NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Nov 26 13:54:43 2012 +0100 (2012-11-26)
changeset 50213 7b73c0509835
parent 50198 0c7b351a6871
child 50231 81a067b188b8
permissions -rw-r--r--
refined outer syntax 'help' command;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    73 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    74 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    75 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    76 potentially infinite message streams.
    77 
    78 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    79 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    80 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    81 schemes.
    82 
    83 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    84 symbols.
    85 
    86 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    87 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    88 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    89 
    90 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    91 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    92 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    93 
    94 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    95 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    96 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    97 
    98 
    99 *** Pure ***
   100 
   101 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   102 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   103 
   104 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
   105 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
   106 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
   107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   108 
   109 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   110 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   111 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   112 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   113 with some care where this is really required.
   114 
   115 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   116 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   117 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   118 
   119   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   120 
   121 
   122 *** HOL ***
   123 
   124 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   125 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   126 
   127 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   128 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   131 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   132 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   133 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   134 accordingly.
   135 
   136 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   137 
   138   - Renamed constants
   139       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   140 
   141   - Renamed facts
   142       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   143 
   144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   145 
   146 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   149 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   150 
   151 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   152 to lattice type classes.
   153 
   154 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   155 
   156 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   157 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   158 
   159   - Renamed constants:
   160 
   161       prefix ~> prefixeq
   162       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   163 
   164     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   165 
   166   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   167     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   168     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   169     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   172     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   173 
   174   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   175     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   176     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   177     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   180     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   181 
   182       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   183       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   184       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   185       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   186       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   187       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   188       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   189       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   190       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   191       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   192       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   193       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   194       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   195       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   196       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   197       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   198 
   199     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   202 
   203 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   204 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   205 
   206 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   209 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   210 non-free datatypes.
   211 
   212 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   213 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   214 
   215 * HOL/Probability:
   216   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   217 
   218   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   219     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   220 
   221   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   222 
   223 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   224 
   225 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   226 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   227 
   228 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   229 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   230 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   231 
   232       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   233       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   234       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   235       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   236       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   237       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   238       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   239       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   240       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   241       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   242 
   243   INCOMPATIBUILITY.
   244 
   245 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   246 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   247 
   248 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   249 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   250 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   251 
   252 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   253 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   254 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   257 
   258 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   259 expressions.
   260 
   261 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   262 pointfree expressions.
   263 
   264 * Quickcheck:
   265 
   266   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   267     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   268     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   269 
   270 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   271 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   272 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   273 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   274 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   275 
   276 * Sledgehammer:
   277 
   278   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   279     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   280   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   281   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   282   - Renamed options:
   283       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   284       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   285       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   286       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   287 
   288 
   289 *** Document preparation ***
   290 
   291 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   292 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   293 
   294 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   295 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   296 document/root.tex.
   297 
   298 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   299 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 
   302 *** ML ***
   303 
   304 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   305 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   306 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   307 
   308 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   309 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   310 necessarily printing visible text.
   311 
   312 
   313 *** System ***
   314 
   315 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   316 instead of 4.
   317 
   318 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   319 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   320 for home-made configurations.
   321 
   322 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   323 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   324 
   325 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   326 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   327 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   328 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   329 
   330 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   331 
   332 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   333 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   334 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   335 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   336 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   337 
   338 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   339 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   340 
   341   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   342 
   343 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   344 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   345 
   346 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   347 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   348 "isabelle usedir".
   349 
   350 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   351 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   352 version of Isabelle.
   353 
   354 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   358 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   359 configuration.
   360 
   361 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   362 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   363 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   364 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   365 bundled as Isabelle component.
   366 
   367 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   368 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   369 
   370 
   371 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   372 ------------------------------
   373 
   374 *** General ***
   375 
   376 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   377 
   378   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   379     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   380   - markup for bound variables
   381   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   382   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   383   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   384     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   385 
   386 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   387 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   388 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   389 
   390 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   391 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   392 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   393 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   394 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   395 
   396   context
   397     fixes x y z :: 'a
   398     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   399   begin
   400 
   401   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   402 
   403   end
   404 
   405   thm my_trans
   406 
   407 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   408 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   409 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   410 
   411 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   412 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   413 
   414 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   415 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   416 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   417 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   418 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   419 
   420 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   421 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   422 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   423 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   424 indices of schematic variables.
   425 
   426 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   427 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   428 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   429 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   430 etc. was exploited.
   431 
   432 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   433 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   434 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   435 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   436 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   437 of the material of that old tutorial.
   438 
   439 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   440 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   441 manual.
   442 
   443 
   444 *** Pure ***
   445 
   446 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   447 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   448 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   449 
   450 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   451 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   452 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   453 undocumented feature.)
   454 
   455 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   456 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   457 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   458 
   459   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   460 
   461   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   462     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   463 
   464 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   465 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   466 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   467 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   468 
   469 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   470 
   471     num ~> num_token
   472     xnum ~> xnum_token
   473     xstr ~> str_token
   474 
   475 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   476 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   477 position information via constraints).
   478 
   479 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   480 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   481 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   484 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   485 
   486 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   487 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   488 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   491 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492 
   493 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   494 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   495 
   496   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   497 
   498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   501 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   504 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   505 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   506 
   507 
   508 *** HOL ***
   509 
   510 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   511 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   512 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   513 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   514 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   515 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   516 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   517 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   518 possible.
   519 
   520 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   521 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   522 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   523 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   524 
   525 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   526 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527 
   528 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   529 
   530 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   531 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   532 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   533 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   534 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   535 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   536 
   537   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   538     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   539 
   540   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   541     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   542     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   543 
   544   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   545     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   546 
   547   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   548     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   549     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   550 
   551   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   552     Redefine using other integer operations.
   553 
   554 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   555 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   556 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   557 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   558 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   559 
   560   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   561     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   562     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   563     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   564     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   565 
   566     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   567     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   568 
   569   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   570     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   571     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   572     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   573     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   574     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   575     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   576     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   577 
   578   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   579     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   580     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   581     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   582 
   583   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   584     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   585     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   586     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   587 
   588   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   589     from type nat to type int.
   590 
   591 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   592 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   593 
   594   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   595     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   596     type.  Example syntax:
   597 
   598     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   599       is List.insert
   600 
   601     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   602     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   603     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   604     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   605     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   606     by the package.
   607 
   608   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   609     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   610     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   611     code generation for each constant.
   612 
   613   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   614     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   615     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   616     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   617     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   618 
   619   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   620     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   621     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   622 
   623 * Quotient package:
   624 
   625   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   626     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   627 
   628   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   629     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   630 
   631   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   632     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   633     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   636     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   639 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   640 
   641 * Quickcheck:
   642 
   643   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   644     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   645     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   646     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   647     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   648 
   649     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   650     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   651     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   652 
   653     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   654     continues searching for genuine ones.
   655 
   656     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   657     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   658     show genuine counterexamples.
   659 
   660   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   661     value generators for a given type and operations.
   662 
   663     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   664     constructors of that type.
   665 
   666   - Support for multisets.
   667 
   668   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   669 
   670   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   671     conjectures in a locale context.
   672 
   673 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   674 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   675 
   676 * Sledgehammer:
   677   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   678     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   679   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   680   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   681     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   682   - Sped up the minimizer.
   683   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   684   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   685   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   686 
   687 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   688 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   689 
   690 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   691 
   692 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   695 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   696 
   697   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   698 
   699 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   700 a list and a nat.
   701 
   702 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   703 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   704 
   705 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   706 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   707 default.
   708 
   709 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   710 
   711   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   712 
   713 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   714 
   715 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   716 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   717 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   718 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   719 one_case.
   720 
   721 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   722 the result of the fact expression.
   723 
   724 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   725 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   726 of some relation theorems:
   727 
   728   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   729   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   730   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   731   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   732   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   733   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   734 
   735 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   736 
   737 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   738 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   739 
   740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   741 
   742 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   743 to match the constant's name:
   744 
   745   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   746   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   747   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   748   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   749   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   750   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   751   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   752   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   753   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   754   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   755   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   756   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   757   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   758   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   759   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   760   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   761   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   762   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   763   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   764   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   765   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   766   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   767   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   768   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   769 
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   773 and corresponding theorem names:
   774 
   775   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   776 
   777   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   778 
   779   - Renamed theorems:
   780 
   781     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   782     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   783     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   784     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   785     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   786     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   787     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   788     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   789     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   790     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   791     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   792     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   793     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   794     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   795     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   796     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   797     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   798     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   799     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   800     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   801     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   802     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   803     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   804 
   805     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   806 
   807     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   808 
   809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   810 
   811 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   812 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   813 
   814   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   815   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   816   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   817   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   818   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   819   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   820   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   821   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   822   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   823   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   824   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   825   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   826   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   827   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   828   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   829   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   830   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   831   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   832   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   833   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   834   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   835 
   836 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   837 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   838 
   839 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   842 
   843   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   844   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   845   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   846   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   847   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   848   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   849   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   850   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   851   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   852   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   853   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   854   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   855   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   856   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   857   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   858   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   859   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   860   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   861 
   862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   863 
   864 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   865 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   866 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   867 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   868 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   869 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   870 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   871 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   872 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   873 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   874 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   875 
   876 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   877 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   878 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   879 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   880 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   881 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   882 
   883 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   884 through option types.
   885 
   886 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   887 relations.
   888 
   889 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   892 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   893 
   894   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   895   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   896   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   897   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   898   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   899   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   900   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   901   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   902   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   903   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   904   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   905   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   906   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   907   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   908   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   909   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   910   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   911   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   912   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   913   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   914   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   915   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   916   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   917   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   918   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   919   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   920   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   921   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   922   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   923   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   924   zless_le ~> less_le
   925   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   926   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   927   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   928 
   929 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   930 
   931   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   932 
   933 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   934 
   935 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   936 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   937 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   938 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   942 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   943 
   944 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   945 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   946 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   947 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   948 follows:
   949 
   950   Operations:
   951   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   952   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   953   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   954   del -> rbt_del
   955   delete -> rbt_delete
   956   ins -> rbt_ins
   957   insert -> rbt_insert
   958   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   959   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   960   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   961   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   962   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   963   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   964   tree_less -> rbt_less
   965   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   966   union -> rbt_union
   967   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   968   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   969 
   970   Lemmas:
   971   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   972   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   973   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   974   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   975   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   976   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   977   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   978   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   979   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   980   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   981   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   982   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   983   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   984   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   985   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   986   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   987   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   988   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   989   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   990   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   991   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   992   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   993   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   994   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   995   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   996   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   997   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   998   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   999   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1000   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1001   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1002   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1003   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1004   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1005   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1006   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1007   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1008   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1009   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1010   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1011   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1012   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1013   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1014   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1015   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1016   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1017   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1018   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1019   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1020   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1021   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1022   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1023   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1024   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1025   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1026   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1027   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1028   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1029   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1030   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1031   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1032   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1033   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1034   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1035   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1036   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1037   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1038   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1039   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1040   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1041   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1042   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1043   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1044   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1045   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1046   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1047   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1048   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1049   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1050   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1051   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1052   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1053   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1054 
  1055 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1056 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1057 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059   Changed Operations:
  1060   float_abs -> abs
  1061   float_nprt -> nprt
  1062   float_pprt -> pprt
  1063   pow2 -> use powr
  1064   round_down -> float_round_down
  1065   round_up -> float_round_up
  1066   scale -> exponent
  1067 
  1068   Removed Operations:
  1069   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1070 
  1071   Renamed Lemmas:
  1072   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1073   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1074   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1075   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1076   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1077   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1078   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1079   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1080   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1081   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1082   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1083   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1084   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1085   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1086   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1087   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1088   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1089   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1090   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1091   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1092   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1093   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1094   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1095   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1096   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1097   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1098   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1099   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1100   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1101   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1102   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1103   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1104   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1105   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1106   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1107   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1108 
  1109   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1110   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1111   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1112   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1113   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1114   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1115   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1116   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1117   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1118   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1119 
  1120 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1121 association lists with distinct keys.
  1122 
  1123 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1124 annotated commands.
  1125 
  1126 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1127 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1128 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1129 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1132 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1133 instead.
  1134 
  1135   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1136   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1137   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1138   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1139   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1140   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1141   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1142   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1143   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1144   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1145   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1146   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1147   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1148   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1149   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1150   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1151   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1152   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1153   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1154   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1155   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1156   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1157   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1158   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1159   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1160   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1161   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1162   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1163   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1164   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1165   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1166   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1167   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1168   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1169   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1170   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1171   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1172   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1173   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1174   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1175   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1176 
  1177 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1178 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1179 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1180 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1181 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1182 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1183 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1184 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1185 
  1186 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1187 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1188 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1189 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1190 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1191 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1192 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1193 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1194 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1195 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1196 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1197 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199   Renamed constants:
  1200   measure -> emeasure
  1201   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1202   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1203   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1204   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1205 
  1206   Removed locales:
  1207   completeable_measure_space
  1208   finite_measure_space
  1209   finite_prob_space
  1210   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1211   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1212   finite_sigma_algebra
  1213   measure_space
  1214   pair_finite_prob_space
  1215   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1216   pair_finite_space
  1217   pair_sigma_algebra
  1218   product_sigma_algebra
  1219 
  1220   Removed constants:
  1221   conditional_space
  1222   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1223   image_space
  1224   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1225   pair_measure_generator
  1226   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1227   subvimage
  1228 
  1229   Replacement theorems:
  1230   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1231   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1232   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1233   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1234   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1235   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1236   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1237   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1238   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1239   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1240   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1241   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1242   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1243   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1244   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1245   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1246   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1247   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1248   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1249   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1250   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1251   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1252   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1253   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1254   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1255   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1256   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1257   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1258   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1259   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1260   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1261   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1262   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1263   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1264   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1265   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1266   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1267   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1268   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1269   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1270   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1271   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1272   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1273   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1274   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1275   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1276   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1277   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1278   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1279   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1280   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1281   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1282   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1283   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1284   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1285   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1286   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1287   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1288   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1289   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1290   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1291   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1292   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1293   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1294   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1295   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1296   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1297   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1298   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1299   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1300   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1301   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1302   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1303   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1304   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1305   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1306   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1307   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1308   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1309   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1310   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1311   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1312   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1313   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1314   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1315   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1316   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1317   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1318   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1319   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1320   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1321   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1322   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1323   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1324   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1325   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1326   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1327   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1328   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1329   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1330   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1331   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1332   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1333   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1334   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1335   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1336   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1337   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1338   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1339   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1340   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1341   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1342   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1343   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1344   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1345   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1346   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1347   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1348   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1349   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1350   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1351   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1352   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1353   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1354   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1355   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1356   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1357   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1358 
  1359 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1360 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1361 
  1362 
  1363 *** FOL ***
  1364 
  1365 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1366 
  1367 
  1368 *** ZF ***
  1369 
  1370 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1371 analysis.
  1372 
  1373 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1374 
  1375 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1376 
  1377 
  1378 *** ML ***
  1379 
  1380 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1381 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1382 
  1383 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1384 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1385 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1386 
  1387 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1388 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1389 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1390 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1391 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1392 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1393 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1394 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1395 
  1396 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1397 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1398 
  1399 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1400 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1401 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1402 
  1403 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1404 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1405 
  1406 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1407 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1408 context as well.
  1409 
  1410 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1411 
  1412   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1413   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1414   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1415   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1416   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1417   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1418   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1419   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1420   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1421   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1422   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1423   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1424 
  1425 
  1426 *** System ***
  1427 
  1428 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1429 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1430 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1431 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1432 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1433 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1434 the generic user home was intended.
  1435 
  1436 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1437 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1438 
  1439 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1440 (not just JRE).
  1441 
  1442 
  1443 
  1444 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1445 ------------------------------------
  1446 
  1447 *** General ***
  1448 
  1449 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1450 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1451 
  1452   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1453     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1454     files for checking).
  1455 
  1456   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1457     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1458     positions.
  1459 
  1460   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1461     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1462     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1463 
  1464   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1465     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1466     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1467 
  1468   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1469     cores.
  1470 
  1471   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1472     versions (garbage collection).
  1473 
  1474 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1475 including some remaining limitations.
  1476 
  1477 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1478 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1479 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1480 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1481 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1485 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1486 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1487 
  1488 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1489 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1490 usedir option -Q.
  1491 
  1492 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1493 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1494 
  1495   long_names   ~> names_long
  1496   short_names  ~> names_short
  1497   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1498 
  1499 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1500 
  1501   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1502 
  1503 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1504 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1505 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1506 
  1507 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1508 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1509 
  1510 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1511   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1512   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1513   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1514     "Classical Reasoner".
  1515 
  1516 
  1517 *** HOL ***
  1518 
  1519 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1520 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1523 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1524 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1525 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1526 class complete_linorder.
  1527 
  1528 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1529 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1530 
  1531 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1532 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1533 
  1534   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1535   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1536   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1537   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1538   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1539   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1540   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1541   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1542   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1543   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1544   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1545 
  1546 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1547 
  1548   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1549   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1550   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1551   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1552   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1553   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1554   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1555   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1556   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1557   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1558   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1559   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1560   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1561   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1562   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1563   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1564 
  1565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1566 
  1567 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1571 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1572 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1573 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1576 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1577 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1581 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1582 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1583 
  1584 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1585 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1586 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1589 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1590 
  1591 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1592 
  1593     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1594     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1595 
  1596 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1597 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1600 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1601 
  1602 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1603 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1604 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1605 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1608   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1609   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1610   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1611   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1612   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1613   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1614 
  1615 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1616 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1619   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1620   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1621   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1622   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1623   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1624   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1625   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1626   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1627   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1628   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1629   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1630   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1631   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1632   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1633   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1634   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1635   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1636   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1637   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1638   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1639   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1640   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1641   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1642   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1643   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1644   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1645   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1646   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1647   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1648   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1649   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1650   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1651   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1652   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1653   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1654   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1655   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1656   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1657   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1658   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1659   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1660   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1661   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1662   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1663   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1664   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1665   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1666   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1667   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1668   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1669   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1670   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1671   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1672   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1673   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1674   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1675   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1676   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1677   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1678   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1679   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1680   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1681   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1682   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1683   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1684   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1685   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1686   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1687   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1688   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1689   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1690   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1691   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1692   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1693   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1694   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1695   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1696   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1697   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1698   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1699   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1700 
  1701 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1702 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1703 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1704 
  1705 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1706 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1707 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1708 
  1709 * Code generation:
  1710 
  1711   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1712     characters in the target language.
  1713 
  1714   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1715     instead.
  1716 
  1717   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1718 
  1719   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1720     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1721 
  1722       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1723 
  1724 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1725 
  1726 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1727 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1728 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1729 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1730 syntax.
  1731 
  1732 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1733 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1734 
  1735 * Nitpick:
  1736   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1737   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1738   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1739     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1740 
  1741 * Sledgehammer:
  1742   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1743   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1744     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1745   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1746     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1747   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1748     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1750     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1751   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1752     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1753 
  1754 * Metis:
  1755   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1756   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1757     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759 * Command 'try':
  1760   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1761     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1763     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1764 
  1765 * Quickcheck:
  1766   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1767     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1768   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1769     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1770   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1771     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1772     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1773     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1774   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1775     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1776 
  1777 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1778 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1779 
  1780 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1781 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1782 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1783 
  1784 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1785 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1787 
  1788 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1789 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1792 arithmetic.
  1793 
  1794 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1795 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1796 and lattice type classes.
  1797 
  1798 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1799 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1800 
  1801 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1802 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1803 
  1804 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1805 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1806 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1809   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1810   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1811   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1812 
  1813 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1814 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1815 constants:
  1816 
  1817   type inat   ~> type enat
  1818   Fin         ~> enat
  1819   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1820   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1821   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1822 
  1823 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1824 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1825 
  1826 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1827 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1828 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1829 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1830 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1831 
  1832 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1833 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1834 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1835 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1836 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1837 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1838 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1839 
  1840   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1841   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1842   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1843   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1844 
  1845 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1846 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1847 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848 
  1849   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1850   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1851   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1852   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1853   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1854   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1855   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1856   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1857   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1858   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1859   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1860   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1861   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1862   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1863   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1864   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1865   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1866   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1867   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1868   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1869   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1870   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1871   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1872   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1873   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1874   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1875   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1876   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1877   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1878   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1879   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1880   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1881   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1882   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1883   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1884   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1885   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1886   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1887   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1888   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1889   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1890   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1891   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1892   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1893   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1894   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1895   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1896   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1897   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1898   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1899   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1900 
  1901 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1902   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1903   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1904   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1905   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1906     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1911   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1912   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1913   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1914   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1915   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1916   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1917   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1918   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1919   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1920   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1921   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1922   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1923   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1924   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1925   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1926   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1927   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1928   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1929   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1930   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1931   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1932   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1933   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1934   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1935 
  1936 
  1937 *** Document preparation ***
  1938 
  1939 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1940 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1941 same.
  1942 
  1943 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1944 result.
  1945 
  1946 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1947 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1948 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1949 
  1950 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1951 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1952 
  1953 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1954 like this:
  1955 
  1956   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1957   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1958 
  1959 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1960 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1961 layouts.
  1962 
  1963 
  1964 *** ML ***
  1965 
  1966 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1967 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1968 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1969 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1970 under external program control.
  1971 
  1972 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1973 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1974 
  1975 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1976 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1977 (better known as Proof General).
  1978 
  1979 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1980 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1981 
  1982 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1983 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1984 
  1985 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1986 (including quotes etc.).
  1987 
  1988 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1989 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1990 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1991 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1992 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1993 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1994 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1995 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1996 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1997 
  1998 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1999 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2000 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2001 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2002 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2003 
  2004 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2005 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2006 
  2007 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2008 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2009 
  2010 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2011 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2012 
  2013 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2014 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2015 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2016 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2017 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2018 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2019 proper Proof.context.
  2020 
  2021 
  2022 *** System ***
  2023 
  2024 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2025 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2026 
  2027 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2028 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2029 
  2030 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2031 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2032 
  2033   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2034   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2035   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2036   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2037   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2038 
  2039 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2040 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2043 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2044 example:
  2045 
  2046   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2047 
  2048 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2049 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2050 
  2051 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2052 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2053 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2054 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2055 
  2056 
  2057 
  2058 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2059 ----------------------------------
  2060 
  2061 *** General ***
  2062 
  2063 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2064 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2065 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2066 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2067 like this:
  2068 
  2069   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2070 
  2071 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2072 
  2073 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2074 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2075 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2076 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2077 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2078 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2079 
  2080 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2081 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2082 the following package declarations:
  2083 
  2084   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2085   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2086 
  2087 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2088 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2089 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2090 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2091 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2092 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2093 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2094 
  2095 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2096 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2097 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2098 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2099 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2100 
  2101 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2102 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2103 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2104 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2105 
  2106 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2107 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2108 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2109 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2110 
  2111   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2112 
  2113   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2114   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2115   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2116   show_types                    show_types
  2117   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2118   show_consts                   show_consts
  2119   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2120 
  2121   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2122   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2123   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2124 
  2125   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2126   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2127 
  2128   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2129 
  2130   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2131   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2132   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2133   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2134   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2135 
  2136 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2137 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2138 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2139 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2140 
  2141 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143 
  2144   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2145   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2146 
  2147 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2148 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2149 float_token.
  2150 
  2151 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2152 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2153 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2156 DejaVu Sans.
  2157 
  2158 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2159 
  2160 
  2161 *** Pure ***
  2162 
  2163 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2164 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2165 time.
  2166 
  2167 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2168 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2171 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2174 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2175 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2176 command already provided this functionality.
  2177 
  2178 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2179 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2180 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2181 without interpretations.
  2182 
  2183 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2184 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2185 
  2186 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2187 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2188 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2189 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2190 
  2191 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2192 'definition' instead.
  2193 
  2194 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2195 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2196 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2197 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2198 
  2199 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2200 constructors.
  2201 
  2202 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2203 the local file system.
  2204 
  2205 
  2206 *** HOL ***
  2207 
  2208 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2209 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2210 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2211 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2212 
  2213   declare [[coercion f]]
  2214 
  2215 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2216 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2217 
  2218   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2219 
  2220 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2221 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2222 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2223 other theories like this:
  2224 
  2225   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2226 
  2227 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2228 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2229 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2230 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2231 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2232 for examples.
  2233 
  2234 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2235 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2238 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2239 
  2240 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2241 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2242 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2243 
  2244 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2245 functorial structure of types.
  2246 
  2247 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2248 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2249 
  2250 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2251 languages.
  2252 
  2253 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2254 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2258 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2259 
  2260 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2261 combinators any longer.
  2262 
  2263 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2264 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2265 
  2266 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2267 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2268 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2269 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2270 
  2271   record 'a foo = ...
  2272   ...
  2273   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2274 
  2275 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2276 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2278 
  2279 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2280 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2281 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2282 
  2283 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2284 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2285 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2286 
  2287 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2288 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2291 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2292 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2293 independently.
  2294 
  2295 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2296 counter example search.
  2297 
  2298 * Sledgehammer:
  2299   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2300     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2301     sledgehammer").
  2302   - Renamed commands:
  2303     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2304     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2305     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2306     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2307   - Renamed options:
  2308     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2309     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2310     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2311     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2313 
  2314 * Nitpick:
  2315   - Renamed options:
  2316     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2317     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2320   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2321   - Added "whack" option.
  2322   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2323   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2324   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2325   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2326     higher cardinalities.
  2327   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2328 
  2329 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2330 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2331 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2332 
  2333     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2334 
  2335 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2336 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2337 
  2338 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2339 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2340 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2341 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2342 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2343 "smt_solver".
  2344 
  2345 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2346 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2347 
  2348 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2349 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2350 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2351 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2354   - Renamed:
  2355     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2356     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2357     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358   - Added:
  2359     smt_verbose
  2360     smt_random_seed
  2361     smt_datatypes
  2362     smt_infer_triggers
  2363     smt_monomorph_limit
  2364     cvc3_options
  2365     remote_cvc3_options
  2366     remote_z3_options
  2367     yices_options
  2368 
  2369 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2370 header.
  2371 
  2372 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2373 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2375 
  2376   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2377 
  2378 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2381 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2386 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2387 
  2388 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2389 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2390 
  2391 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2392 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2395 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2396 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2402 
  2403 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2404 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2405 
  2406 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2407 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2408 for congruent(2)).
  2409 
  2410 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2411 
  2412   types
  2413     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2414     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2415 
  2416   constants
  2417     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2418     True ~> HOL.True
  2419     False ~> HOL.False
  2420     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2421     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2422     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2423     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2424     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2425     The ~> HOL.The
  2426     All ~> HOL.All
  2427     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2428     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2429     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2430     If ~> HOL.If
  2431     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2432     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2433     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2434     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2435     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2436     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2437     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2438     op : ~> Set.member
  2439     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2440 
  2441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2442 
  2443 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2444 
  2445     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2446     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2447     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2448     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2449     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2450     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2451     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2452     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2453 
  2454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456 * More stylized fact names:
  2457 
  2458   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2459   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2460   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2461   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2462 
  2463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2464 
  2465 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2466 
  2467   constants
  2468     null ~> List.null
  2469 
  2470   facts
  2471     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2472     null_empty ~> null_def
  2473 
  2474 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2475 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2476 generation.
  2477 
  2478 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2479 Haskell code.
  2480 
  2481 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2482 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2483 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2486 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2489 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2490 
  2491 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2492 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2493 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2496 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2497 
  2498 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2502 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2503 referred to by its qualified name.
  2504 
  2505   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2506   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2507   product ~>  Enum.product
  2508 
  2509 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2510 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2514 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2515 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2519 sort_key.
  2520 
  2521 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2523 
  2524 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2525 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2526 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2527 
  2528   types
  2529     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2530               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2531               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2532         (depends on your needs)
  2533 
  2534   constants
  2535      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2536      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2537      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2538 
  2539 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2540 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2541 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2542 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2545 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2546 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2547 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2548 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2554 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2555 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2556 
  2557 
  2558 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2559 
  2560 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2561 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2562 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2563 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2564 compatibility.
  2565 
  2566 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2567 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2568 
  2569 
  2570 *** HOLCF ***
  2571 
  2572 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2573 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2574 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2578 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2579 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2580 
  2581   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2582   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2583   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2584 
  2585 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2586 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2587 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2590 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2591 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2592 domain definition now works:
  2593 
  2594   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2595 
  2596 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2597 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2598 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2599 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2600 
  2601   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2602     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2603 
  2604   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2605 
  2606 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2607 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2608 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2611 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2614 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2615 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2616 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2617 
  2618 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2619 
  2620 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2628 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2629 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2630 
  2631 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2632 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2633 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2636 still supported as an input translation.
  2637 
  2638 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2639 
  2640   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2641   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2642   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2643   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2644   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2645   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2646   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2647 
  2648 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2649 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2650 
  2651   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2652   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2653   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2654   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2655   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2656   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2657 
  2658 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2659 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2660 
  2661 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2662 
  2663   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2664   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2665   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2666   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2667 
  2668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669 
  2670 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2671 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2674 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2675 
  2676   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2677   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2678   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2679   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2680   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2681   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2682   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2683   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2684   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2685   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2686   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2687   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2688   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2689   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2690   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2691   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2692   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2693   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2694   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2695   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2696 
  2697 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2700   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2701   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2702   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2703   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2704   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2705   box_less             ~> box_below
  2706   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2707   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2708   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2709   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2710   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2711   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2712   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2713   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2714   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2715   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2716   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2717   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2718   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2719   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2720   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2721   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2722   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2723   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2724   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2725   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2726   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2727   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2728   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2729   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2730   up_less              ~> up_below
  2731   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2732   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2733   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2734   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2735   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2736   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2737   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2738   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2739   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2740   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2741   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2742   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2743   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2744 
  2745 
  2746 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2747 
  2748 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2749 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 
  2752 *** ML ***
  2753 
  2754 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2755 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2756 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2757 
  2758 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2759 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2760 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2761 
  2762 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2763 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2764 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2765 
  2766 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2767 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2768 
  2769 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2770 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2771 
  2772 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2773 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2774 
  2775 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2776 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2777 
  2778 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2779 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2780 almost all situations.
  2781 
  2782 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2783 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2784 Isabelle/ML.
  2785 
  2786 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2787 meaning.
  2788 
  2789 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2790 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2791 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2792 
  2793 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2794 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2795 
  2796 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2797 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2798 
  2799 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2800 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2801 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2802 
  2803 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2804 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2805 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2806 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2807 configuration options.
  2808 
  2809 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2810 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2811 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2812 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2813 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2814 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2815 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2816 
  2817 
  2818 
  2819 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2820 ---------------------------------
  2821 
  2822 *** General ***
  2823 
  2824 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2825 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2826 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2827 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2828 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2829 their full internal name.
  2830 
  2831 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2832 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2833 Some hints on upgrading:
  2834 
  2835   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2836     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2837     which are independent of this issue.
  2838 
  2839   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2840     provides the following special forms:
  2841 
  2842       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2843       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2844       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2845 
  2846     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2847     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2848     extra variables".
  2849 
  2850     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2851     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2852     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2853     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2854     "logic".
  2855 
  2856   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2857     antiquotations:
  2858 
  2859       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2860       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2861       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2862       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2863 
  2864   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2865     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2866     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2867     antiquotations.
  2868 
  2869 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2870 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2871 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2872 diagnose syntax problems.
  2873 
  2874 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2875 
  2876 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2877 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2878 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2879 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2880 
  2881 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2882 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2883 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2884 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2887 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2888 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2889 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2890 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2891 
  2892 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2893 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2894 
  2895 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2896 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2897 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2898 
  2899   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2900 
  2901 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2902 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2903 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2904 
  2905 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2906 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2910 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2911 
  2912 
  2913 *** Pure ***
  2914 
  2915 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2916 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2917 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2918 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2919 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2920 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2921 inspect proof terms.
  2922 
  2923 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2924 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2925 are added internally.  For example:
  2926 
  2927   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2928 
  2929 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2930 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2935 'class' instead.
  2936 
  2937 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2938 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2942 invariants.
  2943 
  2944 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2945 user space functionality any longer.
  2946 
  2947 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2948 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2952 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2953 
  2954 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2955 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2956 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2957 
  2958 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2959 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2960 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2961 
  2962 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2963 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 
  2966 *** HOL ***
  2967 
  2968 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2969 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2970 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2971 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2972 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2973 
  2974 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2975 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2976 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2977 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2978 
  2979   fun
  2980     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2981   where
  2982     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2983 
  2984   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2985     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2986 
  2987   quotient_definition
  2988     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2989 
  2990 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2991 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2992 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2993 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2994 
  2995 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2996 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2997 
  2998 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2999 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3000 
  3001 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3003 
  3004 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3005 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3006 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3007 
  3008 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3009 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3018 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3021 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3022 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3025   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3026   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3027   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3028   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3029   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3030   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3031   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3032   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3033   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3034   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3035   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3036   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3037   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3038   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3039   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3040   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3041   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3042   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3043   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3044   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3045   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3046   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3047   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3048   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3049   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3050   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3051   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3052   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3053   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3054 
  3055 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3056 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3057 
  3058 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3059 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3060 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3061 
  3062 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3063 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3064 
  3065 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3066 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3067 
  3068 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3069 
  3070 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3071 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3074 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3079 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3080 
  3081 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3082 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3083 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3084 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3087   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3088   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3089   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3093 lattices):
  3094 
  3095     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3096     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3097 
  3098     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3099 
  3100     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3101     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3102     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3103     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3104     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3105     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3106     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3107     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3108     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3109     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3110     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3111     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3112     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3113 
  3114     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3115     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3116     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3117     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3118     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3119     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3120     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3121     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3122     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3123     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3124     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3125     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3126     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3127     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3128     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3129     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3130     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3131     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3132 
  3133   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3134   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3135 
  3136     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3137     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3138     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3139     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3140     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3141 
  3142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Refined field classes:
  3145   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3146     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3147     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3148   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3149 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3152   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3153   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3154   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3155     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3156   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3157     equal_neg_zero.
  3158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3161 sets to lattices:
  3162 
  3163   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3164   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3165   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3166   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3167   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3168   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3169   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3170   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3171   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3172   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3173 
  3174 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3175 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3176 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3177 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3178 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3179 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3182 multiset order:
  3183 
  3184   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3185     <= and <;
  3186   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3187     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3188     multiset_order;
  3189   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3190     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3191     generation;
  3192   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3193     if needed.
  3194 
  3195 Renamed:
  3196 
  3197   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3198   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3199   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3200 
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3204 
  3205 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3206 
  3207 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3208 
  3209 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3210 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3211 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3212 
  3213   Constants:
  3214   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3215   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3216   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3217   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3218   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3219   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3220   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3221   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3222   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3223   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3224   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3225   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3226   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3227 
  3228   Lemmas:
  3229   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3230   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3231   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3232   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3233   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3234   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3235   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3236   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3237   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3238   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3239   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3240   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3241   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3242 
  3243 * Sledgehammer:
  3244   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3245     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3246     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3247     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3248     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3249     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3250     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3252   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3253     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3254   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3255     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3256     is still experimental.)
  3257   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3258     full-typed mode.
  3259   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3260 
  3261 * Nitpick:
  3262   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3263   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3264   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3265     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3266   - Added support for quotient types.
  3267   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3268     constructs.
  3269   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3270     "termination" proofs).
  3271   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3272   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3273   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3274   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3275     record getters.
  3276   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3277   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3278   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3279   - Added "atoms" option.
  3280   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3281     problems.
  3282   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3283     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3284     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3286     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288 
  3289 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3290   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3291   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3292   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3293   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3294   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3295   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3296   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3297   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3298   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 
  3301 *** HOLCF ***
  3302 
  3303 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3304 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3305 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3308 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3309 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3310 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3313 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3314 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3315 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3316 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3319 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3320 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3323 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3326   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3327 
  3328 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3329 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3332   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3333   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3334   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3335   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3336 
  3337 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3338 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3341   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3342   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3343 
  3344 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3345 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3347 
  3348 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3349 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3350 
  3351 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3354 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 
  3357 *** ML ***
  3358 
  3359 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3360 
  3361     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3362     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3363 
  3364     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3365     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3366     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3367     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3368 
  3369     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3370     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3371     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3372 
  3373 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3374 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3375 
  3376 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3377 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3378 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3379 
  3380 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3381 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3382 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3383 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3384 
  3385 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3386 the context or even global references.
  3387 
  3388 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3389 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3390 
  3391 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3392 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3393 
  3394   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3395   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3396   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3397   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3398   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3399   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3400   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3401   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3402   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3403   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3404 
  3405 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3406 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3407 
  3408 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3409 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3410 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3411 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3412 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3413 
  3414 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3415 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3416 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3417 Theory_Data version.
  3418 
  3419 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3420 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3421 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3422 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3423 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3424 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3425 explicitly in rare situations.
  3426 
  3427 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3428 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3432 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3435 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3436 quite rare).
  3437 
  3438 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3439 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3442 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3443 terms.
  3444 
  3445 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3446 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3447 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3448 
  3449 
  3450 *** System ***
  3451 
  3452 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3453 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3454 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3455 
  3456 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3457 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3458 respectively.
  3459 
  3460 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3461 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3462 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3463 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3464 
  3465   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3466 
  3467 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3468 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3469 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3470 component.
  3471 
  3472 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3473 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3474 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3475 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3476 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3477 the user for manual installation.
  3478 
  3479 
  3480 
  3481 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3482 -------------------------------------
  3483 
  3484 *** General ***
  3485 
  3486 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3487 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3488 
  3489 
  3490 *** Pure ***
  3491 
  3492 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3493 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3494 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3495 
  3496 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3497 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3498 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3499 
  3500 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3501 interpretation.
  3502 
  3503 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3504 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 
  3507 *** Document preparation ***
  3508 
  3509 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3510 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3511 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3512 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3513 
  3514 
  3515 *** HOL ***
  3516 
  3517 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3518 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3519 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3520 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3521 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3522 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3523 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3524 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3525 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3526 
  3527 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3528 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3529 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3530 
  3531 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3532 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3533 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3534 
  3535 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3536 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3537 
  3538 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3539 
  3540 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3541 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3542 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3543 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3544 
  3545 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3546 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3547 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3548 "mirabelle" utility.
  3549 
  3550 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3551 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3552 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3553 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3554 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3555 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3556 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3557 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3558 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3559 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3560 
  3561 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3562 procedure only.
  3563 
  3564 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3565 
  3566 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3567 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3568 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3569 that fail later.
  3570 
  3571 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3572 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3573 
  3574 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3575 the same method as the approximation method.
  3576 
  3577 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3578 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3579 series expansion.
  3580 
  3581 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3582 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3583 
  3584 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3585 reals.
  3586 
  3587 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3588 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3589 
  3590 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3591 fixpoint theorem.
  3592 
  3593 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3594   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3595     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3596   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3597     accordingly
  3598   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3599     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3600   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3601     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3602 
  3603 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3604 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3605 lattice.
  3606 
  3607 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3608 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3609 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3610 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3611 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3612 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3614 
  3615 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3616   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3617     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3618   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3619     le_inf_iff
  3620   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3621     sup_aci)
  3622   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3623   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3624   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3625     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3626     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3627     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3628     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3629     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3630     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3631     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3632     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3633     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3634     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3635   - authentic syntax for
  3636     Set.Pow
  3637     Set.image
  3638   - mere abbreviations:
  3639     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3640     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3641     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3642     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3643     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3644     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3645     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3646     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3647   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3648 
  3649 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3650 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3651 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3652 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3653 
  3654 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3655 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3656 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3659 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3662 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3663 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3664 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3667 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3668 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3669 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3670 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3671 
  3672 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3673 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3675 
  3676 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3677 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3678 
  3679 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3680 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3681 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3682 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3683 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3684 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3685 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3689     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3690     code_post       replaces    code post
  3691     etc.
  3692   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Renamed methods:
  3695     sizechange -> size_change
  3696     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3697   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3700 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3701 
  3702 * Renamed theorems:
  3703     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3704     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3705     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3706     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3707     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3708   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3712 
  3713 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 
  3717 *** HOLCF ***
  3718 
  3719 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3720 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3721 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3722 
  3723 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3724 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3725 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3726 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3727 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3728 
  3729 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3730 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3731 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3732 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3733 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3734 
  3735 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3736 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3737 constructor are pre-configured.
  3738 
  3739 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3740 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3741 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3742 
  3743 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3744 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3745 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3746 as well.)
  3747 
  3748 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3749 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3750 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3751 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3752 examples.
  3753 
  3754 
  3755 *** ML ***
  3756 
  3757 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3758 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3759 
  3760 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3761 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3762 position, logical grouping etc.
  3763 
  3764 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3765 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3766 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3767 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3768 
  3769 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3770 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3771 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3772 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3773 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3774 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3775 
  3776 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3777 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3778 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3779 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3780 experiments with references.
  3781 
  3782 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3783 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3784 
  3785 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3786 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3787 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3788 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3789 
  3790 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3791 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3792 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3793 
  3794 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3795 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3796 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3804 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3805 
  3806 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3807 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3808 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3809 
  3810 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3811 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3812 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3815 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3816 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3820 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3821 instead of global theory.
  3822 
  3823 
  3824 *** System ***
  3825 
  3826 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3827 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3828 usedir option -q.
  3829 
  3830 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3831 also the system manual.
  3832 
  3833 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3834 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3835 
  3836 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3837 this is always enabled.
  3838 
  3839 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3840 
  3841 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3842 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3843 currently supported on Linux only.
  3844 
  3845 
  3846 
  3847 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3848 --------------------------------
  3849 
  3850 *** General ***
  3851 
  3852 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3853 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3854 
  3855   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3856     "isatool."
  3857 
  3858   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3859     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3860 
  3861   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3862     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3863 
  3864 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3865 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3866 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3867 
  3868 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3869 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3870 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3871 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3872 via "isabelle emacs".
  3873 
  3874 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3875 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3876 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3877 
  3878 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3879 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3880 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3881 
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3883 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3884 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3885 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3886 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3887 
  3888 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3889 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3890 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3891 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3892 
  3893 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3894 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3895 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3896 
  3897 
  3898 *** Pure ***
  3899 
  3900 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3901 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3902 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3903 
  3904 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3905 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3906 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3907 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3908 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3909 
  3910 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3911 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3912 useful in locale declarations.
  3913 
  3914 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3915 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3916 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3917 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3918 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3919 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3920 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3921 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3922 no longer generated.
  3923 
  3924 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3925 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3926 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3927 
  3928 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3929 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3930 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3931 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3932 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3933 
  3934 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3936 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3937 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3938 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3939 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3940 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3941 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3942 
  3943 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3944 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3945 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3946 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3947 
  3948 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3951 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3952 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3953 
  3954 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3955 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3958 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3959 in HOL, write
  3960 
  3961     class foo = ...
  3962 
  3963 instead of
  3964 
  3965     class foo = type + ...
  3966 
  3967 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3968 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3971 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3972 
  3973 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3974 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3975 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3976 
  3977 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3978 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3979 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3980 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3981 directly in regular applications.
  3982 
  3983 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3984 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3985 
  3986 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3987 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3988 
  3989 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3990 theory context.
  3991 
  3992 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3993 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3994 
  3995 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3996 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3997 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3998 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3999 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4000 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4001 
  4002   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4003 
  4004 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4005 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4006 normalization.
  4007 
  4008 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4009 addressing etc.
  4010 
  4011 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4012 
  4013   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4014   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4015 
  4016 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4017 
  4018   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4019      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4020      parts of the code generator framework).
  4021 
  4022   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4023      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4024      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4025 
  4026 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4029 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4032 patterns, e.g.
  4033 
  4034     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4035 
  4036 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4037 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4038 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4039 hyphen:
  4040 
  4041     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4042 
  4043 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4044 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4045 
  4046 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4047 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4048 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4049 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4050 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4051 higher-order unification.
  4052 
  4053 
  4054 *** Document preparation ***
  4055 
  4056 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4057 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4058 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4059 
  4060 
  4061 *** HOL ***
  4062 
  4063 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4064 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4065 
  4066 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4067 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4068 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4069 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4070 Main, as before.
  4071 
  4072 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4073 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4074 
  4075 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4076 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4077 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4078 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4079 
  4080 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4081 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4082 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4083 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4084 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4085 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4086 
  4087 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4088 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4089 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4090 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4091 
  4092 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4093 menu.
  4094 
  4095 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4096 (contains the empty clause).
  4097 
  4098 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4099 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4100 
  4101 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4102 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4103 
  4104 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4105 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4106 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4109 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4110 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4111 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4112 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4113 
  4114 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4115 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4116 
  4117 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4118 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4119 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4120 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4121 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4122 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4123 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4124 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4125 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4126 
  4127 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4128 
  4129 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4130 
  4131 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4132 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4135 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4136 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4137 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4138 
  4139 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4140 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4141 
  4142     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4143     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4144     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4145     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4146     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4147     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4148     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4149     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4150 
  4151 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4152 theory Set.
  4153 
  4154 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4155 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4156 
  4157 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4158 
  4159 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4160 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4161 
  4162 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4163 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4164 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4165 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4166 allowed. For examples see
  4167 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4168 
  4169 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4170 
  4171 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4173 
  4174 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4175 structure:
  4176 
  4177     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4178     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4179     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4180     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4181     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4182     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4183     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4184     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4185     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4186     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4187     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4188     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4189     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4190     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4191     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4192     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4193     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4194     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4195     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4196     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4197     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4198     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4199     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4200     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4201     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4202     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4203     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4204     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4205     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4206     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4207     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4208     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4209     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4210 
  4211     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4212     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4213     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4214     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4215     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4216     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4217     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4218     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4219     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4220     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4221 
  4222     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4223     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4224     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4225     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4226     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4227     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4228 
  4229 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4230 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4231 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4232 
  4233 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4234 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4235 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4236 
  4237 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4238 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4241 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4242 
  4243 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4244 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4245 proofs, e.g.
  4246 
  4247   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4248 
  4249 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4250 
  4251 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4252 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4253 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4256 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4260 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4261 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4263 
  4264 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4265 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4266 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4267 preorder_class.*.
  4268 
  4269 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4270 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4271 
  4272 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4273 
  4274   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4275 
  4276 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4277 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4278 fold_image.
  4279 
  4280 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4281 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4282 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4283 the former will disappear at some point.
  4284 
  4285 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4286 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4287 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4288 
  4289 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4290 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4291 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4292 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4293 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4294 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4295 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4296 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4297 
  4298 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4299 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4300 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4301 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4302 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4303 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4304 
  4305     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4306     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4307     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4308     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4309     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4310     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4311     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4312 
  4313 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4314 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4315 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4316 
  4317 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4318 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4319 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4320 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4321 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4322 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4323 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4324 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4325 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4326 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4327 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4328 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4329 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4330 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4331 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4332 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4333 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4334 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4335 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4336 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4337 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4338 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4339 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4340 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4341 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4342 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4343 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4344 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4345 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4346 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4347 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4348 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4349 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4350 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4351 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4352 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4353 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4354 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4355 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4356 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4357 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4358 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4359 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4360 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4361 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4362 
  4363 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4366 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4367 
  4368 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4369 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4370 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4371 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4372 
  4373 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4374 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4375 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4376 theory RealVector.
  4377 
  4378 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4379 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4380 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4381 and inner products are included.
  4382 
  4383 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4384 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4385 supported.
  4386 
  4387 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4388 first diagonalization argument.
  4389 
  4390 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4391 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4392 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4393 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4394 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4395 
  4396     hide (open) const gcd
  4397     abbreviation gcd where
  4398       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4399     notation (output)
  4400       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4401 
  4402 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4403 
  4404 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4405 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4406 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4409 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4410 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4411 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4412 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4413 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4414 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4415 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4416 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4417 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4418 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4419 cases.
  4420 
  4421 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4422 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4423 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4424 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4425 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4426 
  4427     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4428     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4429     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4430     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4431     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4432 
  4433 
  4434 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4435 
  4436 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4437 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4438 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4439 
  4440 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4441 
  4442 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4443 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4444 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4445 
  4446 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4447 
  4448 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4449 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4450 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4451 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4452 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4453 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4454 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4455 
  4456 
  4457 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4458 
  4459 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4460 
  4461 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4462 theory targets.
  4463 
  4464 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4465 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4466 'inductive' etc.
  4467 
  4468 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4469 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4470 
  4471 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4472 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4473 
  4474 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4475 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4476 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4477 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4478 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4479 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4480 the algorithm W:
  4481 
  4482  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4483  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4484          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4485 
  4486 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4487 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4488 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4489 
  4490 
  4491 *** HOLCF ***
  4492 
  4493 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4494 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4495 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4496 
  4497 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4498 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4499 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4500 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4501 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4504 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4505 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4506 
  4507 
  4508 *** ZF ***
  4509 
  4510 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4511 
  4512 
  4513 *** ML ***
  4514 
  4515 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4516 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4517 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4518 5.2.1!
  4519 
  4520 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4521 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4522 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4523 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4524 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4525 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4526 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4527 
  4528 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4529 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4530 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4531 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4532 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4533 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4534 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4535 
  4536 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4537 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4538 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4539 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4540 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4541 
  4542 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4543 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4544 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4545 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4546 Method.add_method.
  4547 
  4548 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4549 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4550 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4551 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4552 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4553 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4554 
  4555 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4556 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4557 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4558 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4559 examples.
  4560 
  4561 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4562 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4563 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4564 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4565 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4566 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4567 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4568 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4569 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4570 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4571 
  4572 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4573 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4574 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4575 
  4576 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4577 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4578 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4579 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4580 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4581 resort for legacy applications.
  4582 
  4583 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4584 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4585 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4586 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4587 explicit runtime argument.
  4588 
  4589 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4590 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4591 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4592 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4593 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4596 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4597 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4598 theory state.
  4599 
  4600 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4601 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4602 
  4603   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4604   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4605   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4606   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4607   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4608   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4609   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4610   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4611   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4612   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4613 
  4614 
  4615 *** System ***
  4616 
  4617 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4618 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4619 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4620 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4621 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4622 
  4623 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4624 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4625 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4626 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4627 
  4628 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4629 
  4630 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4631 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4632 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4633 prover operations.
  4634 
  4635 
  4636 
  4637 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4638 -------------------------------
  4639 
  4640 *** General ***
  4641 
  4642 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4643 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4644 
  4645 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4646 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4647 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4648 provides a proper context already.
  4649 
  4650 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4651 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4652 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4653 
  4654 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4655 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4656 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4657 swap theory imports.
  4658 
  4659 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4660 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4661 
  4662 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4663 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4664 white space without escapes.
  4665 
  4666 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4667 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4668 "foo_bar".
  4669 
  4670 
  4671 *** Pure ***
  4672 
  4673 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4674 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4675 
  4676 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4677 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4678 
  4679 (1) unused_thms
  4680      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4681 
  4682 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4683      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4684      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4685 
  4686 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4687      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4688      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4689      their ancestors.
  4690 
  4691 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4692 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4693 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4694 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4695 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4696 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4697 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4698 
  4699 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4700 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4701 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4702 
  4703 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4704 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4705 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4706 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4707 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4708 
  4709 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4710 
  4711 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4712 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4713 update of theories within ML code.
  4714 
  4715 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4716 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4717 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4718 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4719 
  4720 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4721 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4722 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4723 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4724 
  4725 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4726 
  4727 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4728 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4729 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4730 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4731 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4732 
  4733 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4734 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4735 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4736 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4737 situations.
  4738 
  4739 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4740 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4741 proof text.
  4742 
  4743 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4744 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4745 
  4746 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4747 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4748 predicates.
  4749 
  4750 
  4751 *** Document preparation ***
  4752 
  4753 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4754 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4755 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4756 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4757 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4758 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4759 
  4760 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4761 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4762 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4763 
  4764 
  4765 *** HOL ***
  4766 
  4767 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4768 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4769 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4770 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4771 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4772 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4773 
  4774 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4775 with multithreading.
  4776 
  4777 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4778 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4779 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4780 
  4781 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4782 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4783 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4784 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4785 
  4786 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4787 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4788 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4789 and makes them available separately.  See
  4790 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4791 
  4792 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4793 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4794 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4795 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4796 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4797 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4798 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4799 the declared rules.
  4800 
  4801 This setup also deals with rules like
  4802 
  4803   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4804 
  4805 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4806 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4807 
  4808 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4809 
  4810   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4811 
  4812   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4813     definitions on => and bool.
  4814 
  4815   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4816     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4817     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4818 
  4819       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4820       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4821       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4822       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4823       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4824       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4825       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4826       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4827 
  4828   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4829     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4830     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4831 
  4832   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4833     The proof pattern
  4834 
  4835       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4836       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4837 
  4838     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4839     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4840 
  4841       have "EX S. P S"
  4842       proof
  4843         show "P S" <...>
  4844       qed
  4845 
  4846   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4847     The proof pattern
  4848 
  4849       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4850       also have "S = T" <...>
  4851       finally have "P T" .
  4852 
  4853     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4854     must be replaced by something like
  4855 
  4856       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4857       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4858       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4859 
  4860   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4861     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4862 
  4863       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4864 
  4865     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4866     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4867     type of the form
  4868 
  4869       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4870 
  4871     rather than
  4872 
  4873       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4874 
  4875 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4876 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4877 
  4878 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4879 
  4880 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4881 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4883 
  4884 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4885 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4886 
  4887 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4888 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4891 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4892 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4895 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4896 
  4897   less_trans
  4898   less_linear
  4899   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4900   le_less_trans
  4901   less_le_trans
  4902   less_not_sym
  4903   less_asym
  4904 
  4905 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4906 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4907 and different variable names.
  4908 
  4909 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4910 
  4911 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4912 finite maps.
  4913 
  4914 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4915 
  4916 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4917 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4918 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4919 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4920 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4921 accordingly.
  4922 
  4923 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4924 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4925 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4926 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4927 
  4928 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4929 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4930 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4931 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4932 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4934 
  4935 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4936 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4939 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4940 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4941 
  4942 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4944 
  4945 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4946 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4947 
  4948 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4949 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4950 
  4951 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4952 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4955 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4959 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4962 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4963 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4964 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4965 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4966 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4967 
  4968 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4969 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4970 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4971 
  4972 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4973 
  4974 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4975 
  4976 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4977 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4978 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4979 
  4980 
  4981 *** ZF ***
  4982 
  4983 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4984 same session:
  4985 
  4986   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4987   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4988   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4989   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4990   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4991   List      -> List_ZF
  4992   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4993 
  4994 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4995 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4996 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4997 
  4998 
  4999 *** ML ***
  5000 
  5001 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5002 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5003 
  5004 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5005 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5006 
  5007 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5008 
  5009 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5010 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5011 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5012 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5013 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5016 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5017 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5018 
  5019 
  5020 *** System ***
  5021 
  5022 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5023 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5024 
  5025 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5026 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5027 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5028 
  5029 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5030 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5031 
  5032 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5033 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5034 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5035 
  5036 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5037 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5038 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5039 
  5040 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5041 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5042 
  5043 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5044 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5045 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5046 script.
  5047 
  5048 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5049 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5050 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5051 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5052 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5053 
  5054 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5055 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5056 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5057 
  5058 
  5059 
  5060 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5061 -----------------------------------
  5062 
  5063 *** General ***
  5064 
  5065 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5066 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5067 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5068 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5069 
  5070 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5071 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5072 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5073 
  5074 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5075 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5076 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5077 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 
  5079 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5080 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5081 quotes.
  5082 
  5083 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5084 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5085 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5086 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5087 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5088 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5089 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5090 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5091 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5092 
  5093 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5094 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5095 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5096 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5097 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5098 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5099 
  5100 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5101 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5102 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5103 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5104 
  5105 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5106 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5107 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5108 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5109 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5110 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5111 
  5112 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5113 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5114 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5115 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5116 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5117 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5118 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5119 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5120 
  5121 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5122 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5123 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5124 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5125 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5126 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5127 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5128 
  5129 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5130 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5131 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5132 
  5133 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5134 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5135 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5136 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5137 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5138 limit is imposed.
  5139 
  5140 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5141 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5142 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5143 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5144 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5145 and scalability.
  5146 
  5147 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5148 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5149 
  5150 
  5151 *** Document preparation ***
  5152 
  5153 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5154 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5155 current context.
  5156 
  5157 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5158 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5159 
  5160 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5161 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5162 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5163 
  5164 
  5165 *** Pure ***
  5166 
  5167 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5168 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5169 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5170 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5171 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5172 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5173 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5174 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5175 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5176 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5177 
  5178 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5179 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5180 sketch:
  5181 
  5182     internal compilation:
  5183         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5184     writing SML code to a file:
  5185         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5186     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5187         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5188     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5189         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5190 
  5191     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5192         method ``eval''
  5193 
  5194 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5195 
  5196 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5197 
  5198     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5199     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5200     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5201     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5202 
  5203 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5204 
  5205     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5206       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5207 
  5208     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5209       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5210 
  5211     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5212       {(target)}+
  5213         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5214 
  5215     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5216       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5217         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5218 
  5219 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5220 
  5221 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5222 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5223 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5224 codegen".
  5225 
  5226 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5227 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5228 annotations).
  5229 
  5230 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5231 syntax.
  5232 
  5233 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5234 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5235 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5236 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5237 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5238 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5239 
  5240 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5241 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5242 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5243 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5244 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5245 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5246 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5247 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5248 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5249 equations, see section "definitions".
  5250 
  5251 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5252 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5253 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5254 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5255 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5256 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5257 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5258 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5259 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5260 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5261 
  5262 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5263 configuration options:
  5264 
  5265   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5266   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5267   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5268   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5269   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5270   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5271   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5272   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5273   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5274 
  5275 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5276 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5277 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5278 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5279 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5280 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5281 order.
  5282 
  5283 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5284 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5285 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5286 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5287 context encountered later on.
  5288 
  5289 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5290 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5291 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5292 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5293 
  5294 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5295 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5296 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5297 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5298 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5299 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5300 
  5301 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5302 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5303 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5304 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5305 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5306 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5307 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5308 more permissive.
  5309 
  5310 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5311 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5312 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5313 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5314 maintainability of proof texts.
  5315 
  5316 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5317 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5318 
  5319   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5320   then guess x and y by clarify
  5321 
  5322 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5323 proof tools being involved here.
  5324 
  5325 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5326 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5327 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5328 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5329 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5330 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5331 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5332 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5333 
  5334 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5335 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5336 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5337 
  5338   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5339   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5340   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5341   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5342 
  5343 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5344 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5345 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5346 
  5347 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5348 both named and unnamed ones.
  5349 
  5350 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5351 
  5352   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5353 
  5354 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5355 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5356 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5357 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5358 
  5359 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5360 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5361 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5362 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5363 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5364 
  5365 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5366 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5367 
  5368 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5369 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5370 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5371 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5372 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5373 originally first one.
  5374 
  5375 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5376 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5377 expected.
  5378 
  5379 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5380 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5381 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5382 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5383 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5384 
  5385   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5386     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5387     obtains x where "P x"
  5388 
  5389   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5390     assumes "A & B"
  5391     obtains A and B
  5392 
  5393   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5394     assumes "A | B"
  5395     obtains
  5396       A
  5397     | B
  5398 
  5399 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5400 explicitly:
  5401 
  5402   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5403     obtains "~ thesis"
  5404 
  5405   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5406     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5407 
  5408 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5409 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5410 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5411 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5412 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5413 case_names).
  5414 
  5415 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5416 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5417 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5418 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5419 
  5420 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5421 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5422 top-level lemma.
  5423 
  5424 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5425 introduction rule (default "that").
  5426 
  5427 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5428 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5429 to occur.
  5430 
  5431 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5432 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5433 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5434 representations independently of name spaces.
  5435 
  5436 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5437 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5438 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5439 
  5440 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5441 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5442 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5443 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5444 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5445 current context.
  5446 
  5447 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5448 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5449 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5450 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5451 
  5452   axiomatization
  5453     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5454     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5455 
  5456   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5457   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5458 
  5459   abbreviation
  5460     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5461     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5462 
  5463 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5464 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5465 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5466 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5467 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5468 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5469 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5470 
  5471 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5472 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5473 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5474 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5475 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5476 
  5477 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5478 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5479 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5480 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5481 
  5482 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5483 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5484 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5485 
  5486   definition "K x _ = x"
  5487 
  5488   inductive conj for A B
  5489   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5490 
  5491 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5492 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5493 abbreviations on output.
  5494 
  5495 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5496 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5497 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5498 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5499 
  5500 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5501 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5502 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5503 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5504 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5505 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5506 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5507 
  5508 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5509 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5510 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5511 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5512 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5513 
  5514 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5515 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5516 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5517 
  5518 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5519 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5520 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5521 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5522 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5523 
  5524   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5525     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5526 
  5527 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5528 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5529 partial_order.
  5530 
  5531 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5532 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5533 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5534 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5535 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5536 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5537 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5538 examples.
  5539 
  5540 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5541 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5542 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5543 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5544 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5545 
  5546 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5547 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5548 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5549 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5550 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5551 
  5552   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5553   (induct set: foo bar)
  5554   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5555   (induct type: foo bar)
  5556 
  5557 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5558 new format.
  5559 
  5560 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5561 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5562 
  5563 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5564 considered a legacy feature.
  5565 
  5566 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5567 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5568 
  5569 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5570 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5571 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5572 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5573 
  5574 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5575 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5576 manipulating the claset.
  5577 
  5578 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5579 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5580 least one premise.
  5581 
  5582 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5583 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5584 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5585 rule steps.
  5586 
  5587 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5588 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5589 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5590 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5591 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5592 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5593 
  5594 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5595 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5596 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5597 
  5598 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5599 the graph browser tool.
  5600 
  5601 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5602 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5603 
  5604 
  5605 *** HOL ***
  5606 
  5607 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5608 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5609 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5610 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5611 multi-threading.
  5612 
  5613 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5614 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5615 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5616 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5617 work with multi-threading.
  5618 
  5619 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5620 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5621 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5622 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5623 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5624 
  5625 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5626 
  5627 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5628 equality.
  5629 
  5630 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5631 the new 'class' package:
  5632 
  5633     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5634     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5635     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5636     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5637     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5638     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5639     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5640     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5641     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5642     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5643     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5644     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5645     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5646     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5647     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5648     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5649     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5650     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5651     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5652     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5653 
  5654 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5655 
  5656 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5657 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5658 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5659 names.
  5660 
  5661 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5662 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5663 
  5664 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5665 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5666 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5667 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5668 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5669 
  5670 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5671 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5672 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5673 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5674 
  5675 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5676 
  5677 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5678 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5679 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5680 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5682 
  5683 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5684 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5687 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5688 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5689 
  5690 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5691 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5692 
  5693 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5694 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5695 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5696 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5697 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5698 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5699 in the current context.
  5700 
  5701 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5702 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5704 
  5705 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5706 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5707 
  5708 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5709 
  5710     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5711     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5712 
  5713     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5714       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5715     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5716     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5717 
  5718     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5719     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5720 
  5721   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5722 
  5723     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5724     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5725     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5726     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5727     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5728     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5729     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5730     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5731     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5732     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5733     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5734     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5735     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5736     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5737     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5738     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5739     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5740     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5741     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5742     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5743     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5744     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5745     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5746     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5747     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5748     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5749     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5750     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5751     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5752     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5753     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5754     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5755     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5756     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5757     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5758 
  5759     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5760     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5761     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5762     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5763     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5764     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5765     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5766     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5767     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5768     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5769     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5770     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5771     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5772     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5773     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5774     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5775     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5776 
  5777     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5778     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5779     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5780     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5781     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5782     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5783     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5784     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5785     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5786     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5787     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5788     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5789     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5790     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5791     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5792     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5793     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5794     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5795     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5796     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5797     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5798     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5799     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5800     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5801     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5802     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5803     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5804     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5805 
  5806     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5807     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5808     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5809     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5810     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5811     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5812 
  5813     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5814     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5815     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5816     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5817 
  5818     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5819     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5820 
  5821     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5822     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5823 
  5824 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5825 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5826 
  5827 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5828 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5829 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5830 "*.size".
  5831 
  5832 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5834 
  5835 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5836 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5837 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5838 
  5839 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5842 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5843 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5844 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5845 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5846 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5847 numerals on all operations.
  5848 
  5849 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5850 
  5851 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5852 
  5853 * Code generator library theories:
  5854   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5855     languages.
  5856   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5857     languages.
  5858   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5859     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5860   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5861   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5862     denominator).
  5863   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5864     representable by rational numbers.
  5865   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5866     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5867     includes Code_Integer.
  5868   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5869     target-language built-in integers.
  5870   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5871     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5872 
  5873 * New package for inductive predicates
  5874 
  5875   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5876 
  5877     inductive
  5878       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5879       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5880     where
  5881       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5882     | ...
  5883 
  5884   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5885 
  5886     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5887 
  5888     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5889     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5890 
  5891     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5892     intros
  5893       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5894       ...
  5895 
  5896   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5897   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5898 
  5899     inductive_set
  5900       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5901       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5902     where
  5903       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5904     | ...
  5905 
  5906   or
  5907 
  5908     inductive_set
  5909       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5910       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5911       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5912     where
  5913       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5914     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5915     | ...
  5916 
  5917   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5918 
  5919   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5920   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5921 
  5922   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5923 
  5924   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5925     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5926     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5927     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5928     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5929 
  5930   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5931     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5932     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5933     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5934     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5935     statements of the form
  5936 
  5937       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5938 
  5939     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5940     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5941 
  5942       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5943 
  5944   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5945 
  5946       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5947         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5948         ==> ... ==> P
  5949 
  5950     for predicates and
  5951 
  5952       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5953         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5954         ==> ... ==> P
  5955 
  5956     for sets rather than
  5957 
  5958       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5959         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5960         ==> ... ==> P
  5961 
  5962     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5963     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5964     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5965 
  5966   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5967     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5968     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5969 
  5970 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5971 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5972 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5973 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5974 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5975 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5976 
  5977 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5978 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5979 
  5980 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5981 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5982 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5983 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5984 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5985 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5986 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5987 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5988 variable.
  5989 
  5990 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5991 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5992 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5993 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5994   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5995   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5996 
  5997 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5998 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5999 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6000 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6001 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6002 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6003 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6004 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6005 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6006 
  6007 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6008 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6009 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6010 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6011 rat, etc.
  6012 
  6013 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6014 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6015 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6016 
  6017 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6018 
  6019 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6020 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6021 
  6022 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6023 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6024 
  6025 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6026 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6027 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6028 
  6029 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6030 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6032 
  6033 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6034 
  6035 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6036 
  6037 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6038 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6039 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6040 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6041 
  6042 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6043 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6044 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6045 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6046 
  6047 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6048 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6049 algebraic operations.
  6050 
  6051 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6053 
  6054 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6058 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6059 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6060 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6061 adapted.
  6062 
  6063 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6064 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6065 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6066 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6067 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6068 
  6069 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6070 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6071 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6072 
  6073 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6074 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6075 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6076 
  6077 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078 
  6079 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6080 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6081 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6082   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6083       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6084   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6085   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6086   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6087 
  6088 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6089 
  6090 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6091 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6092 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6093 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6094 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6095 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6096 
  6097 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6098 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6099 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6100 
  6101 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6102 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6103 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6105 
  6106 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6107 
  6108 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6109 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6112 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6113 
  6114 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6115 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6116 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6117 
  6118 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6119 True/False.
  6120 
  6121 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6122 
  6123 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6124 
  6125 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6126 ``rule'' method.
  6127 
  6128 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6129 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6130 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6131 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6132 
  6133 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6134 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6135 
  6136 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6137 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6138 
  6139 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6140 Library.
  6141 
  6142 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6143 
  6144 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6145 as greatest fixed-point.
  6146 
  6147 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6148 association lists.
  6149 
  6150 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6151 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6152 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6153 
  6154 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6155 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6156 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6157 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6158 behavior.
  6159 
  6160 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6161 
  6162 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6163 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6164 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6165 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6166 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6167 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6168 
  6169 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6170 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6171 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6172 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6173 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6174 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6175 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6176 
  6177 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6178 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6179 
  6180 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6181 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6182 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6183 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6184 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6185 
  6186 
  6187 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6188 
  6189 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6190 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6191 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6192 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6194 
  6195 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6196 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6197 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6198 
  6199 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6200 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6201 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6204 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6205 
  6206 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6207 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6208 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6210 
  6211   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6212   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6213   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6214   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6215   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6216   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6217   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6218   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6219   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6220   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6221   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6222   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6223   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6224   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6225   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6226 
  6227 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6228 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6229 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6230 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6231 
  6232   approx        <-- capprox
  6233   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6234   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6235   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6236   monad         <-- cmonad