NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Dec 14 17:28:05 2013 +0100 (2013-12-14)
changeset 54742 7a86358a3c0b
parent 54732 b01bb3d09928
child 54745 46e441e61ff5
permissions -rw-r--r--
proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule, rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc.;
clarified tool context in some boundary cases;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    21 
    22 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    23 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    24 
    25 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    26 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    27 
    28 
    29 *** HOL ***
    30 
    31 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
    32 operations on records.
    33 
    34 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    35 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    36 
    37 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    38     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    39 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    40 
    41 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    42     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    43     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    44 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    47   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    48   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    49   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    50     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    51   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    52     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    53   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    54 INCOMPATBILITY.
    55 
    56 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    57     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    58     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    59     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    60     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    61 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    62 
    63 * Fact name consolidation:
    64     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    65     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    66     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    67     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    68     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    69 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    70 
    71 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    72 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    73 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    74 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    75 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    76 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    77 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    78 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    79 
    80 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    81 
    82 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    83 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    84 
    85 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    86 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    87 
    88 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    89 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    90 or the brute way with
    91 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    92 
    93 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    94 
    95 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    96 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    97 
    98 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    99 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   100 
   101 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   102 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   103 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   104 INCOMPATIBILITY
   105 
   106 * Nitpick:
   107   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   108     infinite values.
   109 
   110 
   111 *** ML ***
   112 
   113 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   114 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   116 formal context.
   117 
   118 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   119 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   120 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   121 actually belongs to it).
   122 
   123 
   124 *** System ***
   125 
   126 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   127 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   128 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   129 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   131 
   132 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   133 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   134 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   135 
   136 
   137 
   138 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   139 -------------------------------------
   140 
   141 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   142 
   143 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   144 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   145 
   146 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   147 after edits surrounding the command location.
   148 
   149 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   150 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   151 e.g. out-of-memory).
   152 
   153 
   154 *** System ***
   155 
   156 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   157 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   158 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   159 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   160 
   161 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   162 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   163 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   164 
   165 
   166 
   167 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   168 -------------------------------------
   169 
   170 *** General ***
   171 
   172 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   173 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   174 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   177 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   180 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   181 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   182 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   183 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   184 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   185 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   186 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   187 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   188 syntax.
   189 
   190 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   191 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   194 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   195 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   196 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   197 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   198 
   199 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201 
   202 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   203 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   204 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   205 
   206 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   207 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   208 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   209 
   210 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   211 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   212 
   213 
   214 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   215 
   216 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   217 Documentation panel.
   218 
   219 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   220 documentation.
   221 
   222 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   223 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   224 
   225 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   226 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   227 normal editing and checking process.
   228 
   229 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   230 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   231 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   232 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   233 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   234 
   235 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   236 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   237 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   238 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   239 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   240 
   241 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   242 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   243 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   244 
   245 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   246 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   247 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   248 to resolve conflict.
   249 
   250 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   251 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   252 
   253 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   254 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   255 such command executions while editing.
   256 
   257 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   258 document content.
   259 
   260 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   261 toplevel theorem statements.
   262 
   263 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   264 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   265 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   266 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   267 
   268 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   269 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   270 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   271 
   272 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   273 / Global Options / Appearance".
   274 
   275 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   276 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   277 
   278 
   279 *** Pure ***
   280 
   281 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   282 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   283 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   284 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   285 details.
   286 
   287 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   288 
   289 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   290 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   291 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   292 
   293 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   297 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   298 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   299 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   302 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   303 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   306 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   307 
   308 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   309 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   310 situations.
   311 
   312 
   313 *** HOL ***
   314 
   315 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   316 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   320 
   321 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   322 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   323 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   324 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   325 
   326   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   327 
   328 * Code generator:
   329   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   330     'code_instance'.
   331   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   332     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   333 
   334 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   335 examples.
   336 
   337 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   338 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   339 to distinguish both when desired.
   340 
   341 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   342 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   343 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   344 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345 
   346 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   347 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   348 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   349 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   350 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   351 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352 
   353 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   354 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   355 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   356 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   357 
   358 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   359 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   360 
   361 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   362 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   363 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   364 
   365 * Lifting:
   366   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   367     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   368       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   369       transfer rules
   370     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   371       correspondence relation can be generated
   372     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   373       parametricity
   374     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   375   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   376   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   377     copies
   378   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   379     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   380     anonymous context)
   381   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   382     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   383   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   384     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   385   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   386     INCOMPATIBILITY
   387 
   388 * Transfer:
   389   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   390     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   391   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   392   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   393     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   394   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   395 
   396 * Reification and reflection:
   397   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   398     "Reification".
   399   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   400   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   404   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   405     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   406     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   407   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   408     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   409   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   410     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   411     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   412     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   413     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   414     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   415     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   416     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   417   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   418     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   419   - Fact renames:
   420       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   421       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423 
   424 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   425 
   426 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   427 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   428 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   430 
   431 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   432 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   433 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   434 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   435 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   436 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   437 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   438 lemmas.
   439 
   440 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   441 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   442 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   445 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   446 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   447 
   448 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   449 top and bottom elements.
   450 
   451 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   452 
   453 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   454 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   455 
   456  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   457    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   458    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   459 
   460  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   461    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   462    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   463 
   464    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   465    arbitrary filter.
   466 
   467  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   468    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   469    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   470    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   471    on a compact set.
   472 
   473  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   474    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   475    linear_continuum_topology).
   476 
   477  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   478    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   479    on all sequences converging to x.
   480 
   481  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   482    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   483    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   484    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   485    left or right.
   486 
   487  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   488 
   489      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   490 
   491  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   492    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   493 
   494  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   495    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   496    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   497    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   498    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   499    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   500 
   501  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   502 
   503    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   504 
   505    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   506      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   507 
   508    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   509 
   510    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   511      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   512 
   513    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   514 
   515    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   516 
   517  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   518 
   519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520 
   521 * Nitpick:
   522   - Added option "spy"
   523   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   524 
   525 * Sledgehammer:
   526   - Renamed option:
   527       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   528     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   529   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   530   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   531   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   532 
   533 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   534 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   535 
   536 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   537   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   538   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   539     generated code.
   540   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   541   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   542   - Fact renames:
   543     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   544     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   545     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   546 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   547 
   548 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   549 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   550 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   551 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   552 
   553 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   554 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   555 
   556 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   557 
   558 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   559 
   560     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   561     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   562 
   563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   566 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   567 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   568 
   569 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   570 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   571 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   572 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * HOL-BNF:
   575   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   576     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   577     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   578     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   579   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   580     coinduct).
   581   - Renamed keywords:
   582     data ~> datatype_new
   583     codata ~> codatatype
   584     bnf_def ~> bnf
   585   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   586     discs ~> disc
   587     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   588     map_id' ~> map_id
   589     sels ~> sel
   590     set_map' ~> set_map
   591     sets ~> set
   592 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   593 
   594 
   595 *** ML ***
   596 
   597 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   598 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   599 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   600 Examples.thy in particular.
   601 
   602 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   603 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   604 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   605 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   606 
   607 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   608 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   609 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   610 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   614 
   615     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   616     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   617 
   618 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   621 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   622 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   623 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   624 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   625 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   626 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   627 
   628 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   629 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   630 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   631 clasets separately from the context.
   632 
   633 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   634 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   635 
   636 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   637 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   638 
   639 
   640 *** System ***
   641 
   642 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   643 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   644 
   645 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   646 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   649 settings variable.
   650 
   651 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   652 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   653 always pdf.
   654 
   655 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   656 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   657 
   658 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   659 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   660 
   661 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   662 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   663 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   664 
   665 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   666 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   667 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   668 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   669 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   670 for HTML presentation of theories.
   671 
   672 
   673 
   674 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   675 -----------------------------------
   676 
   677 *** General ***
   678 
   679 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   680 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   681 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   682 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   683 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   684 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   685 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   686 
   687 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   688 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   689 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   690 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   691 
   692 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   693 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   694 
   695 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   696 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   697 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   698 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   699 dependencies properly.
   700 
   701 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   702 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   703 
   704 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   705 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   706 
   707 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   708 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   709 and "class ... context ...".
   710 
   711 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   712 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   713 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   714 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   715 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   716 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   717 
   718 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   719 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   720 
   721 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   722 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   723 
   724 
   725 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   726 
   727 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   728 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   729 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   730 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   731 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   732 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   733 
   734 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   735 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   736 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   737 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   738 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   739 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   740 
   741 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   742 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   743 browser on demand.
   744 
   745 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   746 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   747 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   748 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   749 
   750 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   751 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   752 
   753 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   754 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   755 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   756 potentially infinite message streams.
   757 
   758 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   759 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   760 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   761 schemes.
   762 
   763 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   764 symbols.
   765 
   766 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   767 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   768 
   769 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   770 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   771 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   772 
   773 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   774 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   775 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   776 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   777 
   778 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   779 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   780 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   781 
   782 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   783 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   784 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   785 Isabelle distribution.
   786 
   787 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   788 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   789 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   790 
   791 
   792 *** Pure ***
   793 
   794 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   795 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   796 
   797 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   798 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   799 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   802 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   803 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   804 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   805 with some care where this is really required.
   806 
   807 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   808 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   809 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   810 
   811   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   812 
   813 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   814 a Hasse diagram.
   815 
   816 
   817 *** HOL ***
   818 
   819 * Sledgehammer:
   820 
   821   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   822     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   823   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   824   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   825   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   826   - Renamed options:
   827       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   828       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   829       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   830       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   831 
   832 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   833 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   834 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   835 
   836 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   838 
   839 * Lifting:
   840   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   841   - quot_del attribute
   842   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   843 
   844 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   845 expressions.
   846 
   847 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   848 pointfree expressions.
   849 
   850 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   851 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   852 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   853 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   857 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   858 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   859 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   860 accordingly.
   861 
   862 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   863 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   866 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   871 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   872 
   873 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   874 
   875 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   876 
   877   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   878   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   879 
   880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   881 
   882 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   883 
   884   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   885   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   886 
   887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   890 
   891   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   892     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   893     output f x converges to G.
   894 
   895   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   896     infinity (at_bot).
   897 
   898   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   899     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   900 
   901   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   902     at_top".
   903 
   904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   905 
   906 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   907 lattice type classes.
   908 
   909 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   910 
   911     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   912     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   913 
   914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   917 changes as follows.
   918 
   919   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   920 
   921       prefix ~> prefixeq
   922       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   923 
   924   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   925     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   926     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   927     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   928 
   929   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   930     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   931     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   932 
   933   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   934     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   935     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   936     Library/Prefix_Order.
   937 
   938   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   939     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   940 
   941       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   942       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   943       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   944       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   945       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   946       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   947       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   948       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   949       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   950       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   951       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   952       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   953       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   954       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   955       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   956       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   957 
   958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   961 
   962 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   963 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   964 
   965 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   966 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   967 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   968 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   969 
   970   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   971   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   972   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   973   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   974   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   975   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   976   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   977   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   978   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   979   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   980 
   981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   982 
   983 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   984 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   985 Data").
   986 
   987 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   988 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   989 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   990 code.
   991 
   992 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   993 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   994 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   998 
   999 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1000 
  1001 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1002 
  1003   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1004   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1005 
  1006 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1007 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1008 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1009 
  1010   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1011 
  1012     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1013     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1014     cart_base i  removed
  1015     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1016 
  1017   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1018 
  1019   Renamed lemmas:
  1020 
  1021     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1022     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1023     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1024     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1025     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1026     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1027     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1028     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1029     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1030     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1031 
  1032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * HOL/Probability:
  1035 
  1036   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1037 
  1038   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1039     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1040     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1041 
  1042   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1043     projective family).
  1044 
  1045 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1046 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1047 
  1048 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1049 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1050 datatypes.
  1051 
  1052 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1053 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1054 
  1055 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1056 trees for the code generator.
  1057 
  1058 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1059 Lifting/Transfer.
  1060 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 
  1066 *** Document preparation ***
  1067 
  1068 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1069 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1070 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1071 
  1072 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1073 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1074 
  1075 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1076 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1077 document/root.tex.
  1078 
  1079 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1080 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 
  1083 *** ML ***
  1084 
  1085 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1086 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1087 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1088 
  1089 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1090 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1091 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1092 
  1093 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1094 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1095 necessarily printing visible text.
  1096 
  1097 
  1098 *** System ***
  1099 
  1100 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1101 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1102 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1103 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1104 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1105 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1106 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1107 
  1108 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1109 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1110 
  1111   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1112 
  1113 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1114 
  1115 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1116 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1117 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1118 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1119 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1120 
  1121 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1122 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1123 
  1124 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1125 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1126 
  1127 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1131 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1132 version of Isabelle.
  1133 
  1134 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1135 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1136 
  1137 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1138 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1139 for home-made settings.
  1140 
  1141 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1142 
  1143 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1144 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1145 configuration.
  1146 
  1147 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1148 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1149 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1150 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1151 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1152 
  1153 
  1154 
  1155 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1156 ------------------------------
  1157 
  1158 *** General ***
  1159 
  1160 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1161 
  1162   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1163     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1164   - markup for bound variables
  1165   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1166   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1167   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1168     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1169 
  1170 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1171 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1172 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1173 
  1174 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1175 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1176 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1177 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1178 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1179 
  1180   context
  1181     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1182     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1183   begin
  1184 
  1185   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1186 
  1187   end
  1188 
  1189   thm my_trans
  1190 
  1191 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1192 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1193 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1194 
  1195 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1196 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1197 
  1198 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1199 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1200 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1201 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1202 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1203 
  1204 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1205 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1206 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1207 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1208 indices of schematic variables.
  1209 
  1210 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1211 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1212 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1213 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1214 etc. was exploited.
  1215 
  1216 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1217 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1218 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1219 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1220 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1221 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1222 
  1223 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1224 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1225 manual.
  1226 
  1227 
  1228 *** Pure ***
  1229 
  1230 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1231 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1232 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1233 
  1234 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1235 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1236 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1237 undocumented feature.)
  1238 
  1239 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1240 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1241 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1242 
  1243   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1244 
  1245   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1246     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1247 
  1248 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1249 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1250 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1251 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1252 
  1253 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1254 
  1255     num ~> num_token
  1256     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1257     xstr ~> str_token
  1258 
  1259 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1260 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1261 position information via constraints).
  1262 
  1263 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1264 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1265 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1268 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1269 
  1270 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1271 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1272 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1273 
  1274 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1275 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1278 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1279 
  1280   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1281 
  1282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283 
  1284 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1285 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1286 
  1287 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1288 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1289 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1290 
  1291 
  1292 *** HOL ***
  1293 
  1294 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1295 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1296 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1297 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1298 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1299 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1300 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1301 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1302 possible.
  1303 
  1304 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1305 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1306 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1307 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1308 
  1309 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1310 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1311 
  1312 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1313 
  1314 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1315 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1316 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1317 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1318 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1319 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1320 
  1321   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1322     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1323 
  1324   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1325     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1326     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1327 
  1328   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1329     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1330 
  1331   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1332     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1333     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1334 
  1335   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1336     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1337 
  1338 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1339 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1340 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1341 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1342 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1343 
  1344   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1345     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1346     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1347     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1348     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1349 
  1350     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1351     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1352 
  1353   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1354     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1355     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1356     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1357     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1358     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1359     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1360     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1361 
  1362   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1363     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1364     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1365     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1366 
  1367   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1368     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1369     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1370     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1371 
  1372   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1373     from type nat to type int.
  1374 
  1375 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1376 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1377 
  1378   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1379     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1380     type.  Example syntax:
  1381 
  1382     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1383       is List.insert
  1384 
  1385     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1386     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1387     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1388     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1389     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1390     by the package.
  1391 
  1392   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1393     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1394     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1395     code generation for each constant.
  1396 
  1397   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1398     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1399     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1400     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1401     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1402 
  1403   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1404     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1405     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1406 
  1407 * Quotient package:
  1408 
  1409   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1410     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1411 
  1412   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1413     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1414 
  1415   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1416     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1417     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1418 
  1419   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1420     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421 
  1422 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1423 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1424 
  1425 * Quickcheck:
  1426 
  1427   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1428     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1429     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1430     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1431     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1432 
  1433     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1434     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1435     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1436 
  1437     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1438     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1439 
  1440     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1441     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1442     show genuine counterexamples.
  1443 
  1444   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1445     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1446 
  1447     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1448     constructors of that type.
  1449 
  1450   - Support for multisets.
  1451 
  1452   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1453 
  1454   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1455     conjectures in a locale context.
  1456 
  1457 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1458 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1459 
  1460 * Sledgehammer:
  1461   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1462     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1463   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1464   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1465     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1466   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1467   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1468   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1469   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1470 
  1471 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1472 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1473 
  1474 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1475 
  1476 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1479 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1480 
  1481   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1482 
  1483 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1484 a list and a nat.
  1485 
  1486 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1487 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1488 
  1489 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1490 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1491 default.
  1492 
  1493 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1494 
  1495   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1496 
  1497 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1498 
  1499 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1500 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1501 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1502 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1503 one_case.
  1504 
  1505 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1506 the result of the fact expression.
  1507 
  1508 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1509 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1510 of some relation theorems:
  1511 
  1512   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1513   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1514   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1515   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1516   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1517   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1518 
  1519 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1520 
  1521 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1522 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1523 
  1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1527 to match the constant's name:
  1528 
  1529   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1530   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1531   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1532   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1533   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1534   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1535   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1536   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1537   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1538   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1539   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1540   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1541   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1542   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1543   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1544   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1545   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1546   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1547   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1548   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1549   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1550   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1551   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1552   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1553 
  1554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1557 and corresponding theorem names:
  1558 
  1559   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1560 
  1561   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1562 
  1563   - Renamed theorems:
  1564 
  1565     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1566     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1567     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1568     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1569     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1570     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1571     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1572     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1573     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1574     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1575     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1576     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1577     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1578     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1579     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1580     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1581     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1582     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1583     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1584     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1585     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1586     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1587     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1588 
  1589     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1590 
  1591     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1592 
  1593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1594 
  1595 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1596 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1597 
  1598   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1599   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1600   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1601   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1602   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1603   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1604   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1605   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1606   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1607   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1608   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1609   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1610   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1611   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1612   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1613   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1614   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1615   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1616   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1617   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1618   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1619 
  1620 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1621 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1626 
  1627   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1628   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1629   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1630   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1631   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1632   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1633   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1634   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1635   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1636   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1637   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1638   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1639   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1640   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1641   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1642   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1643   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1644   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1645 
  1646 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1647 
  1648 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1649 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1650 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1651 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1652 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1653 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1654 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1655 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1656 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1657 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1658 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1659 
  1660 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1661 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1662 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1663 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1664 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1665 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1666 
  1667 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1668 through option types.
  1669 
  1670 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1671 relations.
  1672 
  1673 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1674 
  1675 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1676 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1677 
  1678   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1679   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1680   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1681   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1682   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1683   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1684   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1685   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1686   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1687   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1688   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1689   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1690   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1691   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1692   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1693   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1694   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1695   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1696   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1697   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1698   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1699   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1700   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1701   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1702   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1703   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1704   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1705   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1706   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1707   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1708   zless_le ~> less_le
  1709   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1710   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1711   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1712 
  1713 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1714 
  1715   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1716 
  1717 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1718 
  1719 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1720 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1721 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1722 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1724 
  1725 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1726 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1727 
  1728 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1729 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1730 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1731 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1732 follows:
  1733 
  1734   Operations:
  1735   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1736   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1737   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1738   del -> rbt_del
  1739   delete -> rbt_delete
  1740   ins -> rbt_ins
  1741   insert -> rbt_insert
  1742   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1743   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1744   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1745   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1746   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1747   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1748   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1749   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1750   union -> rbt_union
  1751   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1752   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1753 
  1754   Lemmas:
  1755   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1756   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1757   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1758   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1759   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1760   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1761   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1762   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1763   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1764   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1765   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1766   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1767   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1768   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1769   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1770   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1771   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1772   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1773   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1774   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1775   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1776   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1777   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1778   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1779   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1780   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1781   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1782   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1783   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1784   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1785   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1786   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1787   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1788   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1789   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1790   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1791   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1792   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1793   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1794   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1795   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1796   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1797   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1798   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1799   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1800   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1801   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1802   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1803   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1804   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1805   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1806   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1807   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1808   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1809   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1810   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1811   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1812   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1813   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1814   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1815   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1816   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1817   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1818   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1819   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1820   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1821   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1822   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1823   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1824   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1825   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1826   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1827   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1828   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1829   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1830   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1831   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1832   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1833   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1834   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1835   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1836   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1837   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1838 
  1839 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1840 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1841 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1842 
  1843   Changed Operations:
  1844   float_abs -> abs
  1845   float_nprt -> nprt
  1846   float_pprt -> pprt
  1847   pow2 -> use powr
  1848   round_down -> float_round_down
  1849   round_up -> float_round_up
  1850   scale -> exponent
  1851 
  1852   Removed Operations:
  1853   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1854 
  1855   Renamed Lemmas:
  1856   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1857   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1858   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1859   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1860   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1861   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1862   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1863   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1864   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1865   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1866   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1867   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1868   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1869   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1870   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1871   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1872   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1873   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1874   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1875   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1876   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1877   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1878   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1879   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1880   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1881   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1882   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1883   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1884   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1885   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1886   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1887   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1888   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1889   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1890   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1891   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1892 
  1893   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1894   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1895   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1896   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1897   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1898   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1899   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1900   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1901   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1902   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1903 
  1904 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1905 association lists with distinct keys.
  1906 
  1907 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1908 annotated commands.
  1909 
  1910 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1911 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1912 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1913 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1914 
  1915 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1916 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1917 instead.
  1918 
  1919   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1920   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1921   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1922   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1923   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1924   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1925   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1926   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1927   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1928   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1929   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1930   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1931   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1932   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1933   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1934   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1935   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1936   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1937   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1938   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1939   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1940   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1941   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1942   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1943   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1944   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1945   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1946   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1947   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1948   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1949   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1950   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1951   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1952   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1953   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1954   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1955   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1956   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1957   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1958   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1959   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1960 
  1961 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1962 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1963 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1964 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1965 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1966 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1967 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1968 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1969 
  1970 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1971 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1972 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1973 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1974 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1975 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1976 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1977 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1978 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1979 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1980 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1981 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1982 
  1983   Renamed constants:
  1984   measure -> emeasure
  1985   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1986   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1987   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1988   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1989 
  1990   Removed locales:
  1991   completeable_measure_space
  1992   finite_measure_space
  1993   finite_prob_space
  1994   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1995   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1996   finite_sigma_algebra
  1997   measure_space
  1998   pair_finite_prob_space
  1999   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2000   pair_finite_space
  2001   pair_sigma_algebra
  2002   product_sigma_algebra
  2003 
  2004   Removed constants:
  2005   conditional_space
  2006   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2007   image_space
  2008   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2009   pair_measure_generator
  2010   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2011   subvimage
  2012 
  2013   Replacement theorems:
  2014   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2015   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2016   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2017   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2018   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2019   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2020   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2021   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2022   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2023   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2024   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2025   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2026   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2027   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2028   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2029   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2030   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2031   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2032   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2033   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2034   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2035   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2036   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2037   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2038   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2039   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2040   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2041   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2042   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2043   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2044   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2045   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2046   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2047   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2048   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2049   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2050   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2051   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2052   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2053   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2054   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2055   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2056   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2057   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2058   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2059   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2060   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2061   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2062   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2063   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2064   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2065   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2066   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2067   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2068   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2069   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2070   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2071   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2072   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2073   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2074   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2075   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2076   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2077   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2078   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2079   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2080   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2081   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2082   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2083   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2084   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2085   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2086   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2087   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2088   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2089   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2090   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2091   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2092   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2093   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2094   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2095   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2096   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2097   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2098   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2099   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2100   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2101   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2102   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2103   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2104   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2105   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2106   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2107   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2108   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2109   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2110   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2111   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2112   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2113   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2114   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2115   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2116   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2117   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2118   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2119   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2120   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2121   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2122   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2123   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2124   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2125   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2126   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2127   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2128   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2129   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2130   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2131   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2132   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2133   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2134   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2135   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2136   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2137   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2138   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2139   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2140   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2141   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2142 
  2143 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2144 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2145 
  2146 
  2147 *** FOL ***
  2148 
  2149 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2150 
  2151 
  2152 *** ZF ***
  2153 
  2154 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2155 analysis.
  2156 
  2157 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2158 
  2159 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2160 
  2161 
  2162 *** ML ***
  2163 
  2164 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2165 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2166 
  2167 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2168 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2169 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2170 
  2171 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2172 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2173 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2174 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2175 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2176 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2177 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2178 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2179 
  2180 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2181 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2182 
  2183 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2184 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2185 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2186 
  2187 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2188 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2191 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2192 context as well.
  2193 
  2194 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2195 
  2196   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2197   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2198   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2199   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2200   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2201   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2202   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2203   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2204   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2205   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2206   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2207   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2208 
  2209 
  2210 *** System ***
  2211 
  2212 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2213 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2214 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2215 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2216 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2217 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2218 the generic user home was intended.
  2219 
  2220 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2221 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2222 
  2223 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2224 (not just JRE).
  2225 
  2226 
  2227 
  2228 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2229 ------------------------------------
  2230 
  2231 *** General ***
  2232 
  2233 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2234 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2235 
  2236   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2237     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2238     files for checking).
  2239 
  2240   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2241     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2242     positions.
  2243 
  2244   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2245     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2246     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2247 
  2248   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2249     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2250     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2251 
  2252   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2253     cores.
  2254 
  2255   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2256     versions (garbage collection).
  2257 
  2258 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2259 including some remaining limitations.
  2260 
  2261 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2262 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2263 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2264 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2265 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2269 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2270 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2271 
  2272 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2273 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2274 usedir option -Q.
  2275 
  2276 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2277 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2278 
  2279   long_names   ~> names_long
  2280   short_names  ~> names_short
  2281   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2282 
  2283 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2284 
  2285   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2286 
  2287 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2288 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2289 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2290 
  2291 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2292 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2293 
  2294 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2295   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2296   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2297   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2298     "Classical Reasoner".
  2299 
  2300 
  2301 *** HOL ***
  2302 
  2303 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2304 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2307 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2308 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2309 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2310 class complete_linorder.
  2311 
  2312 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2313 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2314 
  2315 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2316 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2317 
  2318   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2319   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2320   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2321   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2322   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2323   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2324   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2325   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2326   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2327   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2328   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2329 
  2330 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2331 
  2332   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2333   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2334   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2335   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2336   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2337   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2338   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2339   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2340   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2341   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2342   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2343   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2344   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2345   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2346   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2347   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2348 
  2349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2355 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2356 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2357 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2360 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2361 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363 
  2364 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2365 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2366 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2367 
  2368 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2369 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2370 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2373 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2374 
  2375 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2376 
  2377     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2378     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2379 
  2380 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2381 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2384 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2387 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2388 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2389 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2390 
  2391   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2392   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2393   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2394   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2395   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2396   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2397   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2398 
  2399 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2400 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2403   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2404   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2405   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2406   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2407   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2408   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2409   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2410   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2411   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2412   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2413   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2414   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2415   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2416   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2417   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2418   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2419   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2420   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2421   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2422   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2423   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2424   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2425   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2426   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2427   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2428   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2429   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2430   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2431   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2432   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2433   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2434   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2435   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2436   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2437   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2438   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2439   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2440   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2441   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2442   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2443   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2444   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2445   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2446   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2447   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2448   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2449   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2450   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2451   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2452   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2453   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2454   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2455   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2456   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2457   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2458   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2459   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2460   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2461   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2462   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2463   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2464   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2465   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2466   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2467   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2468   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2469   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2470   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2471   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2472   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2473   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2474   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2475   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2476   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2477   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2478   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2479   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2480   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2481   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2482   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2483   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2484 
  2485 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2486 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2487 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2488 
  2489 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2490 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2491 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2492 
  2493 * Code generation:
  2494 
  2495   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2496     characters in the target language.
  2497 
  2498   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2499     instead.
  2500 
  2501   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2502 
  2503   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2504     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2505 
  2506       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2507 
  2508 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2511 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2512 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2513 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2514 syntax.
  2515 
  2516 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2517 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2518 
  2519 * Nitpick:
  2520   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2521   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2522   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2523     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * Sledgehammer:
  2526   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2527   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2528     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2529   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2530     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2531   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2532     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2533   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2534     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2535   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2536     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * Metis:
  2539   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2541     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2542 
  2543 * Command 'try':
  2544   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2545     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2547     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2548 
  2549 * Quickcheck:
  2550   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2551     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2552   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2553     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2554   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2555     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2556     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2557     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2558   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2559     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2560 
  2561 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2562 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2563 
  2564 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2565 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2566 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2567 
  2568 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2569 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2573 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2576 arithmetic.
  2577 
  2578 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2579 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2580 and lattice type classes.
  2581 
  2582 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2583 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2584 
  2585 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2586 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2587 
  2588 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2589 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2590 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2591 
  2592   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2593   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2594   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2595   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2596 
  2597 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2598 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2599 constants:
  2600 
  2601   type inat   ~> type enat
  2602   Fin         ~> enat
  2603   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2604   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2605   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2606 
  2607 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2608 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2611 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2612 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2613 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2614 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2615 
  2616 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2617 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2618 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2619 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2620 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2621 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2622 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2623 
  2624   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2625   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2626   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2627   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2628 
  2629 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2630 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2631 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2634   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2635   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2636   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2637   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2638   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2639   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2640   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2641   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2642   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2643   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2644   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2645   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2646   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2647   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2648   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2649   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2650   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2651   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2652   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2653   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2654   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2655   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2656   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2657   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2658   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2659   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2660   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2661   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2662   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2663   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2664   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2665   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2666   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2667   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2668   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2669   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2670   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2671   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2672   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2673   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2674   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2675   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2676   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2677   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2678   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2679   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2680   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2681   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2682   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2683   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2684 
  2685 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2686   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2687   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2688   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2689   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2690     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2695   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2696   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2697   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2698   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2699   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2700   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2701   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2702   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2703   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2704   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2705   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2706   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2707   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2708   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2709   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2710   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2711   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2712   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2713   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2714   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2715   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2716   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2717   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2718   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2719 
  2720 
  2721 *** Document preparation ***
  2722 
  2723 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2724 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2725 same.
  2726 
  2727 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2728 result.
  2729 
  2730 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2731 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2732 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2733 
  2734 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2735 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2736 
  2737 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2738 like this:
  2739 
  2740   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2741   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2742 
  2743 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2744 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2745 layouts.
  2746 
  2747 
  2748 *** ML ***
  2749 
  2750 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2751 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2752 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2753 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2754 under external program control.
  2755 
  2756 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2757 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2758 
  2759 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2760 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2761 (better known as Proof General).
  2762 
  2763 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2764 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2765 
  2766 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2767 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2768 
  2769 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2770 (including quotes etc.).
  2771 
  2772 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2773 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2774 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2775 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2776 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2777 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2778 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2779 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2780 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2781 
  2782 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2783 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2784 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2785 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2786 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2787 
  2788 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2789 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2790 
  2791 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2792 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2793 
  2794 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2795 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2796 
  2797 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2798 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2799 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2800 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2801 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2802 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2803 proper Proof.context.
  2804 
  2805 
  2806 *** System ***
  2807 
  2808 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2809 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2810 
  2811 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2812 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2813 
  2814 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2815 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2816 
  2817   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2818   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2819   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2820   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2821   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2822 
  2823 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2824 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2825 
  2826 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2827 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2828 example:
  2829 
  2830   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2831 
  2832 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2833 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2834 
  2835 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2836 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2837 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2838 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2839 
  2840 
  2841 
  2842 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2843 ----------------------------------
  2844 
  2845 *** General ***
  2846 
  2847 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2848 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2849 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2850 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2851 like this:
  2852 
  2853   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2854 
  2855 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2856 
  2857 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2858 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2859 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2860 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2861 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2862 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2863 
  2864 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2865 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2866 the following package declarations:
  2867 
  2868   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2869   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2870 
  2871 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2872 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2873 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2874 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2875 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2876 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2877 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2878 
  2879 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2880 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2881 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2882 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2883 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2884 
  2885 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2886 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2887 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2888 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2889 
  2890 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2891 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2892 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2893 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2894 
  2895   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2896 
  2897   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2898   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2899   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2900   show_types                    show_types
  2901   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2902   show_consts                   show_consts
  2903   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2904 
  2905   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2906   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2907   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2908 
  2909   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2910   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2911 
  2912   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2913 
  2914   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2915   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2916   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2917   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2918   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2919 
  2920 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2921 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2922 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2923 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2924 
  2925 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2927 
  2928   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2929   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2930 
  2931 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2932 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2933 float_token.
  2934 
  2935 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2936 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938 
  2939 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2940 DejaVu Sans.
  2941 
  2942 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2943 
  2944 
  2945 *** Pure ***
  2946 
  2947 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2948 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2949 time.
  2950 
  2951 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2952 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2953 
  2954 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2955 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2958 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2959 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2960 command already provided this functionality.
  2961 
  2962 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2963 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2964 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2965 without interpretations.
  2966 
  2967 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2968 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2969 
  2970 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2971 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2972 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2973 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2974 
  2975 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2976 'definition' instead.
  2977 
  2978 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2979 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2980 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2981 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2982 
  2983 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2984 constructors.
  2985 
  2986 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2987 the local file system.
  2988 
  2989 
  2990 *** HOL ***
  2991 
  2992 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2993 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2994 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2995 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2996 
  2997   declare [[coercion f]]
  2998 
  2999 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3000 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3001 
  3002   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3003 
  3004 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3005 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3006 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3007 other theories like this:
  3008 
  3009   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3010 
  3011 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3012 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3013 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3014 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3015 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3016 for examples.
  3017 
  3018 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3019 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3020 
  3021 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3022 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3023 
  3024 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3025 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3026 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3027 
  3028 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3029 functorial structure of types.
  3030 
  3031 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3032 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3033 
  3034 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3035 languages.
  3036 
  3037 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3038 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040 
  3041 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3042 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3045 combinators any longer.
  3046 
  3047 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3048 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3049 
  3050 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3051 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3052 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3053 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3054 
  3055   record 'a foo = ...
  3056   ...
  3057   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3058 
  3059 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3060 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3064 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3065 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3066 
  3067 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3068 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3069 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3070 
  3071 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3072 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3075 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3076 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3077 independently.
  3078 
  3079 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3080 counter example search.
  3081 
  3082 * Sledgehammer:
  3083   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3084     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3085     sledgehammer").
  3086   - Renamed commands:
  3087     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3088     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3089     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3090     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091   - Renamed options:
  3092     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3093     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3094     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3095     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3096     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Nitpick:
  3099   - Renamed options:
  3100     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3101     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3102     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3104   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3105   - Added "whack" option.
  3106   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3107   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3108   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3109   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3110     higher cardinalities.
  3111   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3112 
  3113 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3114 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3115 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3116 
  3117     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3118 
  3119 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3120 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3121 
  3122 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3123 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3124 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3125 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3126 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3127 "smt_solver".
  3128 
  3129 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3130 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3131 
  3132 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3133 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3134 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3135 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3138   - Renamed:
  3139     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3140     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3141     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142   - Added:
  3143     smt_verbose
  3144     smt_random_seed
  3145     smt_datatypes
  3146     smt_infer_triggers
  3147     smt_monomorph_limit
  3148     cvc3_options
  3149     remote_cvc3_options
  3150     remote_z3_options
  3151     yices_options
  3152 
  3153 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3154 header.
  3155 
  3156 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3157 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3158 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3159 
  3160   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3161 
  3162 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3165 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3170 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3173 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3174 
  3175 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3176 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3179 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3180 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3188 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3191 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3192 for congruent(2)).
  3193 
  3194 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3195 
  3196   types
  3197     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3198     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3199 
  3200   constants
  3201     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3202     True ~> HOL.True
  3203     False ~> HOL.False
  3204     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3205     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3206     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3207     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3208     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3209     The ~> HOL.The
  3210     All ~> HOL.All
  3211     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3212     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3213     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3214     If ~> HOL.If
  3215     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3216     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3217     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3218     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3219     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3220     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3221     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3222     op : ~> Set.member
  3223     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3224 
  3225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3228 
  3229     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3230     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3231     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3232     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3233     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3234     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3235     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3236     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3237 
  3238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * More stylized fact names:
  3241 
  3242   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3243   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3244   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3245   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3246 
  3247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3250 
  3251   constants
  3252     null ~> List.null
  3253 
  3254   facts
  3255     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3256     null_empty ~> null_def
  3257 
  3258 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3259 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3260 generation.
  3261 
  3262 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3263 Haskell code.
  3264 
  3265 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3266 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3267 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3270 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3273 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3274 
  3275 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3276 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3277 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3280 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3286 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3287 referred to by its qualified name.
  3288 
  3289   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3290   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3291   product ~>  Enum.product
  3292 
  3293 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3294 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3298 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3299 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301 
  3302 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3303 sort_key.
  3304 
  3305 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3309 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3310 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3311 
  3312   types
  3313     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3314               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3315               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3316         (depends on your needs)
  3317 
  3318   constants
  3319      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3320      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3321      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3322 
  3323 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3324 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3325 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3326 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3329 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3330 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3331 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3332 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3338 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3339 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3340 
  3341 
  3342 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3343 
  3344 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3345 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3346 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3347 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3348 compatibility.
  3349 
  3350 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3351 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3352 
  3353 
  3354 *** HOLCF ***
  3355 
  3356 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3357 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3358 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3362 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3363 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3366   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3367   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3368 
  3369 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3370 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3371 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3374 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3375 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3376 domain definition now works:
  3377 
  3378   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3379 
  3380 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3381 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3382 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3383 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3384 
  3385   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3386     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3387 
  3388   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3389 
  3390 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3391 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3392 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3395 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3398 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3399 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3400 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3401 
  3402 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3403 
  3404 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3412 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3413 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3414 
  3415 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3416 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3417 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3418 
  3419 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3420 still supported as an input translation.
  3421 
  3422 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3423 
  3424   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3425   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3426   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3427   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3428   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3429   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3430   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3431 
  3432 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3433 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3436   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3437   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3438   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3439   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3440   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3441 
  3442 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3443 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3446 
  3447   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3448   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3449   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3450   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3451 
  3452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3455 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3458 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3461   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3462   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3463   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3464   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3465   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3466   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3467   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3468   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3469   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3470   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3471   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3472   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3473   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3474   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3475   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3476   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3477   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3478   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3479   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3480 
  3481 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3484   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3485   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3486   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3487   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3488   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3489   box_less             ~> box_below
  3490   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3491   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3492   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3493   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3494   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3495   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3496   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3497   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3498   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3499   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3500   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3501   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3502   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3503   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3504   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3505   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3506   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3507   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3508   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3509   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3510   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3511   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3512   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3513   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3514   up_less              ~> up_below
  3515   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3516   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3517   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3518   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3519   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3520   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3521   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3522   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3523   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3524   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3525   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3526   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3527   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3528 
  3529 
  3530 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3531 
  3532 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3533 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3534 
  3535 
  3536 *** ML ***
  3537 
  3538 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3539 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3540 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3541 
  3542 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3543 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3544 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3545 
  3546 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3547 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3548 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3549 
  3550 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3551 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3552 
  3553 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3554 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3555 
  3556 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3557 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3558 
  3559 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3560 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3561 
  3562 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3563 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3564 almost all situations.
  3565 
  3566 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3567 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3568 Isabelle/ML.
  3569 
  3570 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3571 meaning.
  3572 
  3573 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3574 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3575 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3576 
  3577 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3578 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3579 
  3580 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3581 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3582 
  3583 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3584 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3585 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3586 
  3587 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3588 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3589 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3590 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3591 configuration options.
  3592 
  3593 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3594 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3595 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3596 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3597 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3598 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3599 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3600 
  3601 
  3602 
  3603 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3604 ---------------------------------
  3605 
  3606 *** General ***
  3607 
  3608 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3609 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3610 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3611 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3612 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3613 their full internal name.
  3614 
  3615 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3616 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3617 Some hints on upgrading:
  3618 
  3619   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3620     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3621     which are independent of this issue.
  3622 
  3623   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3624     provides the following special forms:
  3625 
  3626       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3627       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3628       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3629 
  3630     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3631     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3632     extra variables".
  3633 
  3634     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3635     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3636     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3637     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3638     "logic".
  3639 
  3640   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3641     antiquotations:
  3642 
  3643       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3644       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3645       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3646       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3647 
  3648   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3649     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3650     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3651     antiquotations.
  3652 
  3653 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3654 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3655 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3656 diagnose syntax problems.
  3657 
  3658 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3659 
  3660 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3661 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3662 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3663 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3664 
  3665 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3666 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3667 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3668 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3669 
  3670 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3671 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3672 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3673 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3674 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3677 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3678 
  3679 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3680 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3681 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3682 
  3683   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3684 
  3685 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3686 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3687 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3688 
  3689 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3690 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3694 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3695 
  3696 
  3697 *** Pure ***
  3698 
  3699 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3700 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3701 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3702 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3703 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3704 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3705 inspect proof terms.
  3706 
  3707 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3708 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3709 are added internally.  For example:
  3710 
  3711   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3712 
  3713 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3714 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3719 'class' instead.
  3720 
  3721 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3722 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3726 invariants.
  3727 
  3728 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3729 user space functionality any longer.
  3730 
  3731 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3732 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3734 
  3735 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3736 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3737 
  3738 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3739 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3740 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3741 
  3742 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3743 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3744 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3745 
  3746 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3747 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 
  3750 *** HOL ***
  3751 
  3752 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3753 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3754 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3755 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3756 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3757 
  3758 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3759 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3760 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3761 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3762 
  3763   fun
  3764     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3765   where
  3766     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3767 
  3768   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3769     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3770 
  3771   quotient_definition
  3772     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3773 
  3774 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3775 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3776 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3777 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3778 
  3779 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3780 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3781 
  3782 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3783 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3784 
  3785 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3789 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3790 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3791 
  3792 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3793 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3802 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3805 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3806 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3807 
  3808   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3809   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3810   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3811   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3812   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3813   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3814   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3815   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3816   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3817   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3818   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3819   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3820   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3821   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3822   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3823   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3824   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3825   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3826   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3827   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3828   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3829   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3830   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3831   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3832   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3833   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3834   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3835   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3836   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3837   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3838 
  3839 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3840 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3841 
  3842 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3843 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3844 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3845 
  3846 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3847 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3848 
  3849 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3850 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3853 
  3854 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3855 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3858 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861 
  3862 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3863 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3864 
  3865 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3866 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3867 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3868 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3871   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3872   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3873   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3877 lattices):
  3878 
  3879     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3880     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3881 
  3882     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3883 
  3884     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3885     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3886     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3887     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3888     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3889     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3890     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3891     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3892     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3893     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3894     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3895     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3896     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3897 
  3898     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3899     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3900     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3901     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3902     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3903     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3904     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3905     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3906     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3907     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3908     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3909     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3910     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3911     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3912     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3913     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3914     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3915     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3916 
  3917   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3918   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3919 
  3920     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3921     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3922     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3923     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3924     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3925 
  3926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Refined field classes:
  3929   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3930     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3931     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3932   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3936   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3937   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3938   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3939     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3940   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3941     equal_neg_zero.
  3942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3945 sets to lattices:
  3946 
  3947   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3948   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3949   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3950   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3951   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3952   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3953   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3954   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3955   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3956   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3957 
  3958 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3959 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3960 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3961 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3962 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3963 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3966 multiset order:
  3967 
  3968   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3969     <= and <;
  3970   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3971     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3972     multiset_order;
  3973   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3974     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3975     generation;
  3976   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3977     if needed.
  3978 
  3979 Renamed:
  3980 
  3981   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3982   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3983   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3984 
  3985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3988 
  3989 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3990 
  3991 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3992 
  3993 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3994 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3995 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997   Constants:
  3998   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3999   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4000   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4001   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4002   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4003   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4004   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4005   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4006   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4007   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4008   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4009   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4010   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4011 
  4012   Lemmas:
  4013   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4014   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4015   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4016   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4017   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4018   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4019   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4020   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4021   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4022   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4023   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4024   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4025   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4026 
  4027 * Sledgehammer:
  4028   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4029     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4030     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4031     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4032     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4033     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4034     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4036   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4037     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4038   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4039     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4040     is still experimental.)
  4041   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4042     full-typed mode.
  4043   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4044 
  4045 * Nitpick:
  4046   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4047   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4048   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4049     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4050   - Added support for quotient types.
  4051   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4052     constructs.
  4053   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4054     "termination" proofs).
  4055   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4056   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4057   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4058   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4059     record getters.
  4060   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4061   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4062   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4063   - Added "atoms" option.
  4064   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4065     problems.
  4066   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4067     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4068     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4070     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072 
  4073 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4074   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4075   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4076   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4077   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4078   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4079   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4080   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4081   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4082   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 
  4085 *** HOLCF ***
  4086 
  4087 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4088 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4089 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4092 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4093 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4094 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4097 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4098 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4099 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4100 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101 
  4102 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4103 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4104 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4107 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4110   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4111 
  4112 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4113 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4116   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4117   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4118   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4119   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4120 
  4121 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4122 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4125   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4126   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4127 
  4128 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4129 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4133 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4138 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 
  4141 *** ML ***
  4142 
  4143 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4144 
  4145     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4146     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4147 
  4148     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4149     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4150     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4151     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4152 
  4153     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4154     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4155     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4156 
  4157 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4158 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4159 
  4160 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4161 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4162 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4163 
  4164 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4165 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4166 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4167 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4168 
  4169 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4170 the context or even global references.
  4171 
  4172 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4173 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4174 
  4175 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4176 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4177 
  4178   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4179   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4180   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4181   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4182   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4183   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4184   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4185   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4186   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4187   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4188 
  4189 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4190 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4191 
  4192 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4193 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4194 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4195 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4196 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4197 
  4198 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4199 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4200 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4201 Theory_Data version.
  4202 
  4203 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4204 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4205 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4206 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4207 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4208 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4209 explicitly in rare situations.
  4210 
  4211 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4212 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4214 
  4215 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4216 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4217 
  4218 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4219 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4220 quite rare).
  4221 
  4222 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4223 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4224 
  4225 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4226 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4227 terms.
  4228 
  4229 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4230 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4231 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4232 
  4233 
  4234 *** System ***
  4235 
  4236 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4237 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4238 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4239 
  4240 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4241 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4242 respectively.
  4243 
  4244 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4245 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4246 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4247 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4248 
  4249   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4250 
  4251 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4252 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4253 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4254 component.
  4255 
  4256 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4257 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4258 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4259 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4260 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4261 the user for manual installation.
  4262 
  4263 
  4264 
  4265 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4266 -------------------------------------
  4267 
  4268 *** General ***
  4269 
  4270 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4271 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4272 
  4273 
  4274 *** Pure ***
  4275 
  4276 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4277 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4278 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4279 
  4280 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4281 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4282 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4283 
  4284 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4285 interpretation.
  4286 
  4287 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4288 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 
  4291 *** Document preparation ***
  4292 
  4293 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4294 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4295 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4296 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4297 
  4298 
  4299 *** HOL ***
  4300 
  4301 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4302 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4303 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4304 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4305 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4306 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4307 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4308 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4309 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4310 
  4311 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4312 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4313 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4314 
  4315 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4316 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4317 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4318 
  4319 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4320 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4321 
  4322 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4323 
  4324 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4325 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4326 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4327 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4328 
  4329 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4330 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4331 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4332 "mirabelle" utility.
  4333 
  4334 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4335 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4336 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4337 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4338 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4339 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4340 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4341 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4342 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4343 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4344 
  4345 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4346 procedure only.
  4347 
  4348 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4349 
  4350 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4351 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4352 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4353 that fail later.
  4354 
  4355 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4356 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4357 
  4358 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4359 the same method as the approximation method.
  4360 
  4361 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4362 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4363 series expansion.
  4364 
  4365 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4366 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4367 
  4368 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4369 reals.
  4370 
  4371 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4372 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4373 
  4374 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4375 fixpoint theorem.
  4376 
  4377 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4378   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4379     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4380   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4381     accordingly
  4382   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4383     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4384   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4385     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4386 
  4387 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4388 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4389 lattice.
  4390 
  4391 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4392 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4393 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4394 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4395 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4396 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4398 
  4399 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4400   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4401     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4402   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4403     le_inf_iff
  4404   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4405     sup_aci)
  4406   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4407   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4408   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4409     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4410     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4411     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4412     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4413     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4414     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4415     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4416     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4417     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4418     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4419   - authentic syntax for
  4420     Set.Pow
  4421     Set.image
  4422   - mere abbreviations:
  4423     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4424     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4425     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4426     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4427     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4428     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4429     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4430     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4431   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4432 
  4433 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4434 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4435 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4436 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4437 
  4438 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4439 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4440 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4443 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4444 
  4445 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4446 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4447 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4448 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4449 
  4450 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4451 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4452 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4453 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4454 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4455 
  4456 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4457 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4459 
  4460 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4461 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4464 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4465 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4466 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4467 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4468 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4469 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4470 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4471 
  4472 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4473     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4474     code_post       replaces    code post
  4475     etc.
  4476   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4477 
  4478 * Renamed methods:
  4479     sizechange -> size_change
  4480     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4481   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482 
  4483 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4484 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4485 
  4486 * Renamed theorems:
  4487     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4488     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4489     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4490     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4491     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4492   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 
  4501 *** HOLCF ***
  4502 
  4503 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4504 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4505 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4506 
  4507 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4508 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4509 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4510 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4511 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4512 
  4513 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4514 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4515 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4516 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4517 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4518 
  4519 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4520 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4521 constructor are pre-configured.
  4522 
  4523 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4524 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4525 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4526 
  4527 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4528 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4529 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4530 as well.)
  4531 
  4532 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4533 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4534 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4535 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4536 examples.
  4537 
  4538 
  4539 *** ML ***
  4540 
  4541 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4542 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4543 
  4544 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4545 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4546 position, logical grouping etc.
  4547 
  4548 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4549 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4550 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4551 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4552 
  4553 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4554 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4555 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4556 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4557 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4558 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4559 
  4560 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4561 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4562 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4563 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4564 experiments with references.
  4565 
  4566 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4567 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4568 
  4569 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4570 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4571 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4572 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4573 
  4574 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4575 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4576 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4577 
  4578 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4579 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4580 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4588 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4589 
  4590 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4591 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4592 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4593 
  4594 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4595 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4596 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4599 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4600 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4602 
  4603 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4604 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4605 instead of global theory.
  4606 
  4607 
  4608 *** System ***
  4609 
  4610 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4611 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4612 usedir option -q.
  4613 
  4614 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4615 also the system manual.
  4616 
  4617 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4618 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4619 
  4620 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4621 this is always enabled.
  4622 
  4623 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4624 
  4625 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4626 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4627 currently supported on Linux only.
  4628 
  4629 
  4630 
  4631 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4632 --------------------------------
  4633 
  4634 *** General ***
  4635 
  4636 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4637 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4638 
  4639   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4640     "isatool."
  4641 
  4642   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4643     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4644 
  4645   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4646     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4647 
  4648 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4649 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4650 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4651 
  4652 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4653 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4654 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4655 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4656 via "isabelle emacs".
  4657 
  4658 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4659 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4660 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4661 
  4662 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4663 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4664 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4665 
  4666 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4667 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4668 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4669 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4670 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4671 
  4672 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4673 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4674 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4675 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4676 
  4677 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4678 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4679 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4680 
  4681 
  4682 *** Pure ***
  4683 
  4684 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4685 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4686 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4687 
  4688 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4689 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4690 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4691 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4692 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4693 
  4694 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4695 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4696 useful in locale declarations.
  4697 
  4698 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4699 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4700 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4701 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4702 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4703 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4704 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4705 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4706 no longer generated.
  4707 
  4708 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4709 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4710 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4711 
  4712 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4713 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4714 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4715 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4716 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4717 
  4718 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4720 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4721 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4722 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4723 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4724 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4725 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4726 
  4727 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4728 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4729 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4730 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4731 
  4732 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4735 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4736 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4737 
  4738 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4739 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4742 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4743 in HOL, write
  4744 
  4745     class foo = ...
  4746 
  4747 instead of
  4748 
  4749     class foo = type + ...
  4750 
  4751 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4752 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4755 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4756 
  4757 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4758 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4759 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4760 
  4761 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4762 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4763 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4765 directly in regular applications.
  4766 
  4767 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4768 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4769 
  4770 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4771 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4772 
  4773 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4774 theory context.
  4775 
  4776 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4777 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4778 
  4779 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4780 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4781 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4782 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4783 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4784 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4785 
  4786   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4787 
  4788 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4789 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4790 normalization.
  4791 
  4792 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4793 addressing etc.
  4794 
  4795 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4796 
  4797   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4798   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4799 
  4800 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4801 
  4802   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4803      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4804      parts of the code generator framework).
  4805 
  4806   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4807      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4808      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4809 
  4810 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4813 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4816 patterns, e.g.
  4817 
  4818     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4819 
  4820 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4821 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4822 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4823 hyphen:
  4824 
  4825     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4826 
  4827 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4828 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4829 
  4830 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4831 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4832 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4833 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4834 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4835 higher-order unification.
  4836 
  4837 
  4838 *** Document preparation ***
  4839 
  4840 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4841 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4842 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4843 
  4844 
  4845 *** HOL ***
  4846 
  4847 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4848 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4849 
  4850 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4851 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4852 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4853 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4854 Main, as before.
  4855 
  4856 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4857 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4858 
  4859 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4860 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4861 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4862 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4863 
  4864 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4865 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4866 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4867 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4868 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4869 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4870 
  4871 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4872 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4873 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4874 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4875 
  4876 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4877 menu.
  4878 
  4879 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4880 (contains the empty clause).
  4881 
  4882 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4883 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4884 
  4885 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4886 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4887 
  4888 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4889 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4890 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4891 
  4892 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4893 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4894 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4895 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4896 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4897 
  4898 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4899 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4900 
  4901 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4902 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4903 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4904 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4905 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4906 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4907 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4908 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4909 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4910 
  4911 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4912 
  4913 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4914 
  4915 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4916 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4917 
  4918 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4919 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4920 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4921 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4922 
  4923 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4924 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4925 
  4926     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4927     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4928     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4929     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4930     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4931     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4932     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4933     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4934 
  4935 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4936 theory Set.
  4937 
  4938 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4939 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4940 
  4941 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4942 
  4943 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4944 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4945 
  4946 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4947 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4948 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4949 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4950 allowed. For examples see
  4951 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4952 
  4953 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4954 
  4955 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4959 structure:
  4960 
  4961     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4962     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4963     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4964     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4965     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4966     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4967     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4968     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4969     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4970     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4971     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4972     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4973     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4974     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4975     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4976     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4977     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4978     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4979     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4980     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4981     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4982     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4983     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4984     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4985     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4986     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4987     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4988     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4989     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4990     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4991     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4992     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4993     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4994 
  4995     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4996     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4997     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4998     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4999     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5000     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5001     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5002     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5003     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5004     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5005 
  5006     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5007     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5008     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5009     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5010     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5011     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5012 
  5013 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5014 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5015 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5016 
  5017 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5018 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5019 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5020 
  5021 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5022 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5025 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5026 
  5027 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5028 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5029 proofs, e.g.
  5030 
  5031   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5032 
  5033 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5034 
  5035 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5036 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5037 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5040 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5044 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5045 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5049 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5050 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5051 preorder_class.*.
  5052 
  5053 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5054 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5055 
  5056 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5057 
  5058   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5059 
  5060 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5061 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5062 fold_image.
  5063 
  5064 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5065 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5066 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5067 the former will disappear at some point.
  5068 
  5069 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5070 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5071 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5072 
  5073 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5074 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5075 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5076 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5077 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5078 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5079 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5080 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5081 
  5082 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5083 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5084 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5085 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5086 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5087 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5088 
  5089     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5090     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5091     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5092     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5093     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5094     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5095     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5096 
  5097 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5098 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5099 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5100 
  5101 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5102 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5103 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5104 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5105 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5106 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5107 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5108 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5109 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5110 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5111 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5112 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5113 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5114 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5115 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5116 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5117 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5118 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5119 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5120 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5121 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5122 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5123 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5124 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5125 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5126 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5127 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5128 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5129 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5130 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5131 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5132 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5133 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5134 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5135 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5136 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5137 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5138 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5139 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5140 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5141 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5142 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5143 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5144 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5145 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5146 
  5147 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5148 
  5149 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5150 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5151 
  5152 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5153 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5154 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5155 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5156 
  5157 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5158 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5159 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5160 theory RealVector.
  5161 
  5162 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5163 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5164 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5165 and inner products are included.
  5166 
  5167 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5168 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5169 supported.
  5170 
  5171 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5172 first diagonalization argument.
  5173 
  5174 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5175 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5176 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5177 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5178 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5179 
  5180     hide (open) const gcd
  5181     abbreviation gcd where
  5182       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5183     notation (output)
  5184       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5185 
  5186 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5187 
  5188 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5189 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5190 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5191 
  5192 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5193 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5194 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5195 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5196 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5197 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5198 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5199 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5200 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5201 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5202 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5203 cases.
  5204 
  5205 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5206 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5207 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5208 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5209 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5210 
  5211     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5212     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5213     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5214     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5215     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5216 
  5217 
  5218 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5219 
  5220 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5221 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5222 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5223 
  5224 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5225 
  5226 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5227 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5228 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5229 
  5230 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5231 
  5232 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5233 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5234 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5235 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5236 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5237 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5238 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5239 
  5240 
  5241 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5242 
  5243 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5244 
  5245 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5246 theory targets.
  5247 
  5248 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5249 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5250 'inductive' etc.
  5251 
  5252 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5253 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5254 
  5255 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5256 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5257 
  5258 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5259 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5260 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5261 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5262 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5263 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5264 the algorithm W:
  5265 
  5266  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5267  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5268          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5269 
  5270 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5271 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5272 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5273 
  5274 
  5275 *** HOLCF ***
  5276 
  5277 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5278 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5279 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5280 
  5281 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5282 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5283 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5284 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5285 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5286 
  5287 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5288 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5289 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5290 
  5291 
  5292 *** ZF ***
  5293 
  5294 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5295 
  5296 
  5297 *** ML ***
  5298 
  5299 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5300 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5301 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5302 5.2.1!
  5303 
  5304 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5305 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5306 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5307 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5308 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5309 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5310 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5311 
  5312 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5313 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5314 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5315 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5317 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5318 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5319 
  5320 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5321 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5322 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5323 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5324 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5325 
  5326 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5327 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5328 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5329 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5330 Method.add_method.
  5331 
  5332 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5333 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5334 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5335 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5336 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5337 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5338 
  5339 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5340 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5341 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5342 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5343 examples.
  5344 
  5345 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5346 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5347 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5348 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5349 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5350 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5351 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5352 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5353 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5354 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5355 
  5356 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5357 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5358 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5359 
  5360 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5361 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5362 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5363 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5364 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5365 resort for legacy applications.
  5366 
  5367 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5368 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5369 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5370 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5371 explicit runtime argument.
  5372 
  5373 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5374 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5375 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5376 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5377 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5378 
  5379 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5380 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5381 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5382 theory state.
  5383 
  5384 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5385 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5386 
  5387   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5388   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5389   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5390   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5391   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5392   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5393   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5394   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5395   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5396   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5397 
  5398 
  5399 *** System ***
  5400 
  5401 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5402 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5403 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5404 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5405 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5406 
  5407 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5408 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5409 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5410 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5411 
  5412 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5413 
  5414 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5415 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5416 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5417 prover operations.
  5418 
  5419 
  5420 
  5421 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5422 -------------------------------
  5423 
  5424 *** General ***
  5425 
  5426 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5427 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5428 
  5429 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5430 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5431 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5432 provides a proper context already.
  5433 
  5434 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5435 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5436 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5437 
  5438 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5439 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5440 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5441 swap theory imports.
  5442 
  5443 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5444 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5445 
  5446 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5447 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5448 white space without escapes.
  5449 
  5450 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5451 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5452 "foo_bar".
  5453 
  5454 
  5455 *** Pure ***
  5456 
  5457 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5458 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5459 
  5460 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5461 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5462 
  5463 (1) unused_thms
  5464      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5465 
  5466 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5467      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5468      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5469 
  5470 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5471      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5472      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5473      their ancestors.
  5474 
  5475 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5476 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5477 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5478 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5479 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5480 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5481 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5482 
  5483 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5484 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5485 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5486 
  5487 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5488 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5489 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5490 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5491 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5492 
  5493 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5494 
  5495 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5496 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5497 update of theories within ML code.
  5498 
  5499 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5500 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5501 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5502 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5503 
  5504 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5505 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5506 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5510 
  5511 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5512 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5513 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5514 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5515 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5516 
  5517 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5518 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5519 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5520 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5521 situations.
  5522 
  5523 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5524 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5525 proof text.
  5526 
  5527 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5528 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5529 
  5530 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5531 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5532 predicates.
  5533 
  5534 
  5535 *** Document preparation ***
  5536 
  5537 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5538 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5539 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5540 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5541 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5542 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5543 
  5544 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5545 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5546 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5547 
  5548 
  5549 *** HOL ***
  5550 
  5551 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5552 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5553 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5554 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5555 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5556 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5557 
  5558 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5559 with multithreading.
  5560 
  5561 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5562 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5563 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5564 
  5565 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5566 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5567 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5568 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5569 
  5570 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5571 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5572 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5573 and makes them available separately.  See
  5574 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5575 
  5576 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5577 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5578 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5579 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5580 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5581 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5582 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5583 the declared rules.
  5584 
  5585 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5586 
  5587   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5588 
  5589 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5590 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5591 
  5592 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5593 
  5594   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5595 
  5596   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5597     definitions on => and bool.
  5598 
  5599   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5600     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5601     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5602 
  5603       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5604       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5605       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5606       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5607       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5608       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5609       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5610       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5611 
  5612   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5613     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5614     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5615 
  5616   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5617     The proof pattern
  5618 
  5619       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5620       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5621 
  5622     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5623     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5624 
  5625       have "EX S. P S"
  5626       proof
  5627         show "P S" <...>
  5628       qed
  5629 
  5630   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5631     The proof pattern
  5632 
  5633       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5634       also have "S = T" <...>
  5635       finally have "P T" .
  5636 
  5637     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5638     must be replaced by something like
  5639 
  5640       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5641       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5642       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5643 
  5644   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5645     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5646 
  5647       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5648 
  5649     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5650     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5651     type of the form
  5652 
  5653       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5654 
  5655     rather than
  5656 
  5657       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5658 
  5659 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5660 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5661 
  5662 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5663 
  5664 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5665 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5669 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670 
  5671 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5672 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5673 
  5674 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5675 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5676 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5677 
  5678 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5679 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5680 
  5681   less_trans
  5682   less_linear
  5683   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5684   le_less_trans
  5685   less_le_trans
  5686   less_not_sym
  5687   less_asym
  5688 
  5689 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5690 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5691 and different variable names.
  5692 
  5693 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5694 
  5695 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5696 finite maps.
  5697 
  5698 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5699 
  5700 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5701 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5702 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5703 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5704 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5705 accordingly.
  5706 
  5707 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5708 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5709 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5710 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5711 
  5712 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5713 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5714 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5715 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5716 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5718 
  5719 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5720 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5723 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5724 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5725 
  5726 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5728 
  5729 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5730 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5731 
  5732 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5733 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5734 
  5735 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5736 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5739 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5743 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5744 
  5745 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5746 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5747 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5748 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5749 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5750 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5751 
  5752 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5753 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5754 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5755 
  5756 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5757 
  5758 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5759 
  5760 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5761 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5762 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5763 
  5764 
  5765 *** ZF ***
  5766 
  5767 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5768 same session:
  5769 
  5770   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5771   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5772   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5773   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5774   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5775   List      -> List_ZF
  5776   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5777 
  5778 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5779 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5780 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5781 
  5782 
  5783 *** ML ***
  5784 
  5785 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5786 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5787 
  5788 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5789 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5790 
  5791 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5792 
  5793 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5794 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5795 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5796 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5797 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5798 
  5799 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5800 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5801 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5802 
  5803 
  5804 *** System ***
  5805 
  5806 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5807 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5808 
  5809 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5810 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5811 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5812 
  5813 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5814 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5815 
  5816 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5817 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5818 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5819 
  5820 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5821 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5822 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5823 
  5824 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5825 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5826 
  5827 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5828 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5829 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5830 script.
  5831 
  5832 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5833 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5834 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5835 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5836 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5837 
  5838 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5839 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5840 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5841 
  5842 
  5843 
  5844 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5845 -----------------------------------
  5846 
  5847 *** General ***
  5848 
  5849 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5850 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5851 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5852 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5853 
  5854 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5855 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5856 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5857 
  5858 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5859 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5860 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5861 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5862 
  5863 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5864 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5865 quotes.
  5866 
  5867 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5868 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5869 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5870 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5871 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5872 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5873 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5874 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5875 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5876 
  5877 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5878 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5879 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5880 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5881 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5882 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5883 
  5884 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5885 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5886 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5887 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5888 
  5889 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5890 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5891 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5892 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5893 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5894 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5895 
  5896 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5897 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5898 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5899 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5900 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5901 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5902 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5903 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5904 
  5905 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5906 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5907 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5908 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5909 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5910 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5911 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5912 
  5913 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5914 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5915 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5916 
  5917 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5918 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5919 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5920 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5921 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5922 limit is imposed.
  5923 
  5924 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5925 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5926 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5927 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5928 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5929 and scalability.
  5930 
  5931 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5932 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5933 
  5934 
  5935 *** Document preparation ***
  5936 
  5937 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5938 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5939 current context.
  5940 
  5941 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5942 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5943 
  5944 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5945 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5946 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5947 
  5948 
  5949 *** Pure ***
  5950 
  5951 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5952 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5953 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5954 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5955 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5956 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5957 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5958 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5959 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5960 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5961 
  5962 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5963 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5964 sketch:
  5965 
  5966     internal compilation:
  5967         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5968     writing SML code to a file:
  5969         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5970     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5971         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5972     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5973         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5974 
  5975     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5976         method ``eval''
  5977 
  5978 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5979 
  5980 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5981 
  5982     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5983     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5984     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5985     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5986 
  5987 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5988 
  5989     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5990       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5991 
  5992     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5993       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5994 
  5995     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5996       {(target)}+
  5997         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5998 
  5999     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6000       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6001         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6002 
  6003 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6004 
  6005 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6006 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6007 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6008 codegen".
  6009 
  6010 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6011 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6012 annotations).
  6013 
  6014 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6015 syntax.
  6016 
  6017 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6018 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6019 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6020 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6021 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6022 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6023 
  6024 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6025 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6026 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6027 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6028 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6029 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6030 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6031 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6032 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6033 equations, see section "definitions".
  6034 
  6035 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6036 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6037 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6038 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6039 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6040 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6041 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6042 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6043 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6044 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6045 
  6046 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6047 configuration options:
  6048 
  6049   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6050   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6051   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6052   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6053   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6054   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6055   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6056   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6057   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6058 
  6059 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6060 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6061 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6062 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6063 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6064 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6065 order.
  6066 
  6067 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6068 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6069 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6070 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6071 context encountered later on.
  6072 
  6073 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6074 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6075 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6076 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6077 
  6078 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6079 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6080 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6081 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6082 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6083 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6084 
  6085 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6086 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6087 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6088 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6089 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6090 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6091 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6092 more permissive.
  6093 
  6094 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6095 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6096 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6097 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6098 maintainability of proof texts.
  6099 
  6100 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6101 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6102 
  6103   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6104   then guess x and y by clarify
  6105 
  6106 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6107 proof tools being involved here.
  6108 
  6109 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6110 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6111 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6112 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6113 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6114 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6115 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6116 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6117 
  6118 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6119 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6120 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6121 
  6122   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6123   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6124   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6125   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6126 
  6127 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6128 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6129 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6130 
  6131 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6132 both named and unnamed ones.
  6133 
  6134 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6135 
  6136   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6137 
  6138 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6139 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6140 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6141 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6142 
  6143 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6144 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6145 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6146 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6147 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6148 
  6149 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6150 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6151 
  6152 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6153 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6154 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6155 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6156 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6157 originally first one.
  6158 
  6159 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6160 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6161 expected.
  6162 
  6163 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6164 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6165 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6166 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6167 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6168 
  6169   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6170     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6171     obtains x where "P x"
  6172 
  6173   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6174     assumes "A & B"
  6175     obtains A and B
  6176 
  6177   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6178     assumes "A | B"
  6179     obtains
  6180       A
  6181     | B
  6182 
  6183 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6184 explicitly:
  6185 
  6186   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6187     obtains "~ thesis"
  6188 
  6189   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6190     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6191 
  6192 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6193 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6194 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6195 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6196 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6197 case_names).
  6198 
  6199 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6200 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6201 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6202 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6203 
  6204 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6205 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6206 top-level lemma.
  6207 
  6208 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6209 introduction rule (default "that").
  6210 
  6211 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6212 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6213 to occur.
  6214 
  6215 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6216 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6217 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6218 representations independently of name spaces.
  6219 
  6220 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6221 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6222 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6223 
  6224 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6225 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6226 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6227 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6228 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6229 current context.
  6230 
  6231 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6232 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6233 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6234 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6235 
  6236   axiomatization
  6237     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6238     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6239 
  6240   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6241   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6242 
  6243   abbreviation
  6244     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6245     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6246 
  6247 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6248 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6249 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6250 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6251 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6252 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6253 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6254 
  6255 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6256 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6257 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6258 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6259 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6260