NEWS
author blanchet
Mon Mar 03 12:48:20 2014 +0100 (2014-03-03)
changeset 55867 79b915f26533
parent 55818 d8b2f50705d0
child 55875 6478b12b7297
permissions -rw-r--r--
rationalized internals
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    44 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    45 
    46 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    47 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    48 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    49 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    50 
    51 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    52 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    53 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    54 
    55 
    56 *** Pure ***
    57 
    58 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    59 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    60 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    61 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    62 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    63 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    64 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    66 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    67 
    68 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    69 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    70 instantiated theorem.
    71 
    72 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    73 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    74 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    75 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    76 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    77 
    78   attribute_setup standard =
    79     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    80 
    81 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    82 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    83 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    84 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    85 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    86 
    87 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    88 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    89 differently).
    90 
    91 
    92 *** HOL ***
    93 
    94 * HOL-Word:
    95   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
    96   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
    97   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
    98   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
    99   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   100 
   101 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   102 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   105 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   108 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   111 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   114   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   115   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
   116   "Main".
   117   Theory renamings:
   118     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   119     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   120     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   121     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   122     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   123     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   124     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   125     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   126     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   127     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   128     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   129     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   130     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   131     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   132     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   133     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   134     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   135     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   136     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   137     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   138     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   139     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   140   New theories:
   141     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   142     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   143     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   144     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   145     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   146   Discontinued theories:
   147     BNF/BNF.thy
   148     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   149   Renamed commands:
   150     datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   151     primrec_new ~> primrec
   152     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   153   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * Old datatype package:
   156   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   157     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   158     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * Old and new (co)datatype packages:
   161   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   162     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   163     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   166   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   167   datatype package.
   168   Renamed constants:
   169     Option.set ~> set_option
   170     Option.map ~> map_option
   171     option_rel ~> rel_option
   172     option_rec ~> case_option
   173   Renamed theorems:
   174     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   175     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   176     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   177     option.recs ~> option.case
   178     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   179     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   180     map.simps ~> list.map
   181     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   182     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   183     the.simps ~> option.sel
   184   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * New theory:
   187     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   188 
   189 * Theory reorganizations:
   190   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   191 
   192 * Sledgehammer:
   193   - New option:
   194       smt_proofs
   195   - Renamed options:
   196       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   197       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   198     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Metis:
   201   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   202     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   205 
   206 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   209 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   210 
   211 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   212 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   213 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   214 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   215 
   216 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   220 with the given constants.
   221 
   222 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   223 
   224 Fact consolidations:
   225     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   226     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   227     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   228     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   229     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   230     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   231     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   232     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   233     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   234     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   235     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   236     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   237     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   238     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   239     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   240     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   241     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   242     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   243     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   244     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   245     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   246     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   247     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   248     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   249     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   250     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   251     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   252     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   253     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   254     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   255     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   256     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   257     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   258     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   259     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   260     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   261     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   262     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   263     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   264     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   265 
   266 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   267 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   268 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   269 
   270 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   271 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   272 
   273 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   274 
   275 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   276 
   277 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   282 
   283 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   284 operations on records.
   285 
   286 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   290     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   294     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   295     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   299   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   300   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   301   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   302     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   303   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   304     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   305   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   306 INCOMPATBILITY.
   307 
   308 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   309     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   310     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   311     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   312     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 * Fact name consolidation:
   316     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   317     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   318     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   319     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   320     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   324 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   325 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   326 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   327 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   328 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   329 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   330 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   333 
   334 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   335 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   336 
   337 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   338 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   339 
   340 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   341 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   342 or the brute way with
   343 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   344 
   345 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   346 
   347 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   348 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   351 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   352 
   353 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   354 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   355 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   356 INCOMPATIBILITY
   357 
   358 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   359 
   360 * Nitpick:
   361   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   362     infinite values.
   363 
   364 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   365   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   366   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   367     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   368     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   369     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   370     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   371     intervals.
   372 
   373 
   374 *** Scala ***
   375 
   376 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   377 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   378 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   379 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   380 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 
   383 *** ML ***
   384 
   385 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   386 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   387 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   388 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   389 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   390 of schematic variables.
   391 
   392 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   393 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   394 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   395 formal context.
   396 
   397 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   398 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   399 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   400 actually belongs to it).
   401 
   402 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   403 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   404 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   405 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   406 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   407 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   408 
   409 
   410 *** System ***
   411 
   412 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   413 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   414 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   415 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   416 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   417 
   418 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   419 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   420 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   421 
   422 
   423 
   424 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   425 -------------------------------------
   426 
   427 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   428 
   429 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   430 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   431 
   432 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   433 after edits surrounding the command location.
   434 
   435 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   436 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   437 e.g. out-of-memory).
   438 
   439 
   440 *** System ***
   441 
   442 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   443 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   444 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   445 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   446 
   447 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   448 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   449 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   450 
   451 
   452 
   453 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   454 -------------------------------------
   455 
   456 *** General ***
   457 
   458 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   459 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   460 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   461 
   462 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   463 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   466 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   467 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   468 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   469 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   470 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   471 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   472 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   473 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   474 syntax.
   475 
   476 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   477 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   480 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   481 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   482 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   483 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   484 
   485 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   489 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   490 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   491 
   492 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   493 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   494 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   495 
   496 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   497 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   498 
   499 
   500 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   501 
   502 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   503 Documentation panel.
   504 
   505 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   506 documentation.
   507 
   508 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   509 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   510 
   511 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   512 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   513 normal editing and checking process.
   514 
   515 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   516 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   517 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   518 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   519 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   520 
   521 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   522 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   523 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   524 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   525 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   526 
   527 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   528 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   529 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   530 
   531 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   532 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   534 to resolve conflict.
   535 
   536 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   537 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   538 
   539 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   540 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   541 such command executions while editing.
   542 
   543 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   544 document content.
   545 
   546 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   547 toplevel theorem statements.
   548 
   549 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   550 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   551 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   552 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   553 
   554 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   555 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   556 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   557 
   558 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   559 / Global Options / Appearance".
   560 
   561 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   562 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   563 
   564 
   565 *** Pure ***
   566 
   567 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   568 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   569 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   570 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   571 details.
   572 
   573 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   574 
   575 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   576 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   577 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   578 
   579 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   581 
   582 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   583 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   584 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   585 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   586 
   587 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   588 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   589 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   590 
   591 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   592 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   593 
   594 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   595 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   596 situations.
   597 
   598 
   599 *** HOL ***
   600 
   601 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   602 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   603 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   606 
   607 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   608 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   609 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   610 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   611 
   612   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   613 
   614 * Code generator:
   615   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   616     'code_instance'.
   617   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   618     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   619 
   620 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   621 examples.
   622 
   623 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   624 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   625 to distinguish both when desired.
   626 
   627 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   628 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   629 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   630 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   631 
   632 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   633 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   634 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   635 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   636 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   637 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   640 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   641 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   642 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   643 
   644 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   645 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   646 
   647 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   648 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   649 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   650 
   651 * Lifting:
   652   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   653     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   654       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   655       transfer rules
   656     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   657       correspondence relation can be generated
   658     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   659       parametricity
   660     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   661   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   662   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   663     copies
   664   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   665     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   666     anonymous context)
   667   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   668     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   669   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   670     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   671   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   672     INCOMPATIBILITY
   673 
   674 * Transfer:
   675   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   676     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   677   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   678   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   679     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   680   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   681 
   682 * Reification and reflection:
   683   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   684     "Reification".
   685   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   686   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688 
   689 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   690   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   691     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   692     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   693   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   694     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   695   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   696     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   697     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   698     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   699     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   700     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   701     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   702     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   703   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   704     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   705   - Fact renames:
   706       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   707       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   711 
   712 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   713 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   714 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   715 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   718 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   719 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   720 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   721 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   722 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   723 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   724 lemmas.
   725 
   726 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   727 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   728 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   729 
   730 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   731 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   732 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   733 
   734 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   735 top and bottom elements.
   736 
   737 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   738 
   739 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   740 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   741 
   742  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   743    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   744    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   745 
   746  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   747    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   748    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   749 
   750    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   751    arbitrary filter.
   752 
   753  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   754    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   755    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   756    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   757    on a compact set.
   758 
   759  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   760    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   761    linear_continuum_topology).
   762 
   763  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   764    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   765    on all sequences converging to x.
   766 
   767  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   768    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   769    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   770    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   771    left or right.
   772 
   773  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   774 
   775      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   776 
   777  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   778    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   779 
   780  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   781    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   782    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   783    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   784    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   785    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   786 
   787  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   788 
   789    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   790 
   791    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   792      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   793 
   794    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   795 
   796    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   797      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   798 
   799    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   800 
   801    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   802 
   803  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   804 
   805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Nitpick:
   808   - Added option "spy"
   809   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   810 
   811 * Sledgehammer:
   812   - Renamed option:
   813       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   814     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   815   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   816   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   817   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   818 
   819 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   820 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   821 
   822 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   823   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   824   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   825     generated code.
   826   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   827   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   828   - Fact renames:
   829     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   830     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   831     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   832 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   835 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   836 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   837 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   838 
   839 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   840 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   841 
   842 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   845 
   846     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   847     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   848 
   849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   850 
   851 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   852 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   853 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   854 
   855 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   856 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   857 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   858 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   859 
   860 * HOL-BNF:
   861   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   862     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   863     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   864     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   865   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   866     coinduct).
   867   - Renamed keywords:
   868     data ~> datatype_new
   869     codata ~> codatatype
   870     bnf_def ~> bnf
   871   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   872     discs ~> disc
   873     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   874     map_id' ~> map_id
   875     sels ~> sel
   876     set_map' ~> set_map
   877     sets ~> set
   878 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 
   881 *** ML ***
   882 
   883 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   884 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   885 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   886 Examples.thy in particular.
   887 
   888 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   889 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   890 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   891 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   892 
   893 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   894 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   895 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   896 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   900 
   901     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   902     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   903 
   904 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   905 
   906 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   907 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   908 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   909 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   910 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   911 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   912 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   913 
   914 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   915 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   916 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   917 clasets separately from the context.
   918 
   919 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   920 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   921 
   922 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   923 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   924 
   925 
   926 *** System ***
   927 
   928 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   929 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   930 
   931 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   932 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   935 settings variable.
   936 
   937 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   938 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   939 always pdf.
   940 
   941 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   942 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   943 
   944 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   945 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   946 
   947 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   948 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   949 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   950 
   951 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   952 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   953 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   954 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   955 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   956 for HTML presentation of theories.
   957 
   958 
   959 
   960 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   961 -----------------------------------
   962 
   963 *** General ***
   964 
   965 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   966 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   967 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   968 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   969 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   970 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   971 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   972 
   973 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   974 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   975 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   976 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   977 
   978 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   979 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   980 
   981 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   982 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   983 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   984 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   985 dependencies properly.
   986 
   987 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   988 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   989 
   990 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   991 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   992 
   993 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   994 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   995 and "class ... context ...".
   996 
   997 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   998 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   999 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1000 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1001 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1002 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1003 
  1004 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1005 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1006 
  1007 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1008 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1009 
  1010 
  1011 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1012 
  1013 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1014 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1015 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1016 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1017 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1018 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1019 
  1020 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1021 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1022 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1023 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1024 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1025 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1026 
  1027 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1028 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1029 browser on demand.
  1030 
  1031 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1032 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1033 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1034 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1035 
  1036 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1037 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1038 
  1039 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1040 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1041 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1042 potentially infinite message streams.
  1043 
  1044 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1045 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1046 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1047 schemes.
  1048 
  1049 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1050 symbols.
  1051 
  1052 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1053 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1054 
  1055 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1056 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1057 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1058 
  1059 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1060 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1061 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1062 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1063 
  1064 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1065 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1066 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1067 
  1068 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1069 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1070 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1071 Isabelle distribution.
  1072 
  1073 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1074 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1075 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1076 
  1077 
  1078 *** Pure ***
  1079 
  1080 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1081 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1082 
  1083 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1084 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1085 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1086 
  1087 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1088 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1089 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1090 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1091 with some care where this is really required.
  1092 
  1093 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1094 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1095 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1096 
  1097   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1098 
  1099 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1100 a Hasse diagram.
  1101 
  1102 
  1103 *** HOL ***
  1104 
  1105 * Sledgehammer:
  1106 
  1107   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1108     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1109   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1110   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1111   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1112   - Renamed options:
  1113       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1114       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1115       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1116       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1117 
  1118 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1119 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1120 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1121 
  1122 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1124 
  1125 * Lifting:
  1126   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1127   - quot_del attribute
  1128   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1129 
  1130 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1131 expressions.
  1132 
  1133 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1134 pointfree expressions.
  1135 
  1136 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1137 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1138 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1139 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1143 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1144 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1145 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1146 accordingly.
  1147 
  1148 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1149 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1150 
  1151 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1152 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1157 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1158 
  1159 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1160 
  1161 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1162 
  1163   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1164   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1165 
  1166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1167 
  1168 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1169 
  1170   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1171   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1172 
  1173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1176 
  1177   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1178     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1179     output f x converges to G.
  1180 
  1181   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1182     infinity (at_bot).
  1183 
  1184   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1185     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1186 
  1187   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1188     at_top".
  1189 
  1190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1193 lattice type classes.
  1194 
  1195 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1196 
  1197     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1198     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1199 
  1200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1203 changes as follows.
  1204 
  1205   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1206 
  1207       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1208       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1209 
  1210   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1211     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1212     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1213     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1214 
  1215   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1216     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1217     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1218 
  1219   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1220     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1221     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1222     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1223 
  1224   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1225     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1226 
  1227       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1228       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1229       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1230       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1231       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1232       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1233       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1234       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1235       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1236       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1237       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1238       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1239       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1240       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1241       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1242       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1243 
  1244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245 
  1246 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1247 
  1248 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1249 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1250 
  1251 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1252 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1253 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1254 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1255 
  1256   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1257   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1258   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1259   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1260   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1261   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1262   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1263   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1264   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1265   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1266 
  1267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1270 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1271 Data").
  1272 
  1273 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1274 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1275 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1276 code.
  1277 
  1278 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1279 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1280 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1282 
  1283 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1284 
  1285 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1286 
  1287 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1288 
  1289   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1290   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1291 
  1292 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1293 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1294 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1295 
  1296   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1297 
  1298     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1299     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1300     cart_base i  removed
  1301     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1302 
  1303   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1304 
  1305   Renamed lemmas:
  1306 
  1307     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1308     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1309     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1310     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1311     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1312     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1313     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1314     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1315     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1316     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1317 
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * HOL/Probability:
  1321 
  1322   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1323 
  1324   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1325     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1326     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1327 
  1328   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1329     projective family).
  1330 
  1331 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1332 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1333 
  1334 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1335 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1336 datatypes.
  1337 
  1338 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1339 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1340 
  1341 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1342 trees for the code generator.
  1343 
  1344 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1345 Lifting/Transfer.
  1346 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1350 
  1351 
  1352 *** Document preparation ***
  1353 
  1354 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1355 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1356 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1357 
  1358 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1359 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1360 
  1361 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1362 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1363 document/root.tex.
  1364 
  1365 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1366 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1367 
  1368 
  1369 *** ML ***
  1370 
  1371 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1372 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1373 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1374 
  1375 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1376 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1377 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1378 
  1379 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1380 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1381 necessarily printing visible text.
  1382 
  1383 
  1384 *** System ***
  1385 
  1386 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1387 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1388 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1389 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1390 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1391 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1392 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1393 
  1394 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1395 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1396 
  1397   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1398 
  1399 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1400 
  1401 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1402 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1403 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1404 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1405 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1406 
  1407 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1408 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1409 
  1410 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1411 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1412 
  1413 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1415 
  1416 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1417 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1418 version of Isabelle.
  1419 
  1420 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1421 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1422 
  1423 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1424 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1425 for home-made settings.
  1426 
  1427 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1428 
  1429 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1430 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1431 configuration.
  1432 
  1433 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1434 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1435 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1436 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1437 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1438 
  1439 
  1440 
  1441 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1442 ------------------------------
  1443 
  1444 *** General ***
  1445 
  1446 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1447 
  1448   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1449     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1450   - markup for bound variables
  1451   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1452   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1453   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1454     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1455 
  1456 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1457 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1458 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1459 
  1460 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1461 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1462 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1463 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1464 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1465 
  1466   context
  1467     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1468     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1469   begin
  1470 
  1471   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1472 
  1473   end
  1474 
  1475   thm my_trans
  1476 
  1477 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1478 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1479 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1480 
  1481 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1482 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1483 
  1484 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1485 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1486 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1487 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1488 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1489 
  1490 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1491 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1492 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1493 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1494 indices of schematic variables.
  1495 
  1496 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1497 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1498 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1499 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1500 etc. was exploited.
  1501 
  1502 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1503 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1504 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1505 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1506 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1507 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1508 
  1509 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1510 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1511 manual.
  1512 
  1513 
  1514 *** Pure ***
  1515 
  1516 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1517 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1518 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1519 
  1520 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1521 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1522 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1523 undocumented feature.)
  1524 
  1525 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1526 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1527 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1528 
  1529   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1530 
  1531   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1532     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1533 
  1534 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1535 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1536 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1537 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1538 
  1539 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1540 
  1541     num ~> num_token
  1542     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1543     xstr ~> str_token
  1544 
  1545 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1546 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1547 position information via constraints).
  1548 
  1549 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1550 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1551 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1554 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1555 
  1556 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1557 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1558 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1559 
  1560 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1561 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1564 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1565 
  1566   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1567 
  1568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1571 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1572 
  1573 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1574 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1575 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1576 
  1577 
  1578 *** HOL ***
  1579 
  1580 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1581 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1582 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1583 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1584 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1585 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1586 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1587 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1588 possible.
  1589 
  1590 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1591 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1592 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1593 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1594 
  1595 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1596 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1599 
  1600 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1601 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1602 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1603 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1604 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1605 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1606 
  1607   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1608     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1609 
  1610   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1611     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1612     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1613 
  1614   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1615     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1616 
  1617   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1618     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1619     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1620 
  1621   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1622     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1623 
  1624 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1625 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1626 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1627 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1628 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1629 
  1630   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1631     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1632     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1633     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1634     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1635 
  1636     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1637     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1638 
  1639   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1640     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1641     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1642     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1643     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1644     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1645     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1646     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1647 
  1648   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1649     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1650     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1651     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1652 
  1653   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1654     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1655     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1656     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1657 
  1658   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1659     from type nat to type int.
  1660 
  1661 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1662 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1663 
  1664   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1665     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1666     type.  Example syntax:
  1667 
  1668     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1669       is List.insert
  1670 
  1671     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1672     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1673     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1674     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1675     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1676     by the package.
  1677 
  1678   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1679     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1680     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1681     code generation for each constant.
  1682 
  1683   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1684     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1685     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1686     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1687     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1688 
  1689   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1690     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1691     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1692 
  1693 * Quotient package:
  1694 
  1695   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1696     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1697 
  1698   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1699     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1700 
  1701   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1702     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1703     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1706     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1709 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1710 
  1711 * Quickcheck:
  1712 
  1713   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1714     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1715     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1716     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1717     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1718 
  1719     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1720     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1721     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1722 
  1723     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1724     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1725 
  1726     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1727     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1728     show genuine counterexamples.
  1729 
  1730   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1731     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1732 
  1733     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1734     constructors of that type.
  1735 
  1736   - Support for multisets.
  1737 
  1738   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1739 
  1740   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1741     conjectures in a locale context.
  1742 
  1743 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1744 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1745 
  1746 * Sledgehammer:
  1747   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1748     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1749   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1750   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1751     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1752   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1753   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1754   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1755   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1756 
  1757 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1758 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1759 
  1760 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1761 
  1762 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1765 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1766 
  1767   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1768 
  1769 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1770 a list and a nat.
  1771 
  1772 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1773 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1774 
  1775 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1776 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1777 default.
  1778 
  1779 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1780 
  1781   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1782 
  1783 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1784 
  1785 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1786 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1787 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1788 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1789 one_case.
  1790 
  1791 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1792 the result of the fact expression.
  1793 
  1794 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1795 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1796 of some relation theorems:
  1797 
  1798   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1799   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1800   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1801   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1802   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1803   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1804 
  1805 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1806 
  1807 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1808 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1809 
  1810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1813 to match the constant's name:
  1814 
  1815   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1816   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1817   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1818   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1819   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1820   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1821   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1822   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1823   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1824   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1825   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1826   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1827   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1828   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1829   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1830   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1831   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1832   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1833   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1834   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1835   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1836   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1837   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1838   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1839 
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1843 and corresponding theorem names:
  1844 
  1845   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1846 
  1847   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1848 
  1849   - Renamed theorems:
  1850 
  1851     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1852     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1853     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1854     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1855     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1856     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1857     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1858     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1859     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1860     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1861     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1862     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1863     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1864     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1865     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1866     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1867     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1868     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1869     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1870     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1871     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1872     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1873     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1874 
  1875     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1876 
  1877     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1878 
  1879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1882 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1883 
  1884   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1885   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1886   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1887   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1888   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1889   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1890   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1891   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1892   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1893   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1894   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1895   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1896   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1897   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1898   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1899   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1900   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1901   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1902   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1903   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1904   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1905 
  1906 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1907 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1908 
  1909 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910 
  1911 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1912 
  1913   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1914   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1915   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1916   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1917   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1918   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1919   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1920   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1921   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1922   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1923   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1924   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1925   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1926   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1927   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1928   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1929   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1930   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1931 
  1932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933 
  1934 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1935 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1936 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1937 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1938 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1939 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1940 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1941 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1942 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1943 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1944 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1945 
  1946 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1947 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1948 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1949 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1950 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1951 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1952 
  1953 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1954 through option types.
  1955 
  1956 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1957 relations.
  1958 
  1959 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1960 
  1961 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1962 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1963 
  1964   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1965   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1966   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1967   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1968   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1969   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1970   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1971   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1972   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1973   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1974   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1975   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1976   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1977   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1978   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1979   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1980   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1981   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1982   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1983   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1984   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1985   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1986   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1987   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1988   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1989   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1990   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1991   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1992   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1993   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1994   zless_le ~> less_le
  1995   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1996   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1997   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1998 
  1999 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2000 
  2001   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2002 
  2003 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2004 
  2005 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2006 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2007 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2008 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2010 
  2011 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2012 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2013 
  2014 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2015 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2016 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2017 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2018 follows:
  2019 
  2020   Operations:
  2021   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2022   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2023   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2024   del -> rbt_del
  2025   delete -> rbt_delete
  2026   ins -> rbt_ins
  2027   insert -> rbt_insert
  2028   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2029   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2030   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2031   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2032   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2033   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2034   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2035   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2036   union -> rbt_union
  2037   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2038   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2039 
  2040   Lemmas:
  2041   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2042   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2043   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2044   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2045   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2046   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2047   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2048   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2049   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2050   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2051   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2052   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2053   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2054   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2055   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2056   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2057   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2058   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2059   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2060   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2061   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2062   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2063   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2064   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2065   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2066   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2067   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2068   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2069   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2070   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2071   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2072   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2073   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2074   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2075   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2076   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2077   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2078   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2079   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2080   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2081   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2082   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2083   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2084   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2085   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2086   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2087   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2088   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2089   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2090   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2091   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2092   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2093   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2094   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2095   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2096   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2097   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2098   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2099   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2100   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2101   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2102   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2103   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2104   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2105   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2106   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2107   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2108   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2109   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2110   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2111   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2112   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2113   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2114   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2115   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2116   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2117   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2118   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2119   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2120   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2121   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2122   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2123   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2124 
  2125 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2126 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2127 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129   Changed Operations:
  2130   float_abs -> abs
  2131   float_nprt -> nprt
  2132   float_pprt -> pprt
  2133   pow2 -> use powr
  2134   round_down -> float_round_down
  2135   round_up -> float_round_up
  2136   scale -> exponent
  2137 
  2138   Removed Operations:
  2139   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2140 
  2141   Renamed Lemmas:
  2142   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2143   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2144   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2145   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2146   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2147   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2148   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2149   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2150   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2151   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2152   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2153   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2154   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2155   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2156   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2157   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2158   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2159   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2160   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2161   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2162   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2163   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2164   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2165   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2166   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2167   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2168   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2169   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2170   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2171   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2172   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2173   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2174   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2175   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2176   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2177   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2178 
  2179   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2180   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2181   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2182   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2183   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2184   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2185   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2186   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2187   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2188   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2189 
  2190 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2191 association lists with distinct keys.
  2192 
  2193 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2194 annotated commands.
  2195 
  2196 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2197 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2198 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2199 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2202 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2203 instead.
  2204 
  2205   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2206   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2207   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2208   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2209   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2210   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2211   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2212   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2213   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2214   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2215   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2216   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2217   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2218   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2219   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2220   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2221   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2222   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2223   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2224   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2225   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2226   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2227   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2228   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2229   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2230   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2231   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2232   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2233   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2234   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2235   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2236   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2237   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2238   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2239   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2240   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2241   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2242   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2243   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2244   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2245   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2246 
  2247 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2248 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2249 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2250 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2251 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2252 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2253 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2254 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2255 
  2256 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2257 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2258 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2259 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2260 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2261 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2262 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2263 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2264 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2265 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2266 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2267 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269   Renamed constants:
  2270   measure -> emeasure
  2271   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2272   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2273   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2274   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2275 
  2276   Removed locales:
  2277   completeable_measure_space
  2278   finite_measure_space
  2279   finite_prob_space
  2280   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2281   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2282   finite_sigma_algebra
  2283   measure_space
  2284   pair_finite_prob_space
  2285   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2286   pair_finite_space
  2287   pair_sigma_algebra
  2288   product_sigma_algebra
  2289 
  2290   Removed constants:
  2291   conditional_space
  2292   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2293   image_space
  2294   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2295   pair_measure_generator
  2296   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2297   subvimage
  2298 
  2299   Replacement theorems:
  2300   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2301   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2302   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2303   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2304   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2305   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2306   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2307   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2308   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2309   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2310   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2311   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2312   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2313   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2314   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2315   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2316   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2317   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2318   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2319   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2320   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2321   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2322   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2323   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2324   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2325   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2326   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2327   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2328   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2329   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2330   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2331   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2332   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2333   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2334   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2335   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2336   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2337   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2338   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2339   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2340   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2341   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2342   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2343   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2344   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2345   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2346   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2347   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2348   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2349   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2350   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2351   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2352   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2353   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2354   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2355   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2356   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2357   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2358   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2359   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2360   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2361   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2362   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2363   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2364   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2365   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2366   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2367   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2368   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2369   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2370   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2371   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2372   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2373   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2374   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2375   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2376   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2377   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2378   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2379   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2380   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2381   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2382   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2383   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2384   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2385   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2386   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2387   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2388   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2389   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2390   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2391   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2392   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2393   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2394   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2395   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2396   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2397   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2398   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2399   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2400   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2401   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2402   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2403   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2404   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2405   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2406   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2407   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2408   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2409   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2410   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2411   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2412   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2413   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2414   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2415   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2416   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2417   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2418   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2419   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2420   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2421   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2422   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2423   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2424   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2425   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2426   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2427   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2428 
  2429 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2430 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2431 
  2432 
  2433 *** FOL ***
  2434 
  2435 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2436 
  2437 
  2438 *** ZF ***
  2439 
  2440 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2441 analysis.
  2442 
  2443 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2444 
  2445 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2446 
  2447 
  2448 *** ML ***
  2449 
  2450 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2451 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2452 
  2453 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2454 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2455 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2456 
  2457 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2458 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2459 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2460 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2461 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2462 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2463 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2464 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2465 
  2466 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2467 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2468 
  2469 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2470 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2471 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2472 
  2473 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2474 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2477 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2478 context as well.
  2479 
  2480 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2481 
  2482   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2483   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2484   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2485   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2486   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2487   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2488   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2489   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2490   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2491   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2492   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2493   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2494 
  2495 
  2496 *** System ***
  2497 
  2498 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2499 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2500 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2501 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2502 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2503 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2504 the generic user home was intended.
  2505 
  2506 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2507 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2508 
  2509 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2510 (not just JRE).
  2511 
  2512 
  2513 
  2514 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2515 ------------------------------------
  2516 
  2517 *** General ***
  2518 
  2519 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2520 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2521 
  2522   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2523     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2524     files for checking).
  2525 
  2526   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2527     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2528     positions.
  2529 
  2530   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2531     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2532     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2533 
  2534   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2535     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2536     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2537 
  2538   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2539     cores.
  2540 
  2541   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2542     versions (garbage collection).
  2543 
  2544 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2545 including some remaining limitations.
  2546 
  2547 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2548 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2549 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2550 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2551 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2555 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2556 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2557 
  2558 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2559 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2560 usedir option -Q.
  2561 
  2562 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2563 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2564 
  2565   long_names   ~> names_long
  2566   short_names  ~> names_short
  2567   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2568 
  2569 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2570 
  2571   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2572 
  2573 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2574 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2575 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2576 
  2577 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2578 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2579 
  2580 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2581   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2582   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2583   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2584     "Classical Reasoner".
  2585 
  2586 
  2587 *** HOL ***
  2588 
  2589 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2590 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2593 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2594 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2595 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2596 class complete_linorder.
  2597 
  2598 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2599 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2600 
  2601 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2602 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2603 
  2604   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2605   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2606   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2607   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2608   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2609   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2610   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2611   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2612   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2613   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2614   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2615 
  2616 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2617 
  2618   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2619   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2620   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2621   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2622   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2623   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2624   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2625   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2626   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2627   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2628   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2629   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2630   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2631   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2632   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2633   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2634 
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2639 
  2640 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2641 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2642 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2643 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2646 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2647 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2651 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2652 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2653 
  2654 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2655 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2656 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2659 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2660 
  2661 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2662 
  2663     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2664     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2665 
  2666 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2667 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2670 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2671 
  2672 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2673 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2674 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2675 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2678   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2679   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2680   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2681   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2682   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2683   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2684 
  2685 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2686 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2687 
  2688   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2689   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2690   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2691   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2692   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2693   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2694   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2695   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2696   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2697   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2698   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2699   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2700   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2701   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2702   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2703   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2704   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2705   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2706   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2707   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2708   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2709   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2710   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2711   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2712   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2713   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2714   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2715   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2716   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2717   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2718   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2719   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2720   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2721   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2722   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2723   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2724   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2725   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2726   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2727   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2728   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2729   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2730   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2731   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2732   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2733   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2734   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2735   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2736   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2737   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2738   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2739   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2740   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2741   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2742   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2743   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2744   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2745   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2746   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2747   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2748   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2749   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2750   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2751   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2752   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2753   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2754   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2755   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2756   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2757   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2758   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2759   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2760   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2761   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2762   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2763   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2764   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2765   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2766   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2767   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2768   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2769   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2770 
  2771 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2772 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2773 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2774 
  2775 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2776 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2777 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2778 
  2779 * Code generation:
  2780 
  2781   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2782     characters in the target language.
  2783 
  2784   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2785     instead.
  2786 
  2787   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2788 
  2789   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2790     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2791 
  2792       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2793 
  2794 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795 
  2796 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2797 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2798 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2799 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2800 syntax.
  2801 
  2802 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2803 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2804 
  2805 * Nitpick:
  2806   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2807   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2808   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2809     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Sledgehammer:
  2812   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2813   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2814     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2815   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2816     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2817   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2818     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2819   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2820     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2821   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2822     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824 * Metis:
  2825   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2827     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Command 'try':
  2830   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2831     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2833     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2834 
  2835 * Quickcheck:
  2836   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2837     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2838   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2839     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2840   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2841     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2842     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2843     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2844   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2845     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2846 
  2847 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2848 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2849 
  2850 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2851 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2852 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2853 
  2854 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2855 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2859 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2862 arithmetic.
  2863 
  2864 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2865 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2866 and lattice type classes.
  2867 
  2868 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2869 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2870 
  2871 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2872 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2873 
  2874 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2875 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2876 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2879   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2880   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2881   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2882 
  2883 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2884 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2885 constants:
  2886 
  2887   type inat   ~> type enat
  2888   Fin         ~> enat
  2889   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2890   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2891   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2892 
  2893 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2894 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2895 
  2896 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2897 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2898 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2899 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2900 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2901 
  2902 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2903 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2904 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2905 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2906 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2907 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2908 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2909 
  2910   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2911   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2912   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2913   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2914 
  2915 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2916 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2917 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2920   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2921   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2922   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2923   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2924   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2925   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2926   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2927   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2928   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2929   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2930   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2931   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2932   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2933   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2934   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2935   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2936   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2937   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2938   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2939   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2940   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2941   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2942   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2943   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2944   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2945   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2946   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2947   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2948   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2949   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2950   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2951   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2952   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2953   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2954   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2955   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2956   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2957   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2958   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2959   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2960   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2961   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2962   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2963   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2964   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2965   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2966   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2967   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2968   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2969   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2970 
  2971 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2972   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2973   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2974   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2975   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2976     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2981   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2982   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2983   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2984   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2985   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2986   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2987   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2988   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2989   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2990   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2991   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2992   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2993   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2994   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2995   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2996   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2997   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2998   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2999   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3000   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3001   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3002   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3003   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3004   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3005 
  3006 
  3007 *** Document preparation ***
  3008 
  3009 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3010 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3011 same.
  3012 
  3013 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3014 result.
  3015 
  3016 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3017 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3018 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3019 
  3020 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3021 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3022 
  3023 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3024 like this:
  3025 
  3026   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3027   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3028 
  3029 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3030 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3031 layouts.
  3032 
  3033 
  3034 *** ML ***
  3035 
  3036 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3037 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3038 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3039 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3040 under external program control.
  3041 
  3042 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3043 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3044 
  3045 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3046 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3047 (better known as Proof General).
  3048 
  3049 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3050 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3051 
  3052 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3053 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3054 
  3055 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3056 (including quotes etc.).
  3057 
  3058 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3059 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3060 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3061 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3062 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3063 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3064 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3065 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3066 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3067 
  3068 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3069 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3070 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3071 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3072 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3073 
  3074 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3075 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3076 
  3077 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3078 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3079 
  3080 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3081 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3082 
  3083 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3084 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3085 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3086 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3087 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3089 proper Proof.context.
  3090 
  3091 
  3092 *** System ***
  3093 
  3094 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3095 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3096 
  3097 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3098 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3099 
  3100 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3101 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3102 
  3103   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3104   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3105   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3106   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3107   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3108 
  3109 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3110 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3111 
  3112 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3113 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3114 example:
  3115 
  3116   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3117 
  3118 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3119 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3120 
  3121 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3122 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3123 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3124 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3125 
  3126 
  3127 
  3128 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3129 ----------------------------------
  3130 
  3131 *** General ***
  3132 
  3133 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3134 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3135 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3136 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3137 like this:
  3138 
  3139   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3140 
  3141 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3142 
  3143 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3144 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3145 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3146 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3147 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3148 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3149 
  3150 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3151 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3152 the following package declarations:
  3153 
  3154   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3155   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3156 
  3157 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3158 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3159 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3160 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3161 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3162 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3163 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3164 
  3165 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3166 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3167 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3168 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3169 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3170 
  3171 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3172 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3173 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3174 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3175 
  3176 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3177 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3178 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3179 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3180 
  3181   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3182 
  3183   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3184   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3185   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3186   show_types                    show_types
  3187   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3188   show_consts                   show_consts
  3189   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3190 
  3191   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3192   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3193   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3194 
  3195   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3196   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3197 
  3198   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3199 
  3200   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3201   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3202   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3203   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3204   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3205 
  3206 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3207 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3208 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3209 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3210 
  3211 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3213 
  3214   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3215   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3216 
  3217 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3218 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3219 float_token.
  3220 
  3221 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3222 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3226 DejaVu Sans.
  3227 
  3228 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3229 
  3230 
  3231 *** Pure ***
  3232 
  3233 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3234 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3235 time.
  3236 
  3237 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3238 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3241 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3244 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3245 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3246 command already provided this functionality.
  3247 
  3248 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3249 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3250 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3251 without interpretations.
  3252 
  3253 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3254 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3255 
  3256 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3257 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3258 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3259 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3260 
  3261 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3262 'definition' instead.
  3263 
  3264 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3265 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3266 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3267 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3268 
  3269 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3270 constructors.
  3271 
  3272 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3273 the local file system.
  3274 
  3275 
  3276 *** HOL ***
  3277 
  3278 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3279 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3280 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3281 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3282 
  3283   declare [[coercion f]]
  3284 
  3285 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3286 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3287 
  3288   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3289 
  3290 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3291 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3292 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3293 other theories like this:
  3294 
  3295   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3296 
  3297 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3298 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3299 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3300 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3301 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3302 for examples.
  3303 
  3304 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3305 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3308 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3309 
  3310 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3311 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3312 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3313 
  3314 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3315 functorial structure of types.
  3316 
  3317 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3318 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3319 
  3320 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3321 languages.
  3322 
  3323 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3324 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3328 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3329 
  3330 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3331 combinators any longer.
  3332 
  3333 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3334 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3335 
  3336 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3337 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3338 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3339 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3340 
  3341   record 'a foo = ...
  3342   ...
  3343   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3344 
  3345 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3346 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3350 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3351 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3352 
  3353 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3354 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3355 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3356 
  3357 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3358 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3359 
  3360 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3361 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3362 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3363 independently.
  3364 
  3365 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3366 counter example search.
  3367 
  3368 * Sledgehammer:
  3369   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3370     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3371     sledgehammer").
  3372   - Renamed commands:
  3373     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3374     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3375     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3376     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377   - Renamed options:
  3378     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3379     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3380     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3381     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3382     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Nitpick:
  3385   - Renamed options:
  3386     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3387     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3390   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3391   - Added "whack" option.
  3392   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3393   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3394   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3395   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3396     higher cardinalities.
  3397   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3398 
  3399 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3400 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3401 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3402 
  3403     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3404 
  3405 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3406 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3407 
  3408 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3409 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3410 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3411 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3412 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3413 "smt_solver".
  3414 
  3415 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3416 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3417 
  3418 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3419 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3420 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3421 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3424   - Renamed:
  3425     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3426     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3427     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428   - Added:
  3429     smt_verbose
  3430     smt_random_seed
  3431     smt_datatypes
  3432     smt_infer_triggers
  3433     smt_monomorph_limit
  3434     cvc3_options
  3435     remote_cvc3_options
  3436     remote_z3_options
  3437     yices_options
  3438 
  3439 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3440 header.
  3441 
  3442 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3443 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3444 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3445 
  3446   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3447 
  3448 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3451 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3452 
  3453 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3456 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3459 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3460 
  3461 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3462 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3465 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3466 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3469 
  3470 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3472 
  3473 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3474 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3477 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3478 for congruent(2)).
  3479 
  3480 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3481 
  3482   types
  3483     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3484     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3485 
  3486   constants
  3487     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3488     True ~> HOL.True
  3489     False ~> HOL.False
  3490     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3491     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3492     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3493     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3494     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3495     The ~> HOL.The
  3496     All ~> HOL.All
  3497     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3498     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3499     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3500     If ~> HOL.If
  3501     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3502     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3503     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3504     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3505     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3506     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3507     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3508     op : ~> Set.member
  3509     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3510 
  3511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3514 
  3515     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3516     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3517     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3518     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3519     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3520     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3521     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3522     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3523 
  3524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * More stylized fact names:
  3527 
  3528   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3529   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3530   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3531   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3532 
  3533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3536 
  3537   constants
  3538     null ~> List.null
  3539 
  3540   facts
  3541     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3542     null_empty ~> null_def
  3543 
  3544 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3545 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3546 generation.
  3547 
  3548 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3549 Haskell code.
  3550 
  3551 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3552 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3553 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3556 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3559 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3560 
  3561 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3562 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3563 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3566 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3572 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3573 referred to by its qualified name.
  3574 
  3575   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3576   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3577   product ~>  Enum.product
  3578 
  3579 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3580 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3584 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3585 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3589 sort_key.
  3590 
  3591 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3595 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3596 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3597 
  3598   types
  3599     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3600               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3601               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3602         (depends on your needs)
  3603 
  3604   constants
  3605      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3606      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3607      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3608 
  3609 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3610 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3611 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3612 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3615 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3616 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3617 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3618 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3624 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3625 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3626 
  3627 
  3628 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3629 
  3630 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3631 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3632 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3633 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3634 compatibility.
  3635 
  3636 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3637 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 *** HOLCF ***
  3641 
  3642 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3643 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3644 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3648 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3649 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3652   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3653   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3654 
  3655 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3656 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3657 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3660 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3661 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3662 domain definition now works:
  3663 
  3664   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3665 
  3666 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3667 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3668 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3669 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3670 
  3671   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3672     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3673 
  3674   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3675 
  3676 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3677 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3678 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3681 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3684 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3685 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3686 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3687 
  3688 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3689 
  3690 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3698 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3699 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3700 
  3701 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3702 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3703 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3706 still supported as an input translation.
  3707 
  3708 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3709 
  3710   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3711   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3712   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3713   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3714   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3715   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3716   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3717 
  3718 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3719 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3722   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3723   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3724   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3725   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3726   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3727 
  3728 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3729 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3730 
  3731 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3732 
  3733   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3734   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3735   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3736   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3737 
  3738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3741 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3744 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3747   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3748   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3749   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3750   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3751   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3752   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3753   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3754   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3755   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3756   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3757   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3758   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3759   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3760   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3761   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3762   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3763   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3764   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3765   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3766 
  3767 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3770   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3771   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3772   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3773   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3774   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3775   box_less             ~> box_below
  3776   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3777   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3778   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3779   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3780   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3781   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3782   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3783   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3784   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3785   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3786   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3787   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3788   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3789   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3790   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3791   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3792   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3793   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3794   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3795   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3796   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3797   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3798   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3799   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3800   up_less              ~> up_below
  3801   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3802   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3803   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3804   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3805   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3806   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3807   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3808   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3809   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3810   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3811   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3812   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3813   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3814 
  3815 
  3816 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3817 
  3818 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3819 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3820 
  3821 
  3822 *** ML ***
  3823 
  3824 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3825 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3826 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3827 
  3828 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3829 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3830 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3831 
  3832 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3833 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3834 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3835 
  3836 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3837 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3838 
  3839 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3840 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3841 
  3842 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3843 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3844 
  3845 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3846 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3847 
  3848 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3849 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3850 almost all situations.
  3851 
  3852 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3853 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3854 Isabelle/ML.
  3855 
  3856 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3857 meaning.
  3858 
  3859 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3860 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3861 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3862 
  3863 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3864 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3865 
  3866 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3867 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3868 
  3869 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3871 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3872 
  3873 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3874 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3875 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3876 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3877 configuration options.
  3878 
  3879 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3880 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3881 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3882 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3883 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3884 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3885 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3886 
  3887 
  3888 
  3889 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3890 ---------------------------------
  3891 
  3892 *** General ***
  3893 
  3894 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3895 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3896 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3897 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3898 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3899 their full internal name.
  3900 
  3901 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3902 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3903 Some hints on upgrading:
  3904 
  3905   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3906     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3907     which are independent of this issue.
  3908 
  3909   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3910     provides the following special forms:
  3911 
  3912       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3913       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3914       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3915 
  3916     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3917     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3918     extra variables".
  3919 
  3920     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3921     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3922     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3923     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3924     "logic".
  3925 
  3926   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3927     antiquotations:
  3928 
  3929       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3930       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3931       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3932       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3933 
  3934   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3935     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3936     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3937     antiquotations.
  3938 
  3939 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3940 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3941 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3942 diagnose syntax problems.
  3943 
  3944 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3945 
  3946 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3947 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3948 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3949 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3950 
  3951 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3952 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3953 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3954 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3957 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3958 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3959 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3960 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3963 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3964 
  3965 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3966 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3967 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3968 
  3969   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3970 
  3971 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3972 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3973 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3974 
  3975 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3976 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3980 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3981 
  3982 
  3983 *** Pure ***
  3984 
  3985 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3986 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3987 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3988 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3989 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3990 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3991 inspect proof terms.
  3992 
  3993 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3994 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3995 are added internally.  For example:
  3996 
  3997   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3998 
  3999 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4000 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4001 
  4002 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4005 'class' instead.
  4006 
  4007 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4008 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4012 invariants.
  4013 
  4014 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4015 user space functionality any longer.
  4016 
  4017 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4018 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4022 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4023 
  4024 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4025 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4026 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4027 
  4028 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4029 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4030 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4031 
  4032 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4033 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 
  4036 *** HOL ***
  4037 
  4038 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4039 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4040 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4041 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4042 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4043 
  4044 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4045 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4046 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4047 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4048 
  4049   fun
  4050     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4051   where
  4052     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4053 
  4054   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4055     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4056 
  4057   quotient_definition
  4058     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4059 
  4060 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4061 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4062 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4063 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4064 
  4065 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4066 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4067 
  4068 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4069 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4070 
  4071 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4075 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4076 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4077 
  4078 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4079 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4088 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089 
  4090 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4091 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4092 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4095   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4096   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4097   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4098   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4099   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4100   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4101   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4102   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4103   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4104   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4105   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4106   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4107   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4108   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4109   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4110   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4111   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4112   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4113   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4114   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4115   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4116   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4117   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4118   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4119   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4120   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4121   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4122   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4123   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4124 
  4125 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4126 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4127 
  4128 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4129 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4130 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4131 
  4132 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4133 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4134 
  4135 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4136 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137 
  4138 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4139 
  4140 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4141 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4144 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4149 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4150 
  4151 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4152 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4153 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4154 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4157   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4158   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4159   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4161 
  4162 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4163 lattices):
  4164 
  4165     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4166     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4167 
  4168     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4169 
  4170     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4171     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4172     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4173     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4174     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4175     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4176     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4177     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4178     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4179     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4180     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4181     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4182     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4183 
  4184     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4185     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4186     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4187     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4188     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4189     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4190     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4191     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4192     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4193     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4194     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4195     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4196     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4197     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4198     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4199     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4200     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4201     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4202 
  4203   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4204   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4205 
  4206     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4207     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4208     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4209     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4210     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4211 
  4212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4213 
  4214 * Refined field classes:
  4215   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4216     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4217     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4218   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4222   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4223   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4224   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4225     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4226   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4227     equal_neg_zero.
  4228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4231 sets to lattices:
  4232 
  4233   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4234   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4235   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4236   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4237   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4238   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4239   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4240   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4241   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4242   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4243 
  4244 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4245 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4246 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4247 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4248 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4249 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4252 multiset order:
  4253 
  4254   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4255     <= and <;
  4256   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4257     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4258     multiset_order;
  4259   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4260     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4261     generation;
  4262   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4263     if needed.
  4264 
  4265 Renamed:
  4266 
  4267   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4268   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4269   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4270 
  4271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4272 
  4273 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4274 
  4275 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4276 
  4277 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4278 
  4279 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4280 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4281 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283   Constants:
  4284   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4285   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4286   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4287   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4288   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4289   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4290   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4291   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4292   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4293   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4294   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4295   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4296   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4297 
  4298   Lemmas:
  4299   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4300   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4301   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4302   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4303   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4304   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4305   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4306   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4307   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4308   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4309   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4310   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4311   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4312 
  4313 * Sledgehammer:
  4314   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4315     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4316     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4317     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4318     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4319     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4320     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4322   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4323     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4324   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4325     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4326     is still experimental.)
  4327   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4328     full-typed mode.
  4329   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4330 
  4331 * Nitpick:
  4332   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4333   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4334   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4335     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4336   - Added support for quotient types.
  4337   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4338     constructs.
  4339   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4340     "termination" proofs).
  4341   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4342   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4343   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4344   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4345     record getters.
  4346   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4347   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4348   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4349   - Added "atoms" option.
  4350   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4351     problems.
  4352   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4353     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4354     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4355   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4356     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4357   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4360   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4361   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4362   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4363   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4364   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4365   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4366   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4367   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4368   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 
  4371 *** HOLCF ***
  4372 
  4373 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4374 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4375 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376 
  4377 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4378 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4379 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4380 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4383 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4384 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4385 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4386 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 
  4388 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4389 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4390 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4391 
  4392 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4393 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4396   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4397 
  4398 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4399 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4402   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4403   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4404   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4405   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4406 
  4407 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4408 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4411   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4412   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4413 
  4414 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4415 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4419 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4422 
  4423 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4424 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 
  4427 *** ML ***
  4428 
  4429 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4430 
  4431     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4432     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4433 
  4434     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4435     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4436     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4437     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4438 
  4439     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4440     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4441     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4442 
  4443 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4444 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4445 
  4446 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4447 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4448 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4449 
  4450 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4451 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4452 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4453 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4454 
  4455 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4456 the context or even global references.
  4457 
  4458 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4459 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4460 
  4461 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4462 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4463 
  4464   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4465   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4466   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4467   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4468   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4469   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4470   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4471   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4472   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4473   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4474 
  4475 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4476 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4477 
  4478 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4479 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4480 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4481 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4482 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4483 
  4484 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4485 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4486 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4487 Theory_Data version.
  4488 
  4489 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4490 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4491 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4492 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4493 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4494 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4495 explicitly in rare situations.
  4496 
  4497 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4498 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4500 
  4501 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4502 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4503 
  4504 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4505 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4506 quite rare).
  4507 
  4508 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4509 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4510 
  4511 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4512 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4513 terms.
  4514 
  4515 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4516 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4517 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4518 
  4519 
  4520 *** System ***
  4521 
  4522 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4523 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4524 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4525 
  4526 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4527 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4528 respectively.
  4529 
  4530 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4531 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4532 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4533 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4534 
  4535   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4536 
  4537 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4538 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4539 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4540 component.
  4541 
  4542 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4543 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4544 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4545 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4546 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4547 the user for manual installation.
  4548 
  4549 
  4550 
  4551 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4552 -------------------------------------
  4553 
  4554 *** General ***
  4555 
  4556 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4557 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4558 
  4559 
  4560 *** Pure ***
  4561 
  4562 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4563 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4564 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4565 
  4566 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4567 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4568 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4569 
  4570 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4571 interpretation.
  4572 
  4573 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4574 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 
  4577 *** Document preparation ***
  4578 
  4579 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4580 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4581 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4582 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4583 
  4584 
  4585 *** HOL ***
  4586 
  4587 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4588 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4589 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4590 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4591 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4592 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4593 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4594 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4595 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4596 
  4597 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4598 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4599 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4600 
  4601 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4602 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4603 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4604 
  4605 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4606 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4607 
  4608 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4609 
  4610 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4611 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4612 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4613 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4614 
  4615 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4616 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4617 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4618 "mirabelle" utility.
  4619 
  4620 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4621 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4622 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4623 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4624 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4625 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4626 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4627 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4628 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4629 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4630 
  4631 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4632 procedure only.
  4633 
  4634 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4635 
  4636 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4637 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4638 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4639 that fail later.
  4640 
  4641 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4642 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4643 
  4644 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4645 the same method as the approximation method.
  4646 
  4647 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4648 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4649 series expansion.
  4650 
  4651 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4652 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4653 
  4654 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4655 reals.
  4656 
  4657 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4658 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4659 
  4660 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4661 fixpoint theorem.
  4662 
  4663 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4664   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4665     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4666   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4667     accordingly
  4668   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4669     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4670   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4671     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4672 
  4673 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4674 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4675 lattice.
  4676 
  4677 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4678 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4679 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4680 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4681 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4682 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4686   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4687     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4688   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4689     le_inf_iff
  4690   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4691     sup_aci)
  4692   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4693   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4694   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4695     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4696     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4697     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4698     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4699     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4700     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4701     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4702     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4703     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4704     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4705   - authentic syntax for
  4706     Set.Pow
  4707     Set.image
  4708   - mere abbreviations:
  4709     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4710     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4711     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4712     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4713     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4714     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4715     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4716     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4717   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4718 
  4719 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4720 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4721 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4722 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4723 
  4724 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4725 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4726 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4727 
  4728 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4729 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4732 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4733 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4734 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4735 
  4736 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4737 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4738 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4739 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4740 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4741 
  4742 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4743 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4747 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4750 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4751 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4752 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4753 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4754 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4755 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4759     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4760     code_post       replaces    code post
  4761     etc.
  4762   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Renamed methods:
  4765     sizechange -> size_change
  4766     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4767   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4768 
  4769 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4770 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4771 
  4772 * Renamed theorems:
  4773     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4774     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4775     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4776     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4777     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4778   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4779 
  4780 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4782 
  4783 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4785 
  4786 
  4787 *** HOLCF ***
  4788 
  4789 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4790 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4791 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4792 
  4793 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4794 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4795 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4796 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4797 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4798 
  4799 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4800 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4801 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4802 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4803 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4804 
  4805 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4806 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4807 constructor are pre-configured.
  4808 
  4809 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4810 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4811 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4812 
  4813 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4814 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4815 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4816 as well.)
  4817 
  4818 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4819 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4820 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4821 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4822 examples.
  4823 
  4824 
  4825 *** ML ***
  4826 
  4827 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4828 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4829 
  4830 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4831 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4832 position, logical grouping etc.
  4833 
  4834 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4835 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4836 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4837 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4838 
  4839 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4840 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4841 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4842 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4843 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4844 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4845 
  4846 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4847 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4848 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4849 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4850 experiments with references.
  4851 
  4852 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4853 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4854 
  4855 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4856 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4857 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4858 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4859 
  4860 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4861 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4862 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4863 
  4864 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4865 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4866 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4867 
  4868 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4869 
  4870 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4872 
  4873 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4874 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4875 
  4876 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4877 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4878 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4879 
  4880 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4881 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4882 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4885 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4886 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4890 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4891 instead of global theory.
  4892 
  4893 
  4894 *** System ***
  4895 
  4896 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4897 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4898 usedir option -q.
  4899 
  4900 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4901 also the system manual.
  4902 
  4903 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4904 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4905 
  4906 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4907 this is always enabled.
  4908 
  4909 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4910 
  4911 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4912 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4913 currently supported on Linux only.
  4914 
  4915 
  4916 
  4917 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4918 --------------------------------
  4919 
  4920 *** General ***
  4921 
  4922 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4923 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4924 
  4925   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4926     "isatool."
  4927 
  4928   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4929     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4930 
  4931   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4932     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4933 
  4934 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4935 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4936 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4937 
  4938 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4939 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4940 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4941 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4942 via "isabelle emacs".
  4943 
  4944 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4945 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4946 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4947 
  4948 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4949 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4950 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4951 
  4952 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4953 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4954 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4955 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4956 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4957 
  4958 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4959 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4960 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4961 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4962 
  4963 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4964 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4965 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4966 
  4967 
  4968 *** Pure ***
  4969 
  4970 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4971 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4972 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4973 
  4974 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4975 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4976 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4977 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4978 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4979 
  4980 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4981 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4982 useful in locale declarations.
  4983 
  4984 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4985 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4986 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4987 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4988 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4989 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4990 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4991 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4992 no longer generated.
  4993 
  4994 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4995 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4996 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4997 
  4998 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4999 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5000 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5001 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5002 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5003 
  5004 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5006 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5007 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5008 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5009 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5010 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5011 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5012 
  5013 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5014 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5015 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5016 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5017 
  5018 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5021 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5022 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5023 
  5024 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5025 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5028 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5029 in HOL, write
  5030 
  5031     class foo = ...
  5032 
  5033 instead of
  5034 
  5035     class foo = type + ...
  5036 
  5037 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5038 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5039 
  5040 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5041 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5042 
  5043 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5044 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5045 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5046 
  5047 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5048 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5049 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5050 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5051 directly in regular applications.
  5052 
  5053 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5054 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5055 
  5056 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5057 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5058 
  5059 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5060 theory context.
  5061 
  5062 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5063 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5066 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5067 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5068 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5069 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5070 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5071 
  5072   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5073 
  5074 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5075 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5076 normalization.
  5077 
  5078 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5079 addressing etc.
  5080 
  5081 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5082 
  5083   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5084   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5085 
  5086 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5087 
  5088   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5089      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5090      parts of the code generator framework).
  5091 
  5092   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5093      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5094      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5095 
  5096 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5097 
  5098 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5099 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5100 
  5101 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5102 patterns, e.g.
  5103 
  5104     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5105 
  5106 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5107 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5108 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5109 hyphen:
  5110 
  5111     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5112 
  5113 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5114 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5115 
  5116 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5117 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5118 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5119 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5120 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5121 higher-order unification.
  5122 
  5123 
  5124 *** Document preparation ***
  5125 
  5126 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5127 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5128 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5129 
  5130 
  5131 *** HOL ***
  5132 
  5133 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5134 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5135 
  5136 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5137 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5138 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5139 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5140 Main, as before.
  5141 
  5142 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5143 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5144 
  5145 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5146 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5147 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5148 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5149 
  5150 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5151 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5152 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5153 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5154 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5155 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5156 
  5157 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5158 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5159 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5160 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5161 
  5162 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5163 menu.
  5164 
  5165 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5166 (contains the empty clause).
  5167 
  5168 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5169 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5170 
  5171 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5172 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5173 
  5174 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5175 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5176 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5177 
  5178 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5179 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5180 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5181 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5182 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5183 
  5184 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5185 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5186 
  5187 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5188 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5189 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5190 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5191 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5192 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5193 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5194 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5195 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5196 
  5197 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5198 
  5199 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5200 
  5201 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5202 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5205 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5206 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5207 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5208 
  5209 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5210 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5211 
  5212     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5213     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5214     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5215     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5216     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5217     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5218     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5219     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5220 
  5221 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5222 theory Set.
  5223 
  5224 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5225 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5226 
  5227 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5228 
  5229 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5230 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5231 
  5232 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5233 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5234 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5235 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5236 allowed. For examples see
  5237 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5238 
  5239 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5240 
  5241 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5243 
  5244 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5245 structure:
  5246 
  5247     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5248     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5249     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5250     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5251     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5252     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5253     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5254     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5255     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5256     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5257     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5258     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5259     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5260     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5261     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5262     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5263     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5264     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5265     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5266     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5267     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5268     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5269     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5270     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5271     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5272     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5273     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5274     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5275     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5276     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5277     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5278     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5279     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5280 
  5281     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5282     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5283     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5284     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5285     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5286     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5287     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5288     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5289     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5290     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5291 
  5292     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5293     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5294     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5295     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5296     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5297     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5298 
  5299 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5300 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5301 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5302 
  5303 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5304 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5305 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5306 
  5307 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5308 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5311 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5312 
  5313 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5314 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5315 proofs, e.g.
  5316 
  5317   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5318 
  5319 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5320 
  5321 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5322 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5323 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5324 
  5325 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5326 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5328 
  5329 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5330 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5331 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5333 
  5334 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5335 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5336 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5337 preorder_class.*.
  5338 
  5339 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5340 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5341 
  5342 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5343 
  5344   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5345 
  5346 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5347 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5348 fold_image.
  5349 
  5350 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5351 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5352 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5353 the former will disappear at some point.
  5354 
  5355 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5356 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5357 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5358 
  5359 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5360 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5361 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5362 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5363 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5364 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5365 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5366 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5367 
  5368 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5369 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5370 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5371 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5372 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5373 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5374 
  5375     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5376     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5377     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5378     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5379     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5380     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5381     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5382 
  5383 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5384 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5385 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5386 
  5387 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5388 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5389 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5390 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5391 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5392 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5393 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5394 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5395 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5396 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5397 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5398 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5399 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5400 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5401 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5402 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5403 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5404 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5405 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5406 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5407 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5408 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5409 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5410 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5411 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5412 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5413 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5414 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5415 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5416 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5417 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5418 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5419 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5420 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5421 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5422 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5423 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5424 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5425 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5426 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5427 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5428 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5429 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5430 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5431 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5432 
  5433 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5434 
  5435 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5436 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5437 
  5438 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5439 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5440 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5441 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5442 
  5443 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5444 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5445 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5446 theory RealVector.
  5447 
  5448 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5449 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5450 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5451 and inner products are included.
  5452 
  5453 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5454 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5455 supported.
  5456 
  5457 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5458 first diagonalization argument.
  5459 
  5460 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5461 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5462 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5463 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5464 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5465 
  5466     hide (open) const gcd
  5467     abbreviation gcd where
  5468       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5469     notation (output)
  5470       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5471 
  5472 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5473 
  5474 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5475 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5476 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5477 
  5478 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5479 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5480 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5481 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5482 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5483 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5484 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5485 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5486 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5487 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5488 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5489 cases.
  5490 
  5491 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5492 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5493 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5494 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5495 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5496 
  5497     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5498     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5499     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5500     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5501     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5502 
  5503 
  5504 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5505 
  5506 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5507 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5508 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5509 
  5510 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5511 
  5512 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5514 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5515 
  5516 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5517 
  5518 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5519 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5520 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5521 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5522 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5523 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5524 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5525 
  5526 
  5527 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5528 
  5529 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5530 
  5531 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5532 theory targets.
  5533 
  5534 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5535 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5536 'inductive' etc.
  5537 
  5538 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5539 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5540 
  5541 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5542 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5543 
  5544 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5545 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5546 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5547 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5548 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5549 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5550 the algorithm W:
  5551 
  5552  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5553  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5554          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5555 
  5556 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5557 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5558 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5559 
  5560 
  5561 *** HOLCF ***
  5562 
  5563 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5564 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5565 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5566 
  5567 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5568 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5569 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5570 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5571 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5572 
  5573 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5574 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5575 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5576 
  5577 
  5578 *** ZF ***
  5579 
  5580 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5581 
  5582 
  5583 *** ML ***
  5584 
  5585 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5586 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5587 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5588 5.2.1!
  5589 
  5590 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5591 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5592 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5593 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5594 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5595 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5596 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5597 
  5598 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5599 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5600 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5601 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5602 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5603 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5604 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5605 
  5606 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5607 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5608 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5609 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5610 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5611 
  5612 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5613 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5614 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5615 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5616 Method.add_method.
  5617 
  5618 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5619 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5620 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5621 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5622 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5623 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5624 
  5625 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5626 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5627 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5628 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5629 examples.
  5630 
  5631 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5632 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5633 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5634 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5635 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5636 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5637 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5638 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5639 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5640 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5641 
  5642 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5643 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5644 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5645 
  5646 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5647 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5648 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5649 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5650 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5651 resort for legacy applications.
  5652 
  5653 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5654 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5655 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5656 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5657 explicit runtime argument.
  5658 
  5659 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5660 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5661 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5662 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5663 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5666 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5667 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5668 theory state.
  5669 
  5670 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5671 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5672 
  5673   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5674   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5675   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5676   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5677   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5678   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5679   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5680   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5681   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5682   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5683 
  5684 
  5685 *** System ***
  5686 
  5687 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5688 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5689 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5690 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5691 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5692 
  5693 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5694 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5695 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5696 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5697 
  5698 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5699 
  5700 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5701 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5702 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5703 prover operations.
  5704 
  5705 
  5706 
  5707 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5708 -------------------------------
  5709 
  5710 *** General ***
  5711 
  5712 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5713 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5714 
  5715 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5716 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5717 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5718 provides a proper context already.
  5719 
  5720 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5721 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5722 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5723 
  5724 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5725 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5726 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5727 swap theory imports.
  5728 
  5729 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5730 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5731 
  5732 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5733 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5734 white space without escapes.
  5735 
  5736 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5737 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5738 "foo_bar".
  5739 
  5740 
  5741 *** Pure ***
  5742 
  5743 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5744 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5745 
  5746 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5747 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5748 
  5749 (1) unused_thms
  5750      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5751 
  5752 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5753      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5754      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5755 
  5756 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5757      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5758      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5759      their ancestors.
  5760 
  5761 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5762 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5763 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5764 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5765 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5766 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5767 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5768 
  5769 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5770 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5771 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5772 
  5773 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5774 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5775 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5776 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5777 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5778 
  5779 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5780 
  5781 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5782 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5783 update of theories within ML code.
  5784 
  5785 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5786 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5787 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5788 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5789 
  5790 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5791 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5792 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5794 
  5795 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5796 
  5797 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5798 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5799 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5800 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5801 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5802 
  5803 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5804 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5805 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5806 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5807 situations.
  5808 
  5809 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5810 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5811 proof text.
  5812 
  5813 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5814 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5815 
  5816 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5817 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5818 predicates.
  5819 
  5820 
  5821 *** Document preparation ***
  5822 
  5823 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5824 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5825 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5826 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5827 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5828 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5829 
  5830 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5831 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5832 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5833 
  5834 
  5835 *** HOL ***
  5836 
  5837 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5838 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5839 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5840 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5841 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5842 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5843 
  5844 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5845 with multithreading.
  5846 
  5847 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5848 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5849 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5850 
  5851 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5852 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5853 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5854 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5855 
  5856 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5857 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5858 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5859 and makes them available separately.  See
  5860 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5861 
  5862 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5863 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5864 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5865 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5866 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5867 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5868 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5869 the declared rules.
  5870 
  5871 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5872 
  5873   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5874 
  5875 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5876 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5877 
  5878 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5879 
  5880   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5881 
  5882   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5883     definitions on => and bool.
  5884 
  5885   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5886     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5887     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5888 
  5889       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5890       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5891       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5892       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5893       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5894       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5895       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5896       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5897 
  5898   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5899     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5900     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5901 
  5902   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5903     The proof pattern
  5904 
  5905       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5906       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5907 
  5908     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5909     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5910 
  5911       have "EX S. P S"
  5912       proof
  5913         show "P S" <...>
  5914       qed
  5915 
  5916   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5917     The proof pattern
  5918 
  5919       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5920       also have "S = T" <...>
  5921       finally have "P T" .
  5922 
  5923     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5924     must be replaced by something like
  5925 
  5926       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5927       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5928       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5929 
  5930   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5931     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5932 
  5933       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5934 
  5935     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5936     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5937     type of the form
  5938 
  5939       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5940 
  5941     rather than
  5942 
  5943       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5944 
  5945 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5946 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5947 
  5948 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5951 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5955 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5956 
  5957 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5958 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5961 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5962 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5963 
  5964 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5965 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5966 
  5967   less_trans
  5968   less_linear
  5969   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5970   le_less_trans
  5971   less_le_trans
  5972   less_not_sym
  5973   less_asym
  5974 
  5975 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5976 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5977 and different variable names.
  5978 
  5979 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5980 
  5981 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5982 finite maps.
  5983 
  5984 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5985 
  5986 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5987 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5988 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5989 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5990 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5991 accordingly.
  5992 
  5993 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5994 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5995 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5996 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5997 
  5998 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5999 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6000 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6001 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6002 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6004 
  6005 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6006 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6007 
  6008 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6009 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6010 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6011 
  6012 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6014 
  6015 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6016 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6017 
  6018 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6019 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6020 
  6021 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6022 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6025 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6027 
  6028 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6029 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6032 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6033 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6034 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6035 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6036 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6037 
  6038 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6039 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6040 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6041 
  6042 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6043 
  6044 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6045 
  6046 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6047 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6048 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6049 
  6050 
  6051 *** ZF ***
  6052 
  6053 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6054 same session:
  6055 
  6056   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6057   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6058   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6059   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6060   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6061   List      -> List_ZF
  6062   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6063 
  6064 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6065 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6066 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6067 
  6068 
  6069 *** ML ***
  6070 
  6071 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6072 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6073 
  6074 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6075 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6076 
  6077 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6078 
  6079 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6080 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6081 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6082 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6083 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6084 
  6085 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6086 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6087 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6088 
  6089 
  6090 *** System ***
  6091 
  6092 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6093 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6094 
  6095 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6096 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6097 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6098 
  6099 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6100 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6101 
  6102 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6103 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6104 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6105 
  6106 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6107 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6108 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6109 
  6110 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6111 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6112 
  6113 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6114 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6115 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6116 script.
  6117 
  6118 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6119 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6120 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6121 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6122 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6123 
  6124 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6125 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6126 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6127 
  6128 
  6129 
  6130 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6131 -----------------------------------
  6132 
  6133 *** General ***
  6134 
  6135 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6136 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6137 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6138 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6139 
  6140 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6141 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6142 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6143 
  6144 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6145 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6146 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6147 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6148 
  6149 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6150 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6151 quotes.
  6152 
  6153 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6154 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6155 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6156 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6157 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6158 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6159 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6160 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6161 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6162 
  6163 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6164 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6165 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6166 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6167 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6168 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6169 
  6170 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6171 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6172 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6173 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6174 
  6175 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6176 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6177 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6178 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6179 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6180 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6181 
  6182 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6183 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6184 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6185 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6186 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6187 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6188 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6189 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6190 
  6191 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6192 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6193 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6194 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6195 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6196 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6197 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6198 
  6199 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6200 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6201 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6202 
  6203 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6204 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6205 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6206 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6207 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6208 limit is imposed.
  6209 
  6210 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6211 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6212 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6213 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6214 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6215 and scalability.
  6216 
  6217 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6218 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6219 
  6220 
  6221 *** Document preparation ***
  6222 
  6223 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6224 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6225 current context.
  6226 
  6227 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6228 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6229 
  6230 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6231 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6232 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6233 
  6234 
  6235 *** Pure ***
  6236 
  6237 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6238 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6239 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6240 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6241 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6242 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6243 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6244 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6245 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6246 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6247 
  6248 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6249 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6250 sketch:
  6251 
  6252     internal compilation:
  6253         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6254     writing SML code to a file:
  6255         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6256     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6257         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6258     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6259         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6260 
  6261     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6262         method ``eval''
  6263 
  6264 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6265 
  6266 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6267 
  6268     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6269     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant