NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Jan 25 15:28:43 2013 +0100 (2013-01-25)
changeset 51050 7d0c5799e16c
parent 50993 2c3d0cb151c0
child 51056 fbcc2d314635
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
     5 -----------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
    38 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    42 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    43 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    44 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    45 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    46 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    47 
    48 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    49 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    50 
    51 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    52 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    53 
    54 
    55 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    56 
    57 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    58 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    59 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    60 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    61 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    62 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    63 
    64 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    65 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    66 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    67 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    68 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    69 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    70 
    71 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    72 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    73 browser on demand.
    74 
    75 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    76 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    77 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    78 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    79 
    80 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    81 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    82 
    83 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    84 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    85 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    86 potentially infinite message streams.
    87 
    88 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    89 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    90 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    91 schemes.
    92 
    93 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    94 symbols.
    95 
    96 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
    97 
    98 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    99 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   100 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   101 
   102 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   103 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   104 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   105 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   106 
   107 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   108 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   109 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   110 
   111 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   112 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   113 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   114 Isabelle distribution.
   115 
   116 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   117 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   118 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   119 
   120 
   121 *** Pure ***
   122 
   123 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   124 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   125 
   126 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   127 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   128 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   131 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   132 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   133 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   134 with some care where this is really required.
   135 
   136 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   137 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   138 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   139 
   140   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   141 
   142 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   143 a Hasse diagram.
   144 
   145 
   146 *** HOL ***
   147 
   148 * Sledgehammer:
   149 
   150   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   151     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   152   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   153   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   154   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   155   - Renamed options:
   156       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   157       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   158       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   159       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   160 
   161 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   162 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   163 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   164 
   165 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 * Lifting:
   169   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   170   - quot_del attribute
   171   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   172 
   173 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   174 expressions.
   175 
   176 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   177 pointfree expressions.
   178 
   179 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   180 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   181 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   182 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   186 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   187 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   188 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   189 accordingly.
   190 
   191 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   192 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   195 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196 
   197 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   200 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   201 
   202 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   203 
   204 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   205 
   206   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   207   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   208 
   209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   212 
   213   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   214   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   215 
   216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   219 
   220   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   221     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   222     output f x converges to G.
   223 
   224   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   225     infinity (at_bot).
   226 
   227   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   228     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   229 
   230   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   231     at_top".
   232 
   233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   236 lattice type classes.
   237 
   238 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   239 
   240     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   241     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   242 
   243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   246 changes as follows.
   247 
   248   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   249 
   250       prefix ~> prefixeq
   251       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   252 
   253   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   254     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   255     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   256     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   257 
   258   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   259     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   260     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   261 
   262   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   263     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   264     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   265     Library/Prefix_Order.
   266 
   267   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   268     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   269 
   270       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   271       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   272       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   273       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   274       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   275       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   276       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   277       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   278       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   279       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   280       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   281       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   282       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   283       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   284       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   285       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   286 
   287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   290 
   291 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   292 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   293 
   294 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   295 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   296 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   297 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   298 
   299   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   300   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   301   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   302   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   303   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   304   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   305   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   306   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   307   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   308   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   309 
   310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311 
   312 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   313 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   314 Data").
   315 
   316 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   317 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   318 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   319 code.
   320 
   321 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   322 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   323 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   325 
   326 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   327 
   328 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   329 
   330 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   331 
   332   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   333   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   334 
   335 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   336 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   337 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   338 
   339   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   340 
   341     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   342     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   343     cart_base i  removed
   344     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   345 
   346   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   347 
   348   Renamed lemmas:
   349 
   350     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   351     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   352     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   353     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   354     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   355     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   356     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   357     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   358     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   359     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   360 
   361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * HOL/Probability:
   364 
   365   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   366 
   367   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   368     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   369     (borel_measurable_induct).
   370 
   371   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   372     projective family).
   373 
   374 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   375 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   376 
   377 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   378 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   379 datatypes.
   380 
   381 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   382 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   383 
   384 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   385 trees for the code generator.
   386 
   387 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   388 Lifting/Transfer.
   389 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 
   395 *** Document preparation ***
   396 
   397 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   398 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   399 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   400 
   401 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   402 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   403 
   404 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   405 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   406 document/root.tex.
   407 
   408 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   409 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 
   412 *** ML ***
   413 
   414 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   415 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   416 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   417 
   418 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   419 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   420 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   421 
   422 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   423 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   424 necessarily printing visible text.
   425 
   426 
   427 *** System ***
   428 
   429 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   430 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   431 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   432 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   433 
   434 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   435 
   436 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   437 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   438 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   439 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   440 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   441 
   442 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   443 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   444 
   445   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   446 
   447 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   448 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   449 
   450 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   451 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   452 "isabelle usedir".
   453 
   454 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   455 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   456 
   457 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   461 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   462 version of Isabelle.
   463 
   464 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   465 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   466 
   467 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   468 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   469 for home-made settings.
   470 
   471 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   472 
   473 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   474 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   475 configuration.
   476 
   477 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   478 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   479 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   480 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   481 bundled as Isabelle component.
   482 
   483 
   484 
   485 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   486 ------------------------------
   487 
   488 *** General ***
   489 
   490 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   491 
   492   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   493     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   494   - markup for bound variables
   495   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   496   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   497   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   498     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   499 
   500 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   501 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   502 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   503 
   504 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   505 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   506 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   507 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   508 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   509 
   510   context
   511     fixes x y z :: 'a
   512     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   513   begin
   514 
   515   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   516 
   517   end
   518 
   519   thm my_trans
   520 
   521 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   522 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   523 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   524 
   525 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   526 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   527 
   528 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   529 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   530 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   531 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   532 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   533 
   534 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   535 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   536 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   537 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   538 indices of schematic variables.
   539 
   540 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   541 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   542 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   543 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   544 etc. was exploited.
   545 
   546 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   547 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   548 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   549 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   550 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   551 of the material of that old tutorial.
   552 
   553 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   554 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   555 manual.
   556 
   557 
   558 *** Pure ***
   559 
   560 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   561 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   562 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   563 
   564 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   565 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   566 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   567 undocumented feature.)
   568 
   569 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   570 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   571 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   572 
   573   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   574 
   575   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   576     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   577 
   578 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   579 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   580 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   581 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   582 
   583 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   584 
   585     num ~> num_token
   586     xnum ~> xnum_token
   587     xstr ~> str_token
   588 
   589 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   590 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   591 position information via constraints).
   592 
   593 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   594 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   595 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   596 
   597 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   598 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   599 
   600 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   601 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   602 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   603 
   604 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   605 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   606 
   607 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   608 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   609 
   610   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   611 
   612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   615 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   616 
   617 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   618 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   619 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   620 
   621 
   622 *** HOL ***
   623 
   624 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   625 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   626 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   627 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   628 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   629 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   630 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   631 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   632 possible.
   633 
   634 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   635 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   636 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   637 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   638 
   639 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   640 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   641 
   642 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   643 
   644 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   645 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   646 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   647 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   648 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   649 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   650 
   651   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   652     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   653 
   654   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   655     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   656     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   657 
   658   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   659     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   660 
   661   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   662     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   663     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   664 
   665   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   666     Redefine using other integer operations.
   667 
   668 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   669 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   670 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   671 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   672 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   673 
   674   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   675     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   676     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   677     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   678     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   679 
   680     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   681     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   682 
   683   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   684     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   685     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   686     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   687     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   688     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   689     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   690     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   691 
   692   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   693     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   694     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   695     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   696 
   697   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   698     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   699     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   700     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   701 
   702   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   703     from type nat to type int.
   704 
   705 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   706 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   707 
   708   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   709     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   710     type.  Example syntax:
   711 
   712     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   713       is List.insert
   714 
   715     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   716     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   717     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   718     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   719     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   720     by the package.
   721 
   722   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   723     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   724     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   725     code generation for each constant.
   726 
   727   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   728     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   729     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   730     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   731     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   732 
   733   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   734     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   735     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   736 
   737 * Quotient package:
   738 
   739   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   740     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   741 
   742   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   743     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   744 
   745   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   746     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   747     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   750     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   753 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   754 
   755 * Quickcheck:
   756 
   757   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   758     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   759     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   760     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   761     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   762 
   763     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   764     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   765     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   766 
   767     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   768     continues searching for genuine ones.
   769 
   770     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   771     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   772     show genuine counterexamples.
   773 
   774   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   775     value generators for a given type and operations.
   776 
   777     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   778     constructors of that type.
   779 
   780   - Support for multisets.
   781 
   782   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   783 
   784   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   785     conjectures in a locale context.
   786 
   787 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   788 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   789 
   790 * Sledgehammer:
   791   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   792     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   793   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   794   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   795     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   796   - Sped up the minimizer.
   797   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   798   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   799   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   800 
   801 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   802 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   803 
   804 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   805 
   806 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   809 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   810 
   811   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   812 
   813 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   814 a list and a nat.
   815 
   816 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   817 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   818 
   819 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   820 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   821 default.
   822 
   823 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   824 
   825   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   826 
   827 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   828 
   829 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   830 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   831 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   832 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   833 one_case.
   834 
   835 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   836 the result of the fact expression.
   837 
   838 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   839 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   840 of some relation theorems:
   841 
   842   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   843   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   844   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   845   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   846   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   847   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   848 
   849 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   850 
   851 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   852 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   853 
   854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   857 to match the constant's name:
   858 
   859   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   860   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   861   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   862   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   863   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   864   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   865   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   866   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   867   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   868   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   869   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   870   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   871   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   872   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   873   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   874   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   875   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   876   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   877   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   878   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   879   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   880   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   881   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   882   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   883 
   884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   887 and corresponding theorem names:
   888 
   889   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   890 
   891   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   892 
   893   - Renamed theorems:
   894 
   895     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   896     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   897     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   898     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   899     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   900     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   901     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   902     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   903     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   904     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   905     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   906     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   907     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   908     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   909     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   910     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   911     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   912     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   913     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   914     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   915     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   916     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   917     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   918 
   919     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   920 
   921     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   922 
   923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   926 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   927 
   928   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   929   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   930   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   931   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   932   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   933   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   934   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   935   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   936   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   937   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   938   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   939   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   940   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   941   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   942   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   943   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   944   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   945   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   946   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   947   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   948   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   949 
   950 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   951 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952 
   953 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   954 
   955 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   956 
   957   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   958   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   959   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   960   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   961   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   962   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   963   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   964   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   965   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   966   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   967   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   968   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   969   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   970   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   971   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   972   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   973   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   974   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   975 
   976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   979 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   980 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   981 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   982 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   983 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   984 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   986 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   987 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   988 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   989 
   990 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   991 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   992 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   993 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   994 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   995 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   996 
   997 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   998 through option types.
   999 
  1000 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1001 relations.
  1002 
  1003 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1004 
  1005 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1006 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1007 
  1008   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1009   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1010   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1011   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1012   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1013   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1014   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1015   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1016   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1017   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1018   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1019   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1020   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1021   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1022   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1023   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1024   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1025   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1026   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1027   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1028   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1029   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1030   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1031   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1032   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1033   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1034   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1035   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1036   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1037   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1038   zless_le ~> less_le
  1039   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1040   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1041   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1042 
  1043 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1044 
  1045   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1046 
  1047 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1048 
  1049 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1050 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1051 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1052 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1056 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1057 
  1058 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1059 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1060 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1061 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1062 follows:
  1063 
  1064   Operations:
  1065   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1066   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1067   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1068   del -> rbt_del
  1069   delete -> rbt_delete
  1070   ins -> rbt_ins
  1071   insert -> rbt_insert
  1072   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1073   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1074   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1075   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1076   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1077   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1078   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1079   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1080   union -> rbt_union
  1081   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1082   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1083 
  1084   Lemmas:
  1085   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1086   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1087   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1088   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1089   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1090   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1091   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1092   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1093   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1094   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1095   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1096   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1097   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1098   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1099   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1100   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1101   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1102   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1103   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1104   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1105   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1106   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1107   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1108   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1109   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1110   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1111   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1112   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1113   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1114   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1115   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1116   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1117   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1118   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1119   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1120   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1121   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1122   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1123   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1124   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1125   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1126   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1127   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1128   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1129   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1130   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1131   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1132   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1133   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1134   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1135   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1136   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1137   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1138   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1139   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1140   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1141   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1142   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1143   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1144   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1145   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1146   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1147   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1148   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1149   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1150   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1151   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1152   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1153   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1154   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1155   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1156   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1157   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1158   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1159   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1160   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1161   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1162   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1163   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1164   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1165   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1166   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1167   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1168 
  1169 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1170 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1171 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173   Changed Operations:
  1174   float_abs -> abs
  1175   float_nprt -> nprt
  1176   float_pprt -> pprt
  1177   pow2 -> use powr
  1178   round_down -> float_round_down
  1179   round_up -> float_round_up
  1180   scale -> exponent
  1181 
  1182   Removed Operations:
  1183   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1184 
  1185   Renamed Lemmas:
  1186   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1187   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1188   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1189   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1190   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1191   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1192   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1193   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1194   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1195   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1196   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1197   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1198   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1199   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1200   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1201   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1202   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1203   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1204   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1205   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1206   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1207   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1208   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1209   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1210   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1211   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1212   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1213   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1214   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1215   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1216   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1217   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1218   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1219   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1220   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1221   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1222 
  1223   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1224   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1225   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1226   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1227   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1228   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1229   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1230   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1231   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1232   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1233 
  1234 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1235 association lists with distinct keys.
  1236 
  1237 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1238 annotated commands.
  1239 
  1240 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1241 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1242 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1243 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1244 
  1245 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1246 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1247 instead.
  1248 
  1249   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1250   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1251   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1252   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1253   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1254   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1255   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1256   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1257   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1258   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1259   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1260   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1261   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1262   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1263   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1264   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1265   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1266   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1267   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1268   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1269   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1270   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1271   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1272   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1273   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1274   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1275   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1276   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1277   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1278   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1279   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1280   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1281   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1282   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1283   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1284   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1285   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1286   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1287   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1288   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1289   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1290 
  1291 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1292 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1293 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1294 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1295 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1296 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1297 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1298 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1299 
  1300 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1301 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1302 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1303 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1304 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1305 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1306 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1307 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1308 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1309 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1310 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1311 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1312 
  1313   Renamed constants:
  1314   measure -> emeasure
  1315   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1316   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1317   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1318   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1319 
  1320   Removed locales:
  1321   completeable_measure_space
  1322   finite_measure_space
  1323   finite_prob_space
  1324   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1325   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1326   finite_sigma_algebra
  1327   measure_space
  1328   pair_finite_prob_space
  1329   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1330   pair_finite_space
  1331   pair_sigma_algebra
  1332   product_sigma_algebra
  1333 
  1334   Removed constants:
  1335   conditional_space
  1336   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1337   image_space
  1338   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1339   pair_measure_generator
  1340   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1341   subvimage
  1342 
  1343   Replacement theorems:
  1344   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1345   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1346   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1347   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1348   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1349   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1350   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1351   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1352   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1353   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1354   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1355   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1356   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1357   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1358   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1359   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1360   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1361   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1362   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1363   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1364   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1365   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1366   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1367   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1368   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1369   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1370   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1371   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1372   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1373   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1374   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1375   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1376   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1377   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1378   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1379   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1380   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1381   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1382   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1383   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1384   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1385   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1386   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1387   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1388   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1389   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1390   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1391   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1392   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1393   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1394   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1395   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1396   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1397   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1398   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1399   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1400   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1401   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1402   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1403   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1404   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1405   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1406   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1407   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1408   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1409   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1410   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1411   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1412   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1413   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1414   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1415   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1416   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1417   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1418   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1419   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1420   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1421   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1422   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1423   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1424   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1425   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1426   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1427   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1428   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1429   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1430   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1431   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1432   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1433   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1434   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1435   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1436   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1437   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1438   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1439   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1440   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1441   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1442   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1443   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1444   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1445   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1446   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1447   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1448   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1449   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1450   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1451   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1452   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1453   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1454   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1455   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1456   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1457   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1458   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1459   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1460   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1461   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1462   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1463   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1464   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1465   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1466   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1467   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1468   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1469   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1470   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1471   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1472 
  1473 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1474 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1475 
  1476 
  1477 *** FOL ***
  1478 
  1479 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1480 
  1481 
  1482 *** ZF ***
  1483 
  1484 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1485 analysis.
  1486 
  1487 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1488 
  1489 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1490 
  1491 
  1492 *** ML ***
  1493 
  1494 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1495 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1496 
  1497 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1498 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1499 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1500 
  1501 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1502 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1503 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1504 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1505 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1506 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1507 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1508 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1509 
  1510 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1511 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1512 
  1513 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1514 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1515 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1516 
  1517 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1518 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1519 
  1520 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1521 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1522 context as well.
  1523 
  1524 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1525 
  1526   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1527   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1528   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1529   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1530   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1531   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1532   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1533   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1534   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1535   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1536   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1537   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1538 
  1539 
  1540 *** System ***
  1541 
  1542 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1543 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1544 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1545 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1546 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1547 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1548 the generic user home was intended.
  1549 
  1550 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1551 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1552 
  1553 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1554 (not just JRE).
  1555 
  1556 
  1557 
  1558 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1559 ------------------------------------
  1560 
  1561 *** General ***
  1562 
  1563 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1564 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1565 
  1566   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1567     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1568     files for checking).
  1569 
  1570   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1571     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1572     positions.
  1573 
  1574   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1575     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1576     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1577 
  1578   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1579     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1580     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1581 
  1582   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1583     cores.
  1584 
  1585   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1586     versions (garbage collection).
  1587 
  1588 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1589 including some remaining limitations.
  1590 
  1591 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1592 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1593 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1594 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1595 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1599 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1600 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1601 
  1602 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1603 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1604 usedir option -Q.
  1605 
  1606 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1607 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1608 
  1609   long_names   ~> names_long
  1610   short_names  ~> names_short
  1611   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1612 
  1613 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1614 
  1615   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1616 
  1617 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1618 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1619 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1620 
  1621 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1622 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1623 
  1624 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1625   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1626   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1627   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1628     "Classical Reasoner".
  1629 
  1630 
  1631 *** HOL ***
  1632 
  1633 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1634 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1635 
  1636 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1637 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1638 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1639 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1640 class complete_linorder.
  1641 
  1642 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1643 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1644 
  1645 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1646 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1647 
  1648   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1649   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1650   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1651   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1652   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1653   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1654   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1655   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1656   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1657   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1658   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1659 
  1660 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1661 
  1662   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1663   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1664   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1665   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1666   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1667   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1668   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1669   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1670   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1671   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1672   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1673   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1674   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1675   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1676   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1677   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1678 
  1679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1685 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1686 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1687 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1690 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1691 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1695 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1696 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1697 
  1698 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1699 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1700 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1701 
  1702 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1703 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1704 
  1705 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1706 
  1707     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1708     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1709 
  1710 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1711 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1712 
  1713 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1714 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1717 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1718 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1719 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1720 
  1721   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1722   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1723   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1724   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1725   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1726   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1727   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1728 
  1729 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1730 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1733   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1734   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1735   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1736   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1737   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1738   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1739   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1740   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1741   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1742   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1743   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1744   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1745   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1746   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1747   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1748   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1749   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1750   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1751   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1752   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1753   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1754   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1755   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1756   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1757   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1758   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1759   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1760   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1761   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1762   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1763   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1764   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1765   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1766   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1767   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1768   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1769   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1770   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1771   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1772   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1773   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1774   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1775   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1776   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1777   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1778   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1779   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1780   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1781   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1782   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1783   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1784   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1785   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1786   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1787   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1788   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1789   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1790   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1791   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1792   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1793   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1794   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1795   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1796   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1797   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1798   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1799   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1800   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1801   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1802   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1803   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1804   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1805   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1806   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1807   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1808   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1809   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1810   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1811   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1812   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1813   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1814 
  1815 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1816 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1817 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1818 
  1819 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1820 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1821 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1822 
  1823 * Code generation:
  1824 
  1825   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1826     characters in the target language.
  1827 
  1828   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1829     instead.
  1830 
  1831   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1832 
  1833   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1834     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1835 
  1836       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1837 
  1838 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1839 
  1840 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1841 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1842 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1843 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1844 syntax.
  1845 
  1846 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1847 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1848 
  1849 * Nitpick:
  1850   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1851   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1852   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1853     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1854 
  1855 * Sledgehammer:
  1856   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1857   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1858     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1859   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1860     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1861   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1862     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1864     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1865   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1866     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1867 
  1868 * Metis:
  1869   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1870   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1871     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 * Command 'try':
  1874   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1875     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1877     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1878 
  1879 * Quickcheck:
  1880   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1881     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1882   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1883     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1884   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1885     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1886     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1887     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1888   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1889     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1890 
  1891 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1892 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1893 
  1894 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1895 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1896 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1897 
  1898 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1899 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901 
  1902 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1903 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1904 
  1905 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1906 arithmetic.
  1907 
  1908 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1909 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1910 and lattice type classes.
  1911 
  1912 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1913 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1914 
  1915 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1916 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1917 
  1918 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1919 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1920 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1921 
  1922   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1923   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1924   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1925   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1926 
  1927 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1928 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1929 constants:
  1930 
  1931   type inat   ~> type enat
  1932   Fin         ~> enat
  1933   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1934   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1935   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1936 
  1937 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1938 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1939 
  1940 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1941 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1942 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1943 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1944 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1945 
  1946 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1947 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1948 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1949 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1950 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1951 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1952 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1953 
  1954   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1955   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1956   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1957   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1958 
  1959 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1960 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1961 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1962 
  1963   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1964   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1965   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1966   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1967   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1968   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1969   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1970   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1971   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1972   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1973   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1974   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1975   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1976   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1977   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1978   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1979   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1980   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1981   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1982   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1983   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1984   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1985   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1986   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1987   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1988   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1989   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1990   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1991   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1992   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1993   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1994   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1995   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1996   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1997   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1998   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1999   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2000   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2001   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2002   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2003   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2004   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2005   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2006   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2007   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2008   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2009   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2010   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2011   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2012   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2013   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2014 
  2015 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2016   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2017   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2018   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2019   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2020     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2023 
  2024   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2025   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2026   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2027   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2028   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2029   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2030   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2031   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2032   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2033   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2034   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2035   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2036   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2037   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2038   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2039   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2040   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2041   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2042   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2043   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2044   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2045   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2046   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2047   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2048   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2049 
  2050 
  2051 *** Document preparation ***
  2052 
  2053 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2054 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2055 same.
  2056 
  2057 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2058 result.
  2059 
  2060 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2061 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2062 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2063 
  2064 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2065 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2066 
  2067 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2068 like this:
  2069 
  2070   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2071   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2072 
  2073 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2074 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2075 layouts.
  2076 
  2077 
  2078 *** ML ***
  2079 
  2080 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2081 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2082 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2083 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2084 under external program control.
  2085 
  2086 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2087 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2088 
  2089 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2090 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2091 (better known as Proof General).
  2092 
  2093 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2094 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2095 
  2096 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2097 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2098 
  2099 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2100 (including quotes etc.).
  2101 
  2102 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2103 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2104 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2105 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2106 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2107 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2108 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2109 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2110 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2111 
  2112 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2113 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2114 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2115 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2116 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2117 
  2118 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2119 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2120 
  2121 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2122 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2123 
  2124 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2125 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2126 
  2127 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2128 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2129 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2130 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2131 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2132 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2133 proper Proof.context.
  2134 
  2135 
  2136 *** System ***
  2137 
  2138 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2139 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2140 
  2141 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2142 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2143 
  2144 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2145 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2146 
  2147   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2148   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2149   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2150   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2151   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2152 
  2153 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2154 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2157 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2158 example:
  2159 
  2160   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2161 
  2162 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2163 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2164 
  2165 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2166 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2167 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2168 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2169 
  2170 
  2171 
  2172 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2173 ----------------------------------
  2174 
  2175 *** General ***
  2176 
  2177 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2178 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2179 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2180 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2181 like this:
  2182 
  2183   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2184 
  2185 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2186 
  2187 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2188 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2189 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2190 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2191 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2192 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2193 
  2194 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2195 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2196 the following package declarations:
  2197 
  2198   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2199   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2200 
  2201 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2202 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2203 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2204 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2205 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2206 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2207 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2208 
  2209 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2210 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2211 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2212 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2213 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2214 
  2215 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2216 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2217 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2218 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2219 
  2220 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2221 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2222 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2223 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2224 
  2225   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2226 
  2227   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2228   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2229   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2230   show_types                    show_types
  2231   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2232   show_consts                   show_consts
  2233   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2234 
  2235   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2236   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2237   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2238 
  2239   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2240   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2241 
  2242   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2243 
  2244   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2245   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2246   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2247   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2248   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2249 
  2250 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2251 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2252 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2253 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2254 
  2255 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257 
  2258   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2259   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2260 
  2261 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2262 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2263 float_token.
  2264 
  2265 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2266 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2270 DejaVu Sans.
  2271 
  2272 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2273 
  2274 
  2275 *** Pure ***
  2276 
  2277 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2278 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2279 time.
  2280 
  2281 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2282 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2285 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2288 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2289 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2290 command already provided this functionality.
  2291 
  2292 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2293 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2294 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2295 without interpretations.
  2296 
  2297 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2298 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2299 
  2300 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2301 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2302 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2303 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2304 
  2305 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2306 'definition' instead.
  2307 
  2308 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2309 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2310 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2311 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2312 
  2313 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2314 constructors.
  2315 
  2316 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2317 the local file system.
  2318 
  2319 
  2320 *** HOL ***
  2321 
  2322 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2323 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2324 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2325 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2326 
  2327   declare [[coercion f]]
  2328 
  2329 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2330 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2331 
  2332   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2333 
  2334 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2335 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2336 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2337 other theories like this:
  2338 
  2339   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2340 
  2341 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2342 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2343 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2344 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2345 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2346 for examples.
  2347 
  2348 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2349 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2352 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2353 
  2354 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2355 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2356 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2357 
  2358 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2359 functorial structure of types.
  2360 
  2361 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2362 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2363 
  2364 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2365 languages.
  2366 
  2367 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2368 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2372 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2375 combinators any longer.
  2376 
  2377 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2378 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2379 
  2380 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2381 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2382 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2383 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2384 
  2385   record 'a foo = ...
  2386   ...
  2387   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2388 
  2389 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2390 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2394 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2395 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2396 
  2397 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2398 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2399 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2400 
  2401 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2402 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2405 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2406 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2407 independently.
  2408 
  2409 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2410 counter example search.
  2411 
  2412 * Sledgehammer:
  2413   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2414     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2415     sledgehammer").
  2416   - Renamed commands:
  2417     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2418     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2419     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2420     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421   - Renamed options:
  2422     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2423     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2424     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2425     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2426     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2427 
  2428 * Nitpick:
  2429   - Renamed options:
  2430     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2431     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2432     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2434   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2435   - Added "whack" option.
  2436   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2437   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2438   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2439   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2440     higher cardinalities.
  2441   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2442 
  2443 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2444 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2445 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2446 
  2447     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2448 
  2449 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2450 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2451 
  2452 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2453 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2454 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2455 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2456 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2457 "smt_solver".
  2458 
  2459 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2460 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2461 
  2462 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2463 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2464 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2465 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2468   - Renamed:
  2469     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2470     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2471     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2472   - Added:
  2473     smt_verbose
  2474     smt_random_seed
  2475     smt_datatypes
  2476     smt_infer_triggers
  2477     smt_monomorph_limit
  2478     cvc3_options
  2479     remote_cvc3_options
  2480     remote_z3_options
  2481     yices_options
  2482 
  2483 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2484 header.
  2485 
  2486 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2487 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2488 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2489 
  2490   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2491 
  2492 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2493 
  2494 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2495 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496 
  2497 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2500 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2503 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2504 
  2505 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2506 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2509 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2510 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2511 
  2512 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2518 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2521 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2522 for congruent(2)).
  2523 
  2524 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2525 
  2526   types
  2527     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2528     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2529 
  2530   constants
  2531     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2532     True ~> HOL.True
  2533     False ~> HOL.False
  2534     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2535     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2536     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2537     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2538     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2539     The ~> HOL.The
  2540     All ~> HOL.All
  2541     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2542     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2543     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2544     If ~> HOL.If
  2545     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2546     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2547     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2548     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2549     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2550     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2551     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2552     op : ~> Set.member
  2553     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2554 
  2555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2558 
  2559     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2560     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2561     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2562     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2563     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2564     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2565     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2566     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2567 
  2568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2569 
  2570 * More stylized fact names:
  2571 
  2572   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2573   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2574   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2575   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2576 
  2577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2578 
  2579 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2580 
  2581   constants
  2582     null ~> List.null
  2583 
  2584   facts
  2585     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2586     null_empty ~> null_def
  2587 
  2588 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2589 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2590 generation.
  2591 
  2592 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2593 Haskell code.
  2594 
  2595 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2596 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2597 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2600 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2603 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2604 
  2605 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2606 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2607 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2610 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2614 
  2615 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2616 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2617 referred to by its qualified name.
  2618 
  2619   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2620   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2621   product ~>  Enum.product
  2622 
  2623 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2624 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2628 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2629 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2633 sort_key.
  2634 
  2635 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2639 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2640 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2641 
  2642   types
  2643     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2644               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2645               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2646         (depends on your needs)
  2647 
  2648   constants
  2649      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2650      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2651      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2652 
  2653 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2654 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2655 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2656 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2659 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2660 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2661 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2662 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2663 
  2664 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2668 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2669 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2670 
  2671 
  2672 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2673 
  2674 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2675 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2676 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2677 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2678 compatibility.
  2679 
  2680 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2681 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2682 
  2683 
  2684 *** HOLCF ***
  2685 
  2686 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2687 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2688 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2690 
  2691 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2692 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2693 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2696   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2697   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2698 
  2699 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2700 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2701 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702 
  2703 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2704 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2705 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2706 domain definition now works:
  2707 
  2708   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2709 
  2710 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2711 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2712 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2713 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2714 
  2715   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2716     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2717 
  2718   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2719 
  2720 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2721 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2722 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2725 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2728 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2729 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2730 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2731 
  2732 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2733 
  2734 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2737 
  2738 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2739 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2740 
  2741 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2742 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2743 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2744 
  2745 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2746 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2747 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2750 still supported as an input translation.
  2751 
  2752 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2753 
  2754   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2755   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2756   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2757   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2758   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2759   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2760   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2761 
  2762 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2763 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2764 
  2765   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2766   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2767   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2768   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2769   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2770   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2771 
  2772 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2773 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2776 
  2777   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2778   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2779   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2780   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2781 
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2785 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2788 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2789 
  2790   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2791   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2792   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2793   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2794   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2795   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2796   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2797   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2798   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2799   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2800   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2801   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2802   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2803   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2804   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2805   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2806   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2807   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2808   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2809   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2810 
  2811 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2812 
  2813   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2814   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2815   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2816   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2817   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2818   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2819   box_less             ~> box_below
  2820   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2821   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2822   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2823   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2824   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2825   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2826   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2827   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2828   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2829   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2830   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2831   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2832   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2833   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2834   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2835   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2836   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2837   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2838   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2839   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2840   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2841   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2842   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2843   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2844   up_less              ~> up_below
  2845   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2846   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2847   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2848   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2849   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2850   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2851   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2852   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2853   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2854   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2855   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2856   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2857   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2858 
  2859 
  2860 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2861 
  2862 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2863 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865 
  2866 *** ML ***
  2867 
  2868 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2869 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2870 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2871 
  2872 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2873 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2874 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2875 
  2876 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2877 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2878 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2879 
  2880 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2881 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2882 
  2883 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2884 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2885 
  2886 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2887 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2888 
  2889 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2890 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2891 
  2892 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2893 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2894 almost all situations.
  2895 
  2896 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2897 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2898 Isabelle/ML.
  2899 
  2900 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2901 meaning.
  2902 
  2903 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2904 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2905 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2906 
  2907 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2908 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2909 
  2910 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2911 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2912 
  2913 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2914 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2915 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2916 
  2917 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2918 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2919 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2920 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2921 configuration options.
  2922 
  2923 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2924 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2925 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2926 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2927 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2928 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2929 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2930 
  2931 
  2932 
  2933 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2934 ---------------------------------
  2935 
  2936 *** General ***
  2937 
  2938 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2939 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2940 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2941 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2942 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2943 their full internal name.
  2944 
  2945 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2946 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2947 Some hints on upgrading:
  2948 
  2949   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2950     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2951     which are independent of this issue.
  2952 
  2953   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2954     provides the following special forms:
  2955 
  2956       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2957       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2958       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2959 
  2960     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2961     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2962     extra variables".
  2963 
  2964     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2965     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2966     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2967     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2968     "logic".
  2969 
  2970   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2971     antiquotations:
  2972 
  2973       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2974       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2975       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2976       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2977 
  2978   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2979     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2980     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2981     antiquotations.
  2982 
  2983 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2984 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2985 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2986 diagnose syntax problems.
  2987 
  2988 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2989 
  2990 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2991 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2992 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2993 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2994 
  2995 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2996 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2997 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2998 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3001 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3002 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3003 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3004 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3007 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3008 
  3009 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3010 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3011 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3012 
  3013   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3014 
  3015 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3016 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3017 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3018 
  3019 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3020 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3024 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3025 
  3026 
  3027 *** Pure ***
  3028 
  3029 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3030 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3031 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3032 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3033 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3034 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3035 inspect proof terms.
  3036 
  3037 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3038 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3039 are added internally.  For example:
  3040 
  3041   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3042 
  3043 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3044 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3047 
  3048 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3049 'class' instead.
  3050 
  3051 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3052 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3054 
  3055 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3056 invariants.
  3057 
  3058 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3059 user space functionality any longer.
  3060 
  3061 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3062 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3066 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3067 
  3068 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3069 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3070 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3071 
  3072 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3073 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3074 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3075 
  3076 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3077 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3078 
  3079 
  3080 *** HOL ***
  3081 
  3082 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3083 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3084 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3085 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3086 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3087 
  3088 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3089 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3090 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3091 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3092 
  3093   fun
  3094     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3095   where
  3096     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3097 
  3098   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3099     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3100 
  3101   quotient_definition
  3102     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3103 
  3104 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3105 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3106 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3107 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3108 
  3109 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3110 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3111 
  3112 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3113 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3114 
  3115 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3117 
  3118 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3119 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3120 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3121 
  3122 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3123 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3130 
  3131 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3132 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133 
  3134 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3135 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3136 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3139   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3140   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3141   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3142   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3143   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3144   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3145   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3146   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3147   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3148   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3149   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3150   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3151   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3152   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3153   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3154   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3155   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3156   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3157   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3158   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3159   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3160   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3161   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3162   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3163   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3164   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3165   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3166   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3167   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3168 
  3169 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3170 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3171 
  3172 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3173 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3174 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3175 
  3176 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3177 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3178 
  3179 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3180 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3183 
  3184 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3185 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3188 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3193 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3194 
  3195 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3196 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3197 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3198 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3201   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3202   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3203   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3207 lattices):
  3208 
  3209     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3210     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3211 
  3212     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3213 
  3214     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3215     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3216     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3217     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3218     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3219     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3220     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3221     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3222     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3223     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3224     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3225     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3226     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3227 
  3228     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3229     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3230     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3231     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3232     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3233     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3234     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3235     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3236     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3237     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3238     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3239     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3240     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3241     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3242     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3243     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3244     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3245     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3246 
  3247   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3248   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3249 
  3250     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3251     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3252     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3253     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3254     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3255 
  3256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Refined field classes:
  3259   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3260     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3261     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3262   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3266   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3267   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3268   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3269     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3270   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3271     equal_neg_zero.
  3272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273 
  3274 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3275 sets to lattices:
  3276 
  3277   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3278   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3279   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3280   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3281   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3282   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3283   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3284   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3285   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3286   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3287 
  3288 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3289 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3290 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3291 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3292 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3293 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3296 multiset order:
  3297 
  3298   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3299     <= and <;
  3300   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3301     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3302     multiset_order;
  3303   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3304     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3305     generation;
  3306   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3307     if needed.
  3308 
  3309 Renamed:
  3310 
  3311   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3312   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3313   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3314 
  3315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3318 
  3319 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3320 
  3321 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3322 
  3323 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3324 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3325 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327   Constants:
  3328   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3329   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3330   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3331   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3332   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3333   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3334   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3335   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3336   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3337   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3338   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3339   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3340   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3341 
  3342   Lemmas:
  3343   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3344   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3345   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3346   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3347   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3348   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3349   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3350   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3351   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3352   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3353   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3354   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3355   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3356 
  3357 * Sledgehammer:
  3358   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3359     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3360     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3361     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3362     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3363     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3364     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3365   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3366   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3367     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3368   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3369     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3370     is still experimental.)
  3371   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3372     full-typed mode.
  3373   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3374 
  3375 * Nitpick:
  3376   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3377   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3378   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3379     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3380   - Added support for quotient types.
  3381   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3382     constructs.
  3383   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3384     "termination" proofs).
  3385   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3386   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3387   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3388   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3389     record getters.
  3390   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3391   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3392   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3393   - Added "atoms" option.
  3394   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3395     problems.
  3396   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3397     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3398     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3400     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3404   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3405   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3406   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3407   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3408   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3409   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3410   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3411   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3412   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 
  3415 *** HOLCF ***
  3416 
  3417 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3418 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3419 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3420 
  3421 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3422 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3423 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3424 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3427 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3428 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3429 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3430 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3433 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3434 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3437 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3440   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3441 
  3442 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3443 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3446   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3447   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3448   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3449   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3450 
  3451 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3452 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3455   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3456   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3457 
  3458 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3459 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3463 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3468 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3469 
  3470 
  3471 *** ML ***
  3472 
  3473 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3474 
  3475     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3476     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3477 
  3478     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3479     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3480     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3481     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3482 
  3483     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3484     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3485     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3486 
  3487 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3488 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3489 
  3490 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3491 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3492 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3493 
  3494 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3495 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3496 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3497 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3498 
  3499 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3500 the context or even global references.
  3501 
  3502 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3503 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3504 
  3505 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3506 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3507 
  3508   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3509   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3510   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3511   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3512   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3513   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3514   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3515   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3516   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3517   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3518 
  3519 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3520 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3521 
  3522 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3523 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3524 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3525 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3526 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3527 
  3528 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3529 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3530 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3531 Theory_Data version.
  3532 
  3533 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3534 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3535 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3536 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3537 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3538 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3539 explicitly in rare situations.
  3540 
  3541 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3542 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3544 
  3545 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3546 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3549 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3550 quite rare).
  3551 
  3552 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3553 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3556 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3557 terms.
  3558 
  3559 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3560 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3561 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3562 
  3563 
  3564 *** System ***
  3565 
  3566 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3567 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3568 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3569 
  3570 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3571 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3572 respectively.
  3573 
  3574 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3575 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3576 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3577 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3578 
  3579   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3580 
  3581 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3582 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3583 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3584 component.
  3585 
  3586 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3587 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3588 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3589 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3590 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3591 the user for manual installation.
  3592 
  3593 
  3594 
  3595 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3596 -------------------------------------
  3597 
  3598 *** General ***
  3599 
  3600 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3601 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3602 
  3603 
  3604 *** Pure ***
  3605 
  3606 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3607 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3608 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3609 
  3610 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3611 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3612 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3613 
  3614 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3615 interpretation.
  3616 
  3617 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3618 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620 
  3621 *** Document preparation ***
  3622 
  3623 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3624 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3625 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3626 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3627 
  3628 
  3629 *** HOL ***
  3630 
  3631 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3632 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3633 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3634 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3635 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3636 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3637 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3638 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3639 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3640 
  3641 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3642 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3643 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3644 
  3645 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3646 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3647 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3648 
  3649 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3650 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3651 
  3652 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3653 
  3654 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3655 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3656 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3657 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3658 
  3659 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3660 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3661 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3662 "mirabelle" utility.
  3663 
  3664 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3665 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3666 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3667 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3668 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3669 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3670 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3671 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3672 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3673 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3674 
  3675 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3676 procedure only.
  3677 
  3678 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3679 
  3680 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3681 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3682 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3683 that fail later.
  3684 
  3685 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3686 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3687 
  3688 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3689 the same method as the approximation method.
  3690 
  3691 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3692 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3693 series expansion.
  3694 
  3695 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3696 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3697 
  3698 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3699 reals.
  3700 
  3701 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3702 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3703 
  3704 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3705 fixpoint theorem.
  3706 
  3707 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3708   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3709     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3710   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3711     accordingly
  3712   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3713     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3714   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3715     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3716 
  3717 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3718 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3719 lattice.
  3720 
  3721 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3722 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3723 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3724 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3725 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3726 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3730   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3731     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3732   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3733     le_inf_iff
  3734   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3735     sup_aci)
  3736   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3737   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3738   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3739     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3740     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3741     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3742     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3743     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3744     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3745     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3746     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3747     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3748     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3749   - authentic syntax for
  3750     Set.Pow
  3751     Set.image
  3752   - mere abbreviations:
  3753     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3754     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3755     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3756     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3757     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3758     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3759     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3760     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3761   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3762 
  3763 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3764 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3765 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3766 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3767 
  3768 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3769 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3770 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3771 
  3772 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3773 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3776 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3777 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3778 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3781 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3782 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3783 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3784 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3785 
  3786 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3787 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3789 
  3790 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3791 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3794 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3795 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3796 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3797 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3798 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3799 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3803     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3804     code_post       replaces    code post
  3805     etc.
  3806   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3807 
  3808 * Renamed methods:
  3809     sizechange -> size_change
  3810     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3811   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3814 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3815 
  3816 * Renamed theorems:
  3817     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3818     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3819     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3820     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3821     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3822   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826 
  3827 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830 
  3831 *** HOLCF ***
  3832 
  3833 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3834 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3835 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3836 
  3837 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3838 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3839 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3840 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3841 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3842 
  3843 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3844 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3845 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3846 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3847 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3848 
  3849 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3850 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3851 constructor are pre-configured.
  3852 
  3853 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3854 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3855 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3856 
  3857 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3858 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3859 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3860 as well.)
  3861 
  3862 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3863 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3864 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3865 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3866 examples.
  3867 
  3868 
  3869 *** ML ***
  3870 
  3871 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3872 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3873 
  3874 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3875 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3876 position, logical grouping etc.
  3877 
  3878 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3879 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3880 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3881 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3882 
  3883 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3884 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3885 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3886 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3887 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3888 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3889 
  3890 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3891 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3892 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3893 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3894 experiments with references.
  3895 
  3896 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3897 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3898 
  3899 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3900 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3901 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3902 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3903 
  3904 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3905 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3906 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3907 
  3908 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3909 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3910 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3918 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3919 
  3920 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3921 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3922 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3923 
  3924 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3925 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3926 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3929 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3930 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3931 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3932 
  3933 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3934 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3935 instead of global theory.
  3936 
  3937 
  3938 *** System ***
  3939 
  3940 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3941 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3942 usedir option -q.
  3943 
  3944 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3945 also the system manual.
  3946 
  3947 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3948 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3949 
  3950 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3951 this is always enabled.
  3952 
  3953 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3954 
  3955 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3956 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3957 currently supported on Linux only.
  3958 
  3959 
  3960 
  3961 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3962 --------------------------------
  3963 
  3964 *** General ***
  3965 
  3966 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3967 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3968 
  3969   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3970     "isatool."
  3971 
  3972   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3973     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3974 
  3975   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3976     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3977 
  3978 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3979 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3980 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3981 
  3982 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3983 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3984 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3985 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3986 via "isabelle emacs".
  3987 
  3988 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3989 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3990 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3991 
  3992 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3993 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3994 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3995 
  3996 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3997 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3998 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3999 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4000 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4001 
  4002 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4003 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4004 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4005 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4006 
  4007 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4008 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4009 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4010 
  4011 
  4012 *** Pure ***
  4013 
  4014 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4015 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4016 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4017 
  4018 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4019 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4020 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4021 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4022 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4023 
  4024 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4025 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4026 useful in locale declarations.
  4027 
  4028 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4029 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4030 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4031 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4032 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4033 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4034 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4035 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4036 no longer generated.
  4037 
  4038 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4039 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4040 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4041 
  4042 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4043 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4044 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4045 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4046 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4047 
  4048 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4050 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4051 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4052 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4053 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4054 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4055 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4056 
  4057 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4058 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4059 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4060 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4061 
  4062 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4065 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4066 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4067 
  4068 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4069 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4072 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4073 in HOL, write
  4074 
  4075     class foo = ...
  4076 
  4077 instead of
  4078 
  4079     class foo = type + ...
  4080 
  4081 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4082 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4085 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4086 
  4087 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4088 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4089 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4090 
  4091 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4092 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4093 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4094 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4095 directly in regular applications.
  4096 
  4097 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4098 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4099 
  4100 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4101 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4102 
  4103 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4104 theory context.
  4105 
  4106 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4107 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4110 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4111 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4112 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4113 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4114 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4115 
  4116   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4117 
  4118 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4119 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4120 normalization.
  4121 
  4122 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4123 addressing etc.
  4124 
  4125 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4126 
  4127   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4128   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4129 
  4130 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4131 
  4132   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4133      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4134      parts of the code generator framework).
  4135 
  4136   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4137      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4138      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4139 
  4140 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4143 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4144 
  4145 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4146 patterns, e.g.
  4147 
  4148     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4149 
  4150 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4151 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4152 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4153 hyphen:
  4154 
  4155     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4156 
  4157 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4158 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4159 
  4160 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4161 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4162 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4163 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4164 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4165 higher-order unification.
  4166 
  4167 
  4168 *** Document preparation ***
  4169 
  4170 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4171 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4172 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4173 
  4174 
  4175 *** HOL ***
  4176 
  4177 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4178 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4179 
  4180 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4181 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4182 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4183 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4184 Main, as before.
  4185 
  4186 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4187 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4188 
  4189 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4190 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4191 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4192 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4193 
  4194 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4195 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4196 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4197 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4198 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4199 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4200 
  4201 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4202 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4203 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4204 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4205 
  4206 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4207 menu.
  4208 
  4209 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4210 (contains the empty clause).
  4211 
  4212 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4213 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4214 
  4215 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4216 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4217 
  4218 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4219 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4220 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4223 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4224 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4225 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4226 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4227 
  4228 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4229 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4230 
  4231 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4232 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4233 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4234 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4235 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4236 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4237 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4238 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4239 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4240 
  4241 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4242 
  4243 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4244 
  4245 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4246 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247 
  4248 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4249 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4250 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4251 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4252 
  4253 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4254 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4255 
  4256     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4257     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4258     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4259     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4260     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4261     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4262     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4263     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4264 
  4265 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4266 theory Set.
  4267 
  4268 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4269 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4270 
  4271 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4272 
  4273 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4274 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4275 
  4276 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4277 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4278 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4279 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4280 allowed. For examples see
  4281 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4282 
  4283 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4284 
  4285 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4289 structure:
  4290 
  4291     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4292     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4293     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4294     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4295     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4296     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4297     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4298     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4299     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4300     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4301     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4302     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4303     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4304     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4305     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4306     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4307     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4308     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4309     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4310     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4311     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4312     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4313     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4314     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4315     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4316     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4317     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4318     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4319     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4320     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4321     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4322     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4323     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4324 
  4325     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4326     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4327     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4328     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4329     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4330     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4331     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4332     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4333     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4334     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4335 
  4336     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4337     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4338     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4339     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4340     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4341     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4342 
  4343 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4344 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4345 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4346 
  4347 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4348 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4349 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4350 
  4351 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4352 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4353 
  4354 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4355 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4356 
  4357 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4358 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4359 proofs, e.g.
  4360 
  4361   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4362 
  4363 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4364 
  4365 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4366 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4367 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4370 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4374 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4375 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4379 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4380 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4381 preorder_class.*.
  4382 
  4383 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4384 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4385 
  4386 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4387 
  4388   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4389 
  4390 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4391 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4392 fold_image.
  4393 
  4394 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4395 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4396 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4397 the former will disappear at some point.
  4398 
  4399 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4400 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4401 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4402 
  4403 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4404 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4405 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4406 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4407 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4408 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4409 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4410 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4411 
  4412 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4413 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4414 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4415 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4416 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4417 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4418 
  4419     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4420     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4421     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4422     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4423     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4424     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4425     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4426 
  4427 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4428 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4429 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4430 
  4431 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4432 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4433 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4434 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4435 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4436 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4437 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4438 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4439 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4440 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4441 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4442 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4443 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4444 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4445 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4446 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4447 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4448 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4449 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4450 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4451 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4452 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4453 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4454 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4455 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4456 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4457 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4458 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4459 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4460 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4461 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4462 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4463 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4464 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4465 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4466 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4467 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4468 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4469 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4470 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4471 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4472 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4473 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4474 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4475 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4476 
  4477 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4480 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4481 
  4482 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4483 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4484 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4485 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4486 
  4487 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4488 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4489 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4490 theory RealVector.
  4491 
  4492 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4493 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4494 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4495 and inner products are included.
  4496 
  4497 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4498 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4499 supported.
  4500 
  4501 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4502 first diagonalization argument.
  4503 
  4504 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4505 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4506 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4507 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4508 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4509 
  4510     hide (open) const gcd
  4511     abbreviation gcd where
  4512       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4513     notation (output)
  4514       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4515 
  4516 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4517 
  4518 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4519 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4520 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4523 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4524 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4525 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4526 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4527 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4528 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4529 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4530 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4531 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4532 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4533 cases.
  4534 
  4535 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4536 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4537 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4538 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4539 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4540 
  4541     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4542     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4543     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4544     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4545     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4546 
  4547 
  4548 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4549 
  4550 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4551 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4552 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4553 
  4554 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4555 
  4556 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4557 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4558 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4559 
  4560 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4561 
  4562 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4563 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4564 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4565 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4566 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4567 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4568 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4569 
  4570 
  4571 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4572 
  4573 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4574 
  4575 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4576 theory targets.
  4577 
  4578 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4579 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4580 'inductive' etc.
  4581 
  4582 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4583 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4584 
  4585 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4586 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4587 
  4588 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4589 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4590 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4591 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4592 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4593 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4594 the algorithm W:
  4595 
  4596  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4597  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4598          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4599 
  4600 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4601 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4602 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 *** HOLCF ***
  4606 
  4607 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4608 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4609 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4610 
  4611 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4612 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4613 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4614 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4615 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4618 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4619 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4620 
  4621 
  4622 *** ZF ***
  4623 
  4624 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4625 
  4626 
  4627 *** ML ***
  4628 
  4629 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4630 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4631 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4632 5.2.1!
  4633 
  4634 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4635 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4636 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4637 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4638 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4639 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4640 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4641 
  4642 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4643 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4644 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4645 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4646 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4647 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4648 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4649 
  4650 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4651 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4652 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4653 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4654 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4655 
  4656 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4657 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4658 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4659 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4660 Method.add_method.
  4661 
  4662 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4663 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4664 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4665 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4666 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4667 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4668 
  4669 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4670 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4671 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4672 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4673 examples.
  4674 
  4675 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4676 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4677 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4678 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4679 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4680 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4681 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4682 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4683 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4684 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4685 
  4686 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4687 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4688 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4689 
  4690 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4691 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4692 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4693 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4694 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4695 resort for legacy applications.
  4696 
  4697 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4698 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4699 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4700 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4701 explicit runtime argument.
  4702 
  4703 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4704 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4705 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4706 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4707 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4710 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4711 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4712 theory state.
  4713 
  4714 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4715 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4716 
  4717   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4718   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4719   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4720   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4721   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4722   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4723   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4724   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4725   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4726   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4727 
  4728 
  4729 *** System ***
  4730 
  4731 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4732 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4733 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4734 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4735 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4736 
  4737 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4738 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4739 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4740 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4741 
  4742 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4743 
  4744 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4745 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4746 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4747 prover operations.
  4748 
  4749 
  4750 
  4751 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4752 -------------------------------
  4753 
  4754 *** General ***
  4755 
  4756 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4757 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4758 
  4759 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4760 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4761 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4762 provides a proper context already.
  4763 
  4764 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4765 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4766 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4767 
  4768 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4769 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4770 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4771 swap theory imports.
  4772 
  4773 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4774 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4775 
  4776 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4777 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4778 white space without escapes.
  4779 
  4780 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4781 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4782 "foo_bar".
  4783 
  4784 
  4785 *** Pure ***
  4786 
  4787 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4788 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4789 
  4790 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4791 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4792 
  4793 (1) unused_thms
  4794      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4795 
  4796 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4797      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4798      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4799 
  4800 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4801      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4802      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4803      their ancestors.
  4804 
  4805 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4806 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4807 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4808 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4809 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4810 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4811 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4812 
  4813 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4814 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4815 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4816 
  4817 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4818 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4819 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4820 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4821 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4822 
  4823 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4824 
  4825 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4826 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4827 update of theories within ML code.
  4828 
  4829 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4830 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4831 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4832 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4833 
  4834 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4835 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4836 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4838 
  4839 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4840 
  4841 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4842 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4843 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4844 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4845 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4846 
  4847 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4848 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4849 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4850 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4851 situations.
  4852 
  4853 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4854 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4855 proof text.
  4856 
  4857 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4858 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4859 
  4860 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4861 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4862 predicates.
  4863 
  4864 
  4865 *** Document preparation ***
  4866 
  4867 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4868 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4869 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4870 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4871 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4872 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4873 
  4874 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4875 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4876 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4877 
  4878 
  4879 *** HOL ***
  4880 
  4881 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4882 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4883 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4884 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4885 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4886 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4887 
  4888 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4889 with multithreading.
  4890 
  4891 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4892 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4893 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4894 
  4895 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4896 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4897 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4898 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4901 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4902 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4903 and makes them available separately.  See
  4904 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4905 
  4906 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4907 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4908 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4909 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4910 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4911 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4912 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4913 the declared rules.
  4914 
  4915 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4916 
  4917   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4918 
  4919 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4920 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4921 
  4922 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4923 
  4924   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4925 
  4926   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4927     definitions on => and bool.
  4928 
  4929   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4930     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4931     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4932 
  4933       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4934       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4935       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4936       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4937       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4938       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4939       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4940       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4941 
  4942   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4943     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4944     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4945 
  4946   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4947     The proof pattern
  4948 
  4949       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4950       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4951 
  4952     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4953     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4954 
  4955       have "EX S. P S"
  4956       proof
  4957         show "P S" <...>
  4958       qed
  4959 
  4960   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4961     The proof pattern
  4962 
  4963       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4964       also have "S = T" <...>
  4965       finally have "P T" .
  4966 
  4967     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4968     must be replaced by something like
  4969 
  4970       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4971       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4972       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4973 
  4974   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4975     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4976 
  4977       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4978 
  4979     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4980     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4981     type of the form
  4982 
  4983       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4984 
  4985     rather than
  4986 
  4987       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4988 
  4989 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4990 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4991 
  4992 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4993 
  4994 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4995 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4997 
  4998 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4999 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5000 
  5001 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5002 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5003 
  5004 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5005 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5006 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5007 
  5008 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5009 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5010 
  5011   less_trans
  5012   less_linear
  5013   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5014   le_less_trans
  5015   less_le_trans
  5016   less_not_sym
  5017   less_asym
  5018 
  5019 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5020 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5021 and different variable names.
  5022 
  5023 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5024 
  5025 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5026 finite maps.
  5027 
  5028 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5029 
  5030 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5031 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5032 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5033 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5034 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5035 accordingly.
  5036 
  5037 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5038 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5039 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5040 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5041 
  5042 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5043 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5044 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5045 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5046 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5048 
  5049 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5050 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5051 
  5052 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5053 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5054 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5055 
  5056 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5060 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5061 
  5062 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5063 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5066 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5067 
  5068 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5069 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5071 
  5072 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5073 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5074 
  5075 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5076 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5077 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5078 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5079 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5080 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5081 
  5082 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5083 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5084 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5085 
  5086 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5087 
  5088 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5089 
  5090 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5091 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5092 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5093 
  5094 
  5095 *** ZF ***
  5096 
  5097 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5098 same session:
  5099 
  5100   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5101   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5102   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5103   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5104   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5105   List      -> List_ZF
  5106   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5107 
  5108 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5109 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5110 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5111 
  5112 
  5113 *** ML ***
  5114 
  5115 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5116 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5117 
  5118 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5119 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5120 
  5121 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5122 
  5123 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5124 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5125 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5126 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5127 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5128 
  5129 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5130 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5131 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5132 
  5133 
  5134 *** System ***
  5135 
  5136 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5137 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5138 
  5139 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5140 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5141 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5142 
  5143 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5144 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5145 
  5146 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5147 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5148 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5149 
  5150 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5151 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5152 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5153 
  5154 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5155 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5156 
  5157 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5158 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5159 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5160 script.
  5161 
  5162 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5163 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5164 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5165 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5166 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5167 
  5168 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5169 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5170 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5171 
  5172 
  5173 
  5174 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5175 -----------------------------------
  5176 
  5177 *** General ***
  5178 
  5179 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5180 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5181 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5182 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5183 
  5184 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5185 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5186 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5187 
  5188 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5189 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5190 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5191 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5192 
  5193 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5194 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5195 quotes.
  5196 
  5197 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5198 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5199 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5200 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5201 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5202 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5203 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5204 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5205 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5206 
  5207 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5208 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5209 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5210 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5211 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5212 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5213 
  5214 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5215 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5216 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5217 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5218 
  5219 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5220 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5221 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5222 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5223 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5224 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5225 
  5226 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5227 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5228 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5229 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5230 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5231 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5232 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5233 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5234 
  5235 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5236 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5237 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5238 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5239 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5240 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5241 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5242 
  5243 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5244 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5245 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5246 
  5247 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5248 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5249 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5250 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5251 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5252 limit is imposed.
  5253 
  5254 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5255 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5256 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5257 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5258 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5259 and scalability.
  5260 
  5261 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5262 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5263 
  5264 
  5265 *** Document preparation ***
  5266 
  5267 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5268 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5269 current context.
  5270 
  5271 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5272 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5273 
  5274 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5275 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5276 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5277 
  5278 
  5279 *** Pure ***
  5280 
  5281 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5282 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5283 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5284 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5285 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5286 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5287 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5288 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5289 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5290 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5291 
  5292 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5293 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5294 sketch:
  5295 
  5296     internal compilation:
  5297         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5298     writing SML code to a file:
  5299         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5300     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5301         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5302     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5303         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5304 
  5305     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5306         method ``eval''
  5307 
  5308 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5309 
  5310 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5311 
  5312     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5313     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5314     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5315     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5316 
  5317 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5318 
  5319     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5320       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5321 
  5322     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5323       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5324 
  5325     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5326       {(target)}+
  5327         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5328 
  5329     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5330       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5331         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5332 
  5333 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5334 
  5335 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5336 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5337 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5338 codegen".
  5339 
  5340 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5341 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5342 annotations).
  5343 
  5344 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5345 syntax.
  5346 
  5347 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5348 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5349 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5350 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5351 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5352 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5353 
  5354 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5355 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5356 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5357 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5358 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5359 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5360 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5361 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5362 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5363 equations, see section "definitions".
  5364 
  5365 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5366 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5367 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5368 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5369 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5370 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5371 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5372 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5373 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5374 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5375 
  5376 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5377 configuration options:
  5378 
  5379   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5380   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5381   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5382   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5383   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5384   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5385   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5386   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5387   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5388 
  5389 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5390 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5391 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5392 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5393 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5394 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5395 order.
  5396 
  5397 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5398 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5399 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5400 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5401 context encountered later on.
  5402 
  5403 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5404 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5405 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5406 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5407 
  5408 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5409 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5410 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5411 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5412 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5413 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5414 
  5415 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5416 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5417 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5418 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5419 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5420 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5421 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5422 more permissive.
  5423 
  5424 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5425 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5426 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5427 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5428 maintainability of proof texts.
  5429 
  5430 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5431 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5432 
  5433   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5434   then guess x and y by clarify
  5435 
  5436 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5437 proof tools being involved here.
  5438 
  5439 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5440 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5441 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5442 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5443 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5444 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5445 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5446 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5447 
  5448 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5449 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5450 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5451 
  5452   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5453   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5454   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5455   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5456 
  5457 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5458 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5459 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5460 
  5461 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5462 both named and unnamed ones.
  5463 
  5464 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5465 
  5466   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5467 
  5468 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5469 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5470 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5471 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5472 
  5473 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5474 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5475 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5476 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5477 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5478 
  5479 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5480 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5481 
  5482 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5483 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5484 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5485 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5486 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5487 originally first one.
  5488 
  5489 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5490 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5491 expected.
  5492 
  5493 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5494 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5495 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5496 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5497 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5498 
  5499   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5500     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5501     obtains x where "P x"
  5502 
  5503   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5504     assumes "A & B"
  5505     obtains A and B
  5506 
  5507   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5508     assumes "A | B"
  5509     obtains
  5510       A
  5511     | B
  5512 
  5513 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5514 explicitly:
  5515 
  5516   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5517     obtains "~ thesis"
  5518 
  5519   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5520     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5521 
  5522 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5523 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5524 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5525 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5526 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5527 case_names).
  5528 
  5529 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5530 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5531 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5532 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5533 
  5534 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5535 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5536 top-level lemma.
  5537 
  5538 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5539 introduction rule (default "that").
  5540 
  5541 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5542 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5543 to occur.
  5544 
  5545 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5546 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5547 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5548 representations independently of name spaces.
  5549 
  5550 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5551 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5552 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5553 
  5554 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5555 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5556 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5557 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5558 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5559 current context.
  5560 
  5561 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5562 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5563 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5564 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5565 
  5566   axiomatization
  5567     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5568     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5569 
  5570   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5571   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5572 
  5573   abbreviation
  5574     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5575     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5576 
  5577 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5578 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5579 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5580 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5581 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5582 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5583 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5584 
  5585 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5586 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5587 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5588 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5589 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5590 
  5591 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5592 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5593 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5594 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5595 
  5596 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5597 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5598 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5599 
  5600   definition "K x _ = x"
  5601 
  5602   inductive conj for A B
  5603   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5604 
  5605 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5606 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5607 abbreviations on output.
  5608 
  5609 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5610 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5611 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5612 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5613 
  5614 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5615 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5616 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5617 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5618 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5619 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5620 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5621 
  5622 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5623 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5624 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5625 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5626 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5627 
  5628 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5629 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5630 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5631 
  5632 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5633 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5634 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5635 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5636 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5637 
  5638   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5639     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5640 
  5641 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5642 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5643 partial_order.
  5644 
  5645 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5646 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5647 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5648 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5649 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5650 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5651 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5652 examples.
  5653 
  5654 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5655 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5656 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5657 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5658 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5659 
  5660 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5661 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5662 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5663 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5664 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5665 
  5666   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5667   (induct set: foo bar)
  5668   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5669   (induct type: foo bar)
  5670 
  5671 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5672 new format.
  5673 
  5674 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5675 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5676 
  5677 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5678 considered a legacy feature.
  5679 
  5680 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5681 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5682 
  5683 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5684 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5685 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5686 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5687   
  5688 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5689 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5690 manipulating the claset.
  5691 
  5692 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5693 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5694 least one premise.
  5695 
  5696 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5697 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5698 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5699 rule steps.
  5700 
  5701 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5702 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5703 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5704 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5705 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5706 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5707 
  5708 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5709 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5710 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5711 
  5712 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5713 the graph browser tool.
  5714 
  5715 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5716 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5717 
  5718 
  5719 *** HOL ***
  5720 
  5721 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5722 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5723 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5724 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5725 multi-threading.
  5726   
  5727 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5728 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5729 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5730 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5731 work with multi-threading.
  5732 
  5733 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5734 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5735 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5736 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5737 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5738 
  5739 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5740 
  5741 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5742 equality.
  5743 
  5744 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5745 the new 'class' package:
  5746 
  5747     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5748     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5749     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5750     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5751     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5752     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5753     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5754     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5755     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5756     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5757     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5758     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5759     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5760     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5761     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5762     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5763     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5764     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5765     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5766     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5767 
  5768 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5769 
  5770 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5771 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5772 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5773 names.
  5774 
  5775 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5776 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5777 
  5778 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5779 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5780 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5781 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5782 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5783 
  5784 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5785 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5786 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5787 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5788 
  5789 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5790 
  5791 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5792 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5793 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5794 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5796 
  5797 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5798 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5799 
  5800 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5801 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5802 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5803 
  5804 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5805 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5806 
  5807 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5808 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5809 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5810 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5811 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5812 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5813 in the current context.
  5814 
  5815 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5816 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5818 
  5819 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5820 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5821 
  5822 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5823 
  5824     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5825     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5826 
  5827     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5828       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5829     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5830     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5831 
  5832     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5833     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5834 
  5835   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5836 
  5837     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5838     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5839     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5840     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5841     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5842     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5843     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5844     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5845     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5846     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5847     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5848     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5849     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5850     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5851     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5852     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5853     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5854     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5855     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5856     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5857     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5858     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5859     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5860     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5861     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5862     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5863     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5864     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5865     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5866     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5867     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5868     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5869     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5870     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5871     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5872 
  5873     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5874     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5875     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5876     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5877     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5878     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5879     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5880     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5881     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5882     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5883     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5884     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5885     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5886     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5887     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5888     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5889     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5890 
  5891     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5892     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5893     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5894     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5895     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5896     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5897     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5898     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5899     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5900     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5901     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5902     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5903     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5904     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5905     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5906     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5907     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5908     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5909     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5910     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5911     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5912     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5913     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5914     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5915     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5916     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5917     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5918     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5919 
  5920     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5921     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5922     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5923     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5924     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5925     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5926 
  5927     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5928     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5929     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5930     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5931 
  5932     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5933     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5934 
  5935     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5936     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5937 
  5938 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5939 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5940 
  5941 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5942 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5943 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5944 "*.size".
  5945 
  5946 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5948 
  5949 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5950 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5951 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5954 
  5955 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5956 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5957 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5958 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5959 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5960 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5961 numerals on all operations.
  5962 
  5963 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5964 
  5965 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5966 
  5967 * Code generator library theories:
  5968   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5969     languages.
  5970   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5971     languages.
  5972   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5973     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5974   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5975   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5976     denominator).
  5977   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5978     representable by rational numbers.
  5979   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5980     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5981     includes Code_Integer.
  5982   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5983     target-language built-in integers.
  5984   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5985     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5986 
  5987 * New package for inductive predicates
  5988 
  5989   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5990 
  5991     inductive
  5992       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5993       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5994     where
  5995       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5996     | ...
  5997 
  5998   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5999 
  6000     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6001 
  6002     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6003     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6004 
  6005     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6006     intros
  6007       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6008       ...
  6009 
  6010   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6011   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6012 
  6013     inductive_set
  6014       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6015       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6016     where
  6017       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6018     | ...
  6019 
  6020   or
  6021 
  6022     inductive_set
  6023       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6024       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6025       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6026     where
  6027       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6028     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6029     | ...
  6030 
  6031   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6032 
  6033   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6034   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6035 
  6036   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6037 
  6038   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6039     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6040     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6041     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6042     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6043 
  6044   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6045     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6046     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6047     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6048     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6049     statements of the form
  6050 
  6051       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6052 
  6053     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6054     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6055 
  6056       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6057 
  6058   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6059 
  6060       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6061         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6062         ==> ... ==> P
  6063 
  6064     for predicates and
  6065 
  6066       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6067         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6068         ==> ... ==> P
  6069 
  6070     for sets rather than
  6071 
  6072       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6073         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6074         ==> ... ==> P
  6075 
  6076     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6077     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6078     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6079 
  6080   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6081     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6082     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6083 
  6084 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6085 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6086 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6087 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6088 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6089 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6090 
  6091 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6092 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6093 
  6094 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6095 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6096 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6097 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6098 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6099 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6100 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6101 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6102 variable.
  6103 
  6104 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6105 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6106 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6107 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6108   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6109   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6110 
  6111 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6112 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6113 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6114 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6115 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6116 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6117 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6118 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6119 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6120 
  6121 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6122 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6123 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6124 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6125 rat, etc.
  6126 
  6127 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6128 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6129 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6130 
  6131 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6132 
  6133 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6134 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6135 
  6136 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6137 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6138 
  6139 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6140 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6141 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6142 
  6143 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6144 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6146 
  6147 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6148 
  6149 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6150 
  6151 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6152 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6153 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6154 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6155 
  6156 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6157 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6158 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6159 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6162 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6163 algebraic operations.
  6164 
  6165 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6167 
  6168 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6170 
  6171 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6172 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6173 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6174 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6175 adapted.
  6176  
  6177 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6178 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6179 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6180 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6181 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6182 
  6183 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6184 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6185 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6186 
  6187 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6188 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6189 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6190 
  6191 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6194 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6195 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6196   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6197       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6198   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6199   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6200   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6201 
  6202 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6203 
  6204 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6205 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6206 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6207 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6208 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6209 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6210 
  6211 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6212 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6213 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6214 
  6215 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6216 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6217 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6219 
  6220 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6221 
  6222 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6223 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6224 
  6225 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6226 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6227 
  6228 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6229 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6230 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6231 
  6232 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6233 True/False.
  6234 
  6235 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6236 
  6237 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6238 
  6239 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6240 ``rule'' method.
  6241 
  6242 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6243 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
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