NEWS
author haftmann
Thu Feb 21 09:15:06 2019 +0000 (6 months ago)
changeset 69827 7c0a2ab90786
parent 69822 8c587dd44f51
child 69828 74d673b7d40e
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned whitespace
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    45 
    46 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    47 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    48 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    49 
    50 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    51 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    52 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    53 ongoing document processing.
    54 
    55 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    56 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    57 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    58 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    59 
    60 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    61 overview column.
    62 
    63 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    64 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    65 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    66 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    67 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    68 defaults to 0.
    69 
    70 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    71 OpenJDK 11.
    72 
    73 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    74 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    75 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    76 Isabelle component).
    77 
    78 
    79 *** Isar ***
    80 
    81 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    82 precedence over goal/proof.
    83 
    84 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    85 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    86 
    87 
    88 *** HOL ***
    89 
    90 * Formal Laurent series and overhaul of Formal power series 
    91 in HOL-Computational_Algebra
    92 
    93 * Exponentiation by squaring in HOL-Library; used for computing powers
    94 in monoid_mult and modular exponentiation in HOL-Number_Theory
    95 
    96 * more material on residue rings in HOL-Number_Theory:
    97 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord"
    98 
    99 * the functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter>
   100 (not the corresponding binding operators) now have the same precedence
   101 as any other prefix function symbol.
   102 
   103 * Slightly more conventional naming schema in structure Inductive.
   104 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
   107 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
   108 command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build -e" (with
   109 'export_files' in the session ROOT), or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via
   110 the "isabelle-export:" file-system. To get generated code dumped into
   111 output, use "file \<open>\<close>". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   114 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   117 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for
   121 'code_stmts' antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   124 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*,
   125 are not used by default any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using
   126 declare image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   127 
   128 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   129 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   130 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   131 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   132 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   135 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   136 
   137 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
   138 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   139 
   140 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
   141 
   142 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
   143 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   145 
   146 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   147 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   148 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Sledgehammer:
   151   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has
   152     been updated.
   153   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   154     less time (in most cases).
   155 
   156 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   157 
   158 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   159 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   160 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   161 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   162 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   166 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   167 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   168 
   169   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   170 
   171 
   172 *** ML ***
   173 
   174 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   175 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   176 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead,
   177 or the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   180 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   181 
   182 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   183 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   184 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   185 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   186 ">" as separator. For example:
   187 
   188   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   189   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   190 
   191   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   192   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   193 
   194   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   195   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   196 
   197 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   198 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   199 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   200 observes the official standard).
   201 
   202 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   203 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   204 
   205 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   206 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   207 useful.
   208 
   209 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   210 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   211 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   212 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   213 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   214 
   215   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   216   module Isabelle.Pure where
   217     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   218     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   219     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   220     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   221   \<close>
   222 
   223 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   224 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   225 external compiler is applied.
   226 
   227 
   228 *** System ***
   229 
   230 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   231 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   232 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   233 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   234 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   235 dump".
   236 
   237 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   238 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   239 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   240 
   241 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   242 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   243 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   244 component).
   245 
   246 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   247 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   248 Isabelle/PIDE.
   249 
   250 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   251 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   252 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   253 
   254 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   255 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   256 is no longer required.
   257 
   258 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   259 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   260 
   261   isabelle ghc_setup
   262   isabelle ghc_stack
   263 
   264   isabelle ocaml_setup
   265   isabelle ocaml_opam
   266 
   267 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   268 (and corresponding directory contents):
   269 
   270   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   271   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   272   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   273 
   274   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   275   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   276 
   277 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   278 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   279 
   280   ISABELLE_GHC
   281 
   282   ISABELLE_OCAML
   283   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   284 
   285 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   286 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   287 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   288 
   289 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   290 
   291 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   292 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   293 
   294 * Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without the full
   295 overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32 mode
   296 provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are allocated
   297 elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   298 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   299 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   300 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   301 are gradually phased out.
   302 
   303 
   304 
   305 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   306 ---------------------------------
   307 
   308 *** General ***
   309 
   310 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   311 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   312 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   313 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   314 
   315 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   316 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   317 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   318 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   319 
   320 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   321 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   324 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   325 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   326 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   327 avoid this.
   328 
   329 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   330 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   331 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   332 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   333 
   334 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   335 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   336 instead.
   337 
   338 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   339 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   340 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   341 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   342 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   343 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   344 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   345 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   346 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   347 syntax), use option "-m".
   348 
   349 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   353 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   354 without specific Prover IDE management.
   355 
   356 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   357 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   358 context.
   359 
   360 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   361 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   362 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   363 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   364 
   365   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   366 
   367 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   368 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   369 
   370 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   371 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   372 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   373 output.
   374 
   375 
   376 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   377 
   378 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   379 for session management:
   380 
   381   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   382     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   383 
   384   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   385     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   386 
   387   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   388     and -S
   389 
   390   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   391     theories
   392 
   393   Examples:
   394     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   395     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   396     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   397     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   398     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   399 
   400 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   401 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   402 
   403 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   404 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   405 
   406 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   407 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   408 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   409 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   410 arguments into this format.
   411 
   412 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   413 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   414 
   415 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   416 functions (e.g. State output).
   417 
   418 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   419 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   420 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   421 
   422 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   423 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   424 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   425 
   426 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   427 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   428 
   429 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   430 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   431 Isabelle".
   432 
   433 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   434 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   435 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   436 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   437 Unicode content when saving the file.
   438 
   439 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   440 
   441 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   442 
   443 
   444 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   445 
   446 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   447 Isabelle/jEdit.
   448 
   449 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   450 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   451 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   452 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   453 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   454 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 
   457 *** Document preparation ***
   458 
   459 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   460 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   461 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   462 are supported:
   463 
   464   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   465   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   466   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   467 
   468 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   469 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   470 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   471 
   472 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   473 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   474 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   475 
   476 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   477 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   478 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   479 
   480 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   481 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   482 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   483 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   484 
   485 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   486 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   487 
   488 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   489 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   490 normally need to import.
   491 
   492 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   493 session name verbatim.
   494 
   495 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   496 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   497 
   498 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   499 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   500 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   503 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   504 anymore.
   505 
   506 
   507 *** Isar ***
   508 
   509 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   510 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   511 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   512 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   513 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   514 
   515 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   516 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   517 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   518 
   519 
   520 *** Pure ***
   521 
   522 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   523 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   524 
   525 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   526 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   527 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   528 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   529 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   530 
   531 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   532 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   533 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   534 duplicate constant declarations.
   535 
   536 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   537 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   538 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   539 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   540 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   541 
   542 
   543 *** HOL ***
   544 
   545 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   546 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   547 
   548 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   549 
   550   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   551 
   552   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   553     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   554     constraints instead.
   555 
   556   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   557 
   558   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   559     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   560     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   561     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   562 
   563   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   564     standard target languages.
   565 
   566   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   567     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   568     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   569     HOL string values and vice versa.
   570 
   571   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   572     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   573 
   574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   575 
   576 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   577 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   578 
   579 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   580 
   581 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   582 former axioms:
   583 
   584   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   585 
   586 are replaced by:
   587 
   588   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   589 
   590 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   591 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   592 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   593 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   594 
   595 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   596 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   597 
   598 * Clarifed theorem names:
   599 
   600   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   601   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   602 
   603 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * SMT module:
   606 
   607   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   608     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   609 
   610   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   611     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   612     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   615 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   616 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   625 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   629 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   630 Renamed:
   631 
   632   span_inc ~> span_superset
   633   span_superset ~> span_base
   634   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   635 
   636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   639 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   640 
   641 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   642 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   643 
   644 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   645 
   646   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   647     input syntax
   648 
   649   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   650 
   651 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   652 
   653 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   656 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   658 
   659 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   660   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   661   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   662   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   663 
   664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   665 
   666 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   667 
   668   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   669   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   670   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   671   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   672   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   673 
   674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   675 
   676 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   677 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   678 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   679 broken proofs.
   680 
   681 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   682 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   683 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   684 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   685 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   686 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   687 
   688 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   689 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   690 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   691 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   692 examples.
   693 
   694 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   695 
   696 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   697 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   700 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   701 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   705 infix/prefix notation.
   706 
   707 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   708 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   712 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   716 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   717 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   720 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   721 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   722 
   723 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   724 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   725 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   726 
   727 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   728 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   729 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   730 
   731 
   732 *** ML ***
   733 
   734 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   735 are stored persistently in the session build database. Command-line
   736 tools "isabelle export" and "isabelle build -e" allow to materialize
   737 exports in the physical file-system.
   738 
   739 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   740 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   741 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   742 "isabelle process".
   743 
   744 
   745 *** System ***
   746 
   747 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   748 longer supported.
   749 
   750 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   751 support has been discontinued.
   752 
   753 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   754 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   755 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   756 
   757 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   758 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   759 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   760 quotes):
   761 
   762   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   763   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   764 
   765   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   766   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   767 
   768   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   769   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   770 
   771 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   772   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   773   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   774   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   775 
   776 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   777 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   778 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   779 only.
   780 
   781 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   782 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   783 up-to-date status of a session.
   784 
   785 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   786 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   787 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   788 directory.
   789 
   790 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   791 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   792 
   793 * The command-line tool "export" and "isabelle build -e" (with
   794 'export_files' in session ROOT entries) retrieve theory exports from the
   795 session build database.
   796 
   797 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   798 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   799 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   800 See also the "system" manual.
   801 
   802 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   803 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   804 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   805 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   806 been discontinued.
   807 
   808 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   809 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   810 
   811 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   812 repository for the generated session files.
   813 
   814 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   815 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   816 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   817 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   818 ISABELLE_HOME).
   819 
   820 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   821 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   822 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   823 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   824 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   825 
   826 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   827 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   828 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   829 
   830 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   831 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   832 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   833 32/64 bit.
   834 
   835 
   836 
   837 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   838 ----------------------------------
   839 
   840 *** General ***
   841 
   842 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   843 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   844 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   845 
   846 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   847 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   848 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   849 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   850 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   851 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   852 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   853 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   854 
   855 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   856 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   857 just the theory base name as before).
   858 
   859 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   860 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   861 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   862 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   863 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   864 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   865 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   866 
   867 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   868 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   869 leads to the follow renamings:
   870 
   871   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   872   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   873   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   874   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   875   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   876 
   877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   878 
   879 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   880 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   881 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   882 
   883 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   884 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   885 
   886 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   887 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   888 antiquotations:
   889 
   890   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   891     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   892   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   893     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   894   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   895 
   896 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   897 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   898 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   899 tutorial on code generation.
   900 
   901 
   902 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   903 
   904 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   905 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   906 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   907 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   908 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   909 
   910 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   911 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   912 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   913 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   914 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   915 effectively always enabled.
   916 
   917 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   918 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   919 buffers.
   920 
   921 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   922 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   923 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   924 represented by a different border color.
   925 
   926 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   927 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   928 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   929 
   930 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   931 document in the default web browser.
   932 
   933 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   934 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   935 used for formal checking.
   936 
   937 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   938 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   939 enabled at all times.
   940 
   941 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   942 
   943 
   944 *** Pure ***
   945 
   946 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   947 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   948 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   949 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950 
   951 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   952   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   953     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   954   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   955     malformed.
   956   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   957     malformed.
   958 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   961 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   962 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   963 
   964 
   965 *** HOL ***
   966 
   967 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   968 
   969 * SMT module:
   970   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   971     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   972     disabled by default.
   973   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   974   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   975 
   976 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   977 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   978 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   980 
   981 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   982 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   983 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   987 of "Complex_Main").
   988 
   989 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   990 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   991 
   992 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   994 
   995 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   996 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   997 
   998 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
   999 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1000 
  1001 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1002 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1003 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1004 
  1005 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1006 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1009 
  1010 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1011 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1014 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1015 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1016 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1017 
  1018 * Generalized some facts:
  1019     measure_induct_rule
  1020     measure_induct
  1021     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1022     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1023     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1024     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1028 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1029 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1030 euclidean size.
  1031 
  1032 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1033   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1034   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1035     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1036     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1037   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1038     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1042 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1043 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1044 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1047   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1048   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1049 
  1050 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1051 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1054 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1055 
  1056 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1057 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1058 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1059 
  1060 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1062 
  1063 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1064 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1065 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1066 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1067 
  1068 syntax (ASCII)
  1069   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1070   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1071   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1072 
  1073 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1074 multisets have been renamed:
  1075 
  1076   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1077   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1078 
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1082 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1083 
  1084 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1085 
  1086 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1087 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1088 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1089 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1090 
  1091 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1092 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1093 
  1094 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1095 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1096 
  1097 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1098 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1099 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1100 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102 
  1103 
  1104 *** System ***
  1105 
  1106 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1107 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1108 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1109 
  1110 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1111 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1112 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1113 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1114 
  1115 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1116 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1117 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1118 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1119 
  1120 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1121 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1122 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1123 unchanged.
  1124 
  1125 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1126 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1129 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1130 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1131 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1132 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1133 
  1134 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1135 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1136 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1137 
  1138 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1139 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1140 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1141 
  1142 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1143 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1144 
  1145   isabelle imports -I -a
  1146   isabelle imports -U -a
  1147   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1148   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1149 
  1150 
  1151 
  1152 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1153 -------------------------------------
  1154 
  1155 *** General ***
  1156 
  1157 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1158   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1159     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1160   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1161     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1162     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1163     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1164     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1165 
  1166 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1167 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1168 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1169 
  1170 bundle foo
  1171 begin
  1172   declare a [simp]
  1173   declare b [intro]
  1174 end
  1175 
  1176 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1177 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1178 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1179 
  1180 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1181 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1182 discontinued.
  1183 
  1184 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1185 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1186 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1187 
  1188 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1189 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1190 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1191 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1192 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1195 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1196 
  1197 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1198 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1199 
  1200 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1201 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1202 examples.
  1203 
  1204 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1205 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1206 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1207 
  1208 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1209 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1210 
  1211 
  1212 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1213 
  1214 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1215 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1216 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1217 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1218 
  1219 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1220 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1221 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1222 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1223 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1224 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1225 
  1226 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1227 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1228 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1229 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1230 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1231 
  1232 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1233 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1234 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1235 
  1236 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1237 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1238 
  1239 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1240 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1241 
  1242 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1243 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1244 
  1245 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1246 
  1247 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1248 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1249 systematic renaming.
  1250 
  1251 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1252 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1253 theorem statement.
  1254 
  1255 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1256 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1257 
  1258 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1259 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1260 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1261 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1262 
  1263 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1264 following independent stages:
  1265 
  1266   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1267   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1268   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1269   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1270 
  1271 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1272 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1273 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1274 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1275 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1276 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1277 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1278 
  1279 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1280 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1281 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1282 
  1283 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1284 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1285 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1286 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1287 
  1288 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1289 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1290 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1291 
  1292 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1293 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1294 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1295 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1296 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1297 old keymaps.
  1298 
  1299 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1300 and diverse:
  1301 
  1302   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1303   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1304   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1305 
  1306 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1307 have to be changed.
  1308 
  1309 
  1310 *** Document preparation ***
  1311 
  1312 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1313 
  1314 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1315 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1316 
  1317 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1318 this allows special forms of document output.
  1319 
  1320 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1321 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1322 derivatives.
  1323 
  1324 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1325 
  1326 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1327 Isabelle2015).
  1328 
  1329 
  1330 *** Isar ***
  1331 
  1332 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1333 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1334 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1335 
  1336 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1337 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1338 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1339 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1340 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1341 
  1342 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1343 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1344 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1345 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1346 
  1347 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1348 context.
  1349 
  1350 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1351 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1352 
  1353 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1354 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1355 
  1356 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1357 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1358 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1359 
  1360 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1361 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1363 
  1364 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1365 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1366 definitions.
  1367 
  1368 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1369 expression, e.g.
  1370 
  1371   (use facts in simp)
  1372   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1373 
  1374 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1375 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1376 
  1377 
  1378 *** Pure ***
  1379 
  1380 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1381 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1382 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1383 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1384 
  1385 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1386 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1387 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1388 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1389 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1390 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1391 
  1392 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1393 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1394 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1395 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1396 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1397 types where this is really intended.
  1398 
  1399 
  1400 *** HOL ***
  1401 
  1402 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1403 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1404 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1405 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1406 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1407 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1408 
  1409 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1410 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1411 
  1412 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1413 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1414 
  1415 * Sledgehammer:
  1416   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1417   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1418 
  1419 * (Co)datatype package:
  1420   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1421     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1422     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1423     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1424   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1425     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1426   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1427     to the map function.
  1428   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1429   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1430        terms of map and set
  1431        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1432   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1433        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1434     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1435   - Renamed lemmas:
  1436       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1437       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1438     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1440   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1441     equivalent) form.
  1442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1445 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1446 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1447 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1448 
  1449 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1450 
  1451   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1452   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1453 
  1454 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1455 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1456 eliminated altogether.
  1457 
  1458 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1459 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1460 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1461 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1462 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1463 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1464 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1465 
  1466 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1470 
  1471     setsum ~> sum
  1472     setprod ~> prod
  1473     listsum ~> sum_list
  1474     listprod ~> prod_list
  1475 
  1476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1479     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1480     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1481     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1482     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1483     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1484     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1485     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1486     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1487     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1488     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1489     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1490     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1491     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1492     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1493     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1494     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1495     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1496     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1497     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1498     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1499     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1500     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1501     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1502     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1503     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1504     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1505     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1506     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1507     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1509 
  1510 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1511 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1512 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1513 
  1514 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1515 
  1516 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1517 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1518 
  1519   - Logical representation:
  1520     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1521     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1522       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1523     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1524       are non-canonical.
  1525   - Printing and parsing:
  1526     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1527       (as before).
  1528     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1529     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1530       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1531       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1532     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1533       printed as their logical representation.
  1534   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1535     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1536   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1537 
  1538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1541 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1542 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1543 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1544 
  1545 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1546 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1547 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1548 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1549 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1550 
  1551 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1552 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553 
  1554 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1555 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1556 
  1557 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1558 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1559 interface for the generated code.
  1560 
  1561 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1562 spelt out explicitly.
  1563 
  1564 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1565 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1566 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1567 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1568 
  1569 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1570 products.
  1571 
  1572 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1573 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1574 
  1575 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1576 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1577 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1578 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1579 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1580 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1581 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1585 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1586 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1592   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1593   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1594 
  1595 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1596   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1597     le_add_same_cancel1
  1598     le_add_same_cancel2
  1599     less_add_same_cancel1
  1600     less_add_same_cancel2
  1601     add_le_same_cancel1
  1602     add_le_same_cancel2
  1603     add_less_same_cancel1
  1604     add_less_same_cancel2
  1605 
  1606 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1607   superseeded by a more general version:
  1608     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1609     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1610     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1611     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1612     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1613     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1614     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1615     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1619 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1622 
  1623 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1624 
  1625   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1626   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1627 
  1628 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1634 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1635 A)".
  1636 
  1637 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638 
  1639 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1640 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1641 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1642 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1645 dioid.
  1646 
  1647 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1648 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1649 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1650 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1653 of a more general type also:
  1654   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1655   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1656   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1657   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1658   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1659   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1660   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1661   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1662   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1663   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1664   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1665   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1666   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1667   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1668   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1669   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1670   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1671   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1672   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1673   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1674   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1675   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1676   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1677   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1678   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1679   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1680   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1681   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1682   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1683   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1684   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1685   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1686   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1687   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1688   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1689   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1690   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1691   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1692   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1693   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1694   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1695   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1696   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1697   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1698   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1699   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1700   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1701   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1702   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1703   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1704   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1705   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1706   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1707   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1708   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1709   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1710   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1711   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1712   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1713   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1714   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1715   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1716   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1717   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1718   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1719   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1720   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1721   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1722   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1723   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1724   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1725   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1726   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1727   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1728   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1729   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1730   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1731   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1732   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1733   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1734   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1735   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1736   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1737   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1738   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1739   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1740   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1741   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1743 
  1744 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1745 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1748 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1749 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1750 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1751 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1752 
  1753 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1754 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1755 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1756 once.
  1757 
  1758 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1759 set_mset rather than count.
  1760 
  1761   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1762     by default.
  1763 
  1764   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1765     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1766 
  1767   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1768     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1769 
  1770   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1771     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1772 
  1773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1776 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1777 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1778 underscores.
  1779 
  1780 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1781 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1782 relation.
  1783 
  1784 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1785 everywhere fix bijections.
  1786 
  1787 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1788 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1789 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1790 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1791 
  1792 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1793 
  1794 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1795 
  1796 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1797 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1798 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1801 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1802 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1803 
  1804 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1805 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1806 
  1807 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1808 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1809 domain.
  1810 
  1811 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1812 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1815   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1816 
  1817 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1818 Probability Mass Functions.
  1819 
  1820 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1821 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1822 folding over a list in random order.
  1823 
  1824 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1825 subprobability distributions.
  1826 
  1827 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1828 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1829 
  1830     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1831     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1832     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1833     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1834     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1835     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1836     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1837     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1838     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1839     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1840     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1841     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1842     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1843     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1844     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1845     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1846     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1847     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1848     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1849     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1850     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1851     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1852 
  1853 Some functions have been renamed:
  1854     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1855 
  1856 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1857     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1858     #\<subset># ~> <
  1859     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1860     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862 
  1863 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1864 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1865 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1866 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1867 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1868 
  1869 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1870 been renamed:
  1871 
  1872     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1873     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1874     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1875     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1876     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1877     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1878     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1879     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1880     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1881 
  1882     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1883     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1884     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1885     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1886     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1887     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1888     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1889     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1890     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1891     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1892     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1897 
  1898 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1899 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1900 
  1901     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1902     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1903     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1904     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1905     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1906     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1907     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1908     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1909     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1910     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1911     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1912     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1913     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1914     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1915     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1916     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1917     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1918 
  1919 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1920 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1921 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1922 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1923 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1924 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1925 
  1926 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1927 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929 
  1930 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1931 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1932 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1933 
  1934 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1935 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1936 removed or changed:
  1937 
  1938   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1939   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1940   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1941   union_single_eq_diff
  1942   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1943   diff_single_eq_union
  1944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1947 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1948 
  1949   mset_add
  1950   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1951   diff_single_eq_union
  1952   union_single_eq_diff
  1953   union_single_eq_member
  1954   add_eq_conv_diff
  1955   insert_noteq_member
  1956   add_eq_conv_ex
  1957   multi_member_split
  1958   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1959   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1960   mset_subset_insertD
  1961   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1962   insert_union_subset_iff
  1963   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1964   inter_add_left1
  1965   inter_add_left2
  1966   inter_add_right1
  1967   inter_add_right2
  1968   sup_union_left1
  1969   sup_union_left2
  1970   sup_union_right1
  1971   sup_union_right2
  1972   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1973   multi_nonempty_split
  1974   mset_insort
  1975   mset_update
  1976   mult1I
  1977   less_add
  1978   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1979   rel_mset_Zero
  1980   msed_map_invL
  1981   msed_map_invR
  1982   msed_rel_invL
  1983   msed_rel_invR
  1984   le_multiset_right_total
  1985   multiset_induct
  1986   multiset_induct2_size
  1987   multiset_induct2
  1988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1991 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1992 element:
  1993 
  1994   image_mset
  1995   mset
  1996   replicate_mset
  1997   mult1
  1998   pred_mset
  1999   rel_mset'
  2000   mset_insort
  2001 
  2002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2003 
  2004 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2005 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2006 
  2007   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2008   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2009   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2010   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2011   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2012   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2013   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2014   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2015   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2016   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2017   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2018   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2019   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2020   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2021   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2022   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2023   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2024   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2025   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2029 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2030 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2034 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2035 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2036 
  2037 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2038 multisets:
  2039 
  2040   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2041   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2042 
  2043 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2044 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2045 
  2046   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2047   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2048 
  2049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2052 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2053 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2056 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2057 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2058 
  2059 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2060 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2061 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2062 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2063 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2064 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2067 the following renaming
  2068 
  2069   prefixeq -> prefix
  2070   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2071   suffixeq -> suffix
  2072   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2073 
  2074 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2075 
  2076 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2077 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2078 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2079 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2080 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2081 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2082 
  2083 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2084 theories.
  2085 
  2086 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2087 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2088 
  2089 
  2090 *** ML ***
  2091 
  2092 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2093 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2094 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2095 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2097 
  2098 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2099 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2100 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2101 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2102 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2103 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2104 superseded by General.Div.
  2105 
  2106 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2107 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2110 with approximative output quality.
  2111 
  2112 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2113 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2116 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2117 requiring separate files.
  2118 
  2119 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2120 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2121 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2122 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2123 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2124 
  2125 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2126 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2127 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2128 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2129 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2130 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2131 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2132 
  2133 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2134 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2136 
  2137 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2138 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2139 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2140 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2141 
  2142 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2143 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2144 
  2145 
  2146 *** System ***
  2147 
  2148 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2149 
  2150 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2151 much less disk space.
  2152 
  2153 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2154 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2155 particular:
  2156 
  2157   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2158     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2159   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2160   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2161 
  2162 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2163 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2164 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2167 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2168 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2169 return code 1.
  2170 
  2171 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2172 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2173 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2174 
  2175 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2176 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2177 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2178 
  2179 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2180 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2181 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2182 by default).
  2183 
  2184 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2185 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2186 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2187 resulting log files.
  2188 
  2189 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2190 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2191 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2192 implicit default via option -p.
  2193 
  2194 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2195 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2196 
  2197 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2198 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2199 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2200 
  2201 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2202 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2203 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2204 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2205 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2206 
  2207 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2208 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2209 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2210 
  2211 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2212 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2213 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2214 
  2215 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2216 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2217 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2218 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2219 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2220 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2221 been discontinued.
  2222 
  2223 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2224 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2225 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2226 
  2227 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2228 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2229 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2230 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2231 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2232 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2233 
  2234 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2235 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2236 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2237 connection).
  2238 
  2239 
  2240 
  2241 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2242 -----------------------------------
  2243 
  2244 *** General ***
  2245 
  2246 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2247 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2248 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2249 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2250 examples that do require HOL.
  2251 
  2252 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2253 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2254 
  2255 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2256 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2257 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2258 has been removed (see below).
  2259 
  2260 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2261 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2262 
  2263 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2264 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2265 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2266 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2267 
  2268 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2269 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2270 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2271 meaning.
  2272 
  2273 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2274 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2275 to update old sources.
  2276 
  2277 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2278 
  2279   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2280   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2281   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2282   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2283 
  2284 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2285 accordingly.
  2286 
  2287 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2288 'theorem'.
  2289 
  2290 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2291 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2292 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2293 
  2294 
  2295 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2296 
  2297 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2298 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2299 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2300 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2301 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2302 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2303 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2304 any effect on the running ML program.
  2305 
  2306 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2307 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2308 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2309 update.
  2310 
  2311 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2312 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2313 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2314 
  2315 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2316 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2317 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2318 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2319 visibility.
  2320 
  2321 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2322 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2323 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2324 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2325 panel.
  2326 
  2327 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2328 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2329 
  2330 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2331 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2332 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2333 
  2334 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2335 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2336 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2337 
  2338 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2339 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2340 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2341 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2342 
  2343 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2344 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2345 the editor.
  2346 
  2347 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2348 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2349 
  2350 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2351 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2352 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2353 instead.
  2354 
  2355 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2356 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2357 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2358 
  2359 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2360 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2361 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2362 
  2363 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2364 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2365 
  2366 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2367 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2368 
  2369 
  2370 *** Document preparation ***
  2371 
  2372 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2373 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2374 
  2375 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2376 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2377 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2378 
  2379 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2380 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2381 follows:
  2382 
  2383   \<^item>  itemize
  2384   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2385   \<^descr>  description
  2386 
  2387 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2388 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2389 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2390 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2391 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2392 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2393 
  2394 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2395 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2396 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2397 
  2398 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2399 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2400 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2401 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2402 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2403 
  2404 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2405 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2406 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2407 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2408 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2409 
  2410 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2411 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2412 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2413 
  2414 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2415 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2416 
  2417 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2418 
  2419 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2420 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2421 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2422 
  2423 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2424 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2425 
  2426 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2427 entities of the Isar language.
  2428 
  2429 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2430 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2431 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2432 
  2433 
  2434 *** Isar ***
  2435 
  2436 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2437 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2438 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2439 example:
  2440 
  2441   have result: "C x y"
  2442     if "A x" and "B y"
  2443     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2444     <proof>
  2445 
  2446 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2447 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2448 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2449 
  2450   {
  2451     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2452     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2453     have "C x y" <proof>
  2454   }
  2455   note result = this
  2456 
  2457 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2458 instead of 'assume' above.
  2459 
  2460 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2461 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2462 
  2463   assume result: "C x y"
  2464     if "A x" and "B y"
  2465     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2466 
  2467 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2468 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2469 
  2470 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2471 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2472 example:
  2473 
  2474   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2475 
  2476 is equivalent to:
  2477 
  2478   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2479 
  2480 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2481 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2482 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2483 follows:
  2484 
  2485   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2486 
  2487 or:
  2488 
  2489   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2490 
  2491 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2492 
  2493   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2494 
  2495 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2496 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2497 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2498 of the local context elements yet.
  2499 
  2500 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2501 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2502 
  2503   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2504   then have something
  2505   proof cases
  2506     case a
  2507     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2508   next
  2509     case b
  2510     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2511   next
  2512     case c
  2513     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2514   qed
  2515 
  2516 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2517 
  2518   case a: (c xs)
  2519   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2520 
  2521 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2522 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2523 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2524 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2525 and always put attributes in front.
  2526 
  2527 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2528 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2529 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2530 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2531 
  2532 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2533 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2534 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2535 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2536 
  2537   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2538     supply [simp] = a
  2539   proof
  2540     show A by simp
  2541   next
  2542     show A by simp
  2543   qed
  2544 
  2545 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2546 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2547 
  2548 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2549 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2550 
  2551 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2552 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2553 
  2554 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2555 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2556 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2557 manual.
  2558 
  2559 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2560 ('apply' scripts).
  2561 
  2562 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2563 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2564 example:
  2565 
  2566 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2567   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2568 proof goal_cases
  2569   case (1 x)
  2570   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2571 next
  2572   case (2 y z)
  2573   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2574 qed
  2575 
  2576 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2577   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2578 proof goal_cases
  2579   case prems: 1
  2580   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2581 next
  2582   case prems: 2
  2583   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2584 qed
  2585 
  2586 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2587 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2588 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2589 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2590 
  2591 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2592 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2593 
  2594 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2595 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2596 
  2597 
  2598 *** Pure ***
  2599 
  2600 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2601 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2602 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2603 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2604 
  2605 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2606 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2609 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2610 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2611 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2612 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2613 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2614 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2615 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2616 
  2617   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2618   begin
  2619     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2620   end
  2621 
  2622   locale morphism =
  2623     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2624     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2625   begin
  2626     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2627   end
  2628 
  2629 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2630 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2631 
  2632 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2633 'defines'.
  2634 
  2635 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2636 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2639 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2640 
  2641 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2642 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2645 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2646 exploited.
  2647 
  2648 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2649 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2650 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2651 
  2652 
  2653 *** HOL ***
  2654 
  2655 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2656 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2657 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2658 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2659 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2660 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2663 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2664 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2665 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2666 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2667 
  2668 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2669 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2670 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2671 simplify porting old theories:
  2672 
  2673   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2674 
  2675   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2676 
  2677   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2678   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2679 
  2680   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2681 
  2682   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2683   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2684 
  2685   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2686 
  2687   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2688     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2689 
  2690   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2691   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2692   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2693 
  2694   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2695   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2696   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2697 
  2698 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2699 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2700 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2701 
  2702 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2703 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2704 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2705 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2706 
  2707 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2708 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2709 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2710 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2711 
  2712 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2713 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2714 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2715 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2718 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2719 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2723 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2724 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2725 
  2726 Consolidated facts:
  2727   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2728   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2729   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2730   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2731   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2732   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2733   split_split ~> prod.split
  2734   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2735   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2736   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2737   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2738   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2739   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2740   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2741   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2742   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2743   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2744   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2745   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2746   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2747   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2748   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2749   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2750   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2751   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2752   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2753   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2754   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2755   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2756   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2757   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2758   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2759   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2760   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2761   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2762 
  2763 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2764   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2765   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2766   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2767   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2768 
  2769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2770 
  2771 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2772 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2773 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2774 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2775 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2776 
  2777 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2778   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2779   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2780   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2781   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2782   real_of_one of_int_1
  2783   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2784   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2785   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2786   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2787   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2788   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2789   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2790   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2791   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2792   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2793   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2794   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2795   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2796   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2797   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2798   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2799   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2800 
  2801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802 
  2803 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2804 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2805 
  2806 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2807 
  2808 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Sledgehammer:
  2811   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2812   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2813     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2814   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2815   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2816   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2817     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2819 
  2820 * Nitpick:
  2821   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2822   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2823   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2824   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2825   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2826 
  2827 * (Co)datatype package:
  2828   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2829     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2830   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2831   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2832     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2833   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2834     being defined.
  2835   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2836 
  2837 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2838 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2839 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2840 
  2841 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2842 
  2843 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2844 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2845 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2846 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2847 
  2848 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2850 
  2851 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2852 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2853 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2854 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2855 
  2856 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2857 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2858 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2859 
  2860 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2861 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2862 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2863 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2864 
  2865 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2866 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2867 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2868 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2869 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2870 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2871 during instantiation.
  2872 
  2873 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2874 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2875 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2876 
  2877 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2878 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2879 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2880 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2881 
  2882   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2883   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2884 
  2885 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2886 
  2887 * Library/Multiset:
  2888   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2889       < ~> <#
  2890       > ~> >#
  2891       <= ~> <=#
  2892       >= ~> >=#
  2893       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2894       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2895     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2897       \<subset>#
  2898       \<subseteq>#
  2899       \<supset>#
  2900       \<supseteq>#
  2901   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2902     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2903     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2904     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2905     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2906     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2907     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908   - Renamed conversions:
  2909       multiset_of ~> mset
  2910       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2911       set_of ~> set_mset
  2912     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2913   - Renamed lemmas:
  2914       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2915       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2916       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2917     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2918   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2919     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2920     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2921     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2922 
  2923 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2924 
  2925 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2926 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2927 chain-complete partial orders.
  2928 
  2929 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2930 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2931 
  2932 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2933 periodic functions.
  2934 
  2935 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2936 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2937 GCD.
  2938 
  2939 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2940 
  2941 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2942 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2943 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2944 
  2945 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2946 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2947 
  2948 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2949 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2950 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2951 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2952 
  2953 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2954 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2955 
  2956 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2957 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2958 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2959 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2960 properties.
  2961 
  2962 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2963 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2964 
  2965 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2966 structures.
  2967 
  2968 
  2969 *** ML ***
  2970 
  2971 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2972 system are available:
  2973 
  2974   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2975   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2976   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2977 
  2978 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2979 
  2980 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2981 Isar proof method.
  2982 
  2983 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2984 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2985 breaks.
  2986 
  2987 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2988 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2989 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2992 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2993 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2994 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2995 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2998 
  2999   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3000   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3001 
  3002   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3003   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3004 
  3005 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3006 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3007 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3008 
  3009 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3010 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3011 instead (with proper context).
  3012 
  3013 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3014 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3015 
  3016 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3017 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3018 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3019 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3020 the proof context discipline.
  3021 
  3022 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3023 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3024 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3025 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3026 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3027 
  3028 
  3029 *** System ***
  3030 
  3031 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3032 
  3033 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3034 conflations:
  3035 
  3036     hence  ~>  then have
  3037     thus   ~>  then show
  3038 
  3039 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3040 maintainability of proofs.
  3041 
  3042 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3043 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3044 performance.
  3045 
  3046 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3047 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3048 
  3049     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3050 
  3051 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3052 space.
  3053 
  3054 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3055 platforms as follows.
  3056 
  3057   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3058     associated with the main app bundle
  3059 
  3060   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3061     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3062     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3063 
  3064   - isabelle build: settings
  3065     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3066 
  3067 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3068 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3069 
  3070 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3071 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3072 required after change.
  3073 
  3074 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3075 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3076 
  3077 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3078 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3079 
  3080 
  3081 
  3082 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3083 ------------------------------
  3084 
  3085 *** General ***
  3086 
  3087 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3088 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3089 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3090 
  3091   context
  3092   begin
  3093 
  3094   private definition ...
  3095   private lemma ...
  3096 
  3097   qualified definition ...
  3098   qualified lemma ...
  3099 
  3100   lemma ...
  3101   theorem ...
  3102 
  3103   end
  3104 
  3105 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3106 naming policy.
  3107 
  3108 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3109 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3110 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3111 
  3112 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3113 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3114 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3115 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3116 
  3117 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3118 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3119 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3123 theory context.
  3124 
  3125 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3126 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3127 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3128 
  3129 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3130 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3131 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3132 sources.
  3133 
  3134 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3135 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3136 
  3137 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3138 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3139 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3140 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3141 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3142 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3143 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3144 
  3145 
  3146 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3147 
  3148 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3149 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3150 
  3151 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3152 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3153 in the buffer.
  3154 
  3155 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3156 marker, SideKick parser.
  3157 
  3158 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3159 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3160 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3161 
  3162 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3163 Options / Text Area).
  3164 
  3165 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3166 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3167 
  3168 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3169 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3170 
  3171 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3172 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3173 
  3174 
  3175 *** Document preparation ***
  3176 
  3177 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3178 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3179 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3180 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3181 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3182 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3183 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3184 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3187 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3188 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3189 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3190 
  3191 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3192 style.
  3193 
  3194 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3195 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3196 
  3197 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3198 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3199 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3200 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3201 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3202 
  3203 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3204 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3205 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3206 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3207 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3208 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3209 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3212 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3213 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3215 
  3216 
  3217 *** Pure ***
  3218 
  3219 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3220 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3221 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3222 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3223 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3224 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3225 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3226 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3227 
  3228 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3229 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3230 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3231 
  3232 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3233 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3234 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3235 different index.
  3236 
  3237 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3238 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3239 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3240 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3241 
  3242 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3243 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3244 token category instead.
  3245 
  3246 
  3247 *** HOL ***
  3248 
  3249 * New (co)datatype package:
  3250   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3251     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3252     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3253     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3254     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3255   - Renamed theorems:
  3256       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3257       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3258       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3259       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3260       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3261       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3262       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3263       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3264       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3265       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3266       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3267       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3268       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3269     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3271     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3272     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3274     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3275     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3277     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3278     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3279     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3280     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3281     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3282     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283   - Renamed theories:
  3284       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3285       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3286       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3287       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3288       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3289       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3292     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3293     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3294     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3295     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3296     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3297     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3298     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3299     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3300   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3301     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3302     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3303     rules.
  3304 
  3305 * Old datatype package:
  3306   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3307     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3308     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3309     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3310     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311   - Renamed theorems:
  3312       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3313     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3314   - Renamed theory:
  3315       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3316     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Nitpick:
  3319   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3320     operations.
  3321 
  3322 * Sledgehammer:
  3323   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3324     default.
  3325   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3326     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3327   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3328     Removed sub-command:
  3329       min
  3330   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3331     dramatically improved.
  3332   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3333 
  3334 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3335   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3336     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3337     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3338     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3339     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3340     point to it.
  3341     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3343     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3345     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3346   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3347     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3348 
  3349 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3350 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3351 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3352 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3353 
  3354 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3355 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3356 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3359 
  3360 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3361 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3362 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3363 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3366 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3372 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3373 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3376 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3377 
  3378 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3379 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3380 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3381 
  3382 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3383 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3384 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3385 needed.
  3386 
  3387 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3388 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3389 
  3390 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3391 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3393 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3394 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3395 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3396 
  3397 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3398 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3399 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3400 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3401 
  3402 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3403 type class hierarchy:
  3404   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3405   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3406   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3407   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3408 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3411   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3412   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3413 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3416 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3417 
  3418 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3419   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3420   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3421   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3422 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3425 and part of theory Main.
  3426   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3433 Fact rename:
  3434     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3438 
  3439 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3440 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3441 
  3442 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3443 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3444 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3445 
  3446 * Library/Multiset:
  3447   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3448   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3449     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3450   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3451       <# ~> #<#
  3452       <=# ~> #<=#
  3453       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3454       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3455     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3457       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3458       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3459     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460   - Renamed
  3461       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3462       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3463       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3464     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3466   - Added attributes:
  3467       image_mset.id [simp]
  3468       image_mset_id [simp]
  3469       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3470       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3471       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3472       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3473       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3474       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3475     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476 
  3477 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3478 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3479 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3480 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3483 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3484 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3485 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3486 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3487 examples.
  3488 
  3489 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3490   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3491   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3492   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3493     projection
  3494 
  3495 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3496 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3497 
  3498 
  3499 *** ML ***
  3500 
  3501 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3502 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3503 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3504 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3505 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3506 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3507 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3508 
  3509 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3510 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3511 
  3512 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3513 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3514 
  3515 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3517 
  3518 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3519 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3520 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3521 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3522 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3523 nested.
  3524 
  3525 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3526 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3529 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3530 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3534 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3535 Thm.term_of etc.
  3536 
  3537 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3538 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3539 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3542 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3543 
  3544 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3545 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3546 
  3547 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3548 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3549 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3552 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3553 
  3554 
  3555 *** System ***
  3556 
  3557 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3558 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3559 
  3560 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3561 
  3562 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3563 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3564 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3565 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3569 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3570 
  3571 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3572 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3573 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3574 
  3575 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3576 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3577 
  3578 
  3579 
  3580 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3581 ---------------------------------
  3582 
  3583 *** General ***
  3584 
  3585 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3586 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3587 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3588 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3589 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3590 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3591 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3592 some examples.
  3593 
  3594 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3595 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3596 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3597 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3598 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3599 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3600 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3601 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3602 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3603 
  3604 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3605 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3606 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3607 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3608 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3609 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3610 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3611 proof tools.
  3612 
  3613 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3614 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3615 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3616 
  3617 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3618 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3619 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3620 
  3621 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3622 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3623 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3624 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3625 
  3626 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3627 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3628 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3632 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3633 
  3634 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3635 not check existence within the file-system.
  3636 
  3637 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3638 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3639 
  3640 
  3641 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3642 
  3643 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3644 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3645 buffer.
  3646 
  3647 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3648 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3649 
  3650 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3651 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3652 
  3653 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3654 auxiliary ML files.
  3655 
  3656 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3657 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3658 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3659 
  3660 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3661 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3662 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3663 
  3664 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3665 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3666 
  3667 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3668 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3669 caret".
  3670 
  3671 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3672 completion popup and context-menu.
  3673 
  3674 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3675 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3676 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3677 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3678 
  3679 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3680 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3681 
  3682 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3683 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3684 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3685 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3686 
  3687 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3688 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3689 
  3690 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3691 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3692 
  3693 * Improved monitor panel.
  3694 
  3695 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3696 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3697 
  3698 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3699 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3700 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3701 
  3702 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3703 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3704 within the context.
  3705 
  3706 
  3707 *** Pure ***
  3708 
  3709 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3710 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3711 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3712 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3713 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3714 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3715 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3716 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3717 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3718 
  3719 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3720 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3721 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3722 renaming needs to be applied:
  3723 
  3724   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3725   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3726   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3727   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3728   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3729 
  3730 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3731 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3732 old constants:
  3733 
  3734 setup {*
  3735   fn thy => thy
  3736     |> Sign.root_path
  3737     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3738     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3739     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3740     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3741 *}
  3742 
  3743 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3744 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3745 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3746 
  3747 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3748 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3749 instantiated theorem.
  3750 
  3751 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3752 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3753 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3754 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3755 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3756 
  3757   attribute_setup standard =
  3758     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3759 
  3760 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3761 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3762 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3763 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3764 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3765 
  3766 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3767 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3768 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3769 
  3770 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3771 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3772 
  3773 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3774 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3775 
  3776 
  3777 *** HOL ***
  3778 
  3779 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3780 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3781 
  3782 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3789 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3795 with the given constants.
  3796 
  3797 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3798 operations on records.
  3799 
  3800 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3801 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3806 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3807 
  3808 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3811 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3812 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3813 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3814 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3817 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3820   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3821   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3822   part of theory "Main".
  3823 
  3824   Theory renamings:
  3825     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3826     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3827     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3828     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3829     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3830     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3831     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3832     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3833     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3834     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3835     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3836     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3837     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3838     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3839     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3840     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3841     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3842     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3843     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3844     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3845     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3846     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3847 
  3848   New theories:
  3849     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3850     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3851     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3852     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3853     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3854 
  3855   Discontinued theories:
  3856     BNF/BNF.thy
  3857     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3858 
  3859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * New (co)datatype package:
  3862   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3863   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3864     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3865   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3866     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3867   - Renamed commands:
  3868       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3869       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3870       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3871     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3873     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3874     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3876     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3877     using "prim(co)rec".
  3878     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3880     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3881     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3883     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3884     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3885     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Old datatype package:
  3888   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3889     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3890     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3892     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3893     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3896   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3897   BNF-based datatype package.
  3898 
  3899   Renamed constants:
  3900     Option.set ~> set_option
  3901     Option.map ~> map_option
  3902     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3903 
  3904   Renamed theorems:
  3905     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3906     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3907     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3908     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3909     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3910     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3911     map.simps ~> list.map
  3912     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3913     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3914     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3915 
  3916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3919     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3920     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3921     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3922     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3923     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3924     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3925     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3926     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3927     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3928     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3929 
  3930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3933   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3934   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3935   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3936   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3937     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3938     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3939       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3940       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3941       automatically
  3942     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3943     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3944       automatically for datatypes
  3945   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3946     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3947       more
  3948       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3950       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3951       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3952     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3953       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3954       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3956     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3958     form
  3959     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3961     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3963     Code_Numeral.natural
  3964     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3966     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3969 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3970 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3971 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3972 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3973 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3974 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3977 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3978 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3979 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3980 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3981 
  3982 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3983 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3984 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3985 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3986 
  3987 * Sledgehammer:
  3988   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3989   - MaSh overhaul:
  3990     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3991       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3992     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3993       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3994       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3995       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3996   - New option:
  3997       smt_proofs
  3998   - Renamed options:
  3999       isar_compress ~> compress
  4000       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4001 
  4002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4005 
  4006 * Nitpick:
  4007   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4008     take infinite values.
  4009   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4010     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4011   - Removed "std" option.
  4012   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4013     "hide_types".
  4014 
  4015 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4016 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4019 
  4020 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4021   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4022   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4023     SUP instead uniformly.
  4024   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4025     or SUP and Sup.
  4026   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4027   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4028   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4029     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4030     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4031 
  4032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4033 
  4034 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4035 
  4036 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4037 
  4038   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4039   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4040   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4041   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4042 
  4043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4044 
  4045 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4046 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4047 
  4048 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4049 
  4050     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4051     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4052     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4053     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4054     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4055     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4056     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4057     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4058     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4059     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4060     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4061     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4062     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4063     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4064     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4065     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4066     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4067     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4068     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4069     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4070     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4071     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4072     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4073     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4074     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4075     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4076     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4077     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4078     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4079     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4080     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4081     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4082     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4083     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4084     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4085     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4086     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4087     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4088     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4089     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4090     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4091     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4092     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4093     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4094     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4095     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4096     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4097     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4098     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4099     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4100     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4101     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4102     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4103     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4104     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4105     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4106     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4107     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4108     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4109 
  4110   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4111   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4112   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4113     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4114 
  4115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4118 
  4119   Fact consolidations:
  4120     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4121     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4122     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4123     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4124     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4125     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4126     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4127     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4128     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4129     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4130     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4131     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4132     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4133     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4134     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4135     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4136     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4137     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4138     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4139     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4140     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4141     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4142     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4143     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4144     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4145     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4146     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4147     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4148     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4149     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4150     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4151     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4152     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4153     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4154     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4155     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4156     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4157     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4158     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4159     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4160 
  4161 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4162 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4163 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4164 
  4165 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4166 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4167 
  4168 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4169 
  4170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4173 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4177 
  4178 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4179     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4180 
  4181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4184   consolidation:
  4185     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4186     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4187 
  4188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4191   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4192   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4193   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4194     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4195   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4196     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4197   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4198 
  4199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4202 
  4203     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4204     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4205     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4206     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4207     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4208     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4209     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4210     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4211     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4212     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4213     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4214     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4215     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4216 
  4217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4218 
  4219 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4220 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4221 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4222 
  4223 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4224     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4225     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4226     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4227     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4228 
  4229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4230 
  4231 * Fact name consolidation:
  4232     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4233     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4234     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4235     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4236     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4237 
  4238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4241 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4242 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4243 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4244 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4245 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4246 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4250 
  4251 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4252 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4253 
  4254 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4255 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4256 
  4257 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4258 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4259 or the brute way with
  4260 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4261 
  4262 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4263 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4264 stating boundedness of sets.
  4265 
  4266 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4267 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4268 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4269 
  4270 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4271   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4272   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4273   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4274   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4275   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4276   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4277   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4278   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4279   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4280   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4281   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4282 
  4283   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4284 
  4285   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4286 
  4287     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4288     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4289     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4290     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4291     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4292 
  4293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4296   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4297 
  4298   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4299 
  4300   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4301 
  4302   - removed constant isDiff
  4303 
  4304   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4305     input syntax.
  4306 
  4307   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4308 
  4309   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4310 
  4311   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4312 
  4313   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4314 
  4315   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4316     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4317     has_vector_derivative.
  4318 
  4319   - Other renamings:
  4320     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4321     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4322     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4323     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4324     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4325     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4326     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4327 
  4328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4329 
  4330 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4331 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4332 in continuous_intros.
  4333 
  4334 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4335 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4336 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4337 
  4338 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4339 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4340 especially removes
  4341 
  4342     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4343 
  4344 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4345     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4346 
  4347 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4348 
  4349   Renamings:
  4350     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4351     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4352     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4353     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4354     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4355     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4356     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4357     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4358     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4359     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4360     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4361     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4362 
  4363     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4364     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4365     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4366 
  4367   Removed theorems:
  4368     complex_zero_def
  4369     complex_add_def
  4370     complex_minus_def
  4371     complex_diff_def
  4372     complex_one_def
  4373     complex_mult_def
  4374     complex_inverse_def
  4375     complex_scaleR_def
  4376 
  4377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4380 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4383 
  4384 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4385 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4386 
  4387 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4388 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4391 
  4392 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4394 
  4395 * HOL-Word:
  4396   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4397     of "word_arith_wis".
  4398   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4399     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4400     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4401 
  4402 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4403   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4404   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4405   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4406     (except the AFP)
  4407 
  4408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4411   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4412   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4413     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4414   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4415     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4416     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4417     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4418     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4419     intervals.
  4420   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4421     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4422     - renamed theorems:
  4423         interval ~> box
  4424         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4425         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4426         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4427         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4428         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4429         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4430         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4431         open_interval ~> open_box
  4432         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4433         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4434         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4435         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4436         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4437         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4438         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4439         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4440         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4441         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4442         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4443         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4444         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4445         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4446         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4447         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4448         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4449         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4450         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4451         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4452         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4453         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4454         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4455         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4456 
  4457     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4458         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4459         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4460         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4461         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4462         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4463         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4464         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4465         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4466         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4467         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4468         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4469         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4470         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4471         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4472         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4473         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4474         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4475 
  4476   - renamed theorems:
  4477     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4478     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4479     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4480 
  4481 * HOL-Probability:
  4482   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4483 
  4484     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4485       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4486 
  4487     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4488 
  4489   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4490     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4491 
  4492     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4493     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4494     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4495     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4496     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4497     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4498     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4499     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4500     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4501     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4502     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4503     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4504     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4505     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4506     integral_indicator          ~>
  4507          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4508     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4509     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4510     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4511 
  4512     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4513          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4514 
  4515     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4516          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4517 
  4518     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4519          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4520 
  4521     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4522          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4523          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4524 
  4525     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4526          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4527 
  4528     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4529          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4530 
  4531     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4532          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4533          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4534 
  4535     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4536          nn_integral_real_affine
  4537 
  4538     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4539          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4540 
  4541     The following theorems where removed:
  4542 
  4543     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4544     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4545     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4546     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4547     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4548     integral_cmul_indicator
  4549     integral_real
  4550 
  4551   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4552     distributed random variables.
  4553 
  4554 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4555 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 
  4559 *** Scala ***
  4560 
  4561 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4562 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4563 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4564 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4565 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4568 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 
  4571 *** ML ***
  4572 
  4573 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4574 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4575 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4576 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4577 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4578 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4579 
  4580 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4581 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4582 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4583 actually belongs to it).
  4584 
  4585 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4586 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4587 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4588 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4589 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4590 of schematic variables.
  4591 
  4592 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4593 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4594 
  4595 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4596 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4597 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4598 
  4599 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4603 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4604 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4608 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4609 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4610 formal context.
  4611 
  4612 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4613 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4614 
  4615 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4616 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4617 
  4618 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4619 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4620 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4621 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4622 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4623 
  4624 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4625 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4626 purposes.
  4627 
  4628 
  4629 *** System ***
  4630 
  4631 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4632 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4633 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4634 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4635 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4636 
  4637 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4638 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4639 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4640 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4641 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4642 settings variable.
  4643 
  4644 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4645 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4646 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4647 
  4648 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4649 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4650 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4651 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4652 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4653 
  4654 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4655 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4656 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4657 
  4658 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4659 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4660 
  4661 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4662 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4663 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4664 
  4665 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4666 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4667 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4668 processing is started.
  4669 
  4670 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4671 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4672 
  4673 
  4674 
  4675 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4676 -------------------------------------
  4677 
  4678 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4679 
  4680 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4681 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4682 
  4683 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4684 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4685 
  4686 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4687 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4688 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4689 
  4690 
  4691 *** System ***
  4692 
  4693 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4694 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4695 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4696 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4697 
  4698 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4699 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4700 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4701 
  4702 
  4703 
  4704 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4705 -------------------------------------
  4706 
  4707 *** General ***
  4708 
  4709 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4710 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4711 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4714 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4717 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4718 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4719 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4720 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4721 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4722 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4723 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4724 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4725 syntax.
  4726 
  4727 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4728 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4731 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4732 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4733 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4734 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4735 
  4736 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738 
  4739 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4740 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4741 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4742 
  4743 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4744 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4745 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4746 
  4747 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4748 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4749 
  4750 
  4751 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4752 
  4753 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4754 Documentation panel.
  4755 
  4756 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4757 documentation.
  4758 
  4759 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4760 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4761 
  4762 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4763 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4764 normal editing and checking process.
  4765 
  4766 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4767 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4768 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4769 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4770 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4771 
  4772 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4773 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4774 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4775 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4776 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4777 
  4778 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4779 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4780 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4781 
  4782 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4783 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4784 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4785 to resolve conflict.
  4786 
  4787 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4788 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4789 
  4790 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4791 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4792 such command executions while editing.
  4793 
  4794 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4795 document content.
  4796 
  4797 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4798 toplevel theorem statements.
  4799 
  4800 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4801 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4802 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4803 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4804 
  4805 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4806 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4807 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4808 
  4809 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4810 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4811 
  4812 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4813 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4814 
  4815 
  4816 *** Pure ***
  4817 
  4818 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4819 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4820 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4821 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4822 details.
  4823 
  4824 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4825 
  4826 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4827 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4828 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4829 
  4830 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4832 
  4833 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4834 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4835 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4836 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4839 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4840 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4843 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4844 
  4845 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4846 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4847 situations.
  4848 
  4849 
  4850 *** HOL ***
  4851 
  4852 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4853 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4857 
  4858 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4859 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4860 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4861 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4862 
  4863   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4864 
  4865 * Code generator:
  4866   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4867     'code_instance'.
  4868   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4869     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4870 
  4871 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4872 examples.
  4873 
  4874 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4875 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4876 to distinguish both when desired.
  4877 
  4878 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4879 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4880 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4881 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4884 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4885 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4886 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4887 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4888 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4891 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4892 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4893 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4894 
  4895 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4896 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4897 
  4898 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4899 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4900 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4901 
  4902 * Lifting:
  4903   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4904     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4905       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4906       transfer rules
  4907     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4908       correspondence relation can be generated
  4909     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4910       parametricity
  4911     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4912   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4913   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4914     copies
  4915   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4916     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4917     anonymous context)
  4918   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4919     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4920   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4921     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4922   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4923     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4924 
  4925 * Transfer:
  4926   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4927     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4928   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4929   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4930     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4931   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4932 
  4933 * Reification and reflection:
  4934   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4935     "Reification".
  4936   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4937   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4939 
  4940 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4941   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4942     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4943     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4944   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4945     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4946   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4947     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4948     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4949     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4950     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4951     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4952     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4953     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4954   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4955     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4956   - Fact renames:
  4957       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4958       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4962 
  4963 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4964 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4965 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4967 
  4968 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4969 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4970 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4971 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4972 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4973 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4974 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4975 lemmas.
  4976 
  4977 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4978 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4979 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4980 
  4981 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4982 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4983 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4984 
  4985 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4986 top and bottom elements.
  4987 
  4988 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4989 
  4990 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4991 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4992 
  4993  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4994    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4995    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4996 
  4997  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4998    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  4999    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5000 
  5001    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5002    arbitrary filter.
  5003 
  5004  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5005    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5006    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5007    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5008    on a compact set.
  5009 
  5010  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5011    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5012    linear_continuum_topology).
  5013 
  5014  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5015    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5016    on all sequences converging to x.
  5017 
  5018  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5019    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5020    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5021    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5022    left or right.
  5023 
  5024  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5025 
  5026      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5027 
  5028  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5029    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5030 
  5031  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5032    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5033    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5034    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5035    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5036    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5037 
  5038  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5039 
  5040    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5041 
  5042    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5043      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5044 
  5045    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5046 
  5047    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5048      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5049 
  5050    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5051 
  5052    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5053 
  5054  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5055 
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5057 
  5058 * Nitpick:
  5059   - Added option "spy".
  5060   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5061 
  5062 * Sledgehammer:
  5063   - Renamed option:
  5064       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5065     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5067   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5068   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5069 
  5070 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5071 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5072 
  5073 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5074   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5075   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5076     generated code.
  5077   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5078   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5079   - Fact renames:
  5080     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5081     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5082     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5083 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5084 
  5085 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5086 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5087 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5088 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5089 
  5090 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5091 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5092 
  5093 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5094 
  5095 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5096 
  5097     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5098     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5099 
  5100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5101 
  5102 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5103 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5104 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5105 
  5106 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5107 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5108 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5109 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5110 
  5111 * HOL-BNF:
  5112   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5113     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5114     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5115     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5116   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5117     coinduct).
  5118   - Renamed keywords:
  5119     data ~> datatype_new
  5120     codata ~> codatatype
  5121     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5122   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5123     discs ~> disc
  5124     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5125     map_id' ~> map_id
  5126     sels ~> sel
  5127     set_map' ~> set_map
  5128     sets ~> set
  5129 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5130 
  5131 
  5132 *** ML ***
  5133 
  5134 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5135 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5136 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5137 Examples.thy in particular.
  5138 
  5139 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5140 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5141 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5142 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5143 
  5144 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5145 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5146 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5147 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5149 
  5150 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5151 
  5152     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5153     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5154 
  5155 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5158 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5159 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5160 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5161 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5162 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5163 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5164 
  5165 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5166 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5167 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5168 clasets separately from the context.
  5169 
  5170 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5171 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5172 
  5173 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5174 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5175 
  5176 
  5177 *** System ***
  5178 
  5179 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5180 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5181 
  5182 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5183 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5184 
  5185 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5186 settings variable.
  5187 
  5188 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5189 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5190 always pdf.
  5191 
  5192 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5193 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5194 
  5195 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5196 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5197 
  5198 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5199 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5200 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5201 
  5202 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5203 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5204 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5205 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5206 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5207 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5208 
  5209 
  5210 
  5211 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5212 -----------------------------------
  5213 
  5214 *** General ***
  5215 
  5216 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5217 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5218 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5219 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5220 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5221 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5222 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5223 
  5224 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5225 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5226 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5227 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5228 
  5229 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5230 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5231 
  5232 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5233 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5234 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5235 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5236 dependencies properly.
  5237 
  5238 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5239 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5240 
  5241 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5242 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5243 
  5244 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5245 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5246 and "class ... context ...".
  5247 
  5248 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5249 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5250 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5251 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5252 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5253 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5254 
  5255 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5256 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5257 
  5258 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5259 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5260 
  5261 
  5262 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5263 
  5264 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5265 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5266 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5267 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5268 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5269 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5270 
  5271 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5272 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5273 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5274 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5275 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5276 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5277 
  5278 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5279 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5280 browser on demand.
  5281 
  5282 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5283 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5284 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5285 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5286 
  5287 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5288 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5289 
  5290 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5291 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5292 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5293 potentially infinite message streams.
  5294 
  5295 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5296 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5297 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5298 schemes.
  5299 
  5300 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5301 symbols.
  5302 
  5303 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5304 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5305 
  5306 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5307 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5308 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5309 
  5310 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5311 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5312 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5313 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5314 
  5315 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5316 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5317 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5318 
  5319 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5320 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5321 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5322 Isabelle distribution.
  5323 
  5324 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5325 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5326 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5327 
  5328 
  5329 *** Pure ***
  5330 
  5331 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5332 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5333 
  5334 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5335 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5336 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5337 
  5338 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5339 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5340 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5341 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5342 with some care where this is really required.
  5343 
  5344 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5345 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5346 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5347 
  5348   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5349 
  5350 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5351 a Hasse diagram.
  5352 
  5353 
  5354 *** HOL ***
  5355 
  5356 * Sledgehammer:
  5357 
  5358   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5359     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5360   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5361   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5362   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5363   - Renamed options:
  5364       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5365       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5366       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5367       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5368 
  5369 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5370 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5371 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5372 
  5373 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5375 
  5376 * Lifting:
  5377   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5378   - quot_del attribute
  5379   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5380 
  5381 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5382 expressions.
  5383 
  5384 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5385 pointfree expressions.
  5386 
  5387 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5388 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5389 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5390 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5392 
  5393 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5394 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5395 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5396 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5397 accordingly.
  5398 
  5399 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5400 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5401 
  5402 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5403 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5406 
  5407 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5408 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5409 
  5410 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5411 
  5412 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5413 
  5414   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5415   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5416 
  5417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5418 
  5419 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5420 
  5421   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5422   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5423 
  5424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5425 
  5426 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5427 
  5428   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5429     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5430     output f x converges to G.
  5431 
  5432   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5433     infinity (at_bot).
  5434 
  5435   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5436     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5437 
  5438   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5439     at_top".
  5440 
  5441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5442 
  5443 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5444 lattice type classes.
  5445 
  5446 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5447 
  5448     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5449     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5450 
  5451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5454 changes as follows.
  5455 
  5456   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5457 
  5458       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5459       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5460 
  5461   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5462     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5463     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5464     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5465 
  5466   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5467     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5468     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5469 
  5470   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5471     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5472     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5473     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5474 
  5475   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5476     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5477 
  5478       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5479       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5480       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5481       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5482       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5483       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5484       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5485       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5486       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5487       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5488       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5489       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5490       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5491       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5492       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5493       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5494 
  5495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5496 
  5497 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5498 
  5499 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5500 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5501 
  5502 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5503 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5504 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5505 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5506 
  5507   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5508   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5509   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5510   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5511   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5512   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5513   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5514   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5515   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5516   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5517 
  5518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5521 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5522 Data").
  5523 
  5524 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5525 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5526 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5527 code.
  5528 
  5529 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5530 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5531 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5532 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5535 
  5536 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5537 
  5538 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5539 
  5540   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5541   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5542 
  5543 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5544 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5545 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5546 
  5547   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5548 
  5549     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5550     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5551     cart_base i  removed
  5552     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5553 
  5554   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5555 
  5556   Renamed lemmas:
  5557 
  5558     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5559     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5560     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5561     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5562     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5563     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5564     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5565     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5566     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5567     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5568 
  5569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5570 
  5571 * HOL/Probability:
  5572 
  5573   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5574 
  5575   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5576     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5577     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5578 
  5579   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5580     projective family).
  5581 
  5582 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5583 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5584 
  5585 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5586 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5587 datatypes.
  5588 
  5589 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5590 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5591 
  5592 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5593 trees for the code generator.
  5594 
  5595 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5596 Lifting/Transfer.
  5597 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5598 
  5599 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5601 
  5602 
  5603 *** Document preparation ***
  5604 
  5605 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5606 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5607 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5608 
  5609 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5610 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5611 
  5612 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5613 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5614 document/root.tex.
  5615 
  5616 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5617 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5618 
  5619 
  5620 *** ML ***
  5621 
  5622 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5623 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5624 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5625 
  5626 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5627 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5628 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5629 
  5630 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5631 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5632 necessarily printing visible text.
  5633 
  5634 
  5635 *** System ***
  5636 
  5637 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5638 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5639 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5640 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5641 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5642 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5643 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5644 
  5645 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5646 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5647 
  5648   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5649 
  5650 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5651 
  5652 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5653 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5654 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5655 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5656 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5657 
  5658 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5659 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5660 
  5661 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5662 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5663 
  5664 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5666 
  5667 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5668 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5669 version of Isabelle.
  5670 
  5671 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5672 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5673 
  5674 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5675 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5676 for home-made settings.
  5677 
  5678 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5679 
  5680 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5681 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5682 configuration.
  5683 
  5684 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5685 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5686 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5687 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5688 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5689 
  5690 
  5691 
  5692 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5693 ------------------------------
  5694 
  5695 *** General ***
  5696 
  5697 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5698 
  5699   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5700     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5701   - markup for bound variables
  5702   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5703   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5704   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5705     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5706 
  5707 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5708 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5709 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5710 
  5711 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5712 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5713 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5714 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5715 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5716 
  5717   context
  5718     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5719     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5720   begin
  5721 
  5722   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5723 
  5724   end
  5725 
  5726   thm my_trans
  5727 
  5728 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5729 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5730 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5731 
  5732 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5733 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5734 
  5735 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5736 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5737 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5738 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5739 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5740 
  5741 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5742 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5743 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5744 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5745 indices of schematic variables.
  5746 
  5747 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5748 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5749 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5750 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5751 etc. was exploited.
  5752 
  5753 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5754 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5755 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5756 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5757 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5758 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5759 
  5760 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5761 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5762 manual.
  5763 
  5764 
  5765 *** Pure ***
  5766 
  5767 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5768 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5769 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5770 
  5771 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5772 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5773 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5774 undocumented feature.)
  5775 
  5776 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5777 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5778 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5779 
  5780   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5781 
  5782   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5783     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5784 
  5785 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5786 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5787 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5788 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5789 
  5790 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5791 
  5792     num ~> num_token
  5793     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5794     xstr ~> str_token
  5795 
  5796 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5797 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5798 position information via constraints).
  5799 
  5800 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5801 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5802 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5803 
  5804 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5805 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5806 
  5807 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5808 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5809 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5812 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5815 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5816 
  5817   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5818 
  5819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5820 
  5821 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5822 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5825 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5826 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5827 
  5828 
  5829 *** HOL ***
  5830 
  5831 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5832 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5833 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5834 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5835 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5836 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5837 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5838 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5839 possible.
  5840 
  5841 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5842 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5843 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5844 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5845 
  5846 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5847 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5848 
  5849 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5850 
  5851 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5852 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5853 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5854 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5855 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5856 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5857 
  5858   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5859     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5860 
  5861   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5862     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5863     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5864 
  5865   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5866     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5867 
  5868   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5869     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5870     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5871 
  5872   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5873     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5874 
  5875 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5876 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5877 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5878 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5879 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5880 
  5881   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5882     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5883     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5884     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5885     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5886 
  5887     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5888     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5889 
  5890   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5891     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5892     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5893     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5894     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5895     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5896     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5897     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5898 
  5899   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5900     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5901     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5902     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5903 
  5904   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5905     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5906     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5907     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5908 
  5909   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5910     from type nat to type int.
  5911 
  5912 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5913 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5914 
  5915   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5916     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5917     type.  Example syntax:
  5918 
  5919     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5920       is List.insert
  5921 
  5922     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5923     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5924     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5925     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5926     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5927     by the package.
  5928 
  5929   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5930     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5931     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5932     code generation for each constant.
  5933 
  5934   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5935     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5936     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5937     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5938     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5939 
  5940   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5941     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5942     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5943 
  5944 * Quotient package:
  5945 
  5946   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5947     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5948 
  5949   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5950     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5951 
  5952   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5953     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5954     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5957     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5958 
  5959 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5960 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5961 
  5962 * Quickcheck:
  5963 
  5964   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5965     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5966     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5967     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5968     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5969 
  5970     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5971     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5972     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5973 
  5974     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5975     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5976 
  5977     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5978     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5979     show genuine counterexamples.
  5980 
  5981   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5982     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5983 
  5984     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5985     constructors of that type.
  5986 
  5987   - Support for multisets.
  5988 
  5989   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5990 
  5991   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5992     conjectures in a locale context.
  5993 
  5994 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5995 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5996 
  5997 * Sledgehammer:
  5998   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  5999     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6000   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6001   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6002     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6003   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6004   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6005   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6006   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6007 
  6008 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6009 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6010 
  6011 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6012 
  6013 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6014 
  6015 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6016 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6017 
  6018   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6019 
  6020 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6021 a list and a nat.
  6022 
  6023 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6024 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6025 
  6026 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6027 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6028 default.
  6029 
  6030 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6031 
  6032   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6033 
  6034 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6035 
  6036 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6037 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6038 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6039 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6040 one_case.
  6041 
  6042 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6043 the result of the fact expression.
  6044 
  6045 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6046 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6047 of some relation theorems:
  6048 
  6049   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6050   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6051   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6052   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6053   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6054   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6055 
  6056 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6057 
  6058 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6059 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6060 
  6061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6062 
  6063 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6064 to match the constant's name:
  6065 
  6066   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6067   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6068   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6069   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6070   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6071   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6072   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6073   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6074   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6075   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6076   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6077   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6078   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6079   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6080   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6081   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6082   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6083   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6084   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6085   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6086   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6087   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6088   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6089   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6090 
  6091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6092 
  6093 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6094 and corresponding theorem names:
  6095 
  6096   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6097 
  6098   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6099 
  6100   - Renamed theorems:
  6101 
  6102     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6103     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6104     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6105     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6106     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6107     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6108     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6109     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6110     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6111     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6112     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6113     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6114     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6115     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6116     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6117     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6118     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6119     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6120     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6121     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6122     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6123     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6124     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6125 
  6126     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6127 
  6128     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6129 
  6130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6131 
  6132 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6133 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6134 
  6135   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6136   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6137   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6138   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6139   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6140   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6141   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6142   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6143   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6144   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6145   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6146   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6147   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6148   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6149   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6150   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6151   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6152   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6153   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6154   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6155   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6156 
  6157 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6158 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6159 
  6160 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6161 
  6162 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6163 
  6164   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6165   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6166   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6167   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6168   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6169   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6170   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6171   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6172   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6173   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6174   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6175   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6176   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6177   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6178   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6179   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6180   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6181   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6182 
  6183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6184 
  6185 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6186 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6187 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6188 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6189 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6190 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6191 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6192 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6193 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6194 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6195 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6196 
  6197 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6198 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6199 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6200 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6201 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6202 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6203 
  6204 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6205 through option types.
  6206 
  6207 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6208 relations.
  6209 
  6210 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6211 
  6212 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6213 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6214 
  6215   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6216   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6217   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6218   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6219   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6220   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6221   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6222   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6223   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6224   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6225   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6226   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6227   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6228   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6229   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6230   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6231   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6232   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6233   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6234   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6235   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6236   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6237   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6238   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6239   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6240   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6241   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6242   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6243   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6244   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6245   zless_le ~> less_le
  6246   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6247   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6248   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6249 
  6250 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6251 
  6252   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6253 
  6254 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  6255 
  6256 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  6257 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  6258 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  6259 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  6260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6261 
  6262 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6263 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  6264 
  6265 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  6266 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  6267 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  6268 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  6269 follows:
  6270