NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Mar 24 12:00:17 2014 +0100 (2014-03-24)
changeset 56265 785569927666
parent 56248 67dc9549fa15
child 56275 600f432ab556
permissions -rw-r--r--
discontinued Toplevel.debug in favour of system option "exception_trace";
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
    38 "exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
    39 "declare [[exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    40 
    41 
    42 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    43 
    44 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    45 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    46 
    47 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    48 auxiliary ML files.
    49 
    50 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    51 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    52 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    53 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    54 antiquotations.
    55 
    56 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    57 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    58 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    59 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    60 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    61 to the system option "completion_limit").
    62 
    63 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    64 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    65 
    66 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    67 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    68 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    69 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    70 
    71 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    72 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    73 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    74 
    75 
    76 *** Pure ***
    77 
    78 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
    79 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
    80 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
    81 renaming needs to be applied:
    82 
    83   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
    84   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
    85   all            ~>  Pure.all
    86   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
    87   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
    88 
    89 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
    90 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
    91 old constants:
    92 
    93 setup {*
    94   fn thy => thy
    95     |> Sign.root_path
    96     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
    97     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
    98     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
    99     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   100 *}
   101 
   102 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   103 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   104 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   105 
   106 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   107 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   108 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   109 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   110 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   111 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   112 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   113 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   114 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   115 
   116 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   117 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   118 instantiated theorem.
   119 
   120 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   121 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   122 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   123 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   124 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   125 
   126   attribute_setup standard =
   127     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   128 
   129 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   130 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   131 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   132 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   133 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   134 
   135 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   136 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   137 differently).
   138 
   139 
   140 *** HOL ***
   141 
   142 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   144 
   145 * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   146 with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalized and replace
   147 former INT_cong, SUP_cong.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   150 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   153 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157 
   158 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   159   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   160   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   161   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   162   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   163   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   166   can now deal with conjunctions.
   167   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   168   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   169   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   170 
   171 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 * HOL-Word:
   174   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   175   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   176   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   177   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   178   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   179 
   180 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   184 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   187 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   190 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   193   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   194   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   195   Theory renamings:
   196     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   197     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   198     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   199     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   200     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   201     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   202     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   203     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   204     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   205     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   206     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   207     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   208     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   209     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   210     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   211     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   212     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   213     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   214     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   215     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   216     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   217     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   218   New theories:
   219     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   220     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   221     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   222     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   223     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   224   Discontinued theories:
   225     BNF/BNF.thy
   226     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   227   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * New (co)datatype package:
   230   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   231   * Renamed commands:
   232       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   233       primrec_new ~> primrec
   234       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   235     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   237     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   238     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   240     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   241     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Old datatype package:
   244   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   245     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   246     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   248     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   250 
   251 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   252   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   253   datatype package.
   254   Renamed constants:
   255     Option.set ~> set_option
   256     Option.map ~> map_option
   257     option_rel ~> rel_option
   258     option_rec ~> case_option
   259   Renamed theorems:
   260     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   261     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   262     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   263     option.recs ~> option.case
   264     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   265     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   266     map.simps ~> list.map
   267     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   268     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   269     the.simps ~> option.sel
   270   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   271 
   272 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   273     sum_map ~> map_sum
   274     map_pair ~> map_prod
   275     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   276     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   277     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   278     set_rel ~> rel_set
   279     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   280     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   281     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   282     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   283 
   284 * New theory:
   285     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   286 
   287 * Theory reorganizations:
   288   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   289 
   290 * SMT module:
   291   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   292     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   293     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   294     elsewhere.
   295 
   296 * Sledgehammer:
   297   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   298   - New option:
   299       smt_proofs
   300   - Renamed options:
   301       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   302       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Metis:
   306   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   307     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   310 
   311 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   314 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   315 
   316 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   317 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   318 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   319 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   320 
   321 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   325 with the given constants.
   326 
   327 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   328 
   329 Fact consolidations:
   330     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   331     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   332     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   333     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   334     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   335     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   336     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   337     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   338     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   339     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   340     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   341     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   342     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   343     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   344     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   345     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   346     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   347     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   348     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   349     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   350     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   351     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   352     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   353     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   354     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   355     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   356     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   357     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   358     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   359     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   360     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   361     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   362     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   363     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   364     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   365     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   366     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   367     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   368     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   369     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   370 
   371 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   372 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   373 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   374 
   375 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   376 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   377 
   378 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   379 
   380 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   381 
   382 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   384 
   385 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   389 operations on records.
   390 
   391 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   395     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   396 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   399     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   400     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   404   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   405   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   406   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   407     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   408   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   409     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   410   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   411 INCOMPATBILITY.
   412 
   413 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   414     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   415     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   416     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   417     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * Fact name consolidation:
   421     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   422     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   423     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   424     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   425     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   429 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   430 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   431 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   432 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   433 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   434 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   435 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   436 
   437 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   438 
   439 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   440 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   441 
   442 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   443 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   444 
   445 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   446 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   447 or the brute way with
   448 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   449 
   450 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   451 
   452 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   453 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   456 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   457 
   458 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   459 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   460 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY
   462 
   463 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   464   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   465   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   466   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   467   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   468   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   469   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   470   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   471   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   472   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   473   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   474   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   475 
   476   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   477 
   478   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   479     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   480     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   481     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   482     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   486   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   487 
   488   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   489 
   490   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   491 
   492   - removed constant isDiff
   493 
   494   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   495     syntax.
   496 
   497   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   498 
   499   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   500 
   501   - Other renamings:
   502     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   503     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   504     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   505     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   506     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   507     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   509 
   510 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   511 
   512 * Nitpick:
   513   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   514     infinite values.
   515   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   516     "Rep_Integ".
   517   - Removed "std" option.
   518   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   519     "hide_types".
   520 
   521 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   522   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   523   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   524     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   525     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   526     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   527     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   528     intervals.
   529 
   530 
   531 *** Scala ***
   532 
   533 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   534 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   535 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   536 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   537 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 
   540 *** ML ***
   541 
   542 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   543 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   544 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   545 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   546 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   547 of schematic variables.
   548 
   549 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   550 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   552 formal context.
   553 
   554 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   555 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   556 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   557 actually belongs to it).
   558 
   559 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   560 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   561 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   562 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   563 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   564 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   565 
   566 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   567 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   568 
   569 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   570 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   571 
   572 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   573 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   574 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   575 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   576 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   577 
   578 
   579 *** System ***
   580 
   581 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   582 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   583 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   584 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   585 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   586 
   587 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   588 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   589 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   590 
   591 
   592 
   593 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   594 -------------------------------------
   595 
   596 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   597 
   598 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   599 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   600 
   601 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   602 after edits surrounding the command location.
   603 
   604 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   605 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   606 e.g. out-of-memory).
   607 
   608 
   609 *** System ***
   610 
   611 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   612 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   613 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   614 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   615 
   616 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   617 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   618 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   619 
   620 
   621 
   622 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   623 -------------------------------------
   624 
   625 *** General ***
   626 
   627 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   628 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   629 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   632 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 
   634 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   635 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   636 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   637 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   638 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   639 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   640 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   641 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   642 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   643 syntax.
   644 
   645 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   646 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   649 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   650 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   651 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   652 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   653 
   654 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   658 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   659 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   660 
   661 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   662 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   663 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   664 
   665 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   666 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   667 
   668 
   669 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   670 
   671 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   672 Documentation panel.
   673 
   674 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   675 documentation.
   676 
   677 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   678 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   679 
   680 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   681 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   682 normal editing and checking process.
   683 
   684 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   685 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   686 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   687 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   688 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   689 
   690 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   691 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   692 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   693 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   694 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   695 
   696 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   697 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   698 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   699 
   700 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   701 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   702 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   703 to resolve conflict.
   704 
   705 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   706 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   707 
   708 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   709 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   710 such command executions while editing.
   711 
   712 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   713 document content.
   714 
   715 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   716 toplevel theorem statements.
   717 
   718 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   719 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   720 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   721 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   722 
   723 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   724 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   725 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   726 
   727 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   728 / Global Options / Appearance".
   729 
   730 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   731 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   732 
   733 
   734 *** Pure ***
   735 
   736 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   737 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   738 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   739 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   740 details.
   741 
   742 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   743 
   744 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   745 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   746 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   747 
   748 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   752 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   753 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   754 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   757 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   758 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   761 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   762 
   763 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   764 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   765 situations.
   766 
   767 
   768 *** HOL ***
   769 
   770 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   771 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   773 
   774 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   775 
   776 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   777 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   778 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   779 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   780 
   781   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   782 
   783 * Code generator:
   784   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   785     'code_instance'.
   786   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   787     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   788 
   789 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   790 examples.
   791 
   792 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   793 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   794 to distinguish both when desired.
   795 
   796 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   797 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   798 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   799 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   802 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   803 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   804 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   805 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   806 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   809 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   810 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   811 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   812 
   813 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   814 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   815 
   816 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   817 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   818 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   819 
   820 * Lifting:
   821   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   822     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   823       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   824       transfer rules
   825     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   826       correspondence relation can be generated
   827     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   828       parametricity
   829     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   830   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   831   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   832     copies
   833   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   834     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   835     anonymous context)
   836   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   837     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   838   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   839     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   840   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   841     INCOMPATIBILITY
   842 
   843 * Transfer:
   844   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   845     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   846   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   847   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   848     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   849   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   850 
   851 * Reification and reflection:
   852   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   853     "Reification".
   854   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   855   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   859   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   860     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   861     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   862   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   863     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   864   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   865     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   866     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   867     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   868     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   869     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   870     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   871     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   872   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   873     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   874   - Fact renames:
   875       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   876       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   880 
   881 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   882 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   883 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   887 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   888 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   889 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   890 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   891 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   892 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   893 lemmas.
   894 
   895 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   896 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   897 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   900 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   901 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   902 
   903 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   904 top and bottom elements.
   905 
   906 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   907 
   908 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   909 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   910 
   911  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   912    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   913    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   914 
   915  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   916    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   917    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   918 
   919    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   920    arbitrary filter.
   921 
   922  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   923    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   924    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   925    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   926    on a compact set.
   927 
   928  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   929    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   930    linear_continuum_topology).
   931 
   932  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   933    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   934    on all sequences converging to x.
   935 
   936  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   937    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   938    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   939    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   940    left or right.
   941 
   942  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   943 
   944      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   945 
   946  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   947    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   948 
   949  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   950    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   951    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   952    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   953    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   954    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   955 
   956  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   957 
   958    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   959 
   960    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   961      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   962 
   963    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   964 
   965    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   966      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   967 
   968    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   969 
   970    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   971 
   972  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   973 
   974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Nitpick:
   977   - Added option "spy".
   978   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   979 
   980 * Sledgehammer:
   981   - Renamed option:
   982       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   983     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   984   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   985   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   986   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   987 
   988 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   989 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   990 
   991 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   992   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   993   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   994     generated code.
   995   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   996   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   997   - Fact renames:
   998     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   999     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1000     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1001 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1004 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1005 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1006 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1007 
  1008 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1009 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1010 
  1011 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1014 
  1015     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1016     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1017 
  1018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1021 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1022 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1023 
  1024 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1025 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1026 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1027 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1028 
  1029 * HOL-BNF:
  1030   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1031     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1032     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1033     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1034   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1035     coinduct).
  1036   - Renamed keywords:
  1037     data ~> datatype_new
  1038     codata ~> codatatype
  1039     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1040   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1041     discs ~> disc
  1042     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1043     map_id' ~> map_id
  1044     sels ~> sel
  1045     set_map' ~> set_map
  1046     sets ~> set
  1047 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1048 
  1049 
  1050 *** ML ***
  1051 
  1052 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1053 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1054 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1055 Examples.thy in particular.
  1056 
  1057 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1058 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1059 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1060 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1061 
  1062 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1063 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1064 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1065 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1069 
  1070     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1071     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1072 
  1073 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1076 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1077 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1078 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1079 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1080 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1081 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1082 
  1083 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1084 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1085 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1086 clasets separately from the context.
  1087 
  1088 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1089 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1090 
  1091 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1092 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1093 
  1094 
  1095 *** System ***
  1096 
  1097 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1098 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1101 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1104 settings variable.
  1105 
  1106 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1107 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1108 always pdf.
  1109 
  1110 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1111 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1112 
  1113 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1114 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1115 
  1116 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1117 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1118 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1119 
  1120 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1121 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1122 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1123 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1124 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1125 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1126 
  1127 
  1128 
  1129 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1130 -----------------------------------
  1131 
  1132 *** General ***
  1133 
  1134 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1135 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1136 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1137 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1138 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1139 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1140 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1141 
  1142 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1143 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1144 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1145 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1146 
  1147 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1148 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1149 
  1150 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1151 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1152 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1153 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1154 dependencies properly.
  1155 
  1156 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1157 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1158 
  1159 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1160 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1161 
  1162 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1163 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1164 and "class ... context ...".
  1165 
  1166 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1167 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1168 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1169 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1170 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1171 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1172 
  1173 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1174 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1175 
  1176 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1177 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1178 
  1179 
  1180 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1181 
  1182 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1183 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1184 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1185 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1186 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1187 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1188 
  1189 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1190 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1191 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1192 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1193 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1194 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1195 
  1196 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1197 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1198 browser on demand.
  1199 
  1200 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1201 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1202 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1203 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1204 
  1205 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1206 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1207 
  1208 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1209 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1210 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1211 potentially infinite message streams.
  1212 
  1213 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1214 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1215 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1216 schemes.
  1217 
  1218 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1219 symbols.
  1220 
  1221 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1222 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1223 
  1224 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1225 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1226 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1227 
  1228 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1229 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1230 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1231 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1232 
  1233 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1234 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1235 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1236 
  1237 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1238 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1239 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1240 Isabelle distribution.
  1241 
  1242 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1243 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1244 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1245 
  1246 
  1247 *** Pure ***
  1248 
  1249 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1250 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1251 
  1252 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1253 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1254 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1257 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1258 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1259 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1260 with some care where this is really required.
  1261 
  1262 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1263 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1264 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1265 
  1266   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1267 
  1268 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1269 a Hasse diagram.
  1270 
  1271 
  1272 *** HOL ***
  1273 
  1274 * Sledgehammer:
  1275 
  1276   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1277     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1278   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1279   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1280   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1281   - Renamed options:
  1282       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1283       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1284       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1285       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1286 
  1287 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1288 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1289 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1290 
  1291 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1293 
  1294 * Lifting:
  1295   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1296   - quot_del attribute
  1297   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1298 
  1299 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1300 expressions.
  1301 
  1302 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1303 pointfree expressions.
  1304 
  1305 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1306 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1307 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1308 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1310 
  1311 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1312 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1313 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1314 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1315 accordingly.
  1316 
  1317 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1318 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1321 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1322 
  1323 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1326 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1327 
  1328 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1329 
  1330 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1331 
  1332   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1333   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1334 
  1335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1338 
  1339   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1340   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1341 
  1342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1343 
  1344 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1345 
  1346   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1347     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1348     output f x converges to G.
  1349 
  1350   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1351     infinity (at_bot).
  1352 
  1353   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1354     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1355 
  1356   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1357     at_top".
  1358 
  1359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1360 
  1361 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1362 lattice type classes.
  1363 
  1364 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1365 
  1366     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1367     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1368 
  1369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1372 changes as follows.
  1373 
  1374   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1375 
  1376       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1377       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1378 
  1379   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1380     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1381     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1382     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1383 
  1384   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1385     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1386     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1387 
  1388   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1389     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1390     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1391     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1392 
  1393   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1394     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1395 
  1396       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1397       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1398       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1399       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1400       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1401       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1402       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1403       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1404       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1405       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1406       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1407       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1408       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1409       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1410       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1411       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1412 
  1413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1414 
  1415 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1416 
  1417 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1418 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1419 
  1420 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1421 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1422 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1423 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1424 
  1425   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1426   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1427   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1428   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1429   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1430   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1431   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1432   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1433   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1434   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1435 
  1436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1437 
  1438 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1439 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1440 Data").
  1441 
  1442 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1443 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1444 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1445 code.
  1446 
  1447 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1448 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1449 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1451 
  1452 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1453 
  1454 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1455 
  1456 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1457 
  1458   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1459   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1460 
  1461 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1462 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1463 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1464 
  1465   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1466 
  1467     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1468     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1469     cart_base i  removed
  1470     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1471 
  1472   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1473 
  1474   Renamed lemmas:
  1475 
  1476     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1477     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1478     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1479     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1480     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1481     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1482     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1483     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1484     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1485     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1486 
  1487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * HOL/Probability:
  1490 
  1491   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1492 
  1493   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1494     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1495     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1496 
  1497   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1498     projective family).
  1499 
  1500 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1501 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1502 
  1503 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1504 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1505 datatypes.
  1506 
  1507 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1508 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1509 
  1510 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1511 trees for the code generator.
  1512 
  1513 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1514 Lifting/Transfer.
  1515 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 
  1521 *** Document preparation ***
  1522 
  1523 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1524 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1525 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1526 
  1527 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1528 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1529 
  1530 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1531 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1532 document/root.tex.
  1533 
  1534 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1535 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 
  1538 *** ML ***
  1539 
  1540 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1541 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1542 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1543 
  1544 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1545 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1546 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1547 
  1548 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1549 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1550 necessarily printing visible text.
  1551 
  1552 
  1553 *** System ***
  1554 
  1555 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1556 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1557 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1558 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1559 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1560 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1561 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1562 
  1563 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1564 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1565 
  1566   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1567 
  1568 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1569 
  1570 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1571 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1572 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1573 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1574 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1575 
  1576 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1577 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1578 
  1579 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1580 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1581 
  1582 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1586 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1587 version of Isabelle.
  1588 
  1589 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1590 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1591 
  1592 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1593 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1594 for home-made settings.
  1595 
  1596 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1597 
  1598 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1599 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1600 configuration.
  1601 
  1602 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1603 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1604 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1605 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1606 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1607 
  1608 
  1609 
  1610 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1611 ------------------------------
  1612 
  1613 *** General ***
  1614 
  1615 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1616 
  1617   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1618     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1619   - markup for bound variables
  1620   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1621   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1622   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1623     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1624 
  1625 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1626 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1627 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1628 
  1629 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1630 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1631 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1632 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1633 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1634 
  1635   context
  1636     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1637     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1638   begin
  1639 
  1640   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1641 
  1642   end
  1643 
  1644   thm my_trans
  1645 
  1646 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1647 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1648 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1649 
  1650 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1651 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1652 
  1653 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1654 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1655 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1656 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1657 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1658 
  1659 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1660 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1661 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1662 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1663 indices of schematic variables.
  1664 
  1665 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1666 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1667 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1668 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1669 etc. was exploited.
  1670 
  1671 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1672 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1673 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1674 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1675 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1676 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1677 
  1678 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1679 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1680 manual.
  1681 
  1682 
  1683 *** Pure ***
  1684 
  1685 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1686 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1687 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1688 
  1689 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1690 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1691 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1692 undocumented feature.)
  1693 
  1694 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1695 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1696 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1697 
  1698   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1699 
  1700   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1701     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1702 
  1703 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1704 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1705 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1706 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1707 
  1708 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1709 
  1710     num ~> num_token
  1711     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1712     xstr ~> str_token
  1713 
  1714 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1715 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1716 position information via constraints).
  1717 
  1718 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1719 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1720 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1721 
  1722 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1723 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1724 
  1725 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1726 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1727 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1728 
  1729 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1730 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1733 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1734 
  1735   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1736 
  1737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1738 
  1739 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1740 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1741 
  1742 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1743 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1744 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1745 
  1746 
  1747 *** HOL ***
  1748 
  1749 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1750 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1751 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1752 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1753 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1754 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1755 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1756 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1757 possible.
  1758 
  1759 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1760 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1761 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1762 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1763 
  1764 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1765 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1766 
  1767 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1768 
  1769 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1770 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1771 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1772 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1773 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1774 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1775 
  1776   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1777     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1778 
  1779   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1780     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1781     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1782 
  1783   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1784     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1785 
  1786   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1787     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1788     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1789 
  1790   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1791     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1792 
  1793 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1794 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1795 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1796 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1797 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1798 
  1799   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1800     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1801     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1802     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1803     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1804 
  1805     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1806     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1807 
  1808   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1809     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1810     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1811     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1812     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1813     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1814     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1815     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1816 
  1817   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1818     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1819     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1820     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1821 
  1822   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1823     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1824     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1825     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1826 
  1827   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1828     from type nat to type int.
  1829 
  1830 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1831 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1832 
  1833   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1834     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1835     type.  Example syntax:
  1836 
  1837     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1838       is List.insert
  1839 
  1840     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1841     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1842     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1843     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1844     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1845     by the package.
  1846 
  1847   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1848     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1849     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1850     code generation for each constant.
  1851 
  1852   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1853     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1854     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1855     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1856     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1857 
  1858   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1859     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1860     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1861 
  1862 * Quotient package:
  1863 
  1864   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1865     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1866 
  1867   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1868     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1869 
  1870   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1871     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1872     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1875     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1878 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1879 
  1880 * Quickcheck:
  1881 
  1882   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1883     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1884     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1885     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1886     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1887 
  1888     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1889     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1890     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1891 
  1892     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1893     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1894 
  1895     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1896     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1897     show genuine counterexamples.
  1898 
  1899   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1900     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1901 
  1902     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1903     constructors of that type.
  1904 
  1905   - Support for multisets.
  1906 
  1907   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1908 
  1909   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1910     conjectures in a locale context.
  1911 
  1912 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1913 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1914 
  1915 * Sledgehammer:
  1916   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1917     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1918   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1919   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1920     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1921   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1922   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1923   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1924   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1925 
  1926 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1927 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1928 
  1929 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1930 
  1931 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1932 
  1933 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1934 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1935 
  1936   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1937 
  1938 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1939 a list and a nat.
  1940 
  1941 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1942 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1943 
  1944 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1945 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1946 default.
  1947 
  1948 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1949 
  1950   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1951 
  1952 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1953 
  1954 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1955 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1956 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1957 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1958 one_case.
  1959 
  1960 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1961 the result of the fact expression.
  1962 
  1963 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1964 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1965 of some relation theorems:
  1966 
  1967   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1968   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1969   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1970   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1971   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1972   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1973 
  1974 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1975 
  1976 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1977 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1978 
  1979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1980 
  1981 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1982 to match the constant's name:
  1983 
  1984   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1985   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1986   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1987   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1988   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1989   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1990   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1991   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1992   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1993   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1994   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1995   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1996   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1997   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1998   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1999   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2000   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2001   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2002   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2003   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2004   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2005   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2006   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2007   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2008 
  2009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2010 
  2011 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2012 and corresponding theorem names:
  2013 
  2014   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2015 
  2016   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2017 
  2018   - Renamed theorems:
  2019 
  2020     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2021     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2022     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2023     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2024     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2025     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2026     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2027     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2028     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2029     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2030     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2031     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2032     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2033     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2034     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2035     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2036     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2037     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2038     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2039     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2040     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2041     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2042     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2043 
  2044     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2045 
  2046     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2047 
  2048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2049 
  2050 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2051 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2052 
  2053   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2054   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2055   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2056   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2057   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2058   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2059   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2060   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2061   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2062   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2063   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2064   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2065   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2066   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2067   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2068   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2069   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2070   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2071   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2072   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2073   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2074 
  2075 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2076 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2079 
  2080 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2081 
  2082   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2083   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2084   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2085   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2086   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2087   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2088   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2089   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2090   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2091   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2092   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2093   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2094   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2095   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2096   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2097   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2098   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2099   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2100 
  2101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2102 
  2103 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2104 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2105 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2106 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2107 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2108 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2109 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2110 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2111 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2112 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2113 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2114 
  2115 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2116 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2117 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2118 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2119 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2120 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2121 
  2122 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2123 through option types.
  2124 
  2125 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2126 relations.
  2127 
  2128 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2129 
  2130 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2131 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2132 
  2133   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2134   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2135   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2136   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2137   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2138   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2139   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2140   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2141   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2142   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2143   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2144   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2145   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2146   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2147   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2148   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2149   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2150   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2151   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2152   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2153   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2154   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2155   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2156   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2157   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2158   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2159   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2160   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2161   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2162   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2163   zless_le ~> less_le
  2164   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2165   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2166   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2167 
  2168 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2169 
  2170   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2171 
  2172 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2173 
  2174 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2175 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2176 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2177 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2181 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2182 
  2183 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2184 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2185 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2186 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2187 follows:
  2188 
  2189   Operations:
  2190   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2191   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2192   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2193   del -> rbt_del
  2194   delete -> rbt_delete
  2195   ins -> rbt_ins
  2196   insert -> rbt_insert
  2197   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2198   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2199   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2200   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2201   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2202   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2203   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2204   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2205   union -> rbt_union
  2206   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2207   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2208 
  2209   Lemmas:
  2210   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2211   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2212   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2213   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2214   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2215   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2216   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2217   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2218   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2219   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2220   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2221   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2222   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2223   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2224   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2225   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2226   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2227   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2228   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2229   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2230   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2231   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2232   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2233   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2234   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2235   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2236   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2237   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2238   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2239   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2240   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2241   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2242   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2243   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2244   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2245   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2246   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2247   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2248   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2249   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2250   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2251   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2252   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2253   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2254   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2255   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2256   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2257   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2258   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2259   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2260   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2261   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2262   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2263   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2264   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2265   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2266   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2267   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2268   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2269   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2270   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2271   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2272   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2273   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2274   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2275   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2276   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2277   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2278   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2279   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2280   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2281   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2282   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2283   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2284   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2285   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2286   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2287   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2288   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2289   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2290   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2291   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2292   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2293 
  2294 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2295 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2296 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298   Changed Operations:
  2299   float_abs -> abs
  2300   float_nprt -> nprt
  2301   float_pprt -> pprt
  2302   pow2 -> use powr
  2303   round_down -> float_round_down
  2304   round_up -> float_round_up
  2305   scale -> exponent
  2306 
  2307   Removed Operations:
  2308   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2309 
  2310   Renamed Lemmas:
  2311   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2312   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2313   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2314   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2315   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2316   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2317   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2318   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2319   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2320   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2321   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2322   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2323   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2324   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2325   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2326   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2327   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2328   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2329   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2330   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2331   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2332   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2333   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2334   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2335   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2336   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2337   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2338   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2339   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2340   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2341   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2342   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2343   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2344   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2345   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2346   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2347 
  2348   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2349   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2350   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2351   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2352   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2353   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2354   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2355   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2356   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2357   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2358 
  2359 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2360 association lists with distinct keys.
  2361 
  2362 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2363 annotated commands.
  2364 
  2365 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2366 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2367 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2368 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2371 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2372 instead.
  2373 
  2374   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2375   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2376   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2377   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2378   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2379   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2380   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2381   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2382   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2383   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2384   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2385   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2386   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2387   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2388   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2389   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2390   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2391   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2392   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2393   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2394   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2395   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2396   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2397   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2398   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2399   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2400   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2401   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2402   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2403   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2404   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2405   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2406   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2407   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2408   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2409   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2410   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2411   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2412   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2413   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2414   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2415 
  2416 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2417 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2418 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2419 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2420 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2421 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2422 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2423 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2424 
  2425 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2426 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2427 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2428 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2429 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2430 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2431 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2432 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2433 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2434 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2435 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2436 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438   Renamed constants:
  2439   measure -> emeasure
  2440   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2441   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2442   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2443   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2444 
  2445   Removed locales:
  2446   completeable_measure_space
  2447   finite_measure_space
  2448   finite_prob_space
  2449   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2450   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2451   finite_sigma_algebra
  2452   measure_space
  2453   pair_finite_prob_space
  2454   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2455   pair_finite_space
  2456   pair_sigma_algebra
  2457   product_sigma_algebra
  2458 
  2459   Removed constants:
  2460   conditional_space
  2461   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2462   image_space
  2463   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2464   pair_measure_generator
  2465   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2466   subvimage
  2467 
  2468   Replacement theorems:
  2469   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2470   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2471   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2472   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2473   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2474   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2475   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2476   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2477   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2478   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2479   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2480   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2481   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2482   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2483   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2484   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2485   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2486   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2487   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2488   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2489   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2490   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2491   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2492   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2493   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2494   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2495   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2496   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2497   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2498   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2499   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2500   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2501   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2502   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2503   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2504   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2505   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2506   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2507   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2508   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2509   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2510   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2511   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2512   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2513   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2514   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2515   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2516   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2517   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2518   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2519   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2520   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2521   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2522   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2523   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2524   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2525   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2526   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2527   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2528   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2529   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2530   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2531   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2532   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2533   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2534   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2535   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2536   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2537   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2538   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2539   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2540   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2541   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2542   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2543   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2544   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2545   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2546   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2547   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2548   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2549   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2550   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2551   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2552   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2553   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2554   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2555   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2556   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2557   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2558   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2559   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2560   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2561   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2562   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2563   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2564   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2565   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2566   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2567   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2568   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2569   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2570   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2571   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2572   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2573   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2574   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2575   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2576   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2577   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2578   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2579   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2580   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2581   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2582   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2583   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2584   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2585   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2586   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2587   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2588   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2589   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2590   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2591   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2592   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2593   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2594   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2595   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2596   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2597 
  2598 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2599 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2600 
  2601 
  2602 *** FOL ***
  2603 
  2604 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2605 
  2606 
  2607 *** ZF ***
  2608 
  2609 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2610 analysis.
  2611 
  2612 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2613 
  2614 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616 
  2617 *** ML ***
  2618 
  2619 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2620 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2621 
  2622 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2623 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2624 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2625 
  2626 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2627 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2628 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2629 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2630 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2631 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2632 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2633 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2634 
  2635 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2636 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2637 
  2638 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2639 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2640 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2641 
  2642 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2643 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2646 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2647 context as well.
  2648 
  2649 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2650 
  2651   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2652   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2653   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2654   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2655   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2656   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2657   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2658   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2659   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2660   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2661   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2662   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2663 
  2664 
  2665 *** System ***
  2666 
  2667 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2668 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2669 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2670 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2671 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2672 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2673 the generic user home was intended.
  2674 
  2675 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2676 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2677 
  2678 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2679 (not just JRE).
  2680 
  2681 
  2682 
  2683 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2684 ------------------------------------
  2685 
  2686 *** General ***
  2687 
  2688 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2689 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2690 
  2691   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2692     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2693     files for checking).
  2694 
  2695   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2696     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2697     positions.
  2698 
  2699   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2700     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2701     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2702 
  2703   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2704     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2705     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2706 
  2707   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2708     cores.
  2709 
  2710   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2711     versions (garbage collection).
  2712 
  2713 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2714 including some remaining limitations.
  2715 
  2716 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2717 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2718 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2719 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2720 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2724 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2725 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2726 
  2727 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2728 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2729 usedir option -Q.
  2730 
  2731 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2732 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2733 
  2734   long_names   ~> names_long
  2735   short_names  ~> names_short
  2736   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2737 
  2738 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2739 
  2740   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2741 
  2742 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2743 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2744 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2745 
  2746 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2747 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2748 
  2749 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2750   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2751   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2752   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2753     "Classical Reasoner".
  2754 
  2755 
  2756 *** HOL ***
  2757 
  2758 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2759 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2762 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2763 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2764 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2765 class complete_linorder.
  2766 
  2767 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2768 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2769 
  2770 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2771 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2772 
  2773   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2774   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2775   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2776   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2777   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2778   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2779   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2780   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2781   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2782   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2783   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2784 
  2785 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2786 
  2787   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2788   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2789   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2790   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2791   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2792   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2793   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2794   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2795   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2796   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2797   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2798   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2799   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2800   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2801   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2802   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2803 
  2804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2805 
  2806 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2810 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2811 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2812 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2813 
  2814 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2815 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2816 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2820 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2821 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2822 
  2823 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2824 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2825 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2828 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2829 
  2830 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2831 
  2832     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2833     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2834 
  2835 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2836 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2839 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2842 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2843 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2844 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2847   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2848   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2849   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2850   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2851   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2852   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2853 
  2854 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2855 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2856 
  2857   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2858   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2859   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2860   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2861   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2862   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2863   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2864   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2865   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2866   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2867   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2868   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2869   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2870   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2871   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2872   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2873   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2874   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2875   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2876   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2877   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2878   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2879   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2880   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2881   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2882   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2883   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2884   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2885   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2886   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2887   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2888   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2889   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2890   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2891   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2892   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2893   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2894   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2895   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2896   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2897   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2898   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2899   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2900   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2901   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2902   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2903   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2904   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2905   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2906   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2907   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2908   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2909   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2910   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2911   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2912   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2913   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2914   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2915   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2916   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2917   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2918   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2919   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2920   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2921   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2922   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2923   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2924   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2925   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2926   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2927   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2928   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2929   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2930   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2931   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2932   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2933   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2934   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2935   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2936   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2937   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2938   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2939 
  2940 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2941 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2942 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2943 
  2944 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2945 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2946 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2947 
  2948 * Code generation:
  2949 
  2950   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2951     characters in the target language.
  2952 
  2953   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2954     instead.
  2955 
  2956   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2957 
  2958   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2959     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2960 
  2961       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2962 
  2963 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2966 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2967 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2968 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2969 syntax.
  2970 
  2971 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2972 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2973 
  2974 * Nitpick:
  2975   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2976   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2977   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2978     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Sledgehammer:
  2981   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2982   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2983     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2984   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2985     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2986   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2987     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2988   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2989     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2990   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2991     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993 * Metis:
  2994   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2996     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2997 
  2998 * Command 'try':
  2999   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3000     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3002     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3003 
  3004 * Quickcheck:
  3005   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3006     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3007   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3008     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3009   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3010     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3011     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3012     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3013   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3014     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3015 
  3016 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3017 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3018 
  3019 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3020 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3021 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3022 
  3023 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3024 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3028 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3029 
  3030 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3031 arithmetic.
  3032 
  3033 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3034 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3035 and lattice type classes.
  3036 
  3037 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3038 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3039 
  3040 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3041 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3042 
  3043 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3044 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3045 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3048   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3049   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3050   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3051 
  3052 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3053 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3054 constants:
  3055 
  3056   type inat   ~> type enat
  3057   Fin         ~> enat
  3058   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3059   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3060   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3061 
  3062 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3063 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3066 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3067 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3068 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3069 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3070 
  3071 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3072 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3073 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3074 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3075 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3076 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3077 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3078 
  3079   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3080   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3081   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3082   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3083 
  3084 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3085 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3086 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3089   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3090   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3091   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3092   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3093   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3094   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3095   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3096   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3097   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3098   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3099   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3100   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3101   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3102   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3103   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3104   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3105   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3106   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3107   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3108   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3109   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3110   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3111   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3112   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3113   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3114   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3115   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3116   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3117   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3118   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3119   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3120   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3121   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3122   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3123   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3124   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3125   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3126   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3127   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3128   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3129   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3130   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3131   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3132   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3133   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3134   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3135   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3136   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3137   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3138   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3139 
  3140 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3141   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3142   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3143   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3144   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3145     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3146 
  3147 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3150   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3151   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3152   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3153   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3154   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3155   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3156   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3157   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3158   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3159   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3160   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3161   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3162   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3163   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3164   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3165   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3166   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3167   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3168   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3169   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3170   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3171   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3172   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3173   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3174 
  3175 
  3176 *** Document preparation ***
  3177 
  3178 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3179 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3180 same.
  3181 
  3182 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3183 result.
  3184 
  3185 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3186 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3187 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3188 
  3189 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3190 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3191 
  3192 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3193 like this:
  3194 
  3195   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3196   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3197 
  3198 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3199 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3200 layouts.
  3201 
  3202 
  3203 *** ML ***
  3204 
  3205 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3206 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3207 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3208 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3209 under external program control.
  3210 
  3211 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3212 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3213 
  3214 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3215 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3216 (better known as Proof General).
  3217 
  3218 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3219 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3220 
  3221 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3222 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3223 
  3224 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3225 (including quotes etc.).
  3226 
  3227 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3228 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3229 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3230 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3231 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3232 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3233 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3234 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3235 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3236 
  3237 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3238 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3239 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3240 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3241 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3242 
  3243 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3244 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3245 
  3246 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3247 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3248 
  3249 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3250 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3251 
  3252 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3253 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3254 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3255 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3256 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3257 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3258 proper Proof.context.
  3259 
  3260 
  3261 *** System ***
  3262 
  3263 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3264 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3265 
  3266 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3267 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3268 
  3269 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3270 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3271 
  3272   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3273   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3274   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3275   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3276   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3277 
  3278 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3279 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3282 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3283 example:
  3284 
  3285   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3286 
  3287 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3288 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3289 
  3290 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3291 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3292 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3293 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3294 
  3295 
  3296 
  3297 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3298 ----------------------------------
  3299 
  3300 *** General ***
  3301 
  3302 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3303 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3304 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3305 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3306 like this:
  3307 
  3308   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3309 
  3310 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3311 
  3312 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3313 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3314 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3315 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3316 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3317 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3318 
  3319 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3320 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3321 the following package declarations:
  3322 
  3323   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3324   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3325 
  3326 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3327 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3328 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3329 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3330 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3331 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3332 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3333 
  3334 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3335 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3336 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3337 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3338 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3339 
  3340 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3341 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3342 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3343 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3344 
  3345 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3346 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3347 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3348 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3349 
  3350   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3351 
  3352   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3353   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3354   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3355   show_types                    show_types
  3356   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3357   show_consts                   show_consts
  3358   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3359 
  3360   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3361   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3362   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3363 
  3364   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3365   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3366 
  3367   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3368 
  3369   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3370   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3371   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3372   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3373   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3374 
  3375 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3376 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3377 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3378 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3379 
  3380 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3384   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3385 
  3386 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3387 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3388 float_token.
  3389 
  3390 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3391 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3395 DejaVu Sans.
  3396 
  3397 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3398 
  3399 
  3400 *** Pure ***
  3401 
  3402 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3403 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3404 time.
  3405 
  3406 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3407 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3410 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411 
  3412 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3413 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3414 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3415 command already provided this functionality.
  3416 
  3417 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3418 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3419 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3420 without interpretations.
  3421 
  3422 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3423 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3424 
  3425 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3426 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3427 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3428 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3429 
  3430 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3431 'definition' instead.
  3432 
  3433 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3434 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3435 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3436 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3437 
  3438 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3439 constructors.
  3440 
  3441 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3442 the local file system.
  3443 
  3444 
  3445 *** HOL ***
  3446 
  3447 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3448 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3449 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3450 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3451 
  3452   declare [[coercion f]]
  3453 
  3454 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3455 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3456 
  3457   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3458 
  3459 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3460 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3461 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3462 other theories like this:
  3463 
  3464   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3465 
  3466 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3467 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3468 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3469 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3470 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3471 for examples.
  3472 
  3473 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3474 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3477 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3478 
  3479 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3480 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3481 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3482 
  3483 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3484 functorial structure of types.
  3485 
  3486 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3487 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3488 
  3489 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3490 languages.
  3491 
  3492 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3493 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3497 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3500 combinators any longer.
  3501 
  3502 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3503 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3504 
  3505 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3506 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3507 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3508 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3509 
  3510   record 'a foo = ...
  3511   ...
  3512   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3513 
  3514 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3515 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3519 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3520 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3521 
  3522 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3523 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3524 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3525 
  3526 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3527 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3530 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3531 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3532 independently.
  3533 
  3534 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3535 counter example search.
  3536 
  3537 * Sledgehammer:
  3538   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3539     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3540     sledgehammer").
  3541   - Renamed commands:
  3542     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3543     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3544     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3545     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546   - Renamed options:
  3547     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3548     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3549     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3550     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3551     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Nitpick:
  3554   - Renamed options:
  3555     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3556     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3557     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3559   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3560   - Added "whack" option.
  3561   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3562   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3563   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3564   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3565     higher cardinalities.
  3566   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3567 
  3568 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3569 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3570 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3571 
  3572     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3573 
  3574 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3575 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3576 
  3577 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3578 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3579 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3580 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3581 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3582 "smt_solver".
  3583 
  3584 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3585 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3586 
  3587 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3588 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3589 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3590 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591 
  3592 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3593   - Renamed:
  3594     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3595     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3596     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597   - Added:
  3598     smt_verbose
  3599     smt_random_seed
  3600     smt_datatypes
  3601     smt_infer_triggers
  3602     smt_monomorph_limit
  3603     cvc3_options
  3604     remote_cvc3_options
  3605     remote_z3_options
  3606     yices_options
  3607 
  3608 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3609 header.
  3610 
  3611 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3612 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3613 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3614 
  3615   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3616 
  3617 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3620 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3621 
  3622 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3625 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3628 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3629 
  3630 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3631 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3634 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3635 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3643 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3646 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3647 for congruent(2)).
  3648 
  3649 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3650 
  3651   types
  3652     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3653     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3654 
  3655   constants
  3656     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3657     True ~> HOL.True
  3658     False ~> HOL.False
  3659     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3660     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3661     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3662     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3663     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3664     The ~> HOL.The
  3665     All ~> HOL.All
  3666     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3667     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3668     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3669     If ~> HOL.If
  3670     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3671     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3672     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3673     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3674     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3675     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3676     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3677     op : ~> Set.member
  3678     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3679 
  3680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3683 
  3684     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3685     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3686     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3687     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3688     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3689     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3690     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3691     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3692 
  3693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * More stylized fact names:
  3696 
  3697   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3698   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3699   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3700   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3701 
  3702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3705 
  3706   constants
  3707     null ~> List.null
  3708 
  3709   facts
  3710     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3711     null_empty ~> null_def
  3712 
  3713 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3714 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3715 generation.
  3716 
  3717 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3718 Haskell code.
  3719 
  3720 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3721 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3722 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3725 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726 
  3727 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3728 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3729 
  3730 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3731 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3732 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3735 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3741 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3742 referred to by its qualified name.
  3743 
  3744   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3745   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3746   product ~>  Enum.product
  3747 
  3748 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3749 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3753 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3754 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3755 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3758 sort_key.
  3759 
  3760 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3764 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3765 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3766 
  3767   types
  3768     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3769               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3770               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3771         (depends on your needs)
  3772 
  3773   constants
  3774      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3775      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3776      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3777 
  3778 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3779 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3780 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3781 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3784 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3785 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3786 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3787 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3793 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3794 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3795 
  3796 
  3797 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3798 
  3799 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3800 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3801 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3802 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3803 compatibility.
  3804 
  3805 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3806 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3807 
  3808 
  3809 *** HOLCF ***
  3810 
  3811 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3812 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3813 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3814 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3817 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3818 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3821   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3822   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3823 
  3824 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3825 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3826 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3829 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3830 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3831 domain definition now works:
  3832 
  3833   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3834 
  3835 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3836 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3837 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3838 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3839 
  3840   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3841     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3842 
  3843   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3844 
  3845 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3846 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3847 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3850 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3853 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3854 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3855 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3856 
  3857 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3858 
  3859 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3867 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3868 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3869 
  3870 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3871 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3872 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3875 still supported as an input translation.
  3876 
  3877 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3878 
  3879   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3880   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3881   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3882   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3883   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3884   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3885   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3886 
  3887 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3888 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3891   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3892   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3893   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3894   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3895   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3896 
  3897 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3898 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3901 
  3902   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3903   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3904   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3905   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3906 
  3907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3910 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3913 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3916   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3917   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3918   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3919   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3920   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3921   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3922   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3923   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3924   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3925   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3926   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3927   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3928   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3929   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3930   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3931   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3932   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3933   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3934   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3935 
  3936 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3939   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3940   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3941   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3942   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3943   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3944   box_less             ~> box_below
  3945   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3946   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3947   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3948   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3949   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3950   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3951   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3952   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3953   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3954   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3955   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3956   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3957   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3958   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3959   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3960   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3961   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3962   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3963   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3964   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3965   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3966   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3967   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3968   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3969   up_less              ~> up_below
  3970   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3971   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3972   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3973   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3974   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3975   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3976   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3977   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3978   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3979   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3980   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3981   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3982   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3983 
  3984 
  3985 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3986 
  3987 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3988 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 
  3991 *** ML ***
  3992 
  3993 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3994 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3995 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3996 
  3997 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3998 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3999 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4000 
  4001 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4002 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4003 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4004 
  4005 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4006 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4007 
  4008 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4009 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4010 
  4011 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4012 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4013 
  4014 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4015 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4016 
  4017 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4018 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4019 almost all situations.
  4020 
  4021 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4022 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4023 Isabelle/ML.
  4024 
  4025 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4026 meaning.
  4027 
  4028 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4029 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4030 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4031 
  4032 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4033 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4034 
  4035 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4036 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4037 
  4038 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4039 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4040 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4041 
  4042 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4043 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4044 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4045 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4046 configuration options.
  4047 
  4048 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4049 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4050 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4051 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4052 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4053 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4054 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4055 
  4056 
  4057 
  4058 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4059 ---------------------------------
  4060 
  4061 *** General ***
  4062 
  4063 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4064 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4065 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4066 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4067 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4068 their full internal name.
  4069 
  4070 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4071 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4072 Some hints on upgrading:
  4073 
  4074   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4075     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4076     which are independent of this issue.
  4077 
  4078   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4079     provides the following special forms:
  4080 
  4081       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4082       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4083       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4084 
  4085     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4086     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4087     extra variables".
  4088 
  4089     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4090     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4091     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4092     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4093     "logic".
  4094 
  4095   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4096     antiquotations:
  4097 
  4098       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4099       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4100       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4101       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4102 
  4103   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4104     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4105     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4106     antiquotations.
  4107 
  4108 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4109 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4110 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4111 diagnose syntax problems.
  4112 
  4113 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4114 
  4115 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4116 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4117 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4118 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4119 
  4120 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4121 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4122 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4123 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4126 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4127 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4128 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4129 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4132 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4133 
  4134 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4135 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4136 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4137 
  4138   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4139 
  4140 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4141 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4142 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4143 
  4144 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4145 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4149 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4150 
  4151 
  4152 *** Pure ***
  4153 
  4154 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4155 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4156 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4157 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4158 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4159 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4160 inspect proof terms.
  4161 
  4162 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4163 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4164 are added internally.  For example:
  4165 
  4166   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4167 
  4168 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4169 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4170 
  4171 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4174 'class' instead.
  4175 
  4176 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4177 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4181 invariants.
  4182 
  4183 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4184 user space functionality any longer.
  4185 
  4186 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4187 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4191 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4192 
  4193 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4194 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4195 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4196 
  4197 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4198 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4199 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4200 
  4201 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4202 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 
  4205 *** HOL ***
  4206 
  4207 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4208 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4209 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4210 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4211 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4212 
  4213 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4214 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4215 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4216 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4217 
  4218   fun
  4219     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4220   where
  4221     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4222 
  4223   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4224     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4225 
  4226   quotient_definition
  4227     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4228 
  4229 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4230 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4231 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4232 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4233 
  4234 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4235 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4236 
  4237 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4238 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4239 
  4240 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4244 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4245 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4246 
  4247 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4248 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4257 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4260 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4261 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4262 
  4263   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4264   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4265   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4266   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4267   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4268   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4269   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4270   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4271   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4272   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4273   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4274   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4275   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4276   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4277   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4278   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4279   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4280   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4281   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4282   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4283   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4284   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4285   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4286   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4287   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4288   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4289   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4290   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4291   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4292   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4293 
  4294 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4295 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4296 
  4297 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4298 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4299 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4300 
  4301 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4302 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4303 
  4304 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4305 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4308 
  4309 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4310 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4311 
  4312 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4313 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4318 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4319 
  4320 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4321 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4322 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4323 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4324 
  4325 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4326   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4327   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4328   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4329 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4330 
  4331 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4332 lattices):
  4333 
  4334     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4335     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4336 
  4337     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4338 
  4339     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4340     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4341     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4342     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4343     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4344     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4345     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4346     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4347     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4348     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4349     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4350     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4351     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4352 
  4353     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4354     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4355     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4356     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4357     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4358     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4359     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4360     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4361     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4362     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4363     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4364     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4365     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4366     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4367     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4368     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4369     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4370     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4371 
  4372   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4373   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4374 
  4375     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4376     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4377     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4378     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4379     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4380 
  4381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4382 
  4383 * Refined field classes:
  4384   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4385     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4386     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4387   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4391   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4392   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4393   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4394     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4395   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4396     equal_neg_zero.
  4397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4398 
  4399 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4400 sets to lattices:
  4401 
  4402   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4403   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4404   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4405   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4406   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4407   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4408   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4409   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4410   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4411   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4412 
  4413 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4414 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4415 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4416 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4417 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4418 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4419 
  4420 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4421 multiset order:
  4422 
  4423   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4424     <= and <;
  4425   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4426     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4427     multiset_order;
  4428   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4429     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4430     generation;
  4431   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4432     if needed.
  4433 
  4434 Renamed:
  4435 
  4436   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4437   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4438   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4439 
  4440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4443 
  4444 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4445 
  4446 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4447 
  4448 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4449 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4450 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4451 
  4452   Constants:
  4453   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4454   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4455   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4456   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4457   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4458   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4459   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4460   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4461   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4462   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4463   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4464   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4465   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4466 
  4467   Lemmas:
  4468   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4469   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4470   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4471   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4472   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4473   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4474   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4475   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4476   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4477   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4478   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4479   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4480   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4481 
  4482 * Sledgehammer:
  4483   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4484     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4485     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4486     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4487     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4488     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4489     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4491   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4492     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4493   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4494     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4495     is still experimental.)
  4496   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4497     full-typed mode.
  4498   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4499 
  4500 * Nitpick:
  4501   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4502   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4503   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4504     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4505   - Added support for quotient types.
  4506   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4507     constructs.
  4508   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4509     "termination" proofs).
  4510   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4511   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4512   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4513   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4514     record getters.
  4515   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4516   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4517   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4518   - Added "atoms" option.
  4519   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4520     problems.
  4521   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4522     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4523     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4525     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4527 
  4528 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4529   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4530   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4531   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4532   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4533   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4534   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4535   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4536   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4537   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4538 
  4539 
  4540 *** HOLCF ***
  4541 
  4542 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4543 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4544 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4545 
  4546 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4547 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4548 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4549 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4552 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4553 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4554 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4555 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4558 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4559 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4562 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4565   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4566 
  4567 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4568 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4571   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4572   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4573   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4574   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4575 
  4576 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4577 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4580   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4581   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4582 
  4583 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4584 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4588 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4591 
  4592 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4593 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 
  4596 *** ML ***
  4597 
  4598 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4599 
  4600     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4601     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4602 
  4603     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4604     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4605     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4606     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4607 
  4608     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4609     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4610     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4611 
  4612 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4613 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4614 
  4615 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4616 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4617 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4618 
  4619 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4620 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4621 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4622 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4623 
  4624 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4625 the context or even global references.
  4626 
  4627 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4628 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4629 
  4630 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4631 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4632 
  4633   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4634   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4635   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4636   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4637   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4638   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4639   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4640   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4641   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4642   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4643 
  4644 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4645 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4646 
  4647 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4648 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4649 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4650 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4651 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4652 
  4653 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4654 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4655 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4656 Theory_Data version.
  4657 
  4658 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4659 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4660 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4661 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4662 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4663 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4664 explicitly in rare situations.
  4665 
  4666 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4667 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4671 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4672 
  4673 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4674 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4675 quite rare).
  4676 
  4677 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4678 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4681 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4682 terms.
  4683 
  4684 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4685 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4686 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4687 
  4688 
  4689 *** System ***
  4690 
  4691 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4692 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4693 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4694 
  4695 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4696 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4697 respectively.
  4698 
  4699 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4700 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4701 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4702 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4703 
  4704   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4705 
  4706 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4707 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4708 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4709 component.
  4710 
  4711 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4712 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4713 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4714 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4715 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4716 the user for manual installation.
  4717 
  4718 
  4719 
  4720 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4721 -------------------------------------
  4722 
  4723 *** General ***
  4724 
  4725 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4726 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4727 
  4728 
  4729 *** Pure ***
  4730 
  4731 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4732 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4733 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4734 
  4735 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4736 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4737 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4738 
  4739 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4740 interpretation.
  4741 
  4742 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4743 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4744 
  4745 
  4746 *** Document preparation ***
  4747 
  4748 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4749 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4750 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4751 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4752 
  4753 
  4754 *** HOL ***
  4755 
  4756 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4757 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4758 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4759 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4760 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4761 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4762 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4763 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4764 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4765 
  4766 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4767 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4768 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4769 
  4770 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4771 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4772 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4773 
  4774 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4775 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4776 
  4777 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4778 
  4779 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4780 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4781 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4782 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4783 
  4784 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4785 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4786 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4787 "mirabelle" utility.
  4788 
  4789 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4790 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4791 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4792 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4793 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4794 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4795 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4796 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4797 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4798 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4799 
  4800 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4801 procedure only.
  4802 
  4803 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4804 
  4805 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4806 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4807 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4808 that fail later.
  4809 
  4810 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4811 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4812 
  4813 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4814 the same method as the approximation method.
  4815 
  4816 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4817 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4818 series expansion.
  4819 
  4820 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4821 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4822 
  4823 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4824 reals.
  4825 
  4826 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4827 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4828 
  4829 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4830 fixpoint theorem.
  4831 
  4832 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4833   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4834     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4835   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4836     accordingly
  4837   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4838     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4839   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4840     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4841 
  4842 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4843 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4844 lattice.
  4845 
  4846 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4847 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4848 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4849 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4850 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4851 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4855   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4856     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4857   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4858     le_inf_iff
  4859   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4860     sup_aci)
  4861   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4862   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4863   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4864     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4865     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4866     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4867     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4868     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4869     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4870     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4871     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4872     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4873     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4874   - authentic syntax for
  4875     Set.Pow
  4876     Set.image
  4877   - mere abbreviations:
  4878     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4879     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4880     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4881     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4882     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4883     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4884     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4885     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4886   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4887 
  4888 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4889 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4890 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4891 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4892 
  4893 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4894 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4895 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4898 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4901 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4902 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4903 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4906 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4907 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4908 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4909 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4910 
  4911 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4912 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4913 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4914 
  4915 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4916 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4917 
  4918 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4919 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4920 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4921 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4922 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4923 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4924 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4926 
  4927 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4928     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4929     code_post       replaces    code post
  4930     etc.
  4931   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * Renamed methods:
  4934     sizechange -> size_change
  4935     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4936   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4939 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4940 
  4941 * Renamed theorems:
  4942     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4943     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4944     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4945     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4946     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4947   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948 
  4949 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4951 
  4952 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4954 
  4955 
  4956 *** HOLCF ***
  4957 
  4958 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4959 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4960 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4961 
  4962 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4963 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4964 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4965 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4966 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4967 
  4968 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4969 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4970 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4971 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4972 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4973 
  4974 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4975 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4976 constructor are pre-configured.
  4977 
  4978 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4979 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4980 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4981 
  4982 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4983 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4984 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4985 as well.)
  4986 
  4987 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4988 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4989 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4990 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4991 examples.
  4992 
  4993 
  4994 *** ML ***
  4995 
  4996 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4997 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4998 
  4999 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5000 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5001 position, logical grouping etc.
  5002 
  5003 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5004 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5005 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5006 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5007 
  5008 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5009 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5010 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5011 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5012 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5013 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5014 
  5015 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5016 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5017 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5018 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5019 experiments with references.
  5020 
  5021 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5022 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5023 
  5024 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5025 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5026 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5027 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5028 
  5029 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5030 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5031 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5032 
  5033 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5034 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5035 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5036 
  5037 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5041 
  5042 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5043 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5044 
  5045 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5046 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5047 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5048 
  5049 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5050 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5051 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5054 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5055 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5059 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5060 instead of global theory.
  5061 
  5062 
  5063 *** System ***
  5064 
  5065 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5066 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5067 usedir option -q.
  5068 
  5069 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5070 also the system manual.
  5071 
  5072 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5073 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5074 
  5075 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5076 this is always enabled.
  5077 
  5078 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5079 
  5080 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5081 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5082 currently supported on Linux only.
  5083 
  5084 
  5085 
  5086 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5087 --------------------------------
  5088 
  5089 *** General ***
  5090 
  5091 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5092 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5093 
  5094   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5095     "isatool."
  5096 
  5097   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5098     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5099 
  5100   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5101     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5102 
  5103 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5104 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5105 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5106 
  5107 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5108 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5109 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5110 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5111 via "isabelle emacs".
  5112 
  5113 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5114 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5115 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5116 
  5117 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5118 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5119 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5120 
  5121 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5122 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5123 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5124 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5125 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5126 
  5127 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5128 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5129 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5130 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5131 
  5132 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5133 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5134 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5135 
  5136 
  5137 *** Pure ***
  5138 
  5139 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5140 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5141 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5142 
  5143 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5144 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5145 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5146 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5147 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5148 
  5149 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5150 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5151 useful in locale declarations.
  5152 
  5153 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5154 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5155 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5156 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5157 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5158 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5159 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5160 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5161 no longer generated.
  5162 
  5163 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5164 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5165 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5166 
  5167 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5168 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5169 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5170 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5171 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5172 
  5173 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5175 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5176 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5177 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5178 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5179 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5180 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5181 
  5182 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5183 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5184 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5185 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5186 
  5187 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5190 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5191 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5192 
  5193 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5194 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5195 
  5196 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5197 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5198 in HOL, write
  5199 
  5200     class foo = ...
  5201 
  5202 instead of
  5203 
  5204     class foo = type + ...
  5205 
  5206 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5207 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5210 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5211 
  5212 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5213 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5214 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5215 
  5216 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5217 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5218 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5219 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5220 directly in regular applications.
  5221 
  5222 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5223 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5224 
  5225 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5226 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5227 
  5228 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5229 theory context.
  5230 
  5231 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5232 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5233 
  5234 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5235 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5236 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5237 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5238 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5239 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5240 
  5241   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5242 
  5243 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5244 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5245 normalization.
  5246 
  5247 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5248 addressing etc.
  5249 
  5250 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5251 
  5252   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5253   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5254 
  5255 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5256 
  5257   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5258      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5259      parts of the code generator framework).
  5260 
  5261   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5262      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5263      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5264 
  5265 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5266 
  5267 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5268 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5269 
  5270 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5271 patterns, e.g.
  5272 
  5273     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5274 
  5275 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5276 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5277 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5278 hyphen:
  5279 
  5280     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5281 
  5282 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5283 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5284 
  5285 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5286 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5287 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5288 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5289 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5290 higher-order unification.
  5291 
  5292 
  5293 *** Document preparation ***
  5294 
  5295 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5296 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5297 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5298 
  5299 
  5300 *** HOL ***
  5301 
  5302 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5303 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5304 
  5305 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5306 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5307 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5308 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5309 Main, as before.
  5310 
  5311 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5312 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5313 
  5314 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5315 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5316 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5317 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5318 
  5319 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5320 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5321 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5322 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5323 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5324 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5325 
  5326 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5327 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5328 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5329 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5330 
  5331 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5332 menu.
  5333 
  5334 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5335 (contains the empty clause).
  5336 
  5337 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5338 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5339 
  5340 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5341 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5342 
  5343 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5344 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5345 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5346 
  5347 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5348 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5349 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5350 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5351 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5352 
  5353 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5354 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5355 
  5356 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5357 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5358 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5359 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5360 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5361 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5362 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5363 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5364 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5365 
  5366 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5367 
  5368 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5369 
  5370 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5371 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5372 
  5373 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5374 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5375 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5376 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5377 
  5378 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5379 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5380 
  5381     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5382     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5383     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5384     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5385     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5386     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5387     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5388     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5389 
  5390 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5391 theory Set.
  5392 
  5393 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5394 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5395 
  5396 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5397 
  5398 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5399 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5400 
  5401 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5402 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5403 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5404 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5405 allowed. For examples see
  5406 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5407 
  5408 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5409 
  5410 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5411 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5412 
  5413 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5414 structure:
  5415 
  5416     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5417     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5418     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5419     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5420     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5421     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5422     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5423     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5424     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5425     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5426     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5427     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5428     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5429     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5430     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5431     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5432     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5433     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5434     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5435     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5436     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5437     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5438     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5439     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5440     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5441     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5442     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5443     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5444     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5445     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5446     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5447     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5448     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5449 
  5450     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5451     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5452     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5453     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5454     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5455     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5456     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5457     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5458     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5459     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5460 
  5461     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5462     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5463     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5464     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5465     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5466     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5467 
  5468 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5469 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5470 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5471 
  5472 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5473 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5474 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5475 
  5476 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5477 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5478 
  5479 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5480 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5481 
  5482 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5483 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5484 proofs, e.g.
  5485 
  5486   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5487 
  5488 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5489 
  5490 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5491 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5492 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5495 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5499 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5500 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5504 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5505 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5506 preorder_class.*.
  5507 
  5508 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5509 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5510 
  5511 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5512 
  5513   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5514 
  5515 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5516 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5517 fold_image.
  5518 
  5519 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5520 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5521 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5522 the former will disappear at some point.
  5523 
  5524 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5525 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5526 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5527 
  5528 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5529 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5530 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5531 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5532 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5533 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5534 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5535 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5536 
  5537 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5538 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5539 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5540 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5541 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5542 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5543 
  5544     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5545     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5546     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5547     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5548     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5549     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5550     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5551 
  5552 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5553 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5554 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5555 
  5556 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5557 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5558 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5559 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5560 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5561 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5562 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5563 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5564 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5565 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5566 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5567 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5568 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5569 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5570 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5571 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5572 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5573 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5574 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5575 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5576 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5577 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5578 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5579 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5580 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5581 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5582 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5583 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5584 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5585 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5586 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5587 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5588 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5589 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5590 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5591 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5592 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5593 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5594 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5595 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5596 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5597 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5598 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5599 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5600 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5601 
  5602 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5603 
  5604 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5605 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5606 
  5607 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5608 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5609 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5610 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5611 
  5612 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5613 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5614 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5615 theory RealVector.
  5616 
  5617 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5618 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5619 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5620 and inner products are included.
  5621 
  5622 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5623 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5624 supported.
  5625 
  5626 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5627 first diagonalization argument.
  5628 
  5629 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5630 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5631 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5632 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5633 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5634 
  5635     hide (open) const gcd
  5636     abbreviation gcd where
  5637       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5638     notation (output)
  5639       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5640 
  5641 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5642 
  5643 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5644 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5645 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5648 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5649 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5650 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5651 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5652 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5653 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5654 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5655 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5656 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5657 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5658 cases.
  5659 
  5660 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5661 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5662 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5663 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5664 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5665 
  5666     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5667     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5668     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5669     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5670     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5671 
  5672 
  5673 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5674 
  5675 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5676 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5677 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5678 
  5679 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5680 
  5681 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5682 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5683 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5684 
  5685 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5686 
  5687 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5688 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5689 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5690 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5691 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5692 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5693 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5694 
  5695 
  5696 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5697 
  5698 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5699 
  5700 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5701 theory targets.
  5702 
  5703 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5704 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5705 'inductive' etc.
  5706 
  5707 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5708 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5709 
  5710 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5711 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5712 
  5713 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5714 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5715 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5716 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5717 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5718 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5719 the algorithm W:
  5720 
  5721  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5722  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5723          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5724 
  5725 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5726 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5727 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5728 
  5729 
  5730 *** HOLCF ***
  5731 
  5732 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5733 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5734 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5735 
  5736 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5737 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5738 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5739 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5740 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5743 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5744 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5745 
  5746 
  5747 *** ZF ***
  5748 
  5749 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5750 
  5751 
  5752 *** ML ***
  5753 
  5754 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5755 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5756 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5757 5.2.1!
  5758 
  5759 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5760 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5761 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5762 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5763 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5764 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5765 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5766 
  5767 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5768 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5769 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5770 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5771 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5772 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5773 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5774 
  5775 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5776 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5777 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5778 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5779 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5780 
  5781 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5782 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5783 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5784 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5785 Method.add_method.
  5786 
  5787 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5788 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5789 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5790 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5791 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5792 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5793 
  5794 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5795 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5796 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5797 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5798 examples.
  5799 
  5800 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5801 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5802 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5803 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5804 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5805 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5806 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5807 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5808 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5809 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5810 
  5811 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5812 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5813 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5814 
  5815 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5816 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5817 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5818 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5819 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5820 resort for legacy applications.
  5821 
  5822 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5823 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5824 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5825 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5826 explicit runtime argument.
  5827 
  5828 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5829 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5830 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5831 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5832 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5833 
  5834 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5835 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5836 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5837 theory state.
  5838 
  5839 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5840 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5841 
  5842   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5843   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5844   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5845   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5846   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5847   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5848   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5849   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5850   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5851   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5852 
  5853 
  5854 *** System ***
  5855 
  5856 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5857 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5858 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5859 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5860 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5861 
  5862 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5863 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5864 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5865 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5866 
  5867 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5868 
  5869 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5870 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5871 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5872 prover operations.
  5873 
  5874 
  5875 
  5876 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5877 -------------------------------
  5878 
  5879 *** General ***
  5880 
  5881 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5882 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5883 
  5884 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5885 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5886 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5887 provides a proper context already.
  5888 
  5889 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5890 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5891 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5892 
  5893 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5894 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5895 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5896 swap theory imports.
  5897 
  5898 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5899 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5900 
  5901 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5902 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5903 white space without escapes.
  5904 
  5905 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5906 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5907 "foo_bar".
  5908 
  5909 
  5910 *** Pure ***
  5911 
  5912 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5913 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5914 
  5915 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5916 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5917 
  5918 (1) unused_thms
  5919      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5920 
  5921 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5922      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5923      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5924 
  5925 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5926      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5927      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5928      their ancestors.
  5929 
  5930 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5931 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5932 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5933 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5934 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5935 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5936 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5937 
  5938 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5939 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5940 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5941 
  5942 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5943 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5944 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5945 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5946 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5947 
  5948 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5949 
  5950 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5951 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5952 update of theories within ML code.
  5953 
  5954 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5955 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5956 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5957 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5958 
  5959 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5960 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5961 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5963 
  5964 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5965 
  5966 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5967 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5968 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5969 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5970 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5971 
  5972 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5973 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5974 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5975 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5976 situations.
  5977 
  5978 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5979 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5980 proof text.
  5981 
  5982 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5983 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5984 
  5985 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5986 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5987 predicates.
  5988 
  5989 
  5990 *** Document preparation ***
  5991 
  5992 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5993 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5994 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5995 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5996 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5997 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5998 
  5999 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6000 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6001 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6002 
  6003 
  6004 *** HOL ***
  6005 
  6006 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6007 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6008 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6009 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6010 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6011 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6012 
  6013 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6014 with multithreading.
  6015 
  6016 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6017 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6018 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6019 
  6020 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6021 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6022 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6023 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6024 
  6025 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6026 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6027 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6028 and makes them available separately.  See
  6029 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6030 
  6031 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6032 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6033 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6034 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6035 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6036 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6037 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6038 the declared rules.
  6039 
  6040 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6041 
  6042   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6043 
  6044 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6045 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6046 
  6047 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6048 
  6049   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6050 
  6051   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6052     definitions on => and bool.
  6053 
  6054   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6055     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6056     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6057 
  6058       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6059       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6060       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6061       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6062       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6063       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6064       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6065       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6066 
  6067   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6068     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6069     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6070 
  6071   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6072     The proof pattern
  6073 
  6074       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6075       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6076 
  6077     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6078     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6079 
  6080       have "EX S. P S"
  6081       proof
  6082         show "P S" <...>
  6083       qed
  6084 
  6085   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6086     The proof pattern
  6087 
  6088       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6089       also have "S = T" <...>
  6090       finally have "P T" .
  6091 
  6092     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6093     must be replaced by something like
  6094 
  6095       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6096       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6097       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6098 
  6099   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6100     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6101 
  6102       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6103 
  6104     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6105     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6106     type of the form
  6107 
  6108       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6109 
  6110     rather than
  6111 
  6112       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6113 
  6114 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6115 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6116 
  6117 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6118 
  6119 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6120 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6122 
  6123 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6124 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6125 
  6126 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6127 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6130 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6131 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6132 
  6133 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6134 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6135 
  6136   less_trans
  6137   less_linear
  6138   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6139   le_less_trans
  6140   less_le_trans
  6141   less_not_sym
  6142   less_asym
  6143 
  6144 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6145 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6146 and different variable names.
  6147 
  6148 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6149 
  6150 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6151 finite maps.
  6152 
  6153 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6154 
  6155 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6156 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6157 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6158 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6159 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6160 accordingly.
  6161 
  6162 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6163 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6164 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6165 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6166 
  6167 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6168 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6169 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6170 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6171 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6173 
  6174 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6175 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6176 
  6177 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6178 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6179 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6180 
  6181 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6183 
  6184 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6185 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6186 
  6187 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6188 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6189 
  6190 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6191 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6194 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6196 
  6197 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6198 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6199 
  6200 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6201 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6202 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6203 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6204 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6205 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6206 
  6207 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6208 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6209 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6210 
  6211 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6212 
  6213 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6214 
  6215 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6216 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6217 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6218 
  6219 
  6220 *** ZF ***
  6221 
  6222 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6223 same session:
  6224 
  6225   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6226   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6227   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6228   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6229   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6230   List      -> List_ZF
  6231   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6232 
  6233 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6234 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6235 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6236 
  6237 
  6238 *** ML ***
  6239 
  6240 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6241 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6242 
  6243 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6244 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6245 
  6246 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6247 
  6248 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6249 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6250 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6251 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6252 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6253 
  6254 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6255 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6256 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6257 
  6258 
  6259 *** System ***
  6260 
  6261 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6262 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6263 
  6264 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6265 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6266 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6267 
  6268 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6269 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6270 
  6271 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6272