 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3196 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3197 
  3198 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3199 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3200 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3201 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3202 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3203 
  3204 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3205 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3206 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3207 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3208 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3209 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3210 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3213 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3214 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216 
  3217 
  3218 *** Pure ***
  3219 
  3220 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3221 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3222 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3223 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3224 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3225 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3226 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3227 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3228 
  3229 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3230 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3231 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3232 
  3233 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3234 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3235 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3236 different index.
  3237 
  3238 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3239 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3240 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3241 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3242 
  3243 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3244 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3245 token category instead.
  3246 
  3247 
  3248 *** HOL ***
  3249 
  3250 * New (co)datatype package:
  3251   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3252     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3253     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3254     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256   - Renamed theorems:
  3257       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3258       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3259       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3260       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3261       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3262       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3263       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3264       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3265       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3266       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3267       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3268       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3269       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3270     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3272     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3273     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3275     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3276     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3278     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3279     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3280     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3281     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3282     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3283     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284   - Renamed theories:
  3285       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3286       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3287       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3288       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3289       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3290       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3291     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3293     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3294     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3295     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3296     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3297     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3298     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3299     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3300     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3301   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3302     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3303     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3304     rules.
  3305 
  3306 * Old datatype package:
  3307   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3308     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3309     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3310     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3311     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312   - Renamed theorems:
  3313       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3314     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315   - Renamed theory:
  3316       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3317     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Nitpick:
  3320   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3321     operations.
  3322 
  3323 * Sledgehammer:
  3324   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3325     default.
  3326   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3327     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3328   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3329     Removed sub-command:
  3330       min
  3331   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3332     dramatically improved.
  3333   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3334 
  3335 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3336   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3337     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3338     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3339     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3340     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3341     point to it.
  3342     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3344     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3346     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3347   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3348     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3349 
  3350 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3351 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3352 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3353 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3354 
  3355 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3356 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3357 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358 
  3359 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3360 
  3361 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3362 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3363 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3364 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3365 
  3366 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3367 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3368 
  3369 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371 
  3372 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3373 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3374 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3377 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3380 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3381 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3382 
  3383 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3384 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3385 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3386 needed.
  3387 
  3388 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3389 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3390 
  3391 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3392 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3393 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3394 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3395 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3396 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3397 
  3398 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3399 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3400 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3401 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3402 
  3403 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3404 type class hierarchy:
  3405   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3406   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3407   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3408   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3409 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3412   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3413   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3414 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3415 
  3416 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3417 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3418 
  3419 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3420   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3421   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3422   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3423 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3426 and part of theory Main.
  3427   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3434 Fact rename:
  3435     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3439 
  3440 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3441 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3442 
  3443 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3444 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3445 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3446 
  3447 * Library/Multiset:
  3448   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3449   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3450     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3451   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3452       <# ~> #<#
  3453       <=# ~> #<=#
  3454       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3455       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3456     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3458       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3459       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3460     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461   - Renamed
  3462       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3463       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3464       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3465     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3467   - Added attributes:
  3468       image_mset.id [simp]
  3469       image_mset_id [simp]
  3470       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3471       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3472       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3473       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3474       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3475       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3476     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3479 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3480 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3481 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3484 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3485 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3486 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3487 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3488 examples.
  3489 
  3490 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3491   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3492   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3493   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3494     projection
  3495 
  3496 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3497 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3498 
  3499 
  3500 *** ML ***
  3501 
  3502 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3503 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3504 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3505 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3506 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3507 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3508 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3509 
  3510 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3511 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3512 
  3513 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3514 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3515 
  3516 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3518 
  3519 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3520 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3521 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3522 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3523 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3524 nested.
  3525 
  3526 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3527 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3530 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3531 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3533 
  3534 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3535 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3536 Thm.term_of etc.
  3537 
  3538 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3539 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3540 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3543 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3544 
  3545 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3546 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3547 
  3548 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3549 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3550 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3553 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3554 
  3555 
  3556 *** System ***
  3557 
  3558 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3559 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3560 
  3561 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3562 
  3563 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3564 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3565 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3566 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3570 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3571 
  3572 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3573 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3574 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3575 
  3576 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3577 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3578 
  3579 
  3580 
  3581 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3582 ---------------------------------
  3583 
  3584 *** General ***
  3585 
  3586 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3587 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3588 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3589 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3590 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3591 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3592 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3593 some examples.
  3594 
  3595 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3596 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3597 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3598 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3599 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3600 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3601 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3602 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3603 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3604 
  3605 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3606 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3607 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3608 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3609 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3610 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3611 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3612 proof tools.
  3613 
  3614 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3615 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3616 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3617 
  3618 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3619 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3620 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3621 
  3622 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3623 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3624 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3625 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3628 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3629 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3633 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3634 
  3635 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3636 not check existence within the file-system.
  3637 
  3638 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3639 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3640 
  3641 
  3642 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3643 
  3644 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3645 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3646 buffer.
  3647 
  3648 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3649 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3650 
  3651 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3652 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3653 
  3654 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3655 auxiliary ML files.
  3656 
  3657 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3658 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3659 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3660 
  3661 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3662 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3663 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3664 
  3665 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3666 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3667 
  3668 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3669 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3670 caret".
  3671 
  3672 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3673 completion popup and context-menu.
  3674 
  3675 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3676 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3677 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3678 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3679 
  3680 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3681 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3682 
  3683 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3684 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3685 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3686 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3687 
  3688 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3689 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3690 
  3691 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3692 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3693 
  3694 * Improved monitor panel.
  3695 
  3696 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3697 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3698 
  3699 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3700 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3701 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3702 
  3703 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3704 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3705 within the context.
  3706 
  3707 
  3708 *** Pure ***
  3709 
  3710 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3711 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3712 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3713 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3714 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3715 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3716 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3717 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3718 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3719 
  3720 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3721 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3722 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3723 renaming needs to be applied:
  3724 
  3725   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3726   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3727   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3728   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3729   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3730 
  3731 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3732 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3733 old constants:
  3734 
  3735 setup {*
  3736   fn thy => thy
  3737     |> Sign.root_path
  3738     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3739     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3740     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3741     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3742 *}
  3743 
  3744 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3745 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3746 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3747 
  3748 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3749 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3750 instantiated theorem.
  3751 
  3752 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3753 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3754 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3755 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3756 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3757 
  3758   attribute_setup standard =
  3759     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3760 
  3761 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3762 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3763 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3764 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3765 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3766 
  3767 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3768 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3769 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3770 
  3771 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3772 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3773 
  3774 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3775 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3776 
  3777 
  3778 *** HOL ***
  3779 
  3780 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3781 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3790 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3796 with the given constants.
  3797 
  3798 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3799 operations on records.
  3800 
  3801 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3802 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805 
  3806 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3807 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3808 
  3809 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3812 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3813 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3814 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3815 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3816 
  3817 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3818 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3821   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3822   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3823   part of theory "Main".
  3824 
  3825   Theory renamings:
  3826     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3827     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3828     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3829     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3830     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3831     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3832     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3833     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3834     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3835     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3836     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3837     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3838     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3839     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3840     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3841     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3842     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3843     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3844     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3845     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3846     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3847     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3848 
  3849   New theories:
  3850     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3851     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3852     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3853     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3854     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3855 
  3856   Discontinued theories:
  3857     BNF/BNF.thy
  3858     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3859 
  3860 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861 
  3862 * New (co)datatype package:
  3863   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3864   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3865     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3866   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3867     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3868   - Renamed commands:
  3869       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3870       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3871       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3874     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3875     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3877     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3878     using "prim(co)rec".
  3879     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3881     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3882     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3884     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3885     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3886     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 * Old datatype package:
  3889   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3890     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3891     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3893     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3894     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3897   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3898   BNF-based datatype package.
  3899 
  3900   Renamed constants:
  3901     Option.set ~> set_option
  3902     Option.map ~> map_option
  3903     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3904 
  3905   Renamed theorems:
  3906     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3907     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3908     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3909     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3910     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3911     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3912     map.simps ~> list.map
  3913     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3914     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3915     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3916 
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3920     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3921     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3922     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3923     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3924     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3925     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3926     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3927     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3928     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3929     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3930 
  3931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3934   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3935   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3936   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3937   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3938     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3939     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3940       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3941       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3942       automatically
  3943     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3944     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3945       automatically for datatypes
  3946   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3947     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3948       more
  3949       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3951       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3952       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3954       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3955       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3957     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3959     form
  3960     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3962     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3964     Code_Numeral.natural
  3965     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3967     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3968 
  3969 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3970 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3971 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3972 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3973 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3974 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3975 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3978 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3979 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3980 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3981 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3982 
  3983 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3984 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3985 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3986 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3987 
  3988 * Sledgehammer:
  3989   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3990   - MaSh overhaul:
  3991     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3992       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3993     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3994       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3995       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3996       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3997   - New option:
  3998       smt_proofs
  3999   - Renamed options:
  4000       isar_compress ~> compress
  4001       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4002 
  4003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004 
  4005 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4006 
  4007 * Nitpick:
  4008   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4009     take infinite values.
  4010   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4011     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4012   - Removed "std" option.
  4013   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4014     "hide_types".
  4015 
  4016 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4017 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4020 
  4021 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4022   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4023   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4024     SUP instead uniformly.
  4025   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4026     or SUP and Sup.
  4027   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4028   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4029   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4030     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4031     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4032 
  4033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4036 
  4037 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4038 
  4039   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4040   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4041   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4042   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4043 
  4044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4047 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4048 
  4049 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4050 
  4051     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4052     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4053     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4054     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4055     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4056     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4057     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4058     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4059     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4060     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4061     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4062     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4063     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4064     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4065     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4066     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4067     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4068     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4069     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4070     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4071     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4072     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4073     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4074     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4075     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4076     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4077     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4078     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4079     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4080     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4081     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4082     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4083     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4084     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4085     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4086     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4087     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4088     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4089     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4090     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4091     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4092     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4093     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4094     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4095     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4096     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4097     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4098     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4099     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4100     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4101     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4102     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4103     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4104     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4105     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4106     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4107     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4108     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4109     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4110 
  4111   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4112   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4113   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4114     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4115 
  4116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4119 
  4120   Fact consolidations:
  4121     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4122     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4123     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4124     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4125     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4126     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4127     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4128     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4129     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4130     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4131     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4132     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4133     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4134     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4135     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4136     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4137     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4138     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4139     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4140     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4141     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4142     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4143     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4144     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4145     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4146     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4147     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4148     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4149     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4150     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4151     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4152     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4153     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4154     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4155     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4156     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4157     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4158     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4159     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4160     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4161 
  4162 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4163 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4164 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4165 
  4166 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4167 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4168 
  4169 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4170 
  4171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4174 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4180     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4181 
  4182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4183 
  4184 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4185   consolidation:
  4186     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4187     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4188 
  4189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4192   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4193   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4194   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4195     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4196   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4197     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4198   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4199 
  4200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4203 
  4204     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4205     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4206     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4207     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4208     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4209     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4210     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4211     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4212     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4213     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4214     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4215     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4216     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4217 
  4218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4221 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4222 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4223 
  4224 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4225     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4226     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4227     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4228     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4229 
  4230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * Fact name consolidation:
  4233     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4234     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4235     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4236     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4237     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4238 
  4239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4240 
  4241 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4242 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4243 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4244 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4245 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4246 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4247 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4251 
  4252 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4253 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4254 
  4255 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4256 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4257 
  4258 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4259 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4260 or the brute way with
  4261 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4262 
  4263 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4264 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4265 stating boundedness of sets.
  4266 
  4267 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4268 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4269 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270 
  4271 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4272   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4273   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4274   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4275   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4276   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4277   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4278   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4279   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4280   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4281   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4282   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4283 
  4284   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4285 
  4286   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4287 
  4288     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4289     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4290     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4291     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4292     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4293 
  4294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4297   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4298 
  4299   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4300 
  4301   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4302 
  4303   - removed constant isDiff
  4304 
  4305   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4306     input syntax.
  4307 
  4308   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4309 
  4310   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4311 
  4312   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4313 
  4314   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4315 
  4316   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4317     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4318     has_vector_derivative.
  4319 
  4320   - Other renamings:
  4321     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4322     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4323     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4324     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4325     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4326     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4327     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4328 
  4329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4330 
  4331 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4332 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4333 in continuous_intros.
  4334 
  4335 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4336 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4337 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4338 
  4339 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4340 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4341 especially removes
  4342 
  4343     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4344 
  4345 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4346     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4347 
  4348 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4349 
  4350   Renamings:
  4351     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4352     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4353     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4354     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4355     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4356     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4357     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4358     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4359     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4360     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4361     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4362     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4363 
  4364     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4365     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4366     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4367 
  4368   Removed theorems:
  4369     complex_zero_def
  4370     complex_add_def
  4371     complex_minus_def
  4372     complex_diff_def
  4373     complex_one_def
  4374     complex_mult_def
  4375     complex_inverse_def
  4376     complex_scaleR_def
  4377 
  4378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4379 
  4380 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4381 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4382 
  4383 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4384 
  4385 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4386 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4387 
  4388 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4389 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4392 
  4393 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * HOL-Word:
  4397   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4398     of "word_arith_wis".
  4399   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4400     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4401     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4402 
  4403 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4404   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4405   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4406   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4407     (except the AFP)
  4408 
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4412   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4413   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4414     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4415   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4416     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4417     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4418     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4419     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4420     intervals.
  4421   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4422     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4423     - renamed theorems:
  4424         interval ~> box
  4425         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4426         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4427         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4428         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4429         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4430         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4431         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4432         open_interval ~> open_box
  4433         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4434         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4435         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4436         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4437         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4438         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4439         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4440         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4441         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4442         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4443         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4444         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4445         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4446         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4447         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4448         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4449         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4450         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4451         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4452         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4453         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4454         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4455         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4456         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4457 
  4458     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4459         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4460         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4461         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4462         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4463         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4464         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4465         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4466         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4467         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4468         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4469         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4470         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4471         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4472         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4473         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4474         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4475         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4476 
  4477   - renamed theorems:
  4478     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4479     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4480     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4481 
  4482 * HOL-Probability:
  4483   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4484 
  4485     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4486       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4487 
  4488     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4489 
  4490   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4491     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4492 
  4493     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4494     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4495     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4496     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4497     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4498     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4499     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4500     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4501     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4502     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4503     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4504     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4505     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4506     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4507     integral_indicator          ~>
  4508          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4509     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4510     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4511     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4512 
  4513     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4514          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4515 
  4516     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4517          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4518 
  4519     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4520          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4521 
  4522     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4523          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4524          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4525 
  4526     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4527          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4528 
  4529     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4530          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4531 
  4532     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4533          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4534          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4535 
  4536     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4537          nn_integral_real_affine
  4538 
  4539     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4540          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4541 
  4542     The following theorems where removed:
  4543 
  4544     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4545     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4546     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4547     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4548     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4549     integral_cmul_indicator
  4550     integral_real
  4551 
  4552   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4553     distributed random variables.
  4554 
  4555 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4556 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4558 
  4559 
  4560 *** Scala ***
  4561 
  4562 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4563 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4564 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4565 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4566 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4567 
  4568 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4569 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4570 
  4571 
  4572 *** ML ***
  4573 
  4574 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4575 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4576 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4577 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4578 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4579 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4580 
  4581 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4582 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4583 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4584 actually belongs to it).
  4585 
  4586 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4587 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4588 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4589 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4590 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4591 of schematic variables.
  4592 
  4593 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4594 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4595 
  4596 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4597 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4598 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4602 
  4603 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4604 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4605 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4607 
  4608 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4609 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4611 formal context.
  4612 
  4613 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4614 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4617 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4618 
  4619 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4620 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4621 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4622 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4623 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4624 
  4625 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4626 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4627 purposes.
  4628 
  4629 
  4630 *** System ***
  4631 
  4632 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4633 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4634 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4635 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4636 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4637 
  4638 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4639 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4640 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4641 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4642 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4643 settings variable.
  4644 
  4645 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4646 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4647 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4648 
  4649 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4650 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4651 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4652 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4653 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4654 
  4655 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4656 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4657 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4658 
  4659 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4660 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4661 
  4662 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4663 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4664 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4665 
  4666 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4667 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4668 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4669 processing is started.
  4670 
  4671 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4672 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4673 
  4674 
  4675 
  4676 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4677 -------------------------------------
  4678 
  4679 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4680 
  4681 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4682 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4683 
  4684 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4685 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4686 
  4687 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4688 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4689 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4690 
  4691 
  4692 *** System ***
  4693 
  4694 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4695 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4696 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4697 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4698 
  4699 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4700 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4701 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4702 
  4703 
  4704 
  4705 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4706 -------------------------------------
  4707 
  4708 *** General ***
  4709 
  4710 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4711 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4712 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4715 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4718 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4719 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4720 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4721 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4722 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4723 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4724 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4725 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4726 syntax.
  4727 
  4728 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4729 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4732 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4733 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4734 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4735 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4736 
  4737 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4739 
  4740 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4741 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4742 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4743 
  4744 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4745 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4746 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4747 
  4748 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4749 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4753 
  4754 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4755 Documentation panel.
  4756 
  4757 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4758 documentation.
  4759 
  4760 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4761 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4762 
  4763 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4764 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4765 normal editing and checking process.
  4766 
  4767 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4768 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4769 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4770 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4771 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4772 
  4773 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4774 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4775 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4776 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4777 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4778 
  4779 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4780 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4781 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4782 
  4783 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4784 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4785 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4786 to resolve conflict.
  4787 
  4788 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4789 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4790 
  4791 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4792 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4793 such command executions while editing.
  4794 
  4795 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4796 document content.
  4797 
  4798 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4799 toplevel theorem statements.
  4800 
  4801 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4802 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4803 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4804 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4805 
  4806 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4807 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4808 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4809 
  4810 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4811 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4812 
  4813 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4814 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4815 
  4816 
  4817 *** Pure ***
  4818 
  4819 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4820 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4821 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4822 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4823 details.
  4824 
  4825 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4826 
  4827 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4828 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4829 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4830 
  4831 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4833 
  4834 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4835 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4836 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4837 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4840 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4841 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4844 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4845 
  4846 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4847 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4848 situations.
  4849 
  4850 
  4851 *** HOL ***
  4852 
  4853 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4854 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4858 
  4859 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4860 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4861 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4862 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4863 
  4864   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4865 
  4866 * Code generator:
  4867   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4868     'code_instance'.
  4869   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4870     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4871 
  4872 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4873 examples.
  4874 
  4875 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4876 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4877 to distinguish both when desired.
  4878 
  4879 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4880 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4881 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4882 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4885 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4886 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4887 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4888 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4889 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4892 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4893 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4894 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4895 
  4896 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4897 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4898 
  4899 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4900 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4901 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4902 
  4903 * Lifting:
  4904   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4905     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4906       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4907       transfer rules
  4908     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4909       correspondence relation can be generated
  4910     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4911       parametricity
  4912     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4913   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4914   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4915     copies
  4916   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4917     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4918     anonymous context)
  4919   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4920     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4921   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4922     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4923   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4924     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4925 
  4926 * Transfer:
  4927   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4928     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4929   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4930   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4931     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4932   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4933 
  4934 * Reification and reflection:
  4935   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4936     "Reification".
  4937   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4938   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4942   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4943     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4944     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4945   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4946     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4947   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4948     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4949     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4950     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4951     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4952     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4953     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4954     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4955   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4956     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4957   - Fact renames:
  4958       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4959       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961 
  4962 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4963 
  4964 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4965 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4966 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4970 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4971 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4972 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4973 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4974 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4975 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4976 lemmas.
  4977 
  4978 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4979 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4980 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4981 
  4982 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4983 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4984 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4985 
  4986 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4987 top and bottom elements.
  4988 
  4989 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4990 
  4991 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4992 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4993 
  4994  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4995    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4996    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4997 
  4998  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4999    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5000    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5001 
  5002    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5003    arbitrary filter.
  5004 
  5005  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5006    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5007    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5008    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5009    on a compact set.
  5010 
  5011  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5012    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5013    linear_continuum_topology).
  5014 
  5015  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5016    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5017    on all sequences converging to x.
  5018 
  5019  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5020    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5021    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5022    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5023    left or right.
  5024 
  5025  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5026 
  5027      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5028 
  5029  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5030    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5031 
  5032  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5033    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5034    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5035    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5036    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5037    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5038 
  5039  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5040 
  5041    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5042 
  5043    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5044      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5045 
  5046    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5047 
  5048    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5049      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5050 
  5051    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5052 
  5053    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5054 
  5055  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5056 
  5057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Nitpick:
  5060   - Added option "spy".
  5061   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5062 
  5063 * Sledgehammer:
  5064   - Renamed option:
  5065       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5066     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5067   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5068   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5069   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5070 
  5071 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5072 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5073 
  5074 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5075   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5076   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5077     generated code.
  5078   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5079   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5080   - Fact renames:
  5081     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5082     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5083     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5084 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5085 
  5086 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5087 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5088 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5089 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5090 
  5091 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5092 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5093 
  5094 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5095 
  5096 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5097 
  5098     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5099     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5100 
  5101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5102 
  5103 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5104 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5105 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5106 
  5107 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5108 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5109 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5110 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5111 
  5112 * HOL-BNF:
  5113   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5114     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5115     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5116     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5117   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5118     coinduct).
  5119   - Renamed keywords:
  5120     data ~> datatype_new
  5121     codata ~> codatatype
  5122     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5123   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5124     discs ~> disc
  5125     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5126     map_id' ~> map_id
  5127     sels ~> sel
  5128     set_map' ~> set_map
  5129     sets ~> set
  5130 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5131 
  5132 
  5133 *** ML ***
  5134 
  5135 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5136 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5137 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5138 Examples.thy in particular.
  5139 
  5140 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5141 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5142 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5143 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5144 
  5145 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5146 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5147 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5148 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5150 
  5151 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5152 
  5153     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5154     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5155 
  5156 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5157 
  5158 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5159 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5160 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5161 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5162 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5163 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5164 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5165 
  5166 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5167 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5168 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5169 clasets separately from the context.
  5170 
  5171 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5172 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5173 
  5174 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5175 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5176 
  5177 
  5178 *** System ***
  5179 
  5180 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5181 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5182 
  5183 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5184 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5187 settings variable.
  5188 
  5189 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5190 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5191 always pdf.
  5192 
  5193 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5194 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5195 
  5196 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5197 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5198 
  5199 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5200 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5201 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5202 
  5203 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5204 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5205 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5206 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5207 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5208 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5209 
  5210 
  5211 
  5212 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5213 -----------------------------------
  5214 
  5215 *** General ***
  5216 
  5217 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5218 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5219 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5220 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5221 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5222 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5223 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5224 
  5225 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5226 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5227 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5228 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5229 
  5230 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5231 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5232 
  5233 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5234 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5235 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5236 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5237 dependencies properly.
  5238 
  5239 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5240 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5241 
  5242 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5243 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5244 
  5245 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5246 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5247 and "class ... context ...".
  5248 
  5249 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5250 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5251 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5252 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5253 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5254 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5255 
  5256 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5257 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5258 
  5259 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5260 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5261 
  5262 
  5263 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5264 
  5265 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5266 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5267 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5268 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5269 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5270 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5271 
  5272 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5273 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5274 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5275 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5276 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5277 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5278 
  5279 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5280 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5281 browser on demand.
  5282 
  5283 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5284 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5285 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5286 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5287 
  5288 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5289 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5290 
  5291 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5292 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5293 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5294 potentially infinite message streams.
  5295 
  5296 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5297 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5298 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5299 schemes.
  5300 
  5301 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5302 symbols.
  5303 
  5304 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5305 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5306 
  5307 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5308 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5309 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5310 
  5311 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5312 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5313 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5314 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5315 
  5316 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5317 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5318 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5319 
  5320 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5321 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5322 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5323 Isabelle distribution.
  5324 
  5325 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5326 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5327 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5328 
  5329 
  5330 *** Pure ***
  5331 
  5332 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5333 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5334 
  5335 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5336 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5337 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5338 
  5339 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5340 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5341 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5342 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5343 with some care where this is really required.
  5344 
  5345 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5346 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5347 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5348 
  5349   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5350 
  5351 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5352 a Hasse diagram.
  5353 
  5354 
  5355 *** HOL ***
  5356 
  5357 * Sledgehammer:
  5358 
  5359   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5360     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5361   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5362   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5363   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5364   - Renamed options:
  5365       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5366       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5367       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5368       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5369 
  5370 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5371 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5372 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5373 
  5374 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Lifting:
  5378   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5379   - quot_del attribute
  5380   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5381 
  5382 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5383 expressions.
  5384 
  5385 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5386 pointfree expressions.
  5387 
  5388 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5389 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5390 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5391 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5393 
  5394 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5395 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5396 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5397 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5398 accordingly.
  5399 
  5400 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5401 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5402 
  5403 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5404 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5405 
  5406 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5407 
  5408 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5409 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5410 
  5411 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5412 
  5413 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5414 
  5415   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5416   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5417 
  5418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5419 
  5420 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5421 
  5422   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5423   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5424 
  5425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5426 
  5427 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5428 
  5429   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5430     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5431     output f x converges to G.
  5432 
  5433   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5434     infinity (at_bot).
  5435 
  5436   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5437     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5438 
  5439   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5440     at_top".
  5441 
  5442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5443 
  5444 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5445 lattice type classes.
  5446 
  5447 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5448 
  5449     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5450     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5451 
  5452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5453 
  5454 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5455 changes as follows.
  5456 
  5457   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5458 
  5459       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5460       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5461 
  5462   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5463     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5464     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5465     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5466 
  5467   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5468     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5469     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5470 
  5471   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5472     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5473     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5474     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5475 
  5476   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5477     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5478 
  5479       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5480       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5481       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5482       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5483       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5484       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5485       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5486       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5487       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5488       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5489       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5490       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5491       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5492       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5493       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5494       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5495 
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5499 
  5500 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5501 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5502 
  5503 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5504 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5505 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5506 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5507 
  5508   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5509   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5510   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5511   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5512   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5513   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5514   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5515   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5516   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5517   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5518 
  5519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5520 
  5521 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5522 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5523 Data").
  5524 
  5525 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5526 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5527 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5528 code.
  5529 
  5530 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5531 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5532 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5536 
  5537 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5538 
  5539 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5540 
  5541   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5542   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5543 
  5544 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5545 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5546 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5547 
  5548   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5549 
  5550     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5551     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5552     cart_base i  removed
  5553     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5554 
  5555   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5556 
  5557   Renamed lemmas:
  5558 
  5559     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5560     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5561     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5562     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5563     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5564     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5565     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5566     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5567     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5568     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5569 
  5570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5571 
  5572 * HOL/Probability:
  5573 
  5574   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5575 
  5576   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5577     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5578     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5579 
  5580   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5581     projective family).
  5582 
  5583 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5584 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5585 
  5586 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5587 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5588 datatypes.
  5589 
  5590 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5591 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5592 
  5593 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5594 trees for the code generator.
  5595 
  5596 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5597 Lifting/Transfer.
  5598 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5599 
  5600 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5602 
  5603 
  5604 *** Document preparation ***
  5605 
  5606 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5607 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5608 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5609 
  5610 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5611 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5612 
  5613 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5614 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5615 document/root.tex.
  5616 
  5617 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5618 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5619 
  5620 
  5621 *** ML ***
  5622 
  5623 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5624 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5625 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5626 
  5627 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5628 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5629 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5630 
  5631 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5632 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5633 necessarily printing visible text.
  5634 
  5635 
  5636 *** System ***
  5637 
  5638 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5639 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5640 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5641 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5642 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5643 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5644 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5645 
  5646 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5647 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5648 
  5649   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5650 
  5651 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5652 
  5653 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5654 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5655 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5656 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5657 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5658 
  5659 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5660 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5661 
  5662 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5663 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5664 
  5665 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5669 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5670 version of Isabelle.
  5671 
  5672 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5673 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5674 
  5675 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5676 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5677 for home-made settings.
  5678 
  5679 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5680 
  5681 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5682 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5683 configuration.
  5684 
  5685 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5686 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5688 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5689 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5690 
  5691 
  5692 
  5693 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5694 ------------------------------
  5695 
  5696 *** General ***
  5697 
  5698 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5699 
  5700   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5701     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5702   - markup for bound variables
  5703   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5704   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5705   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5706     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5707 
  5708 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5709 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5710 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5711 
  5712 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5713 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5714 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5715 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5716 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5717 
  5718   context
  5719     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5720     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5721   begin
  5722 
  5723   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5724 
  5725   end
  5726 
  5727   thm my_trans
  5728 
  5729 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5730 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5731 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5732 
  5733 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5734 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5735 
  5736 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5737 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5738 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5739 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5740 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5741 
  5742 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5743 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5744 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5745 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5746 indices of schematic variables.
  5747 
  5748 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5749 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5750 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5751 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5752 etc. was exploited.
  5753 
  5754 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5755 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5756 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5757 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5758 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5759 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5760 
  5761 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5762 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5763 manual.
  5764 
  5765 
  5766 *** Pure ***
  5767 
  5768 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5769 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5770 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5771 
  5772 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5773 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5774 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5775 undocumented feature.)
  5776 
  5777 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5778 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5779 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5780 
  5781   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5782 
  5783   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5784     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5785 
  5786 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5787 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5788 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5789 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5790 
  5791 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5792 
  5793     num ~> num_token
  5794     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5795     xstr ~> str_token
  5796 
  5797 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5798 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5799 position information via constraints).
  5800 
  5801 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5802 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5803 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5806 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5807 
  5808 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5809 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5810 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5811 
  5812 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5813 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5814 
  5815 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5816 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5817 
  5818   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5819 
  5820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5821 
  5822 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5823 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5824 
  5825 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5826 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5827 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5828 
  5829 
  5830 *** HOL ***
  5831 
  5832 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5833 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5834 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5835 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5836 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5837 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5838 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5839 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5840 possible.
  5841 
  5842 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5843 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5844 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5845 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5846 
  5847 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5848 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5849 
  5850 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5851 
  5852 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5853 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5854 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5855 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5856 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5857 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5858 
  5859   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5860     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5861 
  5862   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5863     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5864     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5865 
  5866   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5867     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5868 
  5869   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5870     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5871     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5872 
  5873   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5874     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5875 
  5876 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5877 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5878 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5879 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5880 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5881 
  5882   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5883     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5884     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5885     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5886     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5887 
  5888     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5889     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5890 
  5891   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5892     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5893     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5894     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5895     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5896     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5897     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5898     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5899 
  5900   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5901     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5902     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5903     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5904 
  5905   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5906     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5907     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5908     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5909 
  5910   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5911     from type nat to type int.
  5912 
  5913 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5914 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5915 
  5916   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5917     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5918     type.  Example syntax:
  5919 
  5920     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5921       is List.insert
  5922 
  5923     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5924     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5925     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5926     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5927     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5928     by the package.
  5929 
  5930   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5931     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5932     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5933     code generation for each constant.
  5934 
  5935   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5936     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5937     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5938     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5939     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5940 
  5941   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5942     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5943     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5944 
  5945 * Quotient package:
  5946 
  5947   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5948     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5949 
  5950   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5951     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5952 
  5953   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5954     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5955     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5956 
  5957   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5958     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5961 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5962 
  5963 * Quickcheck:
  5964 
  5965   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5966     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5967     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5968     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5969     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5970 
  5971     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5972     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5973     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5974 
  5975     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5976     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5977 
  5978     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5979     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5980     show genuine counterexamples.
  5981 
  5982   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5983     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5984 
  5985     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5986     constructors of that type.
  5987 
  5988   - Support for multisets.
  5989 
  5990   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5991 
  5992   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5993     conjectures in a locale context.
  5994 
  5995 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5996 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5997 
  5998 * Sledgehammer:
  5999   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6000     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6001   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6002   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6003     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6004   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6005   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6006   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6007   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6008 
  6009 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6010 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6011 
  6012 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6013 
  6014 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6015 
  6016 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6017 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6018 
  6019   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6020 
  6021 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6022 a list and a nat.
  6023 
  6024 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6025 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6026 
  6027 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6028 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6029 default.
  6030 
  6031 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6032 
  6033   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6034 
  6035 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6036 
  6037 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6038 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6039 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6040 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6041 one_case.
  6042 
  6043 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6044 the result of the fact expression.
  6045 
  6046 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6047 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6048 of some relation theorems:
  6049 
  6050   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6051   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6052   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6053   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6054   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6055   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6056 
  6057 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6058 
  6059 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6060 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6061 
  6062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6063 
  6064 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6065 to match the constant's name:
  6066 
  6067   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6068   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6069   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6070   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6071   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6072   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6073   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6074   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6075   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6076   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6077   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6078   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6079   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6080   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6081   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6082   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6083   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6084   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6085   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6086   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6087   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6088   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6089   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6090   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6091 
  6092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6093 
  6094 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6095 and corresponding theorem names:
  6096 
  6097   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6098 
  6099   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6100 
  6101   - Renamed theorems:
  6102 
  6103     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6104     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6105     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6106     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6107     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6108     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6109     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6110     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6111     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6112     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6113     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6114     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6115     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6116     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6117     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6118     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6119     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6120     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6121     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6122     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6123     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6124     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6125     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6126 
  6127     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6128 
  6129     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6130 
  6131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6132 
  6133 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6134 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6135 
  6136   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6137   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6138   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6139   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6140   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6141   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6142   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6143   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6144   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6145   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6146   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6147   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6148   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6149   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6150   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6151   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6152   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6153   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6154   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6155   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6156   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6157 
  6158 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6159 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6162 
  6163 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6164 
  6165   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6166   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6167   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6168   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6169   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6170   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6171   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6172   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6173   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6174   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6175   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6176   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6177   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6178   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6179   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6180   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6181   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6182   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6183 
  6184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6185 
  6186 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6187 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6188 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6189 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6190 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6191 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6192 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6194 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6195 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6196 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6197 
  6198 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6199 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6200 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6201 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6202 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6203 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6204 
  6205 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6206 through option types.
  6207 
  6208 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6209 relations.
  6210 
  6211 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6212 
  6213 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6214 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6215 
  6216   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6217   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6218   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6219   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6220   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6221   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6222   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6223   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6224   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6225   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6226   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6227   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6228   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6229   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6230   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6231   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6232   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6233   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6234   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6235   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6236   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6237   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6238   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6239   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6240   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6241   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6242   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6243   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6244   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6245   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6246   zless_le ~> less_le
  6247   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6248   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6249   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6250 
  6251 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6252 
  6253   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6254 
  6255 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  6256 
  6257 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  6258 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  6259 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  6260 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  6261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6262 
  6263 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6264 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  6265 
  6266 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  6267 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  6268 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  6269 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as