NEWS
author blanchet
Wed Feb 12 10:20:31 2014 +0100 (2014-02-12)
changeset 55425 7a3e78ee813b
parent 55385 169e12bbf9a3
child 55519 8a54bf4a92ca
permissions -rw-r--r--
[mq]: news
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    41 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    42 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Pure ***
    46 
    47 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    48 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    49 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    50 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    51 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    52 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    53 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    54 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    55 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    56 
    57 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    58 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    59 instantiated theorem.
    60 
    61 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    62 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    63 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    64 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    65 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    66 
    67   attribute_setup standard =
    68     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    69 
    70 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    71 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    72 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    73 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    74 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    75 
    76 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    77 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    78 differently).
    79 
    80 
    81 *** HOL ***
    82 
    83 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    84 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    85 
    86 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    87   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    88   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    89   "Main".
    90   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91   Theory renamings:
    92     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    93     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    94     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    95     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    96     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    97     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    98     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    99     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   100     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   101     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   102     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   103     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   104     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   105     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   106     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   107     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   108     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   109     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   110     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   111     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   112     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   113     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   114   New theories:
   115     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
   116     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   117     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   118     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   119     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   120     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   121   Discontinued theory:
   122     BNF/BNF.thy
   123     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   124 
   125 * Old datatype package:
   126   * Generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed "case_xxx"
   127     and "rec_xxx".
   128     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * New theory:
   131     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   132 
   133 * Theory reorganizations:
   134   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   135 
   136 * Sledgehammer:
   137   - New option:
   138       smt_proofs
   139   - Renamed options:
   140       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   141       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   142     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144 * Metis:
   145   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   146     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   149 
   150 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   151 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   152 
   153 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   154 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   155 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   156 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   157 
   158 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160 
   161 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   162 with the given constants.
   163 
   164 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   165 
   166 Fact consolidations:
   167     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   168     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   169     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   170     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   171     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   172     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   173     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   174     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   175     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   176     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   177     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   178     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   179     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   180     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   181     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   182     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   183     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   184     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   185     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   186     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   187     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   188     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   189     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   190     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   191     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   192     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   193     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   194     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   195     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   196     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   197     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   198     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   199     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   200     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   201     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   202     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   203     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   204     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   205     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   206     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   207 
   208 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   209 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   210 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   211 
   212 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   213 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   214 
   215 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   216 
   217 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   218 
   219 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   226 operations on records.
   227 
   228 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   230 
   231 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   232     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   236     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   237     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   241   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   242   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   243   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   244     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   245   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   246     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   247   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   248 INCOMPATBILITY.
   249 
   250 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   251     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   252     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   253     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   254     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Fact name consolidation:
   258     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   259     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   260     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   261     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   262     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   266 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   267 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   268 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   269 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   270 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   271 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   272 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   275 
   276 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   277 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   278 
   279 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   280 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   281 
   282 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   283 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   284 or the brute way with
   285 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   286 
   287 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   288 
   289 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   290 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291 
   292 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   293 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   294 
   295 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   296 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   297 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   298 INCOMPATIBILITY
   299 
   300 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   301 
   302 * Nitpick:
   303   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   304     infinite values.
   305 
   306 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   307   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   308   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   309     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   310     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   311     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   312     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   313     intervals.
   314 
   315 
   316 *** ML ***
   317 
   318 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   319 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   320 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   321 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   322 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   323 of schematic variables.
   324 
   325 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   326 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   328 formal context.
   329 
   330 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   331 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   332 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   333 actually belongs to it).
   334 
   335 
   336 *** System ***
   337 
   338 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   339 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   340 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   341 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   342 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   343 
   344 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   345 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   346 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   347 
   348 
   349 
   350 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   351 -------------------------------------
   352 
   353 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   354 
   355 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   356 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   357 
   358 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   359 after edits surrounding the command location.
   360 
   361 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   362 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   363 e.g. out-of-memory).
   364 
   365 
   366 *** System ***
   367 
   368 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   369 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   370 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   371 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   372 
   373 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   374 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   375 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   376 
   377 
   378 
   379 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   380 -------------------------------------
   381 
   382 *** General ***
   383 
   384 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   385 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   386 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   389 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   392 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   393 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   394 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   395 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   396 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   397 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   398 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   399 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   400 syntax.
   401 
   402 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   403 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   406 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   407 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   408 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   409 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   410 
   411 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   415 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   416 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   417 
   418 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   419 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   420 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   421 
   422 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   423 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   424 
   425 
   426 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   427 
   428 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   429 Documentation panel.
   430 
   431 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   432 documentation.
   433 
   434 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   435 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   436 
   437 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   438 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   439 normal editing and checking process.
   440 
   441 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   442 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   443 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   444 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   445 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   446 
   447 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   448 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   449 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   450 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   451 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   452 
   453 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   454 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   455 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   456 
   457 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   458 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   459 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   460 to resolve conflict.
   461 
   462 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   463 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   464 
   465 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   466 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   467 such command executions while editing.
   468 
   469 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   470 document content.
   471 
   472 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   473 toplevel theorem statements.
   474 
   475 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   476 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   477 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   478 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   479 
   480 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   481 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   482 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   483 
   484 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   485 / Global Options / Appearance".
   486 
   487 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   488 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   489 
   490 
   491 *** Pure ***
   492 
   493 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   494 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   495 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   496 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   497 details.
   498 
   499 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   500 
   501 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   502 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   503 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   504 
   505 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   509 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   510 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   511 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   514 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   515 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   516 
   517 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   518 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   519 
   520 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   521 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   522 situations.
   523 
   524 
   525 *** HOL ***
   526 
   527 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   528 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   530 
   531 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   532 
   533 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   534 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   535 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   536 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   537 
   538   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   539 
   540 * Code generator:
   541   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   542     'code_instance'.
   543   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   544     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   545 
   546 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   547 examples.
   548 
   549 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   550 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   551 to distinguish both when desired.
   552 
   553 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   554 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   555 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   556 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   557 
   558 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   559 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   560 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   561 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   562 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   563 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   566 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   567 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   568 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   569 
   570 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   571 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   572 
   573 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   574 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   575 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   576 
   577 * Lifting:
   578   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   579     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   580       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   581       transfer rules
   582     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   583       correspondence relation can be generated
   584     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   585       parametricity
   586     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   587   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   588   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   589     copies
   590   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   591     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   592     anonymous context)
   593   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   594     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   595   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   596     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   597   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   598     INCOMPATIBILITY
   599 
   600 * Transfer:
   601   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   602     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   603   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   604   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   605     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   606   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   607 
   608 * Reification and reflection:
   609   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   610     "Reification".
   611   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   612   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614 
   615 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   616   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   617     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   618     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   619   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   620     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   621   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   622     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   623     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   624     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   625     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   626     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   627     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   628     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   629   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   630     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   631   - Fact renames:
   632       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   633       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   637 
   638 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   639 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   640 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   644 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   645 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   646 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   647 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   648 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   649 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   650 lemmas.
   651 
   652 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   653 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   654 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   657 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   658 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   659 
   660 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   661 top and bottom elements.
   662 
   663 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   664 
   665 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   666 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   667 
   668  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   669    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   670    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   671 
   672  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   673    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   674    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   675 
   676    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   677    arbitrary filter.
   678 
   679  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   680    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   681    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   682    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   683    on a compact set.
   684 
   685  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   686    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   687    linear_continuum_topology).
   688 
   689  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   690    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   691    on all sequences converging to x.
   692 
   693  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   694    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   695    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   696    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   697    left or right.
   698 
   699  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   700 
   701      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   702 
   703  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   704    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   705 
   706  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   707    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   708    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   709    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   710    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   711    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   712 
   713  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   714 
   715    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   716 
   717    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   718      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   719 
   720    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   721 
   722    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   723      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   724 
   725    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   726 
   727    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   728 
   729  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   730 
   731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 * Nitpick:
   734   - Added option "spy"
   735   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   736 
   737 * Sledgehammer:
   738   - Renamed option:
   739       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   740     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   742   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   743   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   744 
   745 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   746 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   747 
   748 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   749   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   750   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   751     generated code.
   752   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   753   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   754   - Fact renames:
   755     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   756     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   757     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   758 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   761 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   762 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   763 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   764 
   765 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   766 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   767 
   768 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   771 
   772     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   773     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   774 
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   778 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   779 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   780 
   781 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   782 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   783 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   784 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   785 
   786 * HOL-BNF:
   787   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   788     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   789     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   790     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   791   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   792     coinduct).
   793   - Renamed keywords:
   794     data ~> datatype_new
   795     codata ~> codatatype
   796     bnf_def ~> bnf
   797   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   798     discs ~> disc
   799     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   800     map_id' ~> map_id
   801     sels ~> sel
   802     set_map' ~> set_map
   803     sets ~> set
   804 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   805 
   806 
   807 *** ML ***
   808 
   809 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   810 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   811 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   812 Examples.thy in particular.
   813 
   814 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   815 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   816 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   817 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   818 
   819 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   820 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   821 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   822 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   826 
   827     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   828     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   829 
   830 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   833 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   834 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   835 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   836 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   837 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   838 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   839 
   840 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   841 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   842 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   843 clasets separately from the context.
   844 
   845 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   846 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   847 
   848 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   849 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   850 
   851 
   852 *** System ***
   853 
   854 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   855 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   858 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   859 
   860 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   861 settings variable.
   862 
   863 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   864 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   865 always pdf.
   866 
   867 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   868 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   869 
   870 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   871 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   872 
   873 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   874 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   875 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   876 
   877 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   878 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   879 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   880 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   881 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   882 for HTML presentation of theories.
   883 
   884 
   885 
   886 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   887 -----------------------------------
   888 
   889 *** General ***
   890 
   891 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   892 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   893 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   894 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   895 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   896 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   897 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   898 
   899 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   900 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   901 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   902 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   903 
   904 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   905 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   906 
   907 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   908 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   909 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   910 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   911 dependencies properly.
   912 
   913 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   914 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   915 
   916 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   917 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   918 
   919 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   920 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   921 and "class ... context ...".
   922 
   923 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   924 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   925 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   926 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   927 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   928 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   929 
   930 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   931 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   932 
   933 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   934 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   935 
   936 
   937 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   938 
   939 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   940 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   941 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   942 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   943 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   944 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   945 
   946 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   947 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   948 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   949 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   950 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   951 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   952 
   953 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   954 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   955 browser on demand.
   956 
   957 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   958 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   959 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   960 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   961 
   962 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   963 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   964 
   965 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   966 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   967 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   968 potentially infinite message streams.
   969 
   970 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   971 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   972 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   973 schemes.
   974 
   975 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   976 symbols.
   977 
   978 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   979 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   980 
   981 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   982 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   983 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   984 
   985 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   986 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   987 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   988 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   989 
   990 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   991 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   992 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   993 
   994 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   995 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   996 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   997 Isabelle distribution.
   998 
   999 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1000 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1001 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1002 
  1003 
  1004 *** Pure ***
  1005 
  1006 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1007 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1008 
  1009 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1010 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1011 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1014 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1015 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1016 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1017 with some care where this is really required.
  1018 
  1019 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1020 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1021 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1022 
  1023   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1024 
  1025 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1026 a Hasse diagram.
  1027 
  1028 
  1029 *** HOL ***
  1030 
  1031 * Sledgehammer:
  1032 
  1033   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1034     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1035   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1036   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1037   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1038   - Renamed options:
  1039       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1040       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1041       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1042       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1043 
  1044 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1045 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1046 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1047 
  1048 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050 
  1051 * Lifting:
  1052   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1053   - quot_del attribute
  1054   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1055 
  1056 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1057 expressions.
  1058 
  1059 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1060 pointfree expressions.
  1061 
  1062 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1063 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1064 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1065 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1069 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1070 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1071 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1072 accordingly.
  1073 
  1074 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1075 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1076 
  1077 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1078 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079 
  1080 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1083 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1084 
  1085 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1086 
  1087 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1088 
  1089   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1090   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1091 
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1095 
  1096   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1097   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1098 
  1099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1102 
  1103   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1104     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1105     output f x converges to G.
  1106 
  1107   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1108     infinity (at_bot).
  1109 
  1110   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1111     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1112 
  1113   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1114     at_top".
  1115 
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1119 lattice type classes.
  1120 
  1121 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1122 
  1123     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1124     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1125 
  1126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1129 changes as follows.
  1130 
  1131   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1132 
  1133       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1134       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1135 
  1136   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1137     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1138     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1139     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1140 
  1141   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1142     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1143     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1144 
  1145   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1146     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1147     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1148     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1149 
  1150   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1151     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1152 
  1153       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1154       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1155       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1156       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1157       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1158       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1159       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1160       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1161       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1162       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1163       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1164       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1165       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1166       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1167       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1168       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1169 
  1170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1173 
  1174 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1175 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1176 
  1177 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1178 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1179 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1180 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1181 
  1182   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1183   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1184   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1185   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1186   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1187   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1188   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1189   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1190   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1191   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1192 
  1193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1196 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1197 Data").
  1198 
  1199 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1200 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1201 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1202 code.
  1203 
  1204 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1205 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1206 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1208 
  1209 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1210 
  1211 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1212 
  1213 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1214 
  1215   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1216   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1217 
  1218 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1219 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1220 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1221 
  1222   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1223 
  1224     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1225     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1226     cart_base i  removed
  1227     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1228 
  1229   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1230 
  1231   Renamed lemmas:
  1232 
  1233     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1234     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1235     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1236     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1237     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1238     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1239     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1240     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1241     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1242     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1243 
  1244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245 
  1246 * HOL/Probability:
  1247 
  1248   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1249 
  1250   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1251     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1252     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1253 
  1254   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1255     projective family).
  1256 
  1257 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1258 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1259 
  1260 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1261 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1262 datatypes.
  1263 
  1264 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1265 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1266 
  1267 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1268 trees for the code generator.
  1269 
  1270 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1271 Lifting/Transfer.
  1272 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1273 
  1274 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 
  1278 *** Document preparation ***
  1279 
  1280 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1281 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1282 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1283 
  1284 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1285 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1286 
  1287 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1288 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1289 document/root.tex.
  1290 
  1291 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1292 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1293 
  1294 
  1295 *** ML ***
  1296 
  1297 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1298 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1299 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1300 
  1301 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1302 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1303 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1304 
  1305 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1306 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1307 necessarily printing visible text.
  1308 
  1309 
  1310 *** System ***
  1311 
  1312 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1313 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1314 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1315 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1316 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1317 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1318 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1319 
  1320 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1321 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1322 
  1323   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1324 
  1325 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1326 
  1327 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1328 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1329 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1330 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1331 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1332 
  1333 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1334 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1335 
  1336 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1337 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1338 
  1339 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1341 
  1342 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1343 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1344 version of Isabelle.
  1345 
  1346 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1347 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1348 
  1349 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1350 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1351 for home-made settings.
  1352 
  1353 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1354 
  1355 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1356 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1357 configuration.
  1358 
  1359 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1360 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1361 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1362 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1363 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1364 
  1365 
  1366 
  1367 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1368 ------------------------------
  1369 
  1370 *** General ***
  1371 
  1372 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1373 
  1374   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1375     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1376   - markup for bound variables
  1377   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1378   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1379   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1380     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1381 
  1382 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1383 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1384 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1385 
  1386 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1387 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1388 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1389 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1390 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1391 
  1392   context
  1393     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1394     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1395   begin
  1396 
  1397   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1398 
  1399   end
  1400 
  1401   thm my_trans
  1402 
  1403 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1404 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1405 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1406 
  1407 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1408 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1409 
  1410 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1411 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1412 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1413 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1414 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1415 
  1416 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1417 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1418 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1419 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1420 indices of schematic variables.
  1421 
  1422 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1423 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1424 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1425 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1426 etc. was exploited.
  1427 
  1428 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1429 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1430 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1431 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1432 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1433 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1434 
  1435 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1436 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1437 manual.
  1438 
  1439 
  1440 *** Pure ***
  1441 
  1442 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1443 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1444 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1445 
  1446 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1447 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1448 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1449 undocumented feature.)
  1450 
  1451 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1452 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1453 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1454 
  1455   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1456 
  1457   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1458     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1459 
  1460 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1461 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1462 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1463 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1464 
  1465 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1466 
  1467     num ~> num_token
  1468     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1469     xstr ~> str_token
  1470 
  1471 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1472 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1473 position information via constraints).
  1474 
  1475 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1476 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1477 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1480 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1481 
  1482 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1483 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1484 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1485 
  1486 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1487 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1490 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1491 
  1492   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1493 
  1494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1497 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498 
  1499 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1500 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1501 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1502 
  1503 
  1504 *** HOL ***
  1505 
  1506 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1507 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1508 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1509 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1510 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1511 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1512 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1513 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1514 possible.
  1515 
  1516 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1517 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1518 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1519 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1520 
  1521 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1522 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1525 
  1526 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1527 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1528 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1529 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1530 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1531 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1532 
  1533   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1534     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1535 
  1536   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1537     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1538     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1539 
  1540   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1541     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1542 
  1543   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1544     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1545     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1546 
  1547   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1548     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1549 
  1550 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1551 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1552 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1553 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1554 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1555 
  1556   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1557     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1558     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1559     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1560     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1561 
  1562     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1563     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1564 
  1565   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1566     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1567     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1568     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1569     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1570     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1571     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1572     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1573 
  1574   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1575     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1576     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1577     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1578 
  1579   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1580     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1581     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1582     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1583 
  1584   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1585     from type nat to type int.
  1586 
  1587 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1588 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1589 
  1590   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1591     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1592     type.  Example syntax:
  1593 
  1594     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1595       is List.insert
  1596 
  1597     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1598     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1599     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1600     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1601     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1602     by the package.
  1603 
  1604   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1605     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1606     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1607     code generation for each constant.
  1608 
  1609   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1610     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1611     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1612     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1613     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1614 
  1615   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1616     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1617     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1618 
  1619 * Quotient package:
  1620 
  1621   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1622     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1623 
  1624   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1625     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1626 
  1627   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1628     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1629     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630 
  1631   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1632     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1635 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1636 
  1637 * Quickcheck:
  1638 
  1639   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1640     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1641     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1642     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1643     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1644 
  1645     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1646     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1647     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1648 
  1649     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1650     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1651 
  1652     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1653     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1654     show genuine counterexamples.
  1655 
  1656   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1657     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1658 
  1659     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1660     constructors of that type.
  1661 
  1662   - Support for multisets.
  1663 
  1664   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1665 
  1666   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1667     conjectures in a locale context.
  1668 
  1669 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1670 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1671 
  1672 * Sledgehammer:
  1673   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1674     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1675   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1676   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1677     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1678   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1679   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1680   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1681   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1682 
  1683 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1684 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1685 
  1686 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1687 
  1688 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1691 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1692 
  1693   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1694 
  1695 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1696 a list and a nat.
  1697 
  1698 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1699 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1700 
  1701 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1702 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1703 default.
  1704 
  1705 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1706 
  1707   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1708 
  1709 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1710 
  1711 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1712 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1713 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1714 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1715 one_case.
  1716 
  1717 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1718 the result of the fact expression.
  1719 
  1720 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1721 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1722 of some relation theorems:
  1723 
  1724   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1725   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1726   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1727   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1728   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1729   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1730 
  1731 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1732 
  1733 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1734 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1735 
  1736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1739 to match the constant's name:
  1740 
  1741   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1742   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1743   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1744   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1745   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1746   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1747   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1748   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1749   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1750   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1751   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1752   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1753   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1754   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1755   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1756   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1757   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1758   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1759   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1760   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1761   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1762   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1763   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1764   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1765 
  1766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1767 
  1768 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1769 and corresponding theorem names:
  1770 
  1771   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1772 
  1773   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1774 
  1775   - Renamed theorems:
  1776 
  1777     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1778     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1779     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1780     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1781     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1782     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1783     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1784     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1785     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1786     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1787     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1788     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1789     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1790     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1791     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1792     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1793     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1794     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1795     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1796     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1797     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1798     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1799     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1800 
  1801     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1802 
  1803     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1804 
  1805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1806 
  1807 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1808 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1809 
  1810   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1811   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1812   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1813   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1814   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1815   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1816   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1817   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1818   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1819   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1820   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1821   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1822   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1823   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1824   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1825   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1826   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1827   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1828   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1829   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1830   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1831 
  1832 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1833 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1838 
  1839   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1840   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1841   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1842   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1843   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1844   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1845   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1846   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1847   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1848   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1849   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1850   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1851   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1852   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1853   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1854   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1855   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1856   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1857 
  1858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1859 
  1860 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1861 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1862 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1863 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1864 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1865 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1866 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1867 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1868 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1869 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1870 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1871 
  1872 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1873 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1874 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1875 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1876 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1877 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1878 
  1879 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1880 through option types.
  1881 
  1882 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1883 relations.
  1884 
  1885 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1888 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1889 
  1890   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1891   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1892   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1893   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1894   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1895   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1896   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1897   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1898   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1899   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1900   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1901   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1902   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1903   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1904   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1905   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1906   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1907   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1908   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1909   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1910   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1911   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1912   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1913   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1914   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1915   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1916   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1917   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1918   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1919   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1920   zless_le ~> less_le
  1921   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1922   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1923   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1924 
  1925 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1926 
  1927   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1928 
  1929 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1930 
  1931 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1932 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1933 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1934 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1936 
  1937 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1938 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1939 
  1940 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1941 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1942 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1943 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1944 follows:
  1945 
  1946   Operations:
  1947   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1948   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1949   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1950   del -> rbt_del
  1951   delete -> rbt_delete
  1952   ins -> rbt_ins
  1953   insert -> rbt_insert
  1954   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1955   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1956   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1957   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1958   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1959   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1960   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1961   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1962   union -> rbt_union
  1963   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1964   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1965 
  1966   Lemmas:
  1967   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1968   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1969   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1970   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1971   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1972   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1973   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1974   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1975   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1976   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1977   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1978   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1979   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1980   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1981   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1982   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1983   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1984   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1985   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1986   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1987   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1988   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1989   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1990   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1991   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1992   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1993   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1994   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1995   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1996   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1997   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1998   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1999   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2000   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2001   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2002   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2003   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2004   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2005   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2006   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2007   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2008   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2009   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2010   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2011   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2012   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2013   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2014   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2015   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2016   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2017   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2018   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2019   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2020   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2021   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2022   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2023   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2024   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2025   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2026   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2027   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2028   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2029   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2030   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2031   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2032   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2033   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2034   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2035   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2036   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2037   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2038   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2039   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2040   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2041   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2042   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2043   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2044   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2045   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2046   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2047   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2048   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2049   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2050 
  2051 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2052 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2053 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055   Changed Operations:
  2056   float_abs -> abs
  2057   float_nprt -> nprt
  2058   float_pprt -> pprt
  2059   pow2 -> use powr
  2060   round_down -> float_round_down
  2061   round_up -> float_round_up
  2062   scale -> exponent
  2063 
  2064   Removed Operations:
  2065   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2066 
  2067   Renamed Lemmas:
  2068   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2069   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2070   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2071   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2072   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2073   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2074   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2075   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2076   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2077   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2078   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2079   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2080   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2081   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2082   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2083   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2084   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2085   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2086   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2087   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2088   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2089   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2090   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2091   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2092   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2093   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2094   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2095   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2096   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2097   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2098   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2099   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2100   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2101   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2102   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2103   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2104 
  2105   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2106   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2107   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2108   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2109   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2110   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2111   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2112   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2113   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2114   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2115 
  2116 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2117 association lists with distinct keys.
  2118 
  2119 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2120 annotated commands.
  2121 
  2122 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2123 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2124 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2125 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2126 
  2127 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2128 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2129 instead.
  2130 
  2131   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2132   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2133   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2134   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2135   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2136   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2137   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2138   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2139   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2140   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2141   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2142   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2143   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2144   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2145   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2146   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2147   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2148   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2149   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2150   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2151   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2152   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2153   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2154   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2155   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2156   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2157   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2158   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2159   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2160   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2161   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2162   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2163   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2164   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2165   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2166   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2167   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2168   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2169   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2170   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2171   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2172 
  2173 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2174 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2175 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2176 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2177 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2178 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2179 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2180 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2181 
  2182 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2183 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2184 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2185 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2186 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2187 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2188 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2189 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2190 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2191 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2192 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2193 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194 
  2195   Renamed constants:
  2196   measure -> emeasure
  2197   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2198   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2199   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2200   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2201 
  2202   Removed locales:
  2203   completeable_measure_space
  2204   finite_measure_space
  2205   finite_prob_space
  2206   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2207   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2208   finite_sigma_algebra
  2209   measure_space
  2210   pair_finite_prob_space
  2211   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2212   pair_finite_space
  2213   pair_sigma_algebra
  2214   product_sigma_algebra
  2215 
  2216   Removed constants:
  2217   conditional_space
  2218   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2219   image_space
  2220   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2221   pair_measure_generator
  2222   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2223   subvimage
  2224 
  2225   Replacement theorems:
  2226   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2227   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2228   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2229   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2230   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2231   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2232   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2233   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2234   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2235   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2236   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2237   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2238   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2239   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2240   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2241   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2242   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2243   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2244   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2245   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2246   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2247   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2248   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2249   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2250   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2251   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2252   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2253   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2254   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2255   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2256   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2257   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2258   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2259   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2260   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2261   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2262   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2263   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2264   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2265   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2266   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2267   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2268   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2269   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2270   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2271   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2272   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2273   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2274   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2275   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2276   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2277   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2278   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2279   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2280   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2281   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2282   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2283   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2284   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2285   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2286   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2287   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2288   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2289   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2290   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2291   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2292   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2293   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2294   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2295   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2296   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2297   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2298   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2299   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2300   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2301   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2302   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2303   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2304   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2305   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2306   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2307   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2308   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2309   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2310   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2311   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2312   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2313   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2314   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2315   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2316   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2317   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2318   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2319   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2320   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2321   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2322   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2323   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2324   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2325   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2326   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2327   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2328   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2329   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2330   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2331   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2332   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2333   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2334   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2335   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2336   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2337   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2338   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2339   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2340   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2341   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2342   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2343   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2344   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2345   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2346   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2347   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2348   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2349   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2350   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2351   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2352   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2353   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2354 
  2355 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2356 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2357 
  2358 
  2359 *** FOL ***
  2360 
  2361 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2362 
  2363 
  2364 *** ZF ***
  2365 
  2366 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2367 analysis.
  2368 
  2369 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2370 
  2371 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 
  2374 *** ML ***
  2375 
  2376 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2377 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2378 
  2379 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2380 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2381 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2382 
  2383 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2384 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2385 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2386 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2387 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2388 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2389 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2390 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2391 
  2392 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2393 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2394 
  2395 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2396 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2397 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2398 
  2399 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2400 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2403 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2404 context as well.
  2405 
  2406 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2407 
  2408   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2409   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2410   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2411   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2412   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2413   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2414   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2415   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2416   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2417   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2418   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2419   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2420 
  2421 
  2422 *** System ***
  2423 
  2424 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2425 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2426 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2427 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2428 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2429 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2430 the generic user home was intended.
  2431 
  2432 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2433 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2434 
  2435 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2436 (not just JRE).
  2437 
  2438 
  2439 
  2440 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2441 ------------------------------------
  2442 
  2443 *** General ***
  2444 
  2445 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2446 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2447 
  2448   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2449     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2450     files for checking).
  2451 
  2452   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2453     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2454     positions.
  2455 
  2456   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2457     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2458     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2459 
  2460   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2461     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2462     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2463 
  2464   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2465     cores.
  2466 
  2467   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2468     versions (garbage collection).
  2469 
  2470 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2471 including some remaining limitations.
  2472 
  2473 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2474 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2475 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2476 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2477 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2481 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2482 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2483 
  2484 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2485 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2486 usedir option -Q.
  2487 
  2488 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2489 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2490 
  2491   long_names   ~> names_long
  2492   short_names  ~> names_short
  2493   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2494 
  2495 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2496 
  2497   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2498 
  2499 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2500 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2501 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2502 
  2503 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2504 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2505 
  2506 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2507   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2508   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2509   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2510     "Classical Reasoner".
  2511 
  2512 
  2513 *** HOL ***
  2514 
  2515 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2516 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2519 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2520 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2521 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2522 class complete_linorder.
  2523 
  2524 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2525 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2526 
  2527 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2528 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2529 
  2530   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2531   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2532   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2533   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2534   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2535   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2536   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2537   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2538   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2539   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2540   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2541 
  2542 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2543 
  2544   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2545   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2546   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2547   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2548   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2549   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2550   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2551   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2552   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2553   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2554   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2555   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2556   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2557   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2558   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2559   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2560 
  2561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2567 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2568 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2569 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2572 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2573 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2575 
  2576 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2577 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2578 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2579 
  2580 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2581 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2582 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2585 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2586 
  2587 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2588 
  2589     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2590     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2591 
  2592 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2593 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2596 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2597 
  2598 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2599 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2600 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2601 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2602 
  2603   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2604   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2605   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2606   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2607   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2608   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2609   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2610 
  2611 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2612 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2615   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2616   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2617   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2618   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2619   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2620   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2621   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2622   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2623   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2624   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2625   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2626   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2627   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2628   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2629   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2630   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2631   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2632   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2633   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2634   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2635   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2636   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2637   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2638   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2639   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2640   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2641   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2642   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2643   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2644   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2645   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2646   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2647   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2648   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2649   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2650   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2651   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2652   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2653   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2654   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2655   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2656   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2657   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2658   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2659   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2660   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2661   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2662   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2663   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2664   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2665   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2666   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2667   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2668   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2669   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2670   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2671   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2672   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2673   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2674   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2675   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2676   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2677   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2678   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2679   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2680   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2681   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2682   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2683   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2684   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2685   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2686   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2687   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2688   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2689   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2690   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2691   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2692   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2693   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2694   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2695   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2696 
  2697 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2698 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2699 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2700 
  2701 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2702 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2703 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2704 
  2705 * Code generation:
  2706 
  2707   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2708     characters in the target language.
  2709 
  2710   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2711     instead.
  2712 
  2713   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2714 
  2715   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2716     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2717 
  2718       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2719 
  2720 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2723 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2724 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2725 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2726 syntax.
  2727 
  2728 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2729 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2730 
  2731 * Nitpick:
  2732   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2733   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2734   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2735     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 * Sledgehammer:
  2738   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2739   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2740     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2741   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2742     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2743   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2744     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2746     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2747   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2748     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2749 
  2750 * Metis:
  2751   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2752   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2753     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755 * Command 'try':
  2756   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2757     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2759     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2760 
  2761 * Quickcheck:
  2762   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2763     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2764   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2765     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2766   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2767     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2768     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2769     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2770   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2771     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2772 
  2773 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2774 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2775 
  2776 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2777 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2778 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2779 
  2780 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2781 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2785 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2788 arithmetic.
  2789 
  2790 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2791 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2792 and lattice type classes.
  2793 
  2794 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2795 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2796 
  2797 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2798 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2799 
  2800 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2801 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2802 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2805   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2806   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2807   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2808 
  2809 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2810 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2811 constants:
  2812 
  2813   type inat   ~> type enat
  2814   Fin         ~> enat
  2815   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2816   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2817   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2818 
  2819 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2820 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2821 
  2822 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2823 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2824 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2825 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2826 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2827 
  2828 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2829 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2830 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2831 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2832 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2833 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2834 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2835 
  2836   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2837   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2838   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2839   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2840 
  2841 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2842 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2843 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2846   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2847   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2848   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2849   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2850   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2851   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2852   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2853   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2854   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2855   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2856   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2857   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2858   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2859   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2860   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2861   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2862   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2863   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2864   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2865   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2866   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2867   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2868   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2869   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2870   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2871   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2872   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2873   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2874   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2875   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2876   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2877   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2878   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2879   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2880   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2881   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2882   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2883   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2884   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2885   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2886   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2887   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2888   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2889   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2890   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2891   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2892   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2893   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2894   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2895   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2896 
  2897 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2898   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2899   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2900   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2901   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2902     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2905 
  2906   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2907   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2908   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2909   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2910   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2911   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2912   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2913   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2914   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2915   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2916   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2917   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2918   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2919   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2920   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2921   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2922   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2923   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2924   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2925   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2926   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2927   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2928   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2929   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2930   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2931 
  2932 
  2933 *** Document preparation ***
  2934 
  2935 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2936 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2937 same.
  2938 
  2939 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2940 result.
  2941 
  2942 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2943 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2944 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2945 
  2946 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2947 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2948 
  2949 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2950 like this:
  2951 
  2952   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2953   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2954 
  2955 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2956 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2957 layouts.
  2958 
  2959 
  2960 *** ML ***
  2961 
  2962 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2963 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2964 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2965 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2966 under external program control.
  2967 
  2968 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2969 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2970 
  2971 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2972 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2973 (better known as Proof General).
  2974 
  2975 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2976 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2977 
  2978 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2979 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2980 
  2981 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2982 (including quotes etc.).
  2983 
  2984 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2985 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2986 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2987 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2988 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2989 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2990 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2991 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2992 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2993 
  2994 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2995 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2996 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2997 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2998 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2999 
  3000 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3001 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3002 
  3003 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3004 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3005 
  3006 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3007 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3008 
  3009 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3010 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3011 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3012 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3013 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3014 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3015 proper Proof.context.
  3016 
  3017 
  3018 *** System ***
  3019 
  3020 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3021 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3022 
  3023 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3024 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3025 
  3026 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3027 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3028 
  3029   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3030   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3031   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3032   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3033   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3034 
  3035 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3036 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3039 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3040 example:
  3041 
  3042   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3043 
  3044 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3045 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3046 
  3047 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3048 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3049 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3050 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3051 
  3052 
  3053 
  3054 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3055 ----------------------------------
  3056 
  3057 *** General ***
  3058 
  3059 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3060 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3061 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3062 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3063 like this:
  3064 
  3065   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3066 
  3067 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3068 
  3069 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3070 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3071 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3072 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3073 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3074 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3075 
  3076 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3077 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3078 the following package declarations:
  3079 
  3080   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3081   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3082 
  3083 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3084 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3085 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3086 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3087 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3088 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3089 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3090 
  3091 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3092 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3093 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3094 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3095 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3096 
  3097 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3098 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3099 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3100 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3101 
  3102 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3103 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3104 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3105 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3106 
  3107   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3108 
  3109   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3110   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3111   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3112   show_types                    show_types
  3113   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3114   show_consts                   show_consts
  3115   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3116 
  3117   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3118   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3119   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3120 
  3121   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3122   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3123 
  3124   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3125 
  3126   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3127   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3128   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3129   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3130   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3131 
  3132 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3133 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3134 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3135 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3136 
  3137 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3141   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3142 
  3143 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3144 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3145 float_token.
  3146 
  3147 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3148 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3152 DejaVu Sans.
  3153 
  3154 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3155 
  3156 
  3157 *** Pure ***
  3158 
  3159 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3160 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3161 time.
  3162 
  3163 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3164 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3167 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3170 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3171 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3172 command already provided this functionality.
  3173 
  3174 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3175 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3176 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3177 without interpretations.
  3178 
  3179 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3180 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3181 
  3182 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3183 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3184 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3185 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3186 
  3187 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3188 'definition' instead.
  3189 
  3190 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3191 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3192 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3193 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3194 
  3195 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3196 constructors.
  3197 
  3198 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3199 the local file system.
  3200 
  3201 
  3202 *** HOL ***
  3203 
  3204 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3205 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3206 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3207 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3208 
  3209   declare [[coercion f]]
  3210 
  3211 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3212 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3213 
  3214   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3215 
  3216 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3217 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3218 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3219 other theories like this:
  3220 
  3221   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3222 
  3223 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3224 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3225 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3226 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3227 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3228 for examples.
  3229 
  3230 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3231 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3234 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3235 
  3236 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3237 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3238 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3239 
  3240 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3241 functorial structure of types.
  3242 
  3243 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3244 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3245 
  3246 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3247 languages.
  3248 
  3249 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3250 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3254 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255 
  3256 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3257 combinators any longer.
  3258 
  3259 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3260 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3261 
  3262 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3263 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3264 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3265 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3266 
  3267   record 'a foo = ...
  3268   ...
  3269   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3270 
  3271 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3272 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3276 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3277 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3278 
  3279 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3280 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3281 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3282 
  3283 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3284 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3287 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3288 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3289 independently.
  3290 
  3291 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3292 counter example search.
  3293 
  3294 * Sledgehammer:
  3295   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3296     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3297     sledgehammer").
  3298   - Renamed commands:
  3299     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3300     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3301     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3302     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303   - Renamed options:
  3304     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3305     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3306     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3307     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Nitpick:
  3311   - Renamed options:
  3312     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3313     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3314     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3316   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3317   - Added "whack" option.
  3318   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3319   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3320   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3321   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3322     higher cardinalities.
  3323   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3324 
  3325 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3326 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3327 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3328 
  3329     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3330 
  3331 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3332 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3333 
  3334 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3335 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3336 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3337 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3338 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3339 "smt_solver".
  3340 
  3341 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3342 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3343 
  3344 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3345 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3346 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3347 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3350   - Renamed:
  3351     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3352     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3353     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3354   - Added:
  3355     smt_verbose
  3356     smt_random_seed
  3357     smt_datatypes
  3358     smt_infer_triggers
  3359     smt_monomorph_limit
  3360     cvc3_options
  3361     remote_cvc3_options
  3362     remote_z3_options
  3363     yices_options
  3364 
  3365 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3366 header.
  3367 
  3368 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3369 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3370 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3371 
  3372   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3373 
  3374 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3377 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3382 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3383 
  3384 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3385 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3386 
  3387 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3388 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3391 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3392 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3400 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3403 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3404 for congruent(2)).
  3405 
  3406 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3407 
  3408   types
  3409     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3410     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3411 
  3412   constants
  3413     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3414     True ~> HOL.True
  3415     False ~> HOL.False
  3416     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3417     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3418     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3419     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3420     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3421     The ~> HOL.The
  3422     All ~> HOL.All
  3423     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3424     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3425     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3426     If ~> HOL.If
  3427     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3428     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3429     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3430     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3431     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3432     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3433     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3434     op : ~> Set.member
  3435     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3436 
  3437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3440 
  3441     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3442     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3443     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3444     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3445     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3446     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3447     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3448     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3449 
  3450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451 
  3452 * More stylized fact names:
  3453 
  3454   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3455   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3456   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3457   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3458 
  3459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3462 
  3463   constants
  3464     null ~> List.null
  3465 
  3466   facts
  3467     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3468     null_empty ~> null_def
  3469 
  3470 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3471 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3472 generation.
  3473 
  3474 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3475 Haskell code.
  3476 
  3477 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3478 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3479 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3480 
  3481 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3482 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3485 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3486 
  3487 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3488 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3489 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3492 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3493 
  3494 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3498 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3499 referred to by its qualified name.
  3500 
  3501   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3502   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3503   product ~>  Enum.product
  3504 
  3505 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3506 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3510 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3511 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3515 sort_key.
  3516 
  3517 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3521 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3522 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3523 
  3524   types
  3525     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3526               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3527               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3528         (depends on your needs)
  3529 
  3530   constants
  3531      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3532      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3533      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3534 
  3535 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3536 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3537 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3538 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3541 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3542 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3543 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3544 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3550 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3551 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3552 
  3553 
  3554 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3555 
  3556 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3557 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3558 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3559 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3560 compatibility.
  3561 
  3562 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3563 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3564 
  3565 
  3566 *** HOLCF ***
  3567 
  3568 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3569 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3570 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3574 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3575 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3578   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3579   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3580 
  3581 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3582 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3583 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3586 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3587 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3588 domain definition now works:
  3589 
  3590   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3591 
  3592 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3593 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3594 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3595 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3596 
  3597   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3598     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3599 
  3600   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3601 
  3602 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3603 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3604 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3607 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3610 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3611 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3612 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3613 
  3614 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3615 
  3616 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3622 
  3623 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3624 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3625 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3626 
  3627 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3628 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3629 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3632 still supported as an input translation.
  3633 
  3634 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3635 
  3636   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3637   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3638   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3639   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3640   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3641   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3642   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3643 
  3644 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3645 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3648   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3649   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3650   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3651   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3652   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3653 
  3654 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3655 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 
  3657 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3658 
  3659   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3660   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3661   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3662   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3663 
  3664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3667 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3670 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3673   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3674   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3675   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3676   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3677   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3678   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3679   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3680   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3681   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3682   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3683   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3684   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3685   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3686   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3687   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3688   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3689   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3690   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3691   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3692 
  3693 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3696   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3697   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3698   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3699   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3700   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3701   box_less             ~> box_below
  3702   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3703   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3704   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3705   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3706   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3707   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3708   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3709   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3710   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3711   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3712   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3713   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3714   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3715   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3716   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3717   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3718   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3719   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3720   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3721   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3722   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3723   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3724   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3725   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3726   up_less              ~> up_below
  3727   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3728   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3729   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3730   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3731   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3732   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3733   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3734   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3735   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3736   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3737   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3738   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3739   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3740 
  3741 
  3742 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3743 
  3744 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3745 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 
  3748 *** ML ***
  3749 
  3750 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3751 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3752 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3753 
  3754 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3755 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3756 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3757 
  3758 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3759 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3760 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3761 
  3762 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3763 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3764 
  3765 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3766 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3767 
  3768 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3769 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3770 
  3771 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3772 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3773 
  3774 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3775 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3776 almost all situations.
  3777 
  3778 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3779 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3780 Isabelle/ML.
  3781 
  3782 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3783 meaning.
  3784 
  3785 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3786 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3787 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3788 
  3789 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3790 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3791 
  3792 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3793 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3794 
  3795 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3796 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3797 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3798 
  3799 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3800 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3801 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3802 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3803 configuration options.
  3804 
  3805 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3806 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3807 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3808 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3809 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3810 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3811 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3812 
  3813 
  3814 
  3815 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3816 ---------------------------------
  3817 
  3818 *** General ***
  3819 
  3820 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3821 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3822 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3823 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3824 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3825 their full internal name.
  3826 
  3827 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3828 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3829 Some hints on upgrading:
  3830 
  3831   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3832     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3833     which are independent of this issue.
  3834 
  3835   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3836     provides the following special forms:
  3837 
  3838       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3839       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3840       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3841 
  3842     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3843     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3844     extra variables".
  3845 
  3846     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3847     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3848     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3849     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3850     "logic".
  3851 
  3852   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3853     antiquotations:
  3854 
  3855       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3856       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3857       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3858       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3859 
  3860   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3861     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3862     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3863     antiquotations.
  3864 
  3865 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3866 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3867 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3868 diagnose syntax problems.
  3869 
  3870 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3871 
  3872 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3873 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3874 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3875 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3876 
  3877 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3878 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3879 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3880 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3883 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3884 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3885 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3886 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3887 
  3888 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3889 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3890 
  3891 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3892 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3893 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3894 
  3895   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3896 
  3897 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3898 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3899 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3900 
  3901 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3902 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3906 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3907 
  3908 
  3909 *** Pure ***
  3910 
  3911 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3912 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3913 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3914 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3915 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3916 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3917 inspect proof terms.
  3918 
  3919 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3920 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3921 are added internally.  For example:
  3922 
  3923   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3924 
  3925 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3926 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3931 'class' instead.
  3932 
  3933 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3934 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3938 invariants.
  3939 
  3940 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3941 user space functionality any longer.
  3942 
  3943 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3944 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3948 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3949 
  3950 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3951 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3952 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3953 
  3954 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3955 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3956 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3957 
  3958 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3959 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 
  3962 *** HOL ***
  3963 
  3964 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3965 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3966 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3967 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3968 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3969 
  3970 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3971 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3972 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3973 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3974 
  3975   fun
  3976     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3977   where
  3978     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3979 
  3980   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3981     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3982 
  3983   quotient_definition
  3984     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3985 
  3986 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3987 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3988 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3989 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3990 
  3991 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3992 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3993 
  3994 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3995 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3996 
  3997 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4001 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4002 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4003 
  4004 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4005 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4014 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4017 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4018 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4021   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4022   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4023   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4024   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4025   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4026   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4027   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4028   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4029   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4030   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4031   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4032   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4033   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4034   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4035   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4036   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4037   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4038   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4039   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4040   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4041   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4042   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4043   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4044   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4045   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4046   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4047   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4048   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4049   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4050 
  4051 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4052 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4053 
  4054 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4055 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4056 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4057 
  4058 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4059 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4060 
  4061 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4062 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4065 
  4066 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4067 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4070 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4075 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4076 
  4077 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4078 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4079 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4080 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4083   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4084   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4085   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4086 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4089 lattices):
  4090 
  4091     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4092     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4093 
  4094     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4095 
  4096     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4097     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4098     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4099     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4100     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4101     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4102     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4103     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4104     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4105     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4106     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4107     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4108     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4109 
  4110     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4111     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4112     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4113     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4114     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4115     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4116     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4117     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4118     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4119     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4120     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4121     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4122     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4123     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4124     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4125     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4126     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4127     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4128 
  4129   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4130   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4131 
  4132     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4133     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4134     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4135     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4136     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4137 
  4138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * Refined field classes:
  4141   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4142     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4143     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4144   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4148   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4149   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4150   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4151     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4152   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4153     equal_neg_zero.
  4154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4157 sets to lattices:
  4158 
  4159   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4160   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4161   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4162   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4163   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4164   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4165   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4166   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4167   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4168   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4169 
  4170 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4171 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4172 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4173 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4174 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4175 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4178 multiset order:
  4179 
  4180   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4181     <= and <;
  4182   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4183     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4184     multiset_order;
  4185   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4186     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4187     generation;
  4188   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4189     if needed.
  4190 
  4191 Renamed:
  4192 
  4193   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4194   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4195   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4196 
  4197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4200 
  4201 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4202 
  4203 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4204 
  4205 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4206 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4207 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209   Constants:
  4210   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4211   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4212   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4213   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4214   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4215   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4216   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4217   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4218   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4219   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4220   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4221   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4222   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4223 
  4224   Lemmas:
  4225   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4226   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4227   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4228   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4229   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4230   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4231   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4232   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4233   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4234   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4235   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4236   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4237   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4238 
  4239 * Sledgehammer:
  4240   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4241     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4242     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4243     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4244     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4245     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4246     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4248   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4249     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4250   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4251     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4252     is still experimental.)
  4253   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4254     full-typed mode.
  4255   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4256 
  4257 * Nitpick:
  4258   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4259   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4260   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4261     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4262   - Added support for quotient types.
  4263   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4264     constructs.
  4265   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4266     "termination" proofs).
  4267   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4268   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4269   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4270   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4271     record getters.
  4272   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4273   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4274   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4275   - Added "atoms" option.
  4276   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4277     problems.
  4278   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4279     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4280     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4281   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4282     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4286   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4287   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4288   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4289   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4290   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4291   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4292   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4293   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4294   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 
  4297 *** HOLCF ***
  4298 
  4299 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4300 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4301 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4304 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4305 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4306 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4309 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4310 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4311 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4312 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4315 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4316 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4319 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4322   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4323 
  4324 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4325 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4326 
  4327   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4328   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4329   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4330   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4331   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4332 
  4333 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4334 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4335 
  4336   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4337   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4338   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4339 
  4340 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4341 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4345 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4348 
  4349 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4350 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4351 
  4352 
  4353 *** ML ***
  4354 
  4355 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4356 
  4357     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4358     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4359 
  4360     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4361     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4362     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4363     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4364 
  4365     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4366     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4367     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4368 
  4369 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4370 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4371 
  4372 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4373 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4374 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4375 
  4376 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4377 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4378 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4379 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4380 
  4381 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4382 the context or even global references.
  4383 
  4384 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4385 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4386 
  4387 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4388 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4389 
  4390   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4391   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4392   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4393   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4394   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4395   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4396   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4397   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4398   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4399   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4400 
  4401 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4402 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4403 
  4404 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4405 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4406 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4407 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4408 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4409 
  4410 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4411 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4412 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4413 Theory_Data version.
  4414 
  4415 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4416 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4417 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4418 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4419 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4420 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4421 explicitly in rare situations.
  4422 
  4423 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4424 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4428 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4431 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4432 quite rare).
  4433 
  4434 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4435 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4438 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4439 terms.
  4440 
  4441 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4442 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4443 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4444 
  4445 
  4446 *** System ***
  4447 
  4448 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4449 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4450 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4451 
  4452 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4453 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4454 respectively.
  4455 
  4456 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4457 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4458 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4459 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4460 
  4461   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4462 
  4463 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4464 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4465 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4466 component.
  4467 
  4468 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4469 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4470 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4471 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4472 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4473 the user for manual installation.
  4474 
  4475 
  4476 
  4477 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4478 -------------------------------------
  4479 
  4480 *** General ***
  4481 
  4482 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4483 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4484 
  4485 
  4486 *** Pure ***
  4487 
  4488 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4489 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4490 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4491 
  4492 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4493 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4494 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4495 
  4496 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4497 interpretation.
  4498 
  4499 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4500 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4501 
  4502 
  4503 *** Document preparation ***
  4504 
  4505 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4506 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4507 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4508 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4509 
  4510 
  4511 *** HOL ***
  4512 
  4513 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4514 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4515 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4516 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4517 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4518 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4519 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4520 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4521 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4522 
  4523 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4524 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4525 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4526 
  4527 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4528 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4529 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4530 
  4531 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4532 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4533 
  4534 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4535 
  4536 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4537 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4538 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4539 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4540 
  4541 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4542 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4543 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4544 "mirabelle" utility.
  4545 
  4546 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4547 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4548 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4549 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4550 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4551 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4552 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4553 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4554 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4555 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4556 
  4557 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4558 procedure only.
  4559 
  4560 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4561 
  4562 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4563 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4564 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4565 that fail later.
  4566 
  4567 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4568 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4569 
  4570 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4571 the same method as the approximation method.
  4572 
  4573 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4574 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4575 series expansion.
  4576 
  4577 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4578 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4579 
  4580 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4581 reals.
  4582 
  4583 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4584 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4585 
  4586 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4587 fixpoint theorem.
  4588 
  4589 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4590   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4591     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4592   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4593     accordingly
  4594   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4595     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4596   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4597     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4598 
  4599 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4600 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4601 lattice.
  4602 
  4603 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4604 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4605 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4606 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4607 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4608 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4612   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4613     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4614   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4615     le_inf_iff
  4616   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4617     sup_aci)
  4618   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4619   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4620   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4621     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4622     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4623     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4624     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4625     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4626     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4627     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4628     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4629     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4630     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4631   - authentic syntax for
  4632     Set.Pow
  4633     Set.image
  4634   - mere abbreviations:
  4635     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4636     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4637     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4638     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4639     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4640     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4641     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4642     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4643   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4644 
  4645 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4646 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4647 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4648 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4649 
  4650 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4651 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4652 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4653 
  4654 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4655 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4658 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4659 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4660 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4663 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4664 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4665 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4666 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4667 
  4668 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4669 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4671 
  4672 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4673 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4674 
  4675 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4676 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4677 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4678 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4679 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4680 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4681 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4685     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4686     code_post       replaces    code post
  4687     etc.
  4688   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Renamed methods:
  4691     sizechange -> size_change
  4692     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4693   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4694 
  4695 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4696 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4697 
  4698 * Renamed theorems:
  4699     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4700     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4701     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4702     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4703     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4704   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712 
  4713 *** HOLCF ***
  4714 
  4715 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4716 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4717 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4718 
  4719 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4720 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4721 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4722 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4723 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4724 
  4725 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4726 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4727 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4728 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4729 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4730 
  4731 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4732 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4733 constructor are pre-configured.
  4734 
  4735 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4736 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4737 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4738 
  4739 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4740 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4741 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4742 as well.)
  4743 
  4744 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4745 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4746 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4747 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4748 examples.
  4749 
  4750 
  4751 *** ML ***
  4752 
  4753 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4754 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4755 
  4756 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4757 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4758 position, logical grouping etc.
  4759 
  4760 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4761 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4762 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4763 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4764 
  4765 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4766 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4767 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4768 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4769 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4770 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4771 
  4772 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4773 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4774 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4775 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4776 experiments with references.
  4777 
  4778 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4779 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4780 
  4781 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4782 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4783 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4784 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4785 
  4786 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4787 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4788 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4789 
  4790 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4791 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4792 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4795 
  4796 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4798 
  4799 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4800 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4801 
  4802 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4803 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4804 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4805 
  4806 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4807 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4808 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4809 
  4810 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4811 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4812 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4816 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4817 instead of global theory.
  4818 
  4819 
  4820 *** System ***
  4821 
  4822 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4823 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4824 usedir option -q.
  4825 
  4826 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4827 also the system manual.
  4828 
  4829 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4830 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4831 
  4832 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4833 this is always enabled.
  4834 
  4835 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4836 
  4837 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4838 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4839 currently supported on Linux only.
  4840 
  4841 
  4842 
  4843 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4844 --------------------------------
  4845 
  4846 *** General ***
  4847 
  4848 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4849 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4850 
  4851   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4852     "isatool."
  4853 
  4854   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4855     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4856 
  4857   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4858     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4859 
  4860 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4861 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4862 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4863 
  4864 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4865 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4866 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4867 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4868 via "isabelle emacs".
  4869 
  4870 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4871 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4872 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4873 
  4874 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4875 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4876 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4877 
  4878 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4879 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4880 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4881 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4882 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4883 
  4884 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4885 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4886 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4887 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4888 
  4889 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4890 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4891 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4892 
  4893 
  4894 *** Pure ***
  4895 
  4896 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4897 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4898 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4899 
  4900 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4901 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4902 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4903 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4904 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4905 
  4906 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4907 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4908 useful in locale declarations.
  4909 
  4910 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4911 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4912 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4913 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4914 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4915 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4916 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4917 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4918 no longer generated.
  4919 
  4920 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4921 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4922 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4923 
  4924 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4925 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4926 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4927 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4928 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4929 
  4930 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4931 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4932 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4933 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4934 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4935 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4936 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4937 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4938 
  4939 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4940 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4941 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4942 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4943 
  4944 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4945 
  4946 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4947 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4948 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4949 
  4950 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4951 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4952 
  4953 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4954 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4955 in HOL, write
  4956 
  4957     class foo = ...
  4958 
  4959 instead of
  4960 
  4961     class foo = type + ...
  4962 
  4963 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4964 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4968 
  4969 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4970 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4971 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4972 
  4973 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4974 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4975 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4976 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4977 directly in regular applications.
  4978 
  4979 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4980 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4981 
  4982 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4983 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4984 
  4985 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4986 theory context.
  4987 
  4988 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4989 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990 
  4991 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4992 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4993 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4994 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4995 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4996 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4997 
  4998   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4999 
  5000 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5001 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5002 normalization.
  5003 
  5004 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5005 addressing etc.
  5006 
  5007 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5008 
  5009   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5010   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5011 
  5012 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5013 
  5014   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5015      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5016      parts of the code generator framework).
  5017 
  5018   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5019      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5020      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5021 
  5022 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5025 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5028 patterns, e.g.
  5029 
  5030     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5031 
  5032 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5033 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5034 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5035 hyphen:
  5036 
  5037     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5038 
  5039 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5040 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5041 
  5042 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5043 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5044 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5045 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5046 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5047 higher-order unification.
  5048 
  5049 
  5050 *** Document preparation ***
  5051 
  5052 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5053 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5054 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5055 
  5056 
  5057 *** HOL ***
  5058 
  5059 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5060 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5061 
  5062 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5063 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5064 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5065 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5066 Main, as before.
  5067 
  5068 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5069 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5070 
  5071 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5072 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5073 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5074 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5075 
  5076 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5077 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5078 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5079 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5080 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5081 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5082 
  5083 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5084 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5085 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5086 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5087 
  5088 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5089 menu.
  5090 
  5091 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5092 (contains the empty clause).
  5093 
  5094 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5095 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5096 
  5097 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5098 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5099 
  5100 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5101 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5102 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5103 
  5104 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5105 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5106 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5107 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5108 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5109 
  5110 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5111 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5112 
  5113 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5114 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5115 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5116 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5117 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5118 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5119 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5120 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5121 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5122 
  5123 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5124 
  5125 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5126 
  5127 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5128 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5131 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5132 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5133 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5134 
  5135 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5136 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5137 
  5138     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5139     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5140     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5141     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5142     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5143     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5144     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5145     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5146 
  5147 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5148 theory Set.
  5149 
  5150 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5151 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5152 
  5153 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5154 
  5155 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5156 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5157 
  5158 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5159 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5160 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5161 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5162 allowed. For examples see
  5163 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5164 
  5165 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5166 
  5167 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5171 structure:
  5172 
  5173     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5174     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5175     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5176     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5177     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5178     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5179     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5180     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5181     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5182     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5183     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5184     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5185     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5186     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5187     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5188     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5189     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5190     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5191     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5192     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5193     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5194     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5195     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5196     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5197     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5198     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5199     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5200     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5201     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5202     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5203     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5204     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5205     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5206 
  5207     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5208     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5209     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5210     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5211     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5212     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5213     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5214     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5215     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5216     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5217 
  5218     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5219     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5220     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5221     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5222     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5223     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5224 
  5225 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5226 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5227 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5228 
  5229 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5230 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5231 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5232 
  5233 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5234 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5235 
  5236 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5237 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5238 
  5239 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5240 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5241 proofs, e.g.
  5242 
  5243   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5244 
  5245 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5246 
  5247 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5248 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5249 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5250 
  5251 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5252 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5254 
  5255 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5256 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5257 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5259 
  5260 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5261 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5262 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5263 preorder_class.*.
  5264 
  5265 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5266 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5267 
  5268 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5269 
  5270   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5271 
  5272 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5273 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5274 fold_image.
  5275 
  5276 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5277 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5278 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5279 the former will disappear at some point.
  5280 
  5281 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5282 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5283 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5284 
  5285 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5286 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5287 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5288 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5289 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5290 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5291 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5292 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5293 
  5294 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5295 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5296 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5297 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5298 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5299 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5300 
  5301     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5302     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5303     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5304     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5305     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5306     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5307     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5308 
  5309 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5310 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5311 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5312 
  5313 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5314 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5315 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5316 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5317 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5318 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5319 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5320 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5321 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5322 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5323 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5324 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5325 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5326 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5327 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5328 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5329 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5330 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5331 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5332 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5333 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5334 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5335 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5336 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5337 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5338 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5339 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5340 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5341 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5342 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5343 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5344 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5345 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5346 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5347 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5348 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5349 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5350 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5351 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5352 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5353 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5354 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5355 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5356 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5357 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5358 
  5359 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5360 
  5361 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5362 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5363 
  5364 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5365 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5366 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5367 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5368 
  5369 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5370 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5371 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5372 theory RealVector.
  5373 
  5374 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5375 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5376 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5377 and inner products are included.
  5378 
  5379 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5380 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5381 supported.
  5382 
  5383 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5384 first diagonalization argument.
  5385 
  5386 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5387 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5388 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5389 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5390 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5391 
  5392     hide (open) const gcd
  5393     abbreviation gcd where
  5394       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5395     notation (output)
  5396       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5397 
  5398 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5399 
  5400 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5401 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5402 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5403 
  5404 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5405 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5406 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5407 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5408 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5409 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5410 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5411 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5412 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5413 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5414 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5415 cases.
  5416 
  5417 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5418 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5419 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5420 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5421 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5422 
  5423     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5424     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5425     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5426     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5427     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5428 
  5429 
  5430 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5431 
  5432 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5433 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5434 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5435 
  5436 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5437 
  5438 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5439 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5440 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5441 
  5442 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5443 
  5444 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5445 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5446 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5447 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5448 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5449 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5450 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5451 
  5452 
  5453 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5454 
  5455 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5456 
  5457 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5458 theory targets.
  5459 
  5460 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5461 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5462 'inductive' etc.
  5463 
  5464 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5465 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5466 
  5467 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5468 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5469 
  5470 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5471 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5472 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5473 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5474 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5475 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5476 the algorithm W:
  5477 
  5478  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5479  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5480          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5481 
  5482 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5483 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5484 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5485 
  5486 
  5487 *** HOLCF ***
  5488 
  5489 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5490 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5491 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5492 
  5493 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5494 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5495 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5496 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5497 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5498 
  5499 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5500 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5501 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5502 
  5503 
  5504 *** ZF ***
  5505 
  5506 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5507 
  5508 
  5509 *** ML ***
  5510 
  5511 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5512 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5513 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5514 5.2.1!
  5515 
  5516 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5517 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5518 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5519 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5520 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5521 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5522 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5523 
  5524 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5525 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5526 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5527 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5528 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5529 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5530 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5531 
  5532 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5533 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5534 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5535 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5536 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5537 
  5538 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5539 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5540 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5541 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5542 Method.add_method.
  5543 
  5544 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5545 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5546 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5547 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5548 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5549 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5550 
  5551 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5552 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5553 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5554 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5555 examples.
  5556 
  5557 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5558 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5559 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5560 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5561 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5562 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5563 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5564 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5565 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5566 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5567 
  5568 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5569 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5570 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5571 
  5572 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5573 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5574 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5575 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5576 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5577 resort for legacy applications.
  5578 
  5579 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5580 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5581 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5582 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5583 explicit runtime argument.
  5584 
  5585 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5586 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5587 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5588 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5589 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5590 
  5591 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5592 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5593 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5594 theory state.
  5595 
  5596 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5597 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5598 
  5599   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5600   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5601   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5602   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5603   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5604   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5605   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5606   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5607   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5608   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5609 
  5610 
  5611 *** System ***
  5612 
  5613 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5614 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5615 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5616 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5617 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5618 
  5619 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5620 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5621 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5622 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5623 
  5624 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5625 
  5626 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5627 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5628 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5629 prover operations.
  5630 
  5631 
  5632 
  5633 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5634 -------------------------------
  5635 
  5636 *** General ***
  5637 
  5638 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5639 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5640 
  5641 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5642 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5643 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5644 provides a proper context already.
  5645 
  5646 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5647 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5648 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5649 
  5650 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5651 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5652 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5653 swap theory imports.
  5654 
  5655 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5656 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5657 
  5658 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5659 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5660 white space without escapes.
  5661 
  5662 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5663 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5664 "foo_bar".
  5665 
  5666 
  5667 *** Pure ***
  5668 
  5669 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5670 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5671 
  5672 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5673 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5674 
  5675 (1) unused_thms
  5676      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5677 
  5678 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5679      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5680      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5681 
  5682 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5683      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5684      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5685      their ancestors.
  5686 
  5687 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5688 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5689 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5690 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5691 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5692 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5693 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5694 
  5695 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5696 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5697 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5698 
  5699 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5700 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5701 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5702 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5703 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5704 
  5705 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5706 
  5707 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5708 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5709 update of theories within ML code.
  5710 
  5711 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5712 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5713 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5714 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5715 
  5716 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5717 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5718 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5720 
  5721 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5722 
  5723 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5724 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5725 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5726 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5727 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5728 
  5729 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5730 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5731 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5732 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5733 situations.
  5734 
  5735 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5736 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5737 proof text.
  5738 
  5739 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5740 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5741 
  5742 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5743 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5744 predicates.
  5745 
  5746 
  5747 *** Document preparation ***
  5748 
  5749 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5750 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5751 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5752 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5753 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5754 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5755 
  5756 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5757 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5758 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5759 
  5760 
  5761 *** HOL ***
  5762 
  5763 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5764 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5765 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5766 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5767 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5768 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5769 
  5770 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5771 with multithreading.
  5772 
  5773 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5774 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5775 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5776 
  5777 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5778 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5779 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5780 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5781 
  5782 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5783 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5784 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5785 and makes them available separately.  See
  5786 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5787 
  5788 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5789 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5790 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5791 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5792 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5793 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5794 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5795 the declared rules.
  5796 
  5797 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5798 
  5799   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5800 
  5801 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5802 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5803 
  5804 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5805 
  5806   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5807 
  5808   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5809     definitions on => and bool.
  5810 
  5811   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5812     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5813     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5814 
  5815       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5816       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5817       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5818       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5819       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5820       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5821       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5822       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5823 
  5824   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5825     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5826     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5827 
  5828   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5829     The proof pattern
  5830 
  5831       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5832       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5833 
  5834     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5835     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5836 
  5837       have "EX S. P S"
  5838       proof
  5839         show "P S" <...>
  5840       qed
  5841 
  5842   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5843     The proof pattern
  5844 
  5845       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5846       also have "S = T" <...>
  5847       finally have "P T" .
  5848 
  5849     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5850     must be replaced by something like
  5851 
  5852       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5853       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5854       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5855 
  5856   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5857     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5858 
  5859       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5860 
  5861     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5862     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5863     type of the form
  5864 
  5865       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5866 
  5867     rather than
  5868 
  5869       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5870 
  5871 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5872 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5873 
  5874 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5875 
  5876 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5877 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5879 
  5880 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5881 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5882 
  5883 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5884 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5885 
  5886 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5887 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5888 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5889 
  5890 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5891 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5892 
  5893   less_trans
  5894   less_linear
  5895   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5896   le_less_trans
  5897   less_le_trans
  5898   less_not_sym
  5899   less_asym
  5900 
  5901 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5902 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5903 and different variable names.
  5904 
  5905 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5906 
  5907 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5908 finite maps.
  5909 
  5910 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5911 
  5912 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5913 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5914 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5915 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5916 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5917 accordingly.
  5918 
  5919 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5920 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5921 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5922 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5923 
  5924 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5925 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5926 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5927 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5928 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5930 
  5931 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5932 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5933 
  5934 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5935 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5936 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5937 
  5938 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5942 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5943 
  5944 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5945 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5946 
  5947 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5948 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5951 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5955 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5956 
  5957 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5958 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5959 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5960 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5961 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5962 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5963 
  5964 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5965 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5966 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5967 
  5968 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5969 
  5970 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5971 
  5972 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5973 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5974 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5975 
  5976 
  5977 *** ZF ***
  5978 
  5979 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5980 same session:
  5981 
  5982   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5983   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5984   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5985   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5986   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5987   List      -> List_ZF
  5988   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5989 
  5990 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5991 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5992 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5993 
  5994 
  5995 *** ML ***
  5996 
  5997 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5998 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5999 
  6000 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6001 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6002 
  6003 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6004 
  6005 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6006 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6007 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6008 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6009 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6010 
  6011 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6012 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6013 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6014 
  6015 
  6016 *** System ***
  6017 
  6018 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6019 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6020 
  6021 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6022 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6023 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6024 
  6025 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6026 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6027 
  6028 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6029 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6030 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6031 
  6032 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6033 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6034 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6035 
  6036 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6037 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6038 
  6039 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6040 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6041 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6042 script.
  6043 
  6044 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6045 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6046 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6047 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6048 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6049 
  6050 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6051 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6052 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6053 
  6054 
  6055 
  6056 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6057 -----------------------------------
  6058 
  6059 *** General ***
  6060 
  6061 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6062 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6063 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6064 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6065 
  6066 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6067 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6068 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6069 
  6070 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6071 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6072 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6073 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6076 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6077 quotes.
  6078 
  6079 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6080 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6081 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6082 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6083 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6084 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6085 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6086 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6087 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6088 
  6089 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6090 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6091 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6092 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6093 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6094 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6095 
  6096 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6097 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6098 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6099 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6100 
  6101 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6102 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6103 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6104 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6105 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6106 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6107 
  6108 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6109 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6110 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6111 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6112 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6113 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6114 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6115 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6116 
  6117 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6118 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6119 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6120 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6121 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6122 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6123 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6124 
  6125 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6126 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6127 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6128 
  6129 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6130 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6131 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6132 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6133 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6134 limit is imposed.
  6135 
  6136 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6137 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6138 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6139 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6140 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6141 and scalability.
  6142 
  6143 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6144 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6145 
  6146 
  6147 *** Document preparation ***
  6148 
  6149 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6150 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6151 current context.
  6152 
  6153 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6154 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6155 
  6156 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6157 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6158 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6159 
  6160 
  6161 *** Pure ***
  6162 
  6163 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6164 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6165 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6166 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6167 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6168 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6169 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6170 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6171 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6172 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6173 
  6174 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6175 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6176 sketch:
  6177 
  6178     internal compilation:
  6179         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6180     writing SML code to a file:
  6181         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6182     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6183         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6184     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6185         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6186 
  6187     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6188         method ``eval''
  6189 
  6190 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6191 
  6192 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6193 
  6194     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6195     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6196     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6197     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6198 
  6199 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6200 
  6201     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6202       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6203 
  6204     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6205       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6206 
  6207     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6208       {(target)}+
  6209         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6210 
  6211     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6212       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6213         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6214 
  6215 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6216 
  6217 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6218 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6219 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6220 codegen".
  6221 
  6222 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6223 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6224 annotations).
  6225 
  6226 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6227 syntax.
  6228 
  6229 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6230 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6231 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6232 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6233 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6234 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6235 
  6236 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6237 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6238 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6239 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6240 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6241 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6242 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6243 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6244 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6245 equations, see section "definitions".
  6246 
  6247 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6248 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6249 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6250 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6251 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6252 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6253 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6254 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6255 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6256 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6257 
  6258 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6259 configuration options:
  6260 
  6261   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6262   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6263   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6264   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6265   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6266   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6267   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit