NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Jun 06 17:18:48 2018 +0200 (12 months ago)
changeset 68402 76edba1c428c
parent 68393 b9989df11c78
child 68404 05605481935d
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
     8 ---------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
    13 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
    14 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
    15 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
    16 
    17 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
    18 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
    19 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
    20 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
    21 
    22 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
    23 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
    24 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
    25 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
    26 
    27 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
    28 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
    29 instead.
    30 
    31 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
    32 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
    33 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
    34 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    35 There is an Isabelle tool "update_op" that converts theory and ML files
    36 to the new syntax. Because it is based on regular expression matching,
    37 the result may need a bit of manual postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle
    38 update_op" converts all files in the current directory (recursively).
    39 In case you want to exclude conversion of ML files (because the tool
    40 frequently also converts ML's "op" syntax), use option "-m".
    41 
    42 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
    43 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    44 
    45 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
    46 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
    47 without specific Prover IDE management.
    48 
    49 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
    51 context.
    52 
    53 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
    54 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
    55 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
    56 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
    57 
    58   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
    59 
    60 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
    61 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
    62 
    63 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
    64 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
    65 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
    66 output.
    67 
    68 
    69 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    70 
    71 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
    72 for session management:
    73 
    74   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all required theories
    75     from other sessions, relative to an ancestor session given by option
    76     -A (default: parent)
    77 
    78   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
    79     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
    80 
    81   Examples:
    82     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
    83     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
    84     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
    85     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
    86 
    87 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
    88 follow links to theories and document files etc.
    89 
    90 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
    91 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
    92 
    93 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
    94 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
    95 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
    96 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
    97 arguments into this format.
    98 
    99 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   100 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   101 
   102 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   103 functions (e.g. State output).
   104 
   105 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   106 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   107 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   108 
   109 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   110 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   111 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   114 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   115 
   116 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   117 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   118 Isabelle".
   119 
   120 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   121 
   122 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   123 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   124 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   125 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   126 Unicode content when saving the file.
   127 
   128 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   129 
   130 
   131 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   132 
   133 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   134 Isabelle/jEdit.
   135 
   136 
   137 *** Document preparation ***
   138 
   139 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   140 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   141 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   142 are supported:
   143 
   144   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   145   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   146   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   147 
   148 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   149 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   150 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   151 
   152 * System option "document_tags" specifies a default for otherwise
   153 untagged commands. This is occasionally useful to control the global
   154 visibility of commands via session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   155 
   156 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   157 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   158 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   159 
   160 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   161 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   162 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   163 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   164 
   165 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   166 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   167 
   168 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   169 session name verbatim.
   170 
   171 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   172 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   173 
   174 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   175 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   176 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   179 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   180 anymore.
   181 
   182 
   183 *** Isar ***
   184 
   185 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   186 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   187 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   188 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   189 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   190 
   191 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   192 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   193 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   194 
   195 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   196 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   197 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   198 and 'defines'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   201 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   202 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   203 duplicate constant declarations.
   204 
   205 
   206 *** Pure ***
   207 
   208 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   209 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   210 
   211 
   212 *** HOL ***
   213 
   214 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   215 
   216   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   217 
   218   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   219     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   220     constraints instead.
   221 
   222   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   223 
   224   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   225     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   226     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   227     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   228 
   229   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   230     standard target languages.
   231 
   232   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   233     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   234     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   235     HOL string values and vice versa.
   236 
   237   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   238     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   239 
   240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   243 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   244 
   245 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   246 
   247 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   248 former axioms:
   249 
   250   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   251 
   252 are replaced by:
   253 
   254   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   255 
   256 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   257 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   258 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   259 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   260 
   261 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   262 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   263 
   264 * Clarifed theorem names:
   265 
   266   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   267   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   268 
   269 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   270 
   271 * SMT module:
   272 
   273   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   274     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   275 
   276   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   277     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   278     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   281 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   282 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   288 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289 
   290 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   291 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   293 
   294 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   295 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   296 Renamed:
   297 
   298   span_inc ~> span_superset
   299   span_superset ~> span_base
   300   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   301 
   302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   305 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   308 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   309 
   310 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   311 
   312   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   313     input syntax
   314 
   315   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   316 
   317 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   320 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   324   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   325   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   326   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   327 
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   331 
   332   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   333   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   334   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   335   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   336   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   337 
   338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   339 
   340 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   341 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   342 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   343 broken proofs.
   344 
   345 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   346 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   347 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   348 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   349 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   350 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   351 
   352 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   353 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   354 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See theory
   355 HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some examples.
   356 
   357 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   358 
   359 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   360 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   363 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   364 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366 
   367 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   368 infix/prefix notation.
   369 
   370 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   371 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   372 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   373 
   374 
   375 *** ML ***
   376 
   377 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   378 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   379 
   380 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   381 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   382 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   383 "isabelle process".
   384 
   385 
   386 *** System ***
   387 
   388 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   389 longer supported.
   390 
   391 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   392 support has been discontinued.
   393 
   394 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   395 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   396 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   399 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   400 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   401 quotes):
   402 
   403   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   404   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   405 
   406   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   407   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   408 
   409   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   410   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   411 
   412 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   413   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   414   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   415   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   416 
   417 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   418 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   419 up-to-date status of a session.
   420 
   421 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   422 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   423 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   424 directory.
   425 
   426 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   427 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   428 
   429 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   430 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   431 
   432 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   433 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   434 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   435 See also the "system" manual.
   436 
   437 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   438 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   439 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   440 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   441 been discontinued.
   442 
   443 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   444 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   447 repository for the generated session files.
   448 
   449 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   450 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   451 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/heaps/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   452 $ISABELLE_HOME/heaps/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   453 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   454 
   455 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   456 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   457 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   458 
   459 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   460 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   461 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   462 32/64 bit.
   463 
   464 
   465 
   466 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   467 ----------------------------------
   468 
   469 *** General ***
   470 
   471 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   472 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   473 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   474 
   475 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   476 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   477 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   478 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   479 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   480 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   481 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   482 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   483 
   484 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   485 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   486 just the theory base name as before).
   487 
   488 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   489 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   490 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   491 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   492 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   493 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   494 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   495 
   496 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   497 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   498 leads to the follow renamings:
   499 
   500   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   501   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   502   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   503   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   504   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   505 
   506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   509 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   510 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   511 
   512 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   513 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   514 
   515 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   516 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   517 antiquotations:
   518 
   519   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   520     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   521   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   522     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   523   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   524 
   525 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   526 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   527 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   528 tutorial on code generation.
   529 
   530 
   531 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   532 
   533 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   534 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   535 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   536 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   537 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   538 
   539 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   540 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   541 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   542 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   543 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   544 effectively always enabled.
   545 
   546 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   547 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   548 buffers.
   549 
   550 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   551 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   552 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   553 represented by a different border color.
   554 
   555 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   556 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   557 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   558 
   559 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   560 document in the default web browser.
   561 
   562 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   563 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   564 used for formal checking.
   565 
   566 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   567 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   568 enabled at all times.
   569 
   570 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   571 
   572 
   573 *** Pure ***
   574 
   575 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   576 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   577 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   578 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   579 
   580 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   581   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   582     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   583   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   584     malformed.
   585   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   586     malformed.
   587 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   590 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   591 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   592 
   593 
   594 *** HOL ***
   595 
   596 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   597 
   598 * SMT module:
   599   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   600     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   601     disabled by default.
   602   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   603   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   604 
   605 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   606 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   607 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   609 
   610 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   611 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   612 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614 
   615 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   616 of "Complex_Main").
   617 
   618 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   619 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   625 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
   628 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
   631 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
   632 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
   633 
   634 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
   635 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
   638 
   639 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
   640 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   641 
   642 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
   643 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
   644 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
   645 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Generalized some facts:
   648     measure_induct_rule
   649     measure_induct
   650     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
   651     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
   652     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
   653     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
   654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
   657 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
   658 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
   659 euclidean size.
   660 
   661 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
   662   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
   663   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
   664     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
   665     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
   666   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
   667     available as "bezout_coefficients".
   668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
   671 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
   672 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
   673 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
   676   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
   677   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
   678 
   679 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
   680 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   681 
   682 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
   683 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
   684 
   685 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
   686 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
   687 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
   690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
   693 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
   694 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
   695 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
   696 
   697 syntax (ASCII)
   698   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
   699   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
   700   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
   701 
   702 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
   703 multisets have been renamed:
   704 
   705   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
   706   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
   707 
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
   711 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
   712 
   713 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
   714 
   715 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
   716 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
   717 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
   718 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
   719 
   720 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
   721 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
   722 
   723 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
   724 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
   725 
   726 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
   727 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
   728 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
   729 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
   730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   731 
   732 
   733 *** System ***
   734 
   735 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
   736 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
   737 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
   738 
   739 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
   740 "Application File Format" in the sense of
   741 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
   742 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
   743 
   744 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
   745 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
   746 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
   747 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
   748 
   749 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
   750 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
   751 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
   752 unchanged.
   753 
   754 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
   755 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   756 
   757 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
   758 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
   759 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
   760 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
   761 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
   762 
   763 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
   764 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
   765 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
   766 
   767 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
   768 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
   769 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
   770 
   771 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
   772 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
   773 
   774   isabelle imports -I -a
   775   isabelle imports -U -a
   776   isabelle imports -U -i -a
   777   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
   778 
   779 
   780 
   781 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
   782 -------------------------------------
   783 
   784 *** General ***
   785 
   786 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
   787   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
   788     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
   790     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
   791     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
   792     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
   793     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
   794 
   795 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
   796 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
   797 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
   798 
   799 bundle foo
   800 begin
   801   declare a [simp]
   802   declare b [intro]
   803 end
   804 
   805 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
   806 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
   807 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
   808 
   809 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
   810 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
   811 discontinued.
   812 
   813 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
   814 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
   815 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
   816 
   817 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
   818 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
   819 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
   820 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
   821 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   822 
   823 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
   824 statements without object-logic judgment.
   825 
   826 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
   827 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
   828 
   829 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
   830 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
   831 examples.
   832 
   833 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
   834 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
   835 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
   836 
   837 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
   838 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
   839 
   840 
   841 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   842 
   843 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
   844 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
   845 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
   846 reactivity and CPU usage.
   847 
   848 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
   849 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
   850 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
   851 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
   852 according to command keywords only; see also option
   853 "jedit_indent_newline".
   854 
   855 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
   856 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
   857 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
   858 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
   859 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
   860 
   861 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
   862 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
   863 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
   864 
   865 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
   866 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
   867 
   868 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
   869 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
   870 
   871 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
   872 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
   873 
   874 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
   875 
   876 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
   877 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
   878 systematic renaming.
   879 
   880 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
   881 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
   882 theorem statement.
   883 
   884 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
   885 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
   886 
   887 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
   888 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
   889 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
   890 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
   891 
   892 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
   893 following independent stages:
   894 
   895   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
   896   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
   897   src/Pure/Pure.thy
   898   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
   899 
   900 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
   901 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
   902 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
   903 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
   904 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
   905 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
   906 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
   907 
   908 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
   909 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
   910 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
   911 
   912 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
   913 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
   914 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
   915 new 'abbrevs' section.
   916 
   917 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
   918 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
   919 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
   920 
   921 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
   922 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
   923 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
   924 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
   925 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
   926 old keymaps.
   927 
   928 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
   929 and diverse:
   930 
   931   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
   932   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
   933   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
   934 
   935 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
   936 have to be changed.
   937 
   938 
   939 *** Document preparation ***
   940 
   941 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
   942 
   943 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
   944 existing antiquotation @{class}.
   945 
   946 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
   947 this allows special forms of document output.
   948 
   949 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
   950 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
   951 derivatives.
   952 
   953 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
   954 
   955 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
   956 Isabelle2015).
   957 
   958 
   959 *** Isar ***
   960 
   961 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
   962 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
   963 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
   964 
   965 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
   966 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
   967 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
   968 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
   969 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
   972 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
   973 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
   974 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
   975 
   976 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
   977 context.
   978 
   979 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
   980 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
   981 
   982 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
   983 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   984 
   985 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
   986 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
   987 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
   988 
   989 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
   990 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
   991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
   994 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
   995 definitions.
   996 
   997 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
   998 expression, e.g.
   999 
  1000   (use facts in simp)
  1001   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1002 
  1003 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1004 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1005 
  1006 
  1007 *** Pure ***
  1008 
  1009 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1010 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1011 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1012 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1013 
  1014 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1015 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1016 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1017 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1018 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1019 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1020 
  1021 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1022 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1023 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1024 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1025 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1026 types where this is really intended.
  1027 
  1028 
  1029 *** HOL ***
  1030 
  1031 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1032 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1033 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1034 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1035 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1036 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1037 
  1038 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1039 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1040 
  1041 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1042 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 * Sledgehammer:
  1045   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1046   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1047 
  1048 * (Co)datatype package:
  1049   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1050     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1051     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1052     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1053   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1054     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1055   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1056     to the map function.
  1057   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1058   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1059        terms of map and set
  1060        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1061   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1062        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1063     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1064   - Renamed lemmas:
  1065       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1066       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1067     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1068   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1069   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1070     equivalent) form.
  1071     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1074 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1075 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1076 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1079 
  1080   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1081   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1082 
  1083 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1084 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1085 eliminated altogether.
  1086 
  1087 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1088 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1089 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1090 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1091 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1092 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1093 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1094 
  1095 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1097 
  1098 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1099 
  1100     setsum ~> sum
  1101     setprod ~> prod
  1102     listsum ~> sum_list
  1103     listprod ~> prod_list
  1104 
  1105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1108     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1109     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1110     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1111     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1112     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1113     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1114     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1115     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1116     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1117     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1118     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1119     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1120     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1121     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1122     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1123     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1124     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1125     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1126     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1127     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1128     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1129     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1130     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1131     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1132     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1133     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1134     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1135     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1136     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1140 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1141 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1144 
  1145 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1146 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1147 
  1148   - Logical representation:
  1149     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1150     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1151       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1152     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1153       are non-canonical.
  1154   - Printing and parsing:
  1155     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1156       (as before).
  1157     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1158     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1159       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1160       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1161     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1162       printed as their logical representation.
  1163   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1164     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1165   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1166 
  1167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1168 
  1169 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1170 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1171 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1172 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1173 
  1174 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1175 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1176 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1177 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1178 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1179 
  1180 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1181 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1184 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1185 
  1186 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1187 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1188 interface for the generated code.
  1189 
  1190 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1191 spelt out explicitly.
  1192 
  1193 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1194 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1195 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1196 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1197 
  1198 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1199 products.
  1200 
  1201 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1202 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1203 
  1204 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1205 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1206 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1207 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1208 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1209 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1210 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1214 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1215 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1221   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1222   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1223 
  1224 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1225   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1226     le_add_same_cancel1
  1227     le_add_same_cancel2
  1228     less_add_same_cancel1
  1229     less_add_same_cancel2
  1230     add_le_same_cancel1
  1231     add_le_same_cancel2
  1232     add_less_same_cancel1
  1233     add_less_same_cancel2
  1234 
  1235 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1236   superseeded by a more general version:
  1237     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1238     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1239     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1240     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1241     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1242     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1243     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1244     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1246 
  1247 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1248 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1249 
  1250 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1251 
  1252 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1253 
  1254   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1255   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1256 
  1257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1258 
  1259 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1263 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1264 A)".
  1265 
  1266 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1267 
  1268 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1269 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1270 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1271 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1272 
  1273 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1274 dioid.
  1275 
  1276 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1277 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1278 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1279 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1282 of a more general type also:
  1283   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1284   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1285   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1286   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1287   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1288   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1289   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1290   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1291   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1292   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1293   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1294   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1295   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1296   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1297   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1298   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1299   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1300   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1301   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1302   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1303   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1304   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1305   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1306   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1307   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1308   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1309   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1310   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1311   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1312   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1313   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1314   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1315   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1316   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1317   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1318   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1319   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1320   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1321   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1322   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1323   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1324   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1325   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1326   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1327   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1328   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1329   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1330   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1331   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1332   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1333   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1334   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1335   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1336   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1337   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1338   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1339   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1340   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1341   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1342   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1343   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1344   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1345   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1346   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1347   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1348   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1349   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1350   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1351   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1352   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1353   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1354   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1355   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1356   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1357   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1358   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1359   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1360   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1361   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1362   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1363   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1364   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1365   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1366   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1367   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1368   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1369   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1370   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1372 
  1373 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1374 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1377 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1378 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1379 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1380 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1381 
  1382 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1383 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1384 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1385 once.
  1386 
  1387 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1388 set_mset rather than count.
  1389 
  1390   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1391     by default.
  1392 
  1393   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1394     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1395 
  1396   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1397     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1398 
  1399   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1400     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1401 
  1402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1403 
  1404 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1405 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1406 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1407 underscores.
  1408 
  1409 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1410 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1411 relation.
  1412 
  1413 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1414 everywhere fix bijections.
  1415 
  1416 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1417 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1418 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1419 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1420 
  1421 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1422 
  1423 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1424 
  1425 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1426 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1427 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1430 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1431 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1432 
  1433 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1434 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1435 
  1436 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1437 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1438 domain.
  1439 
  1440 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1441 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1444   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1445 
  1446 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1447 Probability Mass Functions.
  1448 
  1449 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1450 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1451 folding over a list in random order.
  1452 
  1453 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1454 subprobability distributions.
  1455 
  1456 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1457 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1458 
  1459     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1460     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1461     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1462     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1463     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1464     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1465     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1466     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1467     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1468     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1469     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1470     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1471     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1472     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1473     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1474     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1475     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1476     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1477     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1478     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1479     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1480     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1481 
  1482 Some functions have been renamed:
  1483     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1484 
  1485 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1486     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1487     #\<subset># ~> <
  1488     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1489     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491 
  1492 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1493 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1494 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1495 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1496 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1499 been renamed:
  1500 
  1501     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1502     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1503     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1504     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1505     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1506     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1507     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1508     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1509     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1510 
  1511     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1512     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1513     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1514     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1515     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1516     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1517     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1518     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1519     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1520     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1521     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526 
  1527 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1528 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1529 
  1530     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1531     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1532     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1533     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1534     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1535     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1536     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1537     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1538     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1539     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1540     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1541     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1542     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1543     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1544     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1545     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1546     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1547 
  1548 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1549 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1550 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1551 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1552 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1553 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1554 
  1555 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1556 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1560 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1561 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1564 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1565 removed or changed:
  1566 
  1567   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1568   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1569   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1570   union_single_eq_diff
  1571   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1572   diff_single_eq_union
  1573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1576 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1577 
  1578   mset_add
  1579   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1580   diff_single_eq_union
  1581   union_single_eq_diff
  1582   union_single_eq_member
  1583   add_eq_conv_diff
  1584   insert_noteq_member
  1585   add_eq_conv_ex
  1586   multi_member_split
  1587   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1588   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1589   mset_subset_insertD
  1590   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1591   insert_union_subset_iff
  1592   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1593   inter_add_left1
  1594   inter_add_left2
  1595   inter_add_right1
  1596   inter_add_right2
  1597   sup_union_left1
  1598   sup_union_left2
  1599   sup_union_right1
  1600   sup_union_right2
  1601   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1602   multi_nonempty_split
  1603   mset_insort
  1604   mset_update
  1605   mult1I
  1606   less_add
  1607   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1608   rel_mset_Zero
  1609   msed_map_invL
  1610   msed_map_invR
  1611   msed_rel_invL
  1612   msed_rel_invR
  1613   le_multiset_right_total
  1614   multiset_induct
  1615   multiset_induct2_size
  1616   multiset_induct2
  1617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1618 
  1619 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1620 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1621 element:
  1622 
  1623   image_mset
  1624   mset
  1625   replicate_mset
  1626   mult1
  1627   pred_mset
  1628   rel_mset'
  1629   mset_insort
  1630 
  1631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  1634 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  1635 
  1636   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  1637   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  1638   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  1639   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  1640   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  1641   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1642   count_single [simp] ~> []
  1643   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1644   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  1645   size_single [simp] ~> []
  1646   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1647   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1648   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1649   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1650   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  1651   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  1652   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  1653   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  1654   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  1655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  1658 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  1659 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  1660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661 
  1662 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  1663 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  1664 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  1667 multisets:
  1668 
  1669   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  1670   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  1671 
  1672 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  1673 and union of multisets have been changed:
  1674 
  1675   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  1676   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  1677 
  1678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  1681 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  1682 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  1685 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  1686 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  1687 
  1688 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  1689 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  1690 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  1691 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  1692 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  1693 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  1696 the following renaming
  1697 
  1698   prefixeq -> prefix
  1699   prefix -> strict_prefix
  1700   suffixeq -> suffix
  1701   suffix -> strict_suffix
  1702 
  1703 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  1704 
  1705 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  1706 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  1707 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  1708 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  1709 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  1710 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  1713 theories.
  1714 
  1715 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  1716 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  1717 
  1718 
  1719 *** ML ***
  1720 
  1721 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  1722 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  1723 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  1724 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  1725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  1728 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  1729 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  1730 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  1731 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1732 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  1733 superseded by General.Div.
  1734 
  1735 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  1736 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  1739 with approximative output quality.
  1740 
  1741 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  1742 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743 
  1744 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  1745 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  1746 requiring separate files.
  1747 
  1748 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  1749 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  1750 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  1751 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  1752 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  1753 
  1754 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  1755 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  1756 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  1757 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  1758 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  1759 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  1760 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  1763 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  1764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1765 
  1766 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  1767 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  1768 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  1769 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1770 
  1771 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  1772 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 
  1775 *** System ***
  1776 
  1777 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  1778 
  1779 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  1780 much less disk space.
  1781 
  1782 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  1783 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  1784 particular:
  1785 
  1786   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  1787     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  1788   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  1789   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  1790 
  1791 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  1792 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  1793 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  1796 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  1797 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  1798 return code 1.
  1799 
  1800 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  1801 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  1802 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  1803 
  1804 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  1805 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  1806 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  1807 
  1808 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  1809 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  1810 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  1811 by default).
  1812 
  1813 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  1814 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  1815 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  1816 resulting log files.
  1817 
  1818 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  1819 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  1820 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  1821 implicit default via option -p.
  1822 
  1823 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  1824 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  1825 
  1826 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  1827 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  1828 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  1829 
  1830 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  1831 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  1832 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  1833 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  1834 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835 
  1836 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  1837 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  1838 "isabelle_scala_script".
  1839 
  1840 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  1841 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  1842 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  1843 
  1844 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  1845 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  1846 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  1847 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  1848 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  1849 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  1850 been discontinued.
  1851 
  1852 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  1853 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  1854 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  1855 
  1856 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  1857 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  1858 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  1859 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  1860 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  1861 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  1862 
  1863 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  1864 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  1865 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  1866 connection).
  1867 
  1868 
  1869 
  1870 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  1871 -----------------------------------
  1872 
  1873 *** General ***
  1874 
  1875 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  1876 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  1877 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  1878 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  1879 examples that do require HOL.
  1880 
  1881 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  1882 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  1883 
  1884 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  1885 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  1886 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  1887 has been removed (see below).
  1888 
  1889 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  1890 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  1891 
  1892 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  1893 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  1894 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  1895 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  1896 
  1897 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  1898 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  1899 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  1900 meaning.
  1901 
  1902 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  1903 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  1904 to update old sources.
  1905 
  1906 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  1907 
  1908   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  1909   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  1910   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  1911   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  1912 
  1913 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  1914 accordingly.
  1915 
  1916 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  1917 'theorem'.
  1918 
  1919 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  1920 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  1921 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  1922 
  1923 
  1924 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1925 
  1926 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  1927 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  1928 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  1929 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  1930 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  1931 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  1932 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  1933 any effect on the running ML program.
  1934 
  1935 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  1936 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  1937 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  1938 update.
  1939 
  1940 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  1941 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  1942 enable option "editor_output_state".
  1943 
  1944 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  1945 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  1946 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  1947 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  1948 visibility.
  1949 
  1950 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  1951 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  1952 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  1953 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  1954 panel.
  1955 
  1956 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  1957 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  1958 
  1959 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  1960 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  1961 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  1962 
  1963 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  1964 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  1965 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  1966 
  1967 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  1968 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  1969 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  1970 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  1971 
  1972 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  1973 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  1974 the editor.
  1975 
  1976 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  1977 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  1978 
  1979 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  1980 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  1981 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  1982 instead.
  1983 
  1984 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  1985 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  1986 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  1987 
  1988 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  1989 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  1990 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  1991 
  1992 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  1993 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  1994 
  1995 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  1996 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  1997 
  1998 
  1999 *** Document preparation ***
  2000 
  2001 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2002 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2003 
  2004 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2005 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2006 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2007 
  2008 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2009 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2010 follows:
  2011 
  2012   \<^item>  itemize
  2013   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2014   \<^descr>  description
  2015 
  2016 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2017 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2018 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2019 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2020 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2021 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2022 
  2023 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2024 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2025 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2026 
  2027 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2028 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2029 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2030 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2031 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2032 
  2033 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2034 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2035 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2036 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2037 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2038 
  2039 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2040 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2041 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2042 
  2043 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2044 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2045 
  2046 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2047 
  2048 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2049 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2050 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2051 
  2052 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2053 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2054 
  2055 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2056 entities of the Isar language.
  2057 
  2058 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2059 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2060 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2061 
  2062 
  2063 *** Isar ***
  2064 
  2065 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2066 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2067 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2068 example:
  2069 
  2070   have result: "C x y"
  2071     if "A x" and "B y"
  2072     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2073     <proof>
  2074 
  2075 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2076 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2077 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2078 
  2079   {
  2080     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2081     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2082     have "C x y" <proof>
  2083   }
  2084   note result = this
  2085 
  2086 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2087 instead of 'assume' above.
  2088 
  2089 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2090 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2091 
  2092   assume result: "C x y"
  2093     if "A x" and "B y"
  2094     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2095 
  2096 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2097 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2098 
  2099 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2100 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2101 example:
  2102 
  2103   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2104 
  2105 is equivalent to:
  2106 
  2107   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2108 
  2109 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2110 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2111 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2112 follows:
  2113 
  2114   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2115 
  2116 or:
  2117 
  2118   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2119 
  2120 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2121 
  2122   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2123 
  2124 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2125 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2126 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2127 of the local context elements yet.
  2128 
  2129 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2130 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2131 
  2132   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2133   then have something
  2134   proof cases
  2135     case a
  2136     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2137   next
  2138     case b
  2139     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2140   next
  2141     case c
  2142     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2143   qed
  2144 
  2145 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2146 
  2147   case a: (c xs)
  2148   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2149 
  2150 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2151 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2152 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2153 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2154 and always put attributes in front.
  2155 
  2156 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2157 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2158 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2159 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2160 
  2161 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2162 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2163 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2164 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2165 
  2166   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2167     supply [simp] = a
  2168   proof
  2169     show A by simp
  2170   next
  2171     show A by simp
  2172   qed
  2173 
  2174 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2175 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2176 
  2177 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2178 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2179 
  2180 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2181 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2182 
  2183 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2184 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2185 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2186 manual.
  2187 
  2188 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2189 ('apply' scripts).
  2190 
  2191 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2192 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2193 example:
  2194 
  2195 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2196   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2197 proof goal_cases
  2198   case (1 x)
  2199   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2200 next
  2201   case (2 y z)
  2202   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2203 qed
  2204 
  2205 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2206   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2207 proof goal_cases
  2208   case prems: 1
  2209   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2210 next
  2211   case prems: 2
  2212   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2213 qed
  2214 
  2215 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2216 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2217 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2218 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2219 
  2220 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2221 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2222 
  2223 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2224 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2225 
  2226 
  2227 *** Pure ***
  2228 
  2229 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2230 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2231 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2232 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2233 
  2234 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2235 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2238 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2239 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2240 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2241 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2242 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2243 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2244 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2245 
  2246   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2247   begin
  2248     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2249   end
  2250 
  2251   locale morphism =
  2252     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2253     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2254   begin
  2255     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2256   end
  2257 
  2258 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2259 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2260 
  2261 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2262 'defines'.
  2263 
  2264 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2265 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2266 
  2267 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2268 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2269 
  2270 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2271 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2274 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2275 exploited.
  2276 
  2277 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2278 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2279 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2280 
  2281 
  2282 *** HOL ***
  2283 
  2284 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2285 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2286 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2287 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2288 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2289 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2292 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2293 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2294 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2295 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2296 
  2297 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2298 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2299 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2300 simplify porting old theories:
  2301 
  2302   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2303 
  2304   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2305 
  2306   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2307   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2308 
  2309   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2310 
  2311   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2312   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2313 
  2314   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2315 
  2316   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2317     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2318 
  2319   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2320   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2321   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2322 
  2323   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2324   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2325   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2326 
  2327 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2328 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2329 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2330 
  2331 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2332 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2333 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2334 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2335 
  2336 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2337 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2338 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2339 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2340 
  2341 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2342 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2343 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2344 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2347 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2348 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2352 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2353 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2354 
  2355 Consolidated facts:
  2356   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2357   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2358   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2359   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2360   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2361   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2362   split_split ~> prod.split
  2363   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2364   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2365   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2366   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2367   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2368   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2369   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2370   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2371   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2372   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2373   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2374   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2375   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2376   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2377   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2378   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2379   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2380   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2381   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2382   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2383   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2384   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2385   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2386   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2387   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2388   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2389   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2390   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2391 
  2392 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2393   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2394   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2395   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2396   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2397 
  2398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2401 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2402 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2403 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2404 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2405 
  2406 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2407   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2408   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2409   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2410   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2411   real_of_one of_int_1
  2412   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2413   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2414   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2415   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2416   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2417   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2418   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2419   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2420   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2421   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2422   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2423   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2424   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2425   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2426   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2427   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2428   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2429 
  2430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2431 
  2432 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2433 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2436 
  2437 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439 * Sledgehammer:
  2440   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2441   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2442     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2443   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2444   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2445   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2446     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2448 
  2449 * Nitpick:
  2450   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2451   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2452   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2453   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2454   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2455 
  2456 * (Co)datatype package:
  2457   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2458     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2459   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2460   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2461     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2463     being defined.
  2464   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2465 
  2466 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2467 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2468 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2469 
  2470 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2471 
  2472 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2473 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2474 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2475 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2476 
  2477 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2481 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2482 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2483 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2484 
  2485 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2486 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2487 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2488 
  2489 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2490 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2491 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2492 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2493 
  2494 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2495 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2496 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2497 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2498 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2499 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2500 during instantiation.
  2501 
  2502 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2503 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2504 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2507 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2508 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2509 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2510 
  2511   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2512   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2513 
  2514 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * Library/Multiset:
  2517   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2518       < ~> <#
  2519       > ~> >#
  2520       <= ~> <=#
  2521       >= ~> >=#
  2522       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2523       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2524     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2526       \<subset>#
  2527       \<subseteq>#
  2528       \<supset>#
  2529       \<supseteq>#
  2530   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2531     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2532     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2533     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2534     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2535     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2536     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537   - Renamed conversions:
  2538       multiset_of ~> mset
  2539       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2540       set_of ~> set_mset
  2541     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2542   - Renamed lemmas:
  2543       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2544       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2545       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2546     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2547   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2548     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2549     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2550     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2551 
  2552 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2553 
  2554 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2555 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2556 chain-complete partial orders.
  2557 
  2558 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2559 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2560 
  2561 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2562 periodic functions.
  2563 
  2564 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2565 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2566 GCD.
  2567 
  2568 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2569 
  2570 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2571 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2572 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2573 
  2574 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2575 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2576 
  2577 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2578 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2579 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2580 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2581 
  2582 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2583 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2584 
  2585 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2586 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2587 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2588 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2589 properties.
  2590 
  2591 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2592 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2593 
  2594 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2595 structures.
  2596 
  2597 
  2598 *** ML ***
  2599 
  2600 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2601 system are available:
  2602 
  2603   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2604   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2605   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2606 
  2607 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2608 
  2609 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2610 Isar proof method.
  2611 
  2612 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2613 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2614 breaks.
  2615 
  2616 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2617 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2618 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2621 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2622 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2623 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2624 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2627 
  2628   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  2629   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  2630 
  2631   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  2632   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  2633 
  2634 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  2635 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  2636 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  2637 
  2638 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  2639 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  2640 instead (with proper context).
  2641 
  2642 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  2643 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  2644 
  2645 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  2646 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  2647 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  2648 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  2649 the proof context discipline.
  2650 
  2651 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  2652 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  2653 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  2654 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  2655 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 
  2658 *** System ***
  2659 
  2660 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  2661 
  2662 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  2663 conflations:
  2664 
  2665     hence  ~>  then have
  2666     thus   ~>  then show
  2667 
  2668 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  2669 maintainability of proofs.
  2670 
  2671 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  2672 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  2673 performance.
  2674 
  2675 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  2676 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  2677 
  2678     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  2679 
  2680 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  2681 space.
  2682 
  2683 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  2684 platforms as follows.
  2685 
  2686   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  2687     associated with the main app bundle
  2688 
  2689   - isabelle jedit: settings
  2690     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  2691     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2692 
  2693   - isabelle build: settings
  2694     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2695 
  2696 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  2697 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  2698 
  2699 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  2700 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  2701 required after change.
  2702 
  2703 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  2704 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  2705 
  2706 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  2707 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  2708 
  2709 
  2710 
  2711 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  2712 ------------------------------
  2713 
  2714 *** General ***
  2715 
  2716 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  2717 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  2718 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  2719 
  2720   context
  2721   begin
  2722 
  2723   private definition ...
  2724   private lemma ...
  2725 
  2726   qualified definition ...
  2727   qualified lemma ...
  2728 
  2729   lemma ...
  2730   theorem ...
  2731 
  2732   end
  2733 
  2734 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  2735 naming policy.
  2736 
  2737 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  2738 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  2739 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  2740 
  2741 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  2742 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  2743 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  2744 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  2745 
  2746 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  2747 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  2748 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  2749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  2752 theory context.
  2753 
  2754 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  2755 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  2756 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  2757 
  2758 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  2759 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  2760 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  2761 sources.
  2762 
  2763 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  2764 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  2765 
  2766 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  2767 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  2768 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  2769 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  2770 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  2771 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  2772 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  2773 
  2774 
  2775 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2776 
  2777 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  2778 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  2779 
  2780 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  2781 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  2782 in the buffer.
  2783 
  2784 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  2785 marker, SideKick parser.
  2786 
  2787 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  2788 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  2789 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  2790 
  2791 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  2792 Options / Text Area).
  2793 
  2794 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  2795 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  2796 
  2797 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  2798 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  2799 
  2800 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  2801 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  2802 
  2803 
  2804 *** Document preparation ***
  2805 
  2806 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  2807 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  2808 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  2809 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  2810 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  2811 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  2812 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  2813 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2814 
  2815 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  2816 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  2817 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  2818 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  2819 
  2820 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  2821 style.
  2822 
  2823 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  2824 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  2825 
  2826 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  2827 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  2828 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  2829 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  2830 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2831 
  2832 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  2833 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  2834 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  2835 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  2836 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  2837 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  2838 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  2841 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  2842 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  2843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 
  2846 *** Pure ***
  2847 
  2848 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  2849 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  2850 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  2851 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  2852 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  2853 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2854 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  2855 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  2856 
  2857 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  2858 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  2859 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  2860 
  2861 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  2862 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  2863 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  2864 different index.
  2865 
  2866 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  2867 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  2868 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  2869 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  2870 
  2871 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  2872 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  2873 token category instead.
  2874 
  2875 
  2876 *** HOL ***
  2877 
  2878 * New (co)datatype package:
  2879   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  2880     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  2881     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2882     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2883     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884   - Renamed theorems:
  2885       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  2886       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  2887       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  2888       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  2889       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  2890       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  2891       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  2892       sel_map ~> map_sel
  2893       sel_set ~> set_sel
  2894       sel_split ~> split_sel
  2895       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  2896       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  2897       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2898     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2899   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  2900     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  2901     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2902   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  2903     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  2904     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  2906     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  2907     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  2908     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  2909     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  2910     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  2911     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912   - Renamed theories:
  2913       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  2914       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  2915       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  2916       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  2917       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  2918       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  2919     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  2921     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  2922     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  2923     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  2924     rel_sum (using inductive).
  2925     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  2926     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  2927     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  2928     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  2929   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  2930     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  2931     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  2932     rules.
  2933 
  2934 * Old datatype package:
  2935   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  2936     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  2937     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2938     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2939     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940   - Renamed theorems:
  2941       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2942     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943   - Renamed theory:
  2944       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  2945     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Nitpick:
  2948   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  2949     operations.
  2950 
  2951 * Sledgehammer:
  2952   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  2953     default.
  2954   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  2955     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  2956   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  2957     Removed sub-command:
  2958       min
  2959   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  2960     dramatically improved.
  2961   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  2962 
  2963 * Old and new SMT modules:
  2964   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  2965     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  2966     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  2967     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  2968     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  2969     point to it.
  2970     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  2972     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  2974     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  2975   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  2976     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  2977 
  2978 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  2979 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  2980 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  2981 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  2982 
  2983 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  2984 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  2985 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  2988 
  2989 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  2990 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  2991 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  2992 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993 
  2994 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  2995 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  2998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3001 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3002 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3005 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3008 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3009 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3010 
  3011 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3012 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3013 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3014 needed.
  3015 
  3016 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3017 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3018 
  3019 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3020 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3022 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3023 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3024 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3025 
  3026 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3027 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3028 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3029 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3030 
  3031 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3032 type class hierarchy:
  3033   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3034   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3035   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3036   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3037 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038 
  3039 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3040   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3041   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3042 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3045 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3046 
  3047 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3048   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3049   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3050   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3051 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3054 and part of theory Main.
  3055   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3062 Fact rename:
  3063     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3067 
  3068 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3069 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3070 
  3071 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3072 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3073 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3074 
  3075 * Library/Multiset:
  3076   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3077   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3078     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3079   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3080       <# ~> #<#
  3081       <=# ~> #<=#
  3082       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3083       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3084     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3086       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3087       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3088     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089   - Renamed
  3090       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3091       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3092       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3093     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3095   - Added attributes:
  3096       image_mset.id [simp]
  3097       image_mset_id [simp]
  3098       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3099       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3100       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3101       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3102       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3103       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3104     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3107 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3108 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3109 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110 
  3111 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3112 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3113 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3114 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3115 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3116 examples.
  3117 
  3118 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3119   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3120   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3121   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3122     projection
  3123 
  3124 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3125 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3126 
  3127 
  3128 *** ML ***
  3129 
  3130 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3131 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3132 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3133 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3134 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3135 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3137 
  3138 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3139 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3140 
  3141 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3142 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3143 
  3144 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3148 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3149 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3150 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3151 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3152 nested.
  3153 
  3154 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3155 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3158 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3159 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3163 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3164 Thm.term_of etc.
  3165 
  3166 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3167 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3168 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3171 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3172 
  3173 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3174 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3175 
  3176 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3177 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3178 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3179 
  3180 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3181 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3182 
  3183 
  3184 *** System ***
  3185 
  3186 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3187 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3188 
  3189 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3190 
  3191 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3192 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3193 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3194 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3198 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3199 
  3200 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3201 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3202 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3203 
  3204 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3205 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3206 
  3207 
  3208 
  3209 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3210 ---------------------------------
  3211 
  3212 *** General ***
  3213 
  3214 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3215 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3216 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3217 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3218 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3219 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3220 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3221 some examples.
  3222 
  3223 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3224 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3225 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3226 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3227 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3228 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3229 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3230 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3231 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3232 
  3233 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3234 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3235 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3236 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3237 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3238 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3239 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3240 proof tools.
  3241 
  3242 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3243 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3244 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3245 
  3246 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3247 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3248 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3249 
  3250 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3251 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3252 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3253 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3256 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3257 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3261 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3262 
  3263 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3264 not check existence within the file-system.
  3265 
  3266 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3267 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3268 
  3269 
  3270 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3271 
  3272 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3273 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3274 buffer.
  3275 
  3276 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3277 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3278 
  3279 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3280 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3281 
  3282 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3283 auxiliary ML files.
  3284 
  3285 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3286 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3287 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3288 
  3289 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3290 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3291 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3292 
  3293 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3294 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3295 
  3296 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3297 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3298 caret".
  3299 
  3300 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3301 completion popup and context-menu.
  3302 
  3303 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3304 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3305 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3306 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3307 
  3308 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3309 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3310 
  3311 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3312 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3313 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3314 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3315 
  3316 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3317 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3318 
  3319 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3320 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3321 
  3322 * Improved monitor panel.
  3323 
  3324 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3325 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3326 
  3327 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3328 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3329 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3330 
  3331 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3332 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3333 within the context.
  3334 
  3335 
  3336 *** Pure ***
  3337 
  3338 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3339 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3340 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3341 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3342 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3343 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3344 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3345 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3346 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3347 
  3348 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3349 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3350 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3351 renaming needs to be applied:
  3352 
  3353   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3354   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3355   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3356   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3357   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3358 
  3359 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3360 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3361 old constants:
  3362 
  3363 setup {*
  3364   fn thy => thy
  3365     |> Sign.root_path
  3366     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3367     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3368     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3369     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3370 *}
  3371 
  3372 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3373 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3374 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3375 
  3376 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3377 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3378 instantiated theorem.
  3379 
  3380 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3381 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3382 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3383 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3384 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3385 
  3386   attribute_setup standard =
  3387     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3388 
  3389 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3390 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3391 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3392 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3393 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3394 
  3395 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3396 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3397 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3398 
  3399 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3400 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3401 
  3402 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3403 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3404 
  3405 
  3406 *** HOL ***
  3407 
  3408 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3409 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3418 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3424 with the given constants.
  3425 
  3426 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3427 operations on records.
  3428 
  3429 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3430 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3435 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3436 
  3437 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3440 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3441 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3442 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3443 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3446 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3449   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3450   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3451   part of theory "Main".
  3452 
  3453   Theory renamings:
  3454     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3455     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3456     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3457     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3458     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3459     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3460     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3461     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3462     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3463     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3464     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3465     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3466     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3467     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3468     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3469     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3470     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3471     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3472     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3473     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3474     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3475     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3476 
  3477   New theories:
  3478     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3479     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3480     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3481     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3482     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3483 
  3484   Discontinued theories:
  3485     BNF/BNF.thy
  3486     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3487 
  3488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * New (co)datatype package:
  3491   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3492   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3493     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3494   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3495     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3496   - Renamed commands:
  3497       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3498       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3499       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3500     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3502     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3503     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3505     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3506     using "prim(co)rec".
  3507     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3509     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3510     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3512     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3513     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3514     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Old datatype package:
  3517   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3518     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3519     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3521     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3522     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3525   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3526   BNF-based datatype package.
  3527 
  3528   Renamed constants:
  3529     Option.set ~> set_option
  3530     Option.map ~> map_option
  3531     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3532 
  3533   Renamed theorems:
  3534     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3535     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3536     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3537     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3538     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3539     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3540     map.simps ~> list.map
  3541     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3542     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3543     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3544 
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3548     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3549     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3550     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3551     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3552     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3553     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3554     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3555     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3556     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3557     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3558 
  3559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3562   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3563   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3564   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3565   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3566     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3567     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3568       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3569       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3570       automatically
  3571     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3572     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3573       automatically for datatypes
  3574   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3575     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3576       more
  3577       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3579       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3580       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3581     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3582       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3583       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3585     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3586   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3587     form
  3588     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3589   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3590     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3592     Code_Numeral.natural
  3593     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3595     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3598 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3599 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3600 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3601 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3602 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3603 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3604 
  3605 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3606 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3607 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3608 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3609 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3610 
  3611 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3612 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3613 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3614 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3615 
  3616 * Sledgehammer:
  3617   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3618   - MaSh overhaul:
  3619     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3620       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3621     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3622       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3623       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3624       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3625   - New option:
  3626       smt_proofs
  3627   - Renamed options:
  3628       isar_compress ~> compress
  3629       isar_try0 ~> try0
  3630 
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  3634 
  3635 * Nitpick:
  3636   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  3637     take infinite values.
  3638   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  3639     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  3640   - Removed "std" option.
  3641   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  3642     "hide_types".
  3643 
  3644 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  3645 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  3648 
  3649 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  3650   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  3651   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  3652     SUP instead uniformly.
  3653   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  3654     or SUP and Sup.
  3655   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  3656   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  3657   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  3658     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  3659     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  3660 
  3661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3662 
  3663 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  3664 
  3665 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  3666 
  3667   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3668   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3669   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3670   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3671 
  3672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  3675 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  3676 
  3677 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  3678 
  3679     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  3680     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  3681     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  3682     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  3683     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  3684     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  3685     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  3686     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  3687     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  3688     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  3689     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  3690     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  3691     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  3692     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  3693     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3694     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3695     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  3696     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  3697     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  3698     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  3699     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  3700     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  3701     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  3702     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  3703     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  3704     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  3705     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  3706     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  3707     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  3708     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  3709     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  3710     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  3711     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  3712     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  3713     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  3714     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  3715     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  3716     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  3717     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  3718     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  3719     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  3720     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  3721     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  3722     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3723     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3724     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  3725     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  3726     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  3727     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  3728     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  3729     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  3730     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  3731     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  3732     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  3733     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  3734     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  3735     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  3736     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  3737     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  3738 
  3739   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  3740   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  3741   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  3742     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  3743 
  3744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  3747 
  3748   Fact consolidations:
  3749     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  3750     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  3751     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  3752     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  3753     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  3754     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  3755     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  3756     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  3757     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  3758     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  3759     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  3760     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  3761     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  3762     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  3763     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  3764     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  3765     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  3766     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  3767     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  3768     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  3769     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  3770     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  3771     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  3772     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  3773     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  3774     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  3775     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  3776     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  3777     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  3778     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  3779     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  3780     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  3781     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  3782     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  3783     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  3784     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  3785     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  3786     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  3787     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  3788     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  3789 
  3790 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  3791 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  3792 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  3793 
  3794 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  3795 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  3796 
  3797 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  3798 
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  3802 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  3805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  3808     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  3809 
  3810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  3813   consolidation:
  3814     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  3815     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  3816 
  3817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  3820   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  3821   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  3822   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  3823     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  3824   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  3825     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  3826   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  3827 
  3828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  3831 
  3832     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3833     add_commute ~> add.commute
  3834     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3835     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3836     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3837     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  3838     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3839     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  3840     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3841     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3842     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3843     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  3844     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  3845 
  3846 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3847 
  3848 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  3849 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  3850 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  3851 
  3852 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  3853     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  3854     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  3855     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  3856     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  3857 
  3858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Fact name consolidation:
  3861     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3862     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  3863     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  3864     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  3865     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  3866 
  3867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  3870 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  3871 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  3872 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  3873 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  3874 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  3875 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  3876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  3879 
  3880 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  3881 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  3882 
  3883 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  3884 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  3885 
  3886 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  3887 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  3888 or the brute way with
  3889 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  3890 
  3891 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  3892 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  3893 stating boundedness of sets.
  3894 
  3895 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  3896 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  3897 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  3900   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  3901   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  3902   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  3903   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  3904   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  3905   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  3906   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  3907   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  3908   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  3909   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  3910   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  3911 
  3912   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  3913 
  3914   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  3915 
  3916     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  3917     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  3918     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  3919     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  3920     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  3921 
  3922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3923 
  3924 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  3925   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  3926 
  3927   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  3928 
  3929   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  3930 
  3931   - removed constant isDiff
  3932 
  3933   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  3934     input syntax.
  3935 
  3936   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  3937 
  3938   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  3939 
  3940   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  3941 
  3942   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  3943 
  3944   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  3945     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  3946     has_vector_derivative.
  3947 
  3948   - Other renamings:
  3949     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  3950     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  3951     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  3952     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  3953     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  3954     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  3955     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  3956 
  3957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  3960 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  3961 in continuous_intros.
  3962 
  3963 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  3964 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  3965 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  3966 
  3967 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  3968 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  3969 especially removes
  3970 
  3971     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  3972 
  3973 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  3974     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  3975 
  3976 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  3977 
  3978   Renamings:
  3979     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  3980     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  3981     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  3982     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  3983     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  3984     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  3985     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  3986     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  3987     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  3988     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  3989     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  3990     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  3991 
  3992     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  3993     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  3994     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  3995 
  3996   Removed theorems:
  3997     complex_zero_def
  3998     complex_add_def
  3999     complex_minus_def
  4000     complex_diff_def
  4001     complex_one_def
  4002     complex_mult_def
  4003     complex_inverse_def
  4004     complex_scaleR_def
  4005 
  4006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4009 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4012 
  4013 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4014 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4015 
  4016 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4017 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4020 
  4021 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * HOL-Word:
  4025   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4026     of "word_arith_wis".
  4027   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4028     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4029     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4030 
  4031 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4032   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4033   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4034   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4035     (except the AFP)
  4036 
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4040   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4041   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4042     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4043   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4044     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4045     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4046     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4047     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4048     intervals.
  4049   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4050     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4051     - renamed theorems:
  4052         interval ~> box
  4053         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4054         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4055         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4056         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4057         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4058         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4059         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4060         open_interval ~> open_box
  4061         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4062         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4063         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4064         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4065         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4066         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4067         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4068         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4069         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4070         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4071         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4072         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4073         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4074         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4075         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4076         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4077         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4078         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4079         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4080         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4081         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4082         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4083         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4084         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4085 
  4086     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4087         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4088         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4089         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4090         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4091         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4092         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4093         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4094         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4095         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4096         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4097         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4098         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4099         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4100         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4101         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4102         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4103         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4104 
  4105   - renamed theorems:
  4106     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4107     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4108     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4109 
  4110 * HOL-Probability:
  4111   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4112 
  4113     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4114       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4115 
  4116     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4117 
  4118   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4119     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4120 
  4121     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4122     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4123     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4124     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4125     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4126     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4127     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4128     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4129     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4130     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4131     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4132     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4133     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4134     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4135     integral_indicator          ~>
  4136          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4137     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4138     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4139     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4140 
  4141     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4142          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4143 
  4144     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4145          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4146 
  4147     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4148          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4149 
  4150     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4151          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4152          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4153 
  4154     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4155          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4156 
  4157     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4158          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4159 
  4160     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4161          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4162          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4163 
  4164     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4165          nn_integral_real_affine
  4166 
  4167     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4168          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4169 
  4170     The following theorems where removed:
  4171 
  4172     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4173     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4174     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4175     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4176     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4177     integral_cmul_indicator
  4178     integral_real
  4179 
  4180   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4181     distributed random variables.
  4182 
  4183 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4184 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4186 
  4187 
  4188 *** Scala ***
  4189 
  4190 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4191 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4192 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4193 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4194 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4197 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 
  4200 *** ML ***
  4201 
  4202 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4203 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4204 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4205 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4206 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4207 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4208 
  4209 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4210 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4211 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4212 actually belongs to it).
  4213 
  4214 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4215 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4216 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4217 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4218 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4219 of schematic variables.
  4220 
  4221 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4222 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4225 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4226 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4230 
  4231 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4232 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4233 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4237 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4238 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4239 formal context.
  4240 
  4241 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4242 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4243 
  4244 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4245 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4246 
  4247 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4248 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4249 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4250 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4251 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4252 
  4253 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4254 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4255 purposes.
  4256 
  4257 
  4258 *** System ***
  4259 
  4260 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4261 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4262 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4263 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4264 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4265 
  4266 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4267 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4268 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4269 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4270 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4271 settings variable.
  4272 
  4273 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4274 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4275 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4276 
  4277 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4278 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4279 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4280 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4281 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4282 
  4283 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4284 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4285 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4286 
  4287 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4288 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4289 
  4290 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4291 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4292 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4293 
  4294 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4295 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4296 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4297 processing is started.
  4298 
  4299 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4300 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4301 
  4302 
  4303 
  4304 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4305 -------------------------------------
  4306 
  4307 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4308 
  4309 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4310 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4311 
  4312 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4313 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4314 
  4315 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4316 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4317 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4318 
  4319 
  4320 *** System ***
  4321 
  4322 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4323 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4324 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4325 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4326 
  4327 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4328 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4329 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4330 
  4331 
  4332 
  4333 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4334 -------------------------------------
  4335 
  4336 *** General ***
  4337 
  4338 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4339 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4340 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4343 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4346 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4347 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4348 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4349 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4350 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4351 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4352 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4353 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4354 syntax.
  4355 
  4356 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4357 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4360 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4361 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4362 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4363 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4364 
  4365 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4369 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4370 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4371 
  4372 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4373 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4374 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4375 
  4376 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4377 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4378 
  4379 
  4380 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4381 
  4382 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4383 Documentation panel.
  4384 
  4385 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4386 documentation.
  4387 
  4388 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4389 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4390 
  4391 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4392 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4393 normal editing and checking process.
  4394 
  4395 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4396 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4397 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4398 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4399 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4400 
  4401 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4402 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4403 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4404 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4405 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4406 
  4407 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4408 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4409 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4410 
  4411 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4412 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4413 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4414 to resolve conflict.
  4415 
  4416 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4417 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4418 
  4419 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4420 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4421 such command executions while editing.
  4422 
  4423 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4424 document content.
  4425 
  4426 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4427 toplevel theorem statements.
  4428 
  4429 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4430 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4431 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4432 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4433 
  4434 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4435 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4436 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4437 
  4438 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4439 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4440 
  4441 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4442 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4443 
  4444 
  4445 *** Pure ***
  4446 
  4447 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4448 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4449 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4450 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4451 details.
  4452 
  4453 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4454 
  4455 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4456 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4457 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4458 
  4459 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4463 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4464 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4465 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4466 
  4467 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4468 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4469 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4470 
  4471 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4472 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4473 
  4474 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4475 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4476 situations.
  4477 
  4478 
  4479 *** HOL ***
  4480 
  4481 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4482 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4486 
  4487 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4488 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4489 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4490 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4491 
  4492   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4493 
  4494 * Code generator:
  4495   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4496     'code_instance'.
  4497   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4498     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4499 
  4500 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4501 examples.
  4502 
  4503 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4504 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4505 to distinguish both when desired.
  4506 
  4507 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4508 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4509 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4510 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511 
  4512 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4513 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4514 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4515 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4516 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4517 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518 
  4519 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4520 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4521 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4522 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4523 
  4524 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4525 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4526 
  4527 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4528 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4529 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4530 
  4531 * Lifting:
  4532   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4533     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4534       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4535       transfer rules
  4536     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4537       correspondence relation can be generated
  4538     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4539       parametricity
  4540     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4541   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4542   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4543     copies
  4544   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4545     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4546     anonymous context)
  4547   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4548     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4549   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4550     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4551   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4552     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4553 
  4554 * Transfer:
  4555   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4556     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4557   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4558   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4559     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4560   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4561 
  4562 * Reification and reflection:
  4563   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4564     "Reification".
  4565   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4566   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4570   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4571     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4572     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4573   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4574     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4575   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4576     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4577     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4578     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4579     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4580     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4581     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4582     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4583   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4584     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4585   - Fact renames:
  4586       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4587       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4591 
  4592 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4593 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4594 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4596 
  4597 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4598 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4599 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4600 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4601 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4602 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4603 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4604 lemmas.
  4605 
  4606 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4607 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4608 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4609 
  4610 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4611 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4612 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4613 
  4614 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4615 top and bottom elements.
  4616 
  4617 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4618 
  4619 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4620 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4621 
  4622  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4623    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4624    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4625 
  4626  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4627    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  4628    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  4629 
  4630    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  4631    arbitrary filter.
  4632 
  4633  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  4634    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  4635    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  4636    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  4637    on a compact set.
  4638 
  4639  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  4640    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  4641    linear_continuum_topology).
  4642 
  4643  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  4644    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  4645    on all sequences converging to x.
  4646 
  4647  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  4648    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  4649    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  4650    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  4651    left or right.
  4652 
  4653  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  4654 
  4655      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  4656 
  4657  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  4658    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  4659 
  4660  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  4661    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  4662    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  4663    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  4664    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  4665    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  4666 
  4667  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  4668 
  4669    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  4670 
  4671    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  4672      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  4673 
  4674    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  4675 
  4676    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  4677      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  4678 
  4679    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  4680 
  4681    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  4682 
  4683  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  4684 
  4685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * Nitpick:
  4688   - Added option "spy".
  4689   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  4690 
  4691 * Sledgehammer:
  4692   - Renamed option:
  4693       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  4694     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  4696   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  4697   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  4698 
  4699 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  4700 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  4701 
  4702 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  4703   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  4704   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  4705     generated code.
  4706   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  4707   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  4708   - Fact renames:
  4709     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  4710     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  4711     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  4712 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  4715 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  4716 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  4717 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  4718 
  4719 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  4720 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  4721 
  4722 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4723 
  4724 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  4725 
  4726     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  4727     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  4728 
  4729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  4732 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  4733 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  4734 
  4735 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  4736 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  4737 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  4738 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4739 
  4740 * HOL-BNF:
  4741   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  4742     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  4743     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  4744     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  4745   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  4746     coinduct).
  4747   - Renamed keywords:
  4748     data ~> datatype_new
  4749     codata ~> codatatype
  4750     bnf_def ~> bnf
  4751   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  4752     discs ~> disc
  4753     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  4754     map_id' ~> map_id
  4755     sels ~> sel
  4756     set_map' ~> set_map
  4757     sets ~> set
  4758 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4759 
  4760 
  4761 *** ML ***
  4762 
  4763 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  4764 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  4765 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  4766 Examples.thy in particular.
  4767 
  4768 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  4769 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  4770 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  4771 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  4772 
  4773 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  4774 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  4775 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  4776 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  4777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  4780 
  4781     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  4782     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  4783 
  4784 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4785 
  4786 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  4787 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  4788 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  4789 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  4790 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  4791 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  4792 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  4793 
  4794 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  4795 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  4796 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  4797 clasets separately from the context.
  4798 
  4799 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  4800 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  4801 
  4802 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  4803 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  4804 
  4805 
  4806 *** System ***
  4807 
  4808 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  4809 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  4812 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  4815 settings variable.
  4816 
  4817 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  4818 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  4819 always pdf.
  4820 
  4821 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  4822 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  4823 
  4824 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  4825 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  4826 
  4827 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  4828 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  4829 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  4830 
  4831 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  4832 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  4833 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  4834 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  4835 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4836 for HTML presentation of theories.
  4837 
  4838 
  4839 
  4840 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  4841 -----------------------------------
  4842 
  4843 *** General ***
  4844 
  4845 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  4846 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  4847 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  4848 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  4849 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  4850 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  4851 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  4852 
  4853 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  4854 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  4855 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  4856 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  4857 
  4858 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  4859 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  4860 
  4861 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  4862 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  4863 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  4864 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  4865 dependencies properly.
  4866 
  4867 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  4868 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  4869 
  4870 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  4871 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  4872 
  4873 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  4874 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  4875 and "class ... context ...".
  4876 
  4877 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  4878 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  4879 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  4880 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  4881 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  4882 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  4883 
  4884 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  4885 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  4886 
  4887 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  4888 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  4889 
  4890 
  4891 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4892 
  4893 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  4894 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  4895 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  4896 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  4897 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  4898 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  4899 
  4900 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  4901 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  4902 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  4903 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  4904 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  4905 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  4906 
  4907 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  4908 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  4909 browser on demand.
  4910 
  4911 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  4912 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  4913 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  4914 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  4915 
  4916 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  4917 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  4918 
  4919 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  4920 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  4921 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  4922 potentially infinite message streams.
  4923 
  4924 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  4925 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  4926 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  4927 schemes.
  4928 
  4929 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  4930 symbols.
  4931 
  4932 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  4933 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  4934 
  4935 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  4936 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  4937 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  4938 
  4939 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  4940 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  4941 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  4942 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  4943 
  4944 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  4945 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  4946 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  4947 
  4948 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  4949 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  4950 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  4951 Isabelle distribution.
  4952 
  4953 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  4954 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  4955 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  4956 
  4957 
  4958 *** Pure ***
  4959 
  4960 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  4961 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  4962 
  4963 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  4964 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  4965 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4966 
  4967 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4968 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  4969 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  4970 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  4971 with some care where this is really required.
  4972 
  4973 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  4974 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  4975 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  4976 
  4977   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  4978 
  4979 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  4980 a Hasse diagram.
  4981 
  4982 
  4983 *** HOL ***
  4984 
  4985 * Sledgehammer:
  4986 
  4987   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  4988     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  4989   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  4990   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  4991   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  4992   - Renamed options:
  4993       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  4994       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  4995       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  4996       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  4997 
  4998 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  4999 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5000 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5001 
  5002 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Lifting:
  5006   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5007   - quot_del attribute
  5008   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5009 
  5010 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5011 expressions.
  5012 
  5013 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5014 pointfree expressions.
  5015 
  5016 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5017 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5018 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5019 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5023 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5024 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5025 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5026 accordingly.
  5027 
  5028 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5029 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5030 
  5031 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5032 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5033 
  5034 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5037 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5038 
  5039 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5040 
  5041 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5042 
  5043   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5044   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5045 
  5046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5049 
  5050   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5051   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5052 
  5053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5054 
  5055 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5056 
  5057   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5058     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5059     output f x converges to G.
  5060 
  5061   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5062     infinity (at_bot).
  5063 
  5064   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5065     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5066 
  5067   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5068     at_top".
  5069 
  5070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5071 
  5072 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5073 lattice type classes.
  5074 
  5075 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5076 
  5077     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5078     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5079 
  5080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5081 
  5082 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5083 changes as follows.
  5084 
  5085   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5086 
  5087       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5088       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5089 
  5090   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5091     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5092     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5093     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5094 
  5095   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5096     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5097     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5098 
  5099   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5100     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5101     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5102     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5103 
  5104   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5105     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5106 
  5107       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5108       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5109       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5110       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5111       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5112       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5113       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5114       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5115       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5116       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5117       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5118       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5119       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5120       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5121       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5122       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5123 
  5124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5125 
  5126 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5127 
  5128 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5129 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5130 
  5131 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5132 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5133 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5134 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5135 
  5136   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5137   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5138   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5139   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5140   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5141   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5142   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5143   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5144   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5145   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5146 
  5147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5150 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5151 Data").
  5152 
  5153 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5154 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5155 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5156 code.
  5157 
  5158 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5159 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5160 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5162 
  5163 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5164 
  5165 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5166 
  5167 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5168 
  5169   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5170   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5171 
  5172 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5173 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5174 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5175 
  5176   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5177 
  5178     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5179     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5180     cart_base i  removed
  5181     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5182 
  5183   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5184 
  5185   Renamed lemmas:
  5186 
  5187     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5188     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5189     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5190     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5191     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5192     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5193     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5194     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5195     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5196     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5197 
  5198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5199 
  5200 * HOL/Probability:
  5201 
  5202   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5203 
  5204   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5205     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5206     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5207 
  5208   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5209     projective family).
  5210 
  5211 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5212 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5213 
  5214 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5215 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5216 datatypes.
  5217 
  5218 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5219 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5220 
  5221 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5222 trees for the code generator.
  5223 
  5224 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5225 Lifting/Transfer.
  5226 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5227 
  5228 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 
  5232 *** Document preparation ***
  5233 
  5234 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5235 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5236 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5237 
  5238 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5239 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5240 
  5241 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5242 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5243 document/root.tex.
  5244 
  5245 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5246 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5247 
  5248 
  5249 *** ML ***
  5250 
  5251 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5252 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5253 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5254 
  5255 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5256 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5257 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5258 
  5259 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5260 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5261 necessarily printing visible text.
  5262 
  5263 
  5264 *** System ***
  5265 
  5266 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5267 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5268 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5269 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5270 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5271 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5272 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5273 
  5274 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5275 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5276 
  5277   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5278 
  5279 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5280 
  5281 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5282 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5283 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5284 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5285 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5286 
  5287 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5288 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5289 
  5290 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5291 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5292 
  5293 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5297 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5298 version of Isabelle.
  5299 
  5300 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5301 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5302 
  5303 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5304 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5305 for home-made settings.
  5306 
  5307 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5308 
  5309 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5310 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5311 configuration.
  5312 
  5313 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5314 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5315 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5316 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5317 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5318 
  5319 
  5320 
  5321 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5322 ------------------------------
  5323 
  5324 *** General ***
  5325 
  5326 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5327 
  5328   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5329     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5330   - markup for bound variables
  5331   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5332   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5333   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5334     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5335 
  5336 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5337 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5338 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5339 
  5340 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5341 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5342 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5343 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5344 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5345 
  5346   context
  5347     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5348     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5349   begin
  5350 
  5351   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5352 
  5353   end
  5354 
  5355   thm my_trans
  5356 
  5357 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5358 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5359 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5360 
  5361 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5362 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5363 
  5364 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5365 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5366 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5367 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5368 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5369 
  5370 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5371 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5372 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5373 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5374 indices of schematic variables.
  5375 
  5376 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5377 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5378 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5379 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5380 etc. was exploited.
  5381 
  5382 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5383 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5384 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5385 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5386 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5387 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5388 
  5389 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5390 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5391 manual.
  5392 
  5393 
  5394 *** Pure ***
  5395 
  5396 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5397 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5398 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5399 
  5400 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5401 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5402 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5403 undocumented feature.)
  5404 
  5405 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5406 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5407 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5408 
  5409   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5410 
  5411   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5412     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5413 
  5414 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5415 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5416 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5417 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5418 
  5419 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5420 
  5421     num ~> num_token
  5422     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5423     xstr ~> str_token
  5424 
  5425 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5426 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5427 position information via constraints).
  5428 
  5429 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5430 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5431 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5432 
  5433 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5434 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5435 
  5436 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5437 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5438 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5439 
  5440 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5441 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5442 
  5443 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5444 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5445 
  5446   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5447 
  5448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5449 
  5450 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5451 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5454 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5455 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5456 
  5457 
  5458 *** HOL ***
  5459 
  5460 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5461 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5462 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5463 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5464 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5465 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5466 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5467 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5468 possible.
  5469 
  5470 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5471 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5472 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5473 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5474 
  5475 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5476 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5479 
  5480 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5481 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5482 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5483 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5484 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5485 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5486 
  5487   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5488     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5489 
  5490   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5491     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5492     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5493 
  5494   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5495     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5496 
  5497   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5498     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5499     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5500 
  5501   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5502     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5503 
  5504 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5505 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5506 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5507 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5508 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5509 
  5510   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5511     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5512     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5513     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5514     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5515 
  5516     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5517     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5518 
  5519   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5520     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5521     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5522     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5523     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5524     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5525     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5526     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5527 
  5528   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5529     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5530     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5531     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5532 
  5533   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5534     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5535     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5536     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5537 
  5538   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5539     from type nat to type int.
  5540 
  5541 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5542 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5543 
  5544   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5545     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5546     type.  Example syntax:
  5547 
  5548     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5549       is List.insert
  5550 
  5551     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5552     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5553     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5554     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5555     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5556     by the package.
  5557 
  5558   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5559     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5560     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5561     code generation for each constant.
  5562 
  5563   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5564     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5565     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5566     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5567     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5568 
  5569   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5570     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5571     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5572 
  5573 * Quotient package:
  5574 
  5575   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5576     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5577 
  5578   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5579     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5580 
  5581   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5582     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5583     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5586     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5587 
  5588 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5589 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5590 
  5591 * Quickcheck:
  5592 
  5593   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5594     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5595     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5596     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5597     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5598 
  5599     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5600     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5601     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5602 
  5603     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5604     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5605 
  5606     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5607     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5608     show genuine counterexamples.
  5609 
  5610   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5611     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5612 
  5613     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5614     constructors of that type.
  5615 
  5616   - Support for multisets.
  5617 
  5618   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5619 
  5620   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5621     conjectures in a locale context.
  5622 
  5623 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5624 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5625 
  5626 * Sledgehammer:
  5627   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  5628     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  5629   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  5630   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  5631     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  5632   - Sped up the minimizer.
  5633   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  5634   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  5635   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  5636 
  5637 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  5638 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  5639 
  5640 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  5641 
  5642 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  5645 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  5646 
  5647   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  5648 
  5649 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  5650 a list and a nat.
  5651 
  5652 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  5653 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  5654 
  5655 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  5656 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  5657 default.
  5658 
  5659 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  5660 
  5661   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  5662 
  5663 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  5664 
  5665 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  5666 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  5667 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  5668 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  5669 one_case.
  5670 
  5671 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  5672 the result of the fact expression.
  5673 
  5674 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  5675 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  5676 of some relation theorems:
  5677 
  5678   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  5679   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5680   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  5681   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  5682   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  5683   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  5684 
  5685 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  5686 
  5687 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  5688 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  5689 
  5690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5691 
  5692 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  5693 to match the constant's name:
  5694 
  5695   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  5696   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  5697   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  5698   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  5699   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  5700   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  5701   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  5702   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  5703   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  5704   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  5705   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  5706   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  5707   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  5708   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  5709   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  5710   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  5711   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  5712   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  5713   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  5714   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  5715   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  5716   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5717   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5718   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  5719 
  5720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  5723 and corresponding theorem names:
  5724 
  5725   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  5726 
  5727   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  5728 
  5729   - Renamed theorems:
  5730 
  5731     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  5732     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  5733     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  5734     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  5735     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  5736     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  5737     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  5738     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  5739     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  5740     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  5741     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  5742     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  5743     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5744     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  5745     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  5746     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  5747     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  5748     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  5749     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  5750     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  5751     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  5752     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  5753     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  5754 
  5755     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  5756 
  5757     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  5758 
  5759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5760 
  5761 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  5762 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5763 
  5764   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  5765   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  5766   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  5767   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  5768   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  5769   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  5770   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  5771   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  5772   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  5773   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  5774   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  5775   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  5776   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  5777   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  5778   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  5779   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  5780   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  5781   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  5782   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  5783   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  5784   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  5785 
  5786 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  5787 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5788 
  5789 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5790 
  5791 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  5792 
  5793   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  5794   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  5795   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  5796   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  5797   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  5798   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  5799   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  5800   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  5801   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  5802   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  5803   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  5804   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  5805   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  5806   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  5807   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  5808   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  5809   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  5810   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  5811 
  5812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  5815 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  5816 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  5817 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  5818 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  5819 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  5820 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  5821 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  5822 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  5823 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  5824 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  5825 
  5826 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  5827 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  5828 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  5829 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  5830 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  5831 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  5832 
  5833 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  5834 through option types.
  5835 
  5836 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  5837 relations.
  5838 
  5839 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  5842 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5843 
  5844   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  5845   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  5846   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  5847   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  5848   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5849   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5850   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  5851   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5852   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  5853   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5854   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  5855   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  5856   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5857   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5858   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5859   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  5860   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  5861   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  5862   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5863   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5864   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  5865   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  5866   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5867   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5868   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  5869   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5870   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  5871   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  5872   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  5873   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  5874   zless_le ~> less_le
  5875   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  5876   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  5877   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  5878 
  5879 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  5880 
  5881   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  5882 
  5883 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  5884 
  5885 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  5886 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  5887 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  5888 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  5889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5892 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  5893 
  5894 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  5895 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  5896 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  5897 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  5898 follows:
  5899 
  5900   Operations:
  5901   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  5902   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  5903   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  5904   del -> rbt_del
  5905   delete -> rbt_delete
  5906   ins -> rbt_ins
  5907   insert -> rbt_insert
  5908   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  5909   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  5910   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  5911   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  5912   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  5913   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  5914   tree_less -> rbt_less
  5915   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  5916   union -> rbt_union
  5917   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  5918   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  5919 
  5920   Lemmas:
  5921   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  5922   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  5923   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  5924   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  5925   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  5926   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  5927   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  5928   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  5929   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  5930   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  5931   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  5932   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  5933   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  5934   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  5935   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  5936   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  5937   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  5938   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  5939   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  5940   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  5941   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  5942   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  5943   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  5944   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  5945   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  5946   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  5947   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  5948   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  5949   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  5950   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  5951   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  5952   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  5953   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  5954   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  5955   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  5956   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  5957   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  5958   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  5959   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  5960   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  5961   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  5962   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  5963   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  5964   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  5965   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  5966   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  5967   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  5968   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  5969   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  5970   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  5971   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  5972   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  5973   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  5974   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  5975   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  5976   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  5977   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  5978   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  5979   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  5980   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  5981   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  5982   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  5983   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  5984   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  5985   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  5986   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  5987   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  5988   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  5989   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  5990   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  5991   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  5992   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  5993   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  5994   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  5995   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  5996   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  5997   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  5998   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  5999   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  6000   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  6001   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  6002   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  6003   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  6004 
  6005 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  6006 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  6007 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6008 
  6009   Changed Operations:
  6010   float_abs -> abs
  6011   float_nprt -> nprt
  6012   float_pprt -> pprt
  6013   pow2 -> use powr
  6014   round_down -> float_round_down
  6015   round_up -> float_round_up
  6016   scale -> exponent
  6017 
  6018   Removed Operations:
  6019   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  6020 
  6021   Renamed Lemmas:
  6022   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  6023   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  6024   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  6025   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  6026   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  6027   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  6028   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  6029   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  6030   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  6031   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  6032   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  6033   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  6034   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  6035   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  6036   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  6037   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  6038   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  6039   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  6040   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  6041   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  6042   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  6043   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  6044   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  6045   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  6046   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  6047   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  6048   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  6049   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  6050   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  6051   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  6052   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  6053   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  6054   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  6055   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  6056   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  6057   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  6058 
  6059   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  6060   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  6061   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  6062   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  6063   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  6064   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  6065   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  6066   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  6067   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  6068   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  6069 
  6070 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  6071 association lists with distinct keys.
  6072 
  6073 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  6074 annotated commands.
  6075 
  6076 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  6077 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  6078 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  6079 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6080 
  6081 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  6082 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  6083 instead.
  6084 
  6085   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  6086   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  6087   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  6088   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  6089   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  6090   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  6091   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  6092   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6093   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6094   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6095   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  6096   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6097   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6098   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6099   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6100   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  6101   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6102   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  6103   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  6104   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  6105   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  6106   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  6107   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  6108   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  6109   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6110   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  6111   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  6112   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  6113   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  6114   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6115   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6116   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  6117   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  6118   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  6119   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  6120   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  6121   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  6122   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  6123   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  6124   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  6125   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  6126 
  6127 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  6128 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  6129 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  6130 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  6131 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  6132 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  6133 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  6134 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  6135 
  6136 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  6137 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  6138 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  6139 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  6140 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  6141 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  6142 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  6143 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  6144 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  6145 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  6146 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  6147 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6148 
  6149   Renamed constants:
  6150   measure -> emeasure
  6151   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  6152   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  6153   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  6154   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  6155 
  6156   Removed locales:
  6157   completeable_measure_space
  6158   finite_measure_space
  6159   finite_prob_space
  6160   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  6161   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  6162   finite_sigma_algebra
  6163   measure_space
  6164   pair_finite_prob_space
  6165   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  6166   pair_finite_space
  6167   pair_sigma_algebra
  6168   product_sigma_algebra
  6169 
  6170   Removed constants:
  6171   conditional_space
  6172   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  6173   image_space
  6174   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  6175   pair_measure_generator
  6176   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  6177   subvimage
  6178 
  6179   Replacement theorems:
  6180   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  6181   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  6182   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  6183   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  6184   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  6185   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  6186   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  6187   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  6188   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  6189   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  6190   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  6191   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  6192   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  6193   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  6194   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  6195   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  6196   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  6197   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  6198   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  6199   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  6200   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  6201   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  6202   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  6203   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  6204   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  6205   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  6206   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  6207   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  6208   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  6209   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  6210   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  6211   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  6212   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  6213   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  6214   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  6215   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  6216   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  6217   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  6218   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  6219   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  6220   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  6221   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  6222   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  6223   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  6224   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  6225   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  6226   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  6227   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  6228   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  6229   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  6230   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  6231   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  6232   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  6233   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  6234   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  6235   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  6236   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  6237   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  6238   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  6239   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  6240   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  6241   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  6242   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  6243   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  6244   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  6245   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  6246   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  6247   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  6248   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  6249   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  6250   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  6251   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  6252   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  6253   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  6254   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  6255   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  6256   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  6257   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  6258   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  6259   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  6260   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  6261   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  6262   measure_uniqu