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NEWS

author | huffman |

Tue Aug 16 13:07:52 2011 -0700 (2011-08-16) | |

changeset 44229 | 7e3a026f014f |

parent 44136 | e63ad7d5158d |

child 44274 | 731b18266d5a |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

Multivariate_Analysis includes Determinants.thy, but doesn't import it by default

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

10 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

11 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

13 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

14 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

15 usedir option -Q.

17 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

18 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

20 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

21 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

23 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

24 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

25 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

26 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

27 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

28 INCOMPATIBILITY.

30 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

31 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

33 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

34 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

35 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

36 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

37 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

39 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

40 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

42 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

43 configuration options, with more conventional names:

45 long_names ~> names_long

46 short_names ~> names_short

47 unique_names ~> names_unique

49 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

51 declare [[names_unique = false]]

53 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

54 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

55 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

57 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in

58 syntax diagrams.

61 *** HOL ***

63 * Classes bot and top require underlying partial order rather than preorder:

64 uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

66 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

67 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for complete

68 boolean algebras and complete linear orders. Lemmas Inf_less_iff,

69 less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in class complete_linorder.

70 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.

71 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary, Sup_binary,

72 INF_eq, SUP_eq, INF_UNIV_range, SUP_UNIV_range, Int_eq_Inter,

73 INTER_eq_Inter_image, Inter_def, INT_eq, Un_eq_Union, UNION_eq_Union_image,

74 Union_def, UN_singleton, UN_eq have been discarded.

75 More consistent and less misunderstandable names:

76 INFI_def ~> INF_def

77 SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

78 INF_leI ~> INF_lower

79 INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2

80 le_INFI ~> INF_greatest

81 le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper

82 le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2

83 SUP_leI ~> SUP_least

84 INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

85 SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

86 INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

87 SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

88 INTER_def ~> INTER_eq

89 UNION_def ~> UNION_eq

91 INCOMPATIBILITY.

93 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems referring

94 to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection UN_ball_bex_simps.

95 INCOMPATIBILITY.

97 * Archimedean_Field.thy:

98 floor now is defined as parameter of a separate type class floor_ceiling.

100 * Finite_Set.thy: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

102 locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

103 locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

105 Both use point-free characterisation; interpretation proofs may need adjustment.

106 INCOMPATIBILITY.

108 * Code generation:

109 - theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of characters

110 in the target language.

111 - commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code instead.

112 - method evaluation is legacy, use method eval instead.

113 - legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. To activate it, add the following

114 line in your theory:

115 setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}

117 * Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

119 * Nitpick:

120 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

121 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

122 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

123 INCOMPATIBILITY.

125 * Sledgehammer:

126 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

127 INCOMPATIBILITY.

128 - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed

129 TPTP problems (TFF).

130 - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound", "max_mono_iters",

131 and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

132 - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full Types"

133 Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

135 * Metis:

136 - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

137 - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

139 * "try":

140 - Renamed "try_methods" and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and "elim:"

141 options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

142 - Introduced "try" that not only runs "try_methods" but also "solve_direct",

143 "sledgehammer", "quickcheck", and "nitpick".

145 * Quickcheck:

146 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

147 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

148 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

149 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

150 - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

151 narrowing-based testing.

152 It requires that the Glasgow Haskell compiler is installed and

153 its location is known to Isabelle with the environment variable

154 ISABELLE_GHC.

155 - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

156 from HOL-Library

158 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".

159 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use partial_function instead.

161 * HOL-Probability:

162 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

163 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

164 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended reals.

165 INCOMPATIBILITY.

167 * Old recdef package has been moved to Library/Old_Recdef.thy, where it

168 must be loaded explicitly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

170 * Well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has been moved to

171 Library/Wfrec.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

173 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to Library/Extended_Nat.

174 The names of the following types and constants have changed:

175 inat (type) ~> enat

176 Fin ~> enat

177 Infty ~> infinity (overloaded)

178 iSuc ~> eSuc

179 the_Fin ~> the_enat

180 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has

181 been renamed accordingly.

183 * Limits.thy: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in

184 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.

186 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed

187 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants

188 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to

189 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have

190 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use

191 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have

192 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):

194 Cart_eq ~> vec_eq_iff

195 dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le

196 tendsto_vector ~> vec_tendstoI

197 Cauchy_vector ~> vec_CauchyI

200 *** Document preparation ***

202 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators, which are better

203 avoided in the first place. Implicit tab-width is 1.

205 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

206 isar-ref manual.

208 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its result.

210 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

211 like this:

213 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

214 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

216 * New term style "isub" as ad-hoc conversion of variables x1, y23 into

217 subscripted form x\<^isub>1, y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

219 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

220 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

223 *** ML ***

225 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

226 representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

227 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

228 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

229 under external program control.

231 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

232 data, which requires explicit setup.

234 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

235 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

236 (better known as Proof General).

238 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

239 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

241 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

242 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

244 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

245 (including quotes etc.).

247 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

248 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

249 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

250 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

251 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

252 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

253 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

254 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

255 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

257 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

258 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

259 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

260 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

261 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

263 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

264 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

266 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

267 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

269 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

270 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

272 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

273 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

274 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

275 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

276 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

277 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

278 proper Proof.context.

280 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

281 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.

282 For example:

284 Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

288 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

289 ----------------------------------

291 *** General ***

293 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

294 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

295 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

296 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

297 like this:

299 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

301 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

303 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

304 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

305 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

306 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

307 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

308 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

310 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

311 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

312 the following package declarations:

314 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

315 \usepackage{textcomp}

317 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

318 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

319 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

320 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

321 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

322 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

323 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

325 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

326 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

327 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

328 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

329 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

331 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

332 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

333 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

334 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

336 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

337 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

338 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

339 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

341 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

343 eta_contract eta_contract

344 show_brackets show_brackets

345 show_sorts show_sorts

346 show_types show_types

347 show_question_marks show_question_marks

348 show_consts show_consts

349 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

351 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

352 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

353 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

355 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

356 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

358 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

360 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

361 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

362 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

363 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

364 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

366 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

367 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

368 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

369 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

371 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

372 INCOMPATIBILITY.

374 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

375 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

377 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

378 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

379 float_token.

381 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

382 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

383 INCOMPATIBILITY.

385 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

386 DejaVu Sans.

388 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

391 *** Pure ***

393 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

394 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

395 time.

397 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

398 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

400 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

401 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

403 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

404 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

405 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

406 command already provided this functionality.

408 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

409 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

410 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

411 without interpretations.

413 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

414 in addition to interpretations in theories.

416 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

417 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

418 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

419 feature is still required for historical reasons.

421 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

422 'definition' instead.

424 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

425 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

426 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

427 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

429 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

430 constructors.

432 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

433 the local file system.

436 *** HOL ***

438 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

439 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

440 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

441 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

443 declare [[coercion f]]

445 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

446 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

448 declare [[coercion_map map]]

450 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

451 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

452 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

453 other theories like this:

455 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

457 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

458 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

459 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

460 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

461 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

462 for examples.

464 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

465 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

467 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

468 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

470 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

471 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

472 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

474 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

475 functorial structure of types.

477 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

478 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

480 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

481 languages.

483 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

484 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

485 INCOMPATIBILITY.

487 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

488 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

490 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

491 combinators any longer.

493 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

494 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

496 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

497 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

498 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

499 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

501 record 'a foo = ...

502 ...

503 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

505 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

506 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

507 INCOMPATIBILITY.

509 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

510 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

511 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

513 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

514 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

515 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

517 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

518 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

520 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

521 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

522 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

523 independently.

525 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

526 counter example search.

528 * Sledgehammer:

529 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

530 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

531 sledgehammer").

532 - Renamed commands:

533 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

534 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

535 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

536 INCOMPATIBILITY.

537 - Renamed options:

538 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

539 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

540 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

541 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

542 INCOMPATIBILITY.

544 * Nitpick:

545 - Renamed options:

546 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

547 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

548 INCOMPATIBILITY.

549 - Added support for partial quotient types.

550 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

551 - Added "whack" option.

552 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

553 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

554 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

555 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

556 higher cardinalities.

557 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

559 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

560 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

561 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

563 using [[metis_trace = true]]

565 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

566 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

568 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

569 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

570 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

571 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

572 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

573 "smt_solver".

575 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

576 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

578 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

579 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

580 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

581 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

583 * Changed SMT configuration options:

584 - Renamed:

585 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

586 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

587 INCOMPATIBILITY.

588 - Added:

589 smt_verbose

590 smt_random_seed

591 smt_datatypes

592 smt_infer_triggers

593 smt_monomorph_limit

594 cvc3_options

595 remote_cvc3_options

596 remote_z3_options

597 yices_options

599 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

600 header.

602 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

603 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

604 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

606 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

608 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

610 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

611 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

613 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

615 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

616 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

618 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

619 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

621 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

622 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

624 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

625 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

626 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

628 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

630 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

631 INCOMPATIBILITY.

633 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

634 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

636 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

637 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

638 for congruent(2)).

640 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

642 types

643 bool ~> HOL.bool

644 nat ~> Nat.nat

646 constants

647 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

648 True ~> HOL.True

649 False ~> HOL.False

650 op & ~> HOL.conj

651 op | ~> HOL.disj

652 op --> ~> HOL.implies

653 op = ~> HOL.eq

654 Not ~> HOL.Not

655 The ~> HOL.The

656 All ~> HOL.All

657 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

658 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

659 Let ~> HOL.Let

660 If ~> HOL.If

661 Ball ~> Set.Ball

662 Bex ~> Set.Bex

663 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

664 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

665 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

666 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

667 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

668 op : ~> Set.member

669 Collect ~> Set.Collect

671 INCOMPATIBILITY.

673 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

675 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

676 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

677 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

678 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

679 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

680 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

681 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

682 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

684 INCOMPATIBILITY.

686 * More stylized fact names:

688 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

689 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

690 set_ext ~> set_eqI

691 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

693 INCOMPATIBILITY.

695 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

697 constants

698 null ~> List.null

700 facts

701 mem_iff ~> member_def

702 null_empty ~> null_def

704 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

705 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

706 generation.

708 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

709 Haskell code.

711 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

712 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

713 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

715 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

716 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

718 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

719 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

721 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

722 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

723 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

725 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

726 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

728 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

729 INCOMPATIBILITY.

731 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

732 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

733 referred to by its qualified name.

735 enum ~> Enum.enum

736 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

737 product ~> Enum.product

739 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

740 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

741 INCOMPATIBILITY.

743 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

744 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

745 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

746 INCOMPATIBILITY.

748 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

749 sort_key.

751 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

752 INCOMPATIBILITY.

754 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

755 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

756 instead of finite cartesian products.

758 types

759 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

760 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

761 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

762 (depends on your needs)

764 constants

765 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

766 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

767 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

769 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

770 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

771 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

772 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

774 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

775 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

776 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

777 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

778 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

780 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

781 INCOMPATIBILITY.

783 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

784 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

785 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

788 *** HOL-Algebra ***

790 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

791 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

792 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

793 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

794 compatibility.

796 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

797 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

800 *** HOLCF ***

802 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

803 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

804 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

805 INCOMPATIBILITY.

807 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

808 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

809 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

811 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

812 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

813 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

815 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

816 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

817 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

819 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

820 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

821 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

822 domain definition now works:

824 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

826 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

827 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

828 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

829 domain package to work with these types. For example:

831 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

832 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

834 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

836 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

837 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

838 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

840 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

841 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

843 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

844 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

845 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

846 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

848 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

850 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

852 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

854 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

855 INCOMPATIBILITY.

857 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

858 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

859 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

861 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

862 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

863 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

865 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

866 still supported as an input translation.

868 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

870 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

871 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

872 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

873 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

874 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

875 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

876 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

878 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

879 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

881 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

882 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

883 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

884 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

885 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

886 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

888 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

889 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

891 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

893 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

894 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

895 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

896 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

898 INCOMPATIBILITY.

900 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

901 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

903 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

904 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

906 thelub_const ~> lub_const

907 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

908 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

909 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

910 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

911 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

912 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

913 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

914 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

915 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

916 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

917 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

918 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

919 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

920 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

921 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

922 UU_I ~> bottomI

923 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

924 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

925 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

927 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

929 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

930 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

931 refl_less ~> below_refl

932 trans_less ~> below_trans

933 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

934 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

935 box_less ~> box_below

936 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

937 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

938 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

939 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

940 adm_less ~> adm_below

941 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

942 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

943 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

944 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

945 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

946 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

947 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

948 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

949 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

950 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

951 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

952 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

953 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

954 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

955 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

956 injection_less ~> injection_below

957 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

958 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

959 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

960 up_less ~> up_below

961 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

962 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

963 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

964 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

965 spair_less ~> spair_below

966 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

967 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

968 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

969 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

970 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

971 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

972 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

973 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

976 *** FOL and ZF ***

978 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

979 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

982 *** ML ***

984 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

985 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

986 failed assertions is included in the error output.

988 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

989 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

990 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

992 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

993 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

994 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

996 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

997 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

999 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

1000 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

1002 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

1003 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

1005 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

1006 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

1008 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

1009 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

1010 almost all situations.

1012 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

1013 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

1014 Isabelle/ML.

1016 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

1017 meaning.

1019 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

1020 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

1021 rarely-used global-only stuff.

1023 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

1024 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

1026 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

1027 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

1029 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

1030 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

1031 @{thms} for most purposes.

1033 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

1034 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

1035 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

1036 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

1037 configuration options.

1039 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

1040 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

1041 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

1042 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

1043 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

1044 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

1045 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

1049 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

1050 ---------------------------------

1052 *** General ***

1054 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

1055 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

1056 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

1057 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

1058 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

1059 their full internal name.

1061 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

1062 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

1063 Some hints on upgrading:

1065 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

1066 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

1067 which are independent of this issue.

1069 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

1070 provides the following special forms:

1072 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

1073 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

1074 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

1076 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

1077 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

1078 extra variables".

1080 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

1081 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

1082 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

1083 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

1084 "logic".

1086 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

1087 antiquotations:

1089 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

1090 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

1091 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

1092 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

1094 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

1095 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

1096 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

1097 antiquotations.

1099 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

1100 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

1101 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

1102 diagnose syntax problems.

1104 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

1106 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

1107 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

1108 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

1109 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

1111 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

1112 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

1113 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

1114 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1116 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

1117 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

1118 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

1119 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

1120 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1122 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

1123 discontinued (old legacy feature).

1125 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

1126 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

1127 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

1129 using [[trace_simp = true]]

1131 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

1132 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

1133 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

1135 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

1136 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

1137 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1139 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

1140 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

1143 *** Pure ***

1145 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

1146 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

1147 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

1148 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

1149 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

1150 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

1151 inspect proof terms.

1153 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

1154 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

1155 are added internally. For example:

1157 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

1159 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

1160 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1162 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1164 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1165 'class' instead.

1167 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

1168 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

1169 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1171 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

1172 invariants.

1174 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

1175 user space functionality any longer.

1177 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

1178 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

1179 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1181 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

1182 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

1184 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

1185 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

1186 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

1188 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

1189 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

1190 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

1192 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

1193 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1196 *** HOL ***

1198 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

1199 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

1200 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

1201 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

1202 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

1204 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

1205 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

1206 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

1207 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

1209 fun

1210 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

1211 where

1212 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

1214 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

1215 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

1217 quotient_definition

1218 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

1220 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

1221 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

1222 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

1223 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

1225 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

1226 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

1228 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

1229 separate HOL-SMT session.

1231 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

1232 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1234 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

1235 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

1236 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

1238 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

1239 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1241 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

1242 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1244 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

1245 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1247 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

1248 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1250 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

1251 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

1252 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1254 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

1255 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

1256 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

1257 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

1258 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

1259 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

1260 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

1261 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

1262 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

1263 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

1264 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

1265 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

1266 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

1267 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

1268 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

1269 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

1270 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

1271 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

1272 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

1273 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

1274 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

1275 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

1276 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

1277 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

1278 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

1279 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

1280 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

1281 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

1282 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

1283 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

1285 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

1286 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

1288 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

1289 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

1290 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

1292 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

1293 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

1295 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

1296 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1298 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

1300 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

1301 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1303 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

1304 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1306 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1308 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

1309 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

1311 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

1312 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

1313 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

1314 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1316 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

1317 - less_eq, less: Orderings

1318 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

1319 - inverse, divide: Rings

1320 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1322 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

1323 lattices):

1325 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

1326 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

1328 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

1330 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

1331 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

1332 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

1333 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

1334 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1335 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

1336 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

1337 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

1338 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

1339 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

1340 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

1341 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

1342 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

1344 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

1345 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

1346 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1347 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

1348 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

1349 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

1350 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

1351 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

1352 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

1353 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

1354 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

1355 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

1356 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

1357 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

1358 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

1359 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

1360 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

1361 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

1363 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

1364 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

1366 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

1367 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

1368 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

1369 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

1370 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

1372 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1374 * Refined field classes:

1375 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

1376 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

1377 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

1378 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

1379 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1381 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

1382 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

1383 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

1384 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

1385 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

1386 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

1387 equal_neg_zero.

1388 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1390 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

1391 sets to lattices:

1393 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

1394 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

1395 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

1396 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

1397 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

1398 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

1399 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

1400 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

1401 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

1402 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

1404 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

1405 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

1406 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

1407 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

1408 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

1409 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1411 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

1412 multiset order:

1414 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

1415 <= and <;

1416 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

1417 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

1418 multiset_order;

1419 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

1420 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

1421 generation;

1422 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

1423 if needed.

1425 Renamed:

1427 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

1428 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

1429 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

1431 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1433 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

1435 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

1437 * Theory List: added transpose.

1439 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

1440 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

1441 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1443 Constants:

1444 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

1445 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

1446 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

1447 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

1448 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

1449 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

1450 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

1451 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

1452 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

1453 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

1454 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

1455 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

1456 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

1458 Lemmas:

1459 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1460 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

1461 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

1462 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

1463 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

1464 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

1465 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

1466 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

1467 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

1468 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

1469 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

1470 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

1471 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1473 * Sledgehammer:

1474 - Renamed ATP commands:

1475 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

1476 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

1477 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

1478 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

1479 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

1480 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1481 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

1482 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

1483 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

1484 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

1485 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

1486 is still experimental.)

1487 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

1488 full-typed mode.

1489 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

1491 * Nitpick:

1492 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

1493 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

1494 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

1495 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

1496 - Added support for quotient types.

1497 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

1498 constructs.

1499 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

1500 "termination" proofs).

1501 - Added support for term postprocessors.

1502 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

1503 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

1504 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

1505 record getters.

1506 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

1507 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

1508 - Improved precision of set constructs.

1509 - Added "atoms" option.

1510 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

1511 problems.

1512 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

1513 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

1514 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1515 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

1516 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1517 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1519 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

1520 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

1521 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

1522 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

1523 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

1524 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

1525 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

1526 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

1527 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

1528 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1531 *** HOLCF ***

1533 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

1534 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

1535 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1537 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

1538 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

1539 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

1540 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

1542 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

1543 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

1544 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

1545 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

1546 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1548 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

1549 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

1550 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1552 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

1553 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1555 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

1556 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

1558 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

1559 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1561 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

1562 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

1563 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

1564 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

1565 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

1567 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

1568 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1570 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

1571 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

1572 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

1574 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

1575 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

1576 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1578 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

1579 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1581 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1583 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

1584 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1587 *** ML ***

1589 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

1591 @{class NAME} -- type class

1592 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

1594 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

1595 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

1596 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

1597 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1599 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

1600 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

1601 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1603 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

1604 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

1606 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

1607 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

1608 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

1610 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

1611 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

1612 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

1613 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

1615 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

1616 the context or even global references.

1618 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

1619 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

1621 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

1622 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

1624 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

1625 OuterLex ~> Token

1626 OuterParse ~> Parse

1627 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

1628 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

1629 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

1630 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

1631 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

1632 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

1633 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

1635 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

1636 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

1638 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

1639 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

1640 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

1641 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

1642 pass the proper local context through the code!

1644 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

1645 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

1646 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

1647 Theory_Data version.

1649 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

1650 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

1651 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

1652 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

1653 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

1654 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

1655 explicitly in rare situations.

1657 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

1658 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

1659 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1661 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

1662 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

1664 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

1665 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

1666 quite rare).

1668 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

1669 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

1671 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

1672 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

1673 terms.

1675 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

1676 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

1677 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

1680 *** System ***

1682 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

1683 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

1684 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

1686 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

1687 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

1688 respectively.

1690 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

1691 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

1692 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

1693 prefers 64 bit if available:

1695 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

1697 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

1698 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

1699 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

1700 component.

1702 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

1703 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

1704 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

1705 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

1706 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

1707 the user for manual installation.

1711 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

1712 -------------------------------------

1714 *** General ***

1716 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

1717 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

1720 *** Pure ***

1722 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

1723 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

1724 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

1726 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

1727 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

1728 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

1730 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

1731 interpretation.

1733 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

1734 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1737 *** Document preparation ***

1739 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

1740 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

1741 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

1742 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

1745 *** HOL ***

1747 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

1748 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

1749 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

1750 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

1751 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

1752 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

1753 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

1754 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

1755 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

1757 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

1758 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

1759 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

1761 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

1762 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

1763 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

1765 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

1766 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

1768 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

1770 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

1771 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

1772 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

1773 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

1775 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

1776 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

1777 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

1778 "mirabelle" utility.

1780 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

1781 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

1782 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

1783 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

1784 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

1785 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

1786 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

1787 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

1788 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

1789 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

1791 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

1792 procedure only.

1794 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

1796 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

1797 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

1798 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

1799 that fail later.

1801 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

1802 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

1804 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

1805 the same method as the approximation method.

1807 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

1808 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

1809 series expansion.

1811 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

1812 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

1814 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

1815 reals.

1817 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

1818 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

1820 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

1821 fixpoint theorem.

1823 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1824 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

1825 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

1826 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

1827 accordingly

1828 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

1829 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

1830 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

1831 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

1833 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

1834 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

1835 lattice.

1837 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

1838 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

1839 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

1840 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

1841 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

1842 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

1843 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1845 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

1846 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

1847 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

1848 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

1849 le_inf_iff

1850 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

1851 sup_aci)

1852 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

1853 - new class "boolean_algebra"

1854 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

1855 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

1856 renamed and with authentic syntax:

1857 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

1858 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

1859 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

1860 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

1861 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

1862 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

1863 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

1864 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

1865 - authentic syntax for

1866 Set.Pow

1867 Set.image

1868 - mere abbreviations:

1869 Set.empty (for bot)

1870 Set.UNIV (for top)

1871 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

1872 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

1873 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

1874 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

1875 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

1876 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

1877 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

1879 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

1880 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

1881 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

1882 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

1884 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

1885 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

1886 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1888 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

1889 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1891 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

1892 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

1893 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

1894 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1896 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

1897 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

1898 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

1899 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

1900 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

1902 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

1903 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

1904 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1906 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

1907 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1909 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

1910 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

1911 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

1912 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

1913 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

1914 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

1915 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

1916 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1918 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

1919 code_unfold replaces code unfold

1920 code_post replaces code post

1921 etc.

1922 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1924 * Renamed methods:

1925 sizechange -> size_change

1926 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

1927 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1929 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

1930 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

1932 * Renamed theorems:

1933 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1934 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

1935 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1936 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

1937 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

1938 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1940 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

1941 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1943 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

1944 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1947 *** HOLCF ***

1949 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

1950 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

1951 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

1953 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

1954 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

1955 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

1956 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

1957 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

1959 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

1960 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

1961 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

1962 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

1963 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

1965 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

1966 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

1967 constructor are pre-configured.

1969 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

1970 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

1971 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

1973 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

1974 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

1975 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

1976 as well.)

1978 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

1979 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

1980 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

1981 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1982 examples.

1985 *** ML ***

1987 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

1988 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

1990 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

1991 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

1992 position, logical grouping etc.

1994 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

1995 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

1996 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

1997 copy operation) is still available for some time.

1999 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

2000 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

2001 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

2002 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

2003 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

2004 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

2006 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

2007 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

2008 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

2009 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

2010 experiments with references.

2012 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

2013 parallel tactical reasoning.

2015 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

2016 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

2017 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

2018 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

2020 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

2021 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

2022 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

2024 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

2025 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

2026 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

2028 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2030 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

2031 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2033 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

2034 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

2036 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

2037 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

2038 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

2040 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

2041 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

2042 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2044 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

2045 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

2046 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

2047 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2049 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2050 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

2051 instead of global theory.

2054 *** System ***

2056 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

2057 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

2058 usedir option -q.

2060 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

2061 also the system manual.

2063 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

2064 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

2066 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

2067 this is always enabled.

2069 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

2071 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

2072 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

2073 currently supported on Linux only.

2077 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

2078 --------------------------------

2080 *** General ***

2082 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

2083 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2085 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

2086 "isatool."

2088 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

2089 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

2091 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

2092 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

2094 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

2095 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

2096 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

2098 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

2099 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

2100 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

2101 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

2102 via "isabelle emacs".

2104 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

2105 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

2106 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

2108 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

2109 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

2110 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2112 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

2113 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

2114 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

2115 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

2116 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

2118 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

2119 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

2120 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

2121 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2123 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

2124 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

2125 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

2128 *** Pure ***

2130 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

2131 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

2132 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

2134 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

2135 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

2136 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

2137 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

2138 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

2140 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

2141 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

2142 useful in locale declarations.

2144 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

2145 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

2146 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

2147 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

2148 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

2149 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

2150 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

2151 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

2152 no longer generated.

2154 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

2155 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

2156 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

2158 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

2159 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

2160 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

2161 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

2162 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

2164 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

2165 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

2166 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

2167 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

2168 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

2169 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

2170 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

2171 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

2173 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

2174 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

2175 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

2176 the parameters (context element "constrains").

2178 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2180 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

2181 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

2182 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

2184 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

2185 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2187 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

2188 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

2189 in HOL, write

2191 class foo = ...

2193 instead of

2195 class foo = type + ...

2197 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

2198 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2200 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

2201 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

2203 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

2204 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

2205 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

2207 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

2208 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

2209 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

2210 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

2211 directly in regular applications.

2213 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

2214 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

2216 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

2217 interface with 'setup' command instead.

2219 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

2220 theory context.

2222 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

2223 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2225 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

2226 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

2227 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

2228 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

2229 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

2230 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

2232 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

2234 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

2235 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

2236 normalization.

2238 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

2239 addressing etc.

2241 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

2243 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

2244 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

2246 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2248 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

2249 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

2250 parts of the code generator framework).

2252 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

2253 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

2254 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

2256 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2258 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

2259 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2261 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

2262 patterns, e.g.

2264 find_consts "_ => bool"

2266 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

2267 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

2268 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

2269 hyphen:

2271 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

2273 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

2274 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

2276 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

2277 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

2278 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

2279 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

2280 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

2281 higher-order unification.

2284 *** Document preparation ***

2286 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

2287 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

2288 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

2291 *** HOL ***

2293 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

2294 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

2296 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

2297 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

2298 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

2299 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

2300 Main, as before.

2302 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

2303 experimentation due to shorter build times.

2305 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

2306 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

2307 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

2308 new entry point Hypercomplex.

2310 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

2311 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

2312 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

2313 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

2314 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

2315 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

2317 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

2318 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

2319 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

2320 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

2322 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

2323 menu.

2325 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

2326 (contains the empty clause).

2328 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

2329 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

2331 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

2332 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

2334 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

2335 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

2336 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2338 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

2339 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

2340 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

2341 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

2342 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

2344 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

2345 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

2347 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

2348 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

2349 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

2350 are now presented as a list of individual projections

2351 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

2352 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

2353 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

2354 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

2355 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

2357 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

2359 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

2361 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

2362 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2364 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

2365 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

2366 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

2367 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

2369 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

2370 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2372 op Int ~> Set.Int

2373 op Un ~> Set.Un

2374 INTER ~> Set.INTER

2375 UNION ~> Set.UNION

2376 Inter ~> Set.Inter

2377 Union ~> Set.Union

2378 {} ~> Set.empty

2379 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

2381 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

2382 theory Set.

2384 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

2385 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

2387 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

2389 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

2390 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

2392 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

2393 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

2394 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

2395 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

2396 allowed. For examples see

2397 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

2399 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

2401 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

2402 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2404 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

2405 structure:

2407 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

2408 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

2409 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

2410 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

2411 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

2412 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

2413 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2414 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

2415 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

2416 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

2417 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

2418 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

2419 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

2420 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

2421 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

2422 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

2423 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2424 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2425 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

2426 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

2427 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

2428 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

2429 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

2430 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

2431 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

2432 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

2433 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

2434 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

2435 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

2436 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

2437 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

2438 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

2439 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

2441 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2442 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2443 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2444 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

2445 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2446 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2447 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2448 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2449 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2450 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2452 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2453 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2454 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2455 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2456 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2457 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2459 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

2460 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

2461 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

2463 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

2464 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

2465 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

2467 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

2468 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2470 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

2471 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

2473 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

2474 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

2475 proofs, e.g.

2477 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

2479 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

2481 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

2482 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

2483 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2485 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

2486 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

2487 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2489 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

2490 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

2491 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

2492 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2494 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

2495 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

2496 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

2497 preorder_class.*.

2499 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

2500 "diag" to "Id_on".

2502 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

2504 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

2506 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

2507 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

2508 fold_image.

2510 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

2511 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

2512 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

2513 the former will disappear at some point.

2515 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

2516 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

2517 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

2519 rat_power_0 -> power_0

2520 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

2521 realpow_0 -> power_0

2522 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2523 complexpow_0 -> power_0

2524 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2525 power_poly_0 -> power_0

2526 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

2528 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

2529 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

2530 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

2531 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

2532 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

2533 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

2535 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

2536 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

2537 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

2538 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

2539 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

2540 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

2541 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2543 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

2544 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

2545 rename old lemmas as follows:

2547 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

2548 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2549 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2550 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

2551 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

2552 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

2553 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2554 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2555 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

2556 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

2557 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

2558 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

2559 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

2560 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

2561 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

2562 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

2563 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

2564 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

2565 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2566 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2567 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

2568 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

2569 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2570 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

2571 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

2572 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

2573 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2574 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

2575 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

2576 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

2577 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

2578 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

2579 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

2580 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

2581 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

2582 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

2583 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2584 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2585 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

2586 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

2587 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

2588 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

2589 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

2590 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

2591 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2593 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2595 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

2596 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

2598 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

2599 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

2600 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

2601 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

2603 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

2604 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

2605 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

2606 theory RealVector.

2608 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

2609 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

2610 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

2611 and inner products are included.

2613 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

2614 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

2615 supported.

2617 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

2618 first diagonalization argument.

2620 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

2621 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

2622 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

2623 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2624 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

2626 hide (open) const gcd

2627 abbreviation gcd where

2628 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

2629 notation (output)

2630 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

2632 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

2634 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

2635 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

2636 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2638 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

2639 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

2640 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

2641 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

2642 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

2643 instrumentalizing code generation. See

2644 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

2645 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

2646 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

2647 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

2648 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

2649 cases.

2651 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

2652 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

2653 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

2654 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

2655 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

2657 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

2658 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

2659 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

2660 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

2661 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

2664 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2666 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

2667 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

2668 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

2670 * New theory of factorial domains.

2672 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

2673 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

2674 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

2676 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2678 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

2679 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

2680 least_carrier ~> least_closed

2681 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

2682 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

2683 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

2684 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

2687 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2689 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

2691 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

2692 theory targets.

2694 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

2695 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

2696 'inductive' etc.

2698 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

2699 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

2701 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

2702 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

2704 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

2705 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

2706 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

2707 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

2708 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

2709 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

2710 the algorithm W:

2712 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

2713 -----------------------------------------------------------------

2714 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

2716 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

2717 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

2718 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

2721 *** HOLCF ***

2723 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

2724 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

2725 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

2727 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

2728 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

2729 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

2730 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

2731 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2733 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

2734 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2735 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2738 *** ZF ***

2740 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

2743 *** ML ***

2745 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

2746 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

2747 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

2748 5.2.1!

2750 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

2751 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

2752 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

2753 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

2754 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

2755 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

2756 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2758 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

2759 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

2760 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

2761 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

2762 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

2763 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

2764 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2766 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

2767 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

2768 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

2769 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

2770 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2772 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

2773 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

2774 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

2775 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

2776 Method.add_method.

2778 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

2779 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

2780 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

2781 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

2782 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

2783 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

2785 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

2786 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

2787 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

2788 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

2789 examples.

2791 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

2792 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

2793 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

2794 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

2795 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

2796 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

2797 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

2798 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

2799 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

2800 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

2802 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

2803 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

2804 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

2806 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

2807 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

2808 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

2809 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

2810 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

2811 resort for legacy applications.

2813 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

2814 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

2815 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

2816 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

2817 explicit runtime argument.

2819 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

2820 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

2821 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

2822 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

2823 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2825 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

2826 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

2827 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

2828 theory state.

2830 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

2831 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

2833 @{binding name} - basic name binding

2834 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

2835 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

2836 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

2837 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

2838 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

2839 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

2840 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

2841 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

2842 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

2845 *** System ***

2847 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

2848 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

2849 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

2850 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

2851 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

2853 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

2854 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

2855 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

2856 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

2858 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

2860 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

2861 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

2862 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

2863 prover operations.

2867 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

2868 -------------------------------

2870 *** General ***

2872 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

2873 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

2875 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

2876 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

2877 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

2878 provides a proper context already.

2880 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2881 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

2882 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

2884 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

2885 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

2886 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

2887 swap theory imports.

2889 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

2890 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

2892 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

2893 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2894 white space without escapes.

2896 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

2897 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

2898 "foo_bar".

2901 *** Pure ***

2903 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

2904 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

2906 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

2907 There are three ways of invoking it:

2909 (1) unused_thms

2910 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

2912 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

2913 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

2914 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

2916 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

2917 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

2918 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

2919 their ancestors.

2921 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

2922 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

2923 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

2924 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

2925 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

2926 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

2927 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

2929 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

2930 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

2931 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

2933 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

2934 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

2935 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

2936 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

2937 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

2939 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

2941 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

2942 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

2943 update of theories within ML code.

2945 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

2946 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

2947 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

2948 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

2950 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

2951 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

2952 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

2953 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2955 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

2957 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

2958 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

2959 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

2960 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

2961 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

2963 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

2964 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

2965 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

2966 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

2967 situations.

2969 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

2970 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

2971 proof text.

2973 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

2974 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

2976 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

2977 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

2978 predicates.

2981 *** Document preparation ***

2983 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

2984 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

2985 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

2986 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

2987 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

2988 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

2990 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

2991 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

2992 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

2995 *** HOL ***

2997 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

2998 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

2999 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

3000 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

3001 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

3002 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

3004 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

3005 with multithreading.

3007 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

3008 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

3009 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

3011 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

3012 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

3013 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

3014 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3016 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

3017 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

3018 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

3019 and makes them available separately. See

3020 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

3022 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

3023 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

3024 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

3025 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

3026 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

3027 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

3028 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

3029 the declared rules.

3031 This setup also deals with rules like

3033 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

3035 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

3036 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

3038 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

3040 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3042 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

3043 definitions on => and bool.

3045 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

3046 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

3047 the following theorems have been renamed:

3049 subset_def -> subset_eq

3050 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

3051 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

3052 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

3053 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

3054 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

3055 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

3056 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

3058 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

3059 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

3060 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

3062 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

3063 The proof pattern

3065 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3066 then have "EX S. P S" ..

3068 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

3069 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

3071 have "EX S. P S"

3072 proof

3073 show "P S" <...>

3074 qed

3076 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

3077 The proof pattern

3079 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3080 also have "S = T" <...>

3081 finally have "P T" .

3083 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

3084 must be replaced by something like

3086 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3087 moreover have "S = T" <...>

3088 ultimately have "P T" by simp

3090 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

3091 Code performing pattern matching on types via

3093 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

3095 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

3096 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

3097 type of the form

3099 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

3101 rather than

3103 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

3105 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

3106 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

3108 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3110 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

3111 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

3112 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3114 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

3115 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3117 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

3118 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3120 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

3121 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

3122 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3124 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

3125 the same name in theory Orderings:

3127 less_trans

3128 less_linear

3129 le_imp_less_or_eq

3130 le_less_trans

3131 less_le_trans

3132 less_not_sym

3133 less_asym

3135 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

3136 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

3137 and different variable names.

3139 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

3141 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

3142 finite maps.

3144 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

3146 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

3147 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

3148 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

3149 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

3150 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

3151 accordingly.

3153 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

3154 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

3155 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

3156 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

3158 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

3159 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

3160 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

3161 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

3162 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

3163 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3165 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

3166 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3168 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

3169 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

3170 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

3172 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

3173 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3175 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

3176 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

3178 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

3179 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3181 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

3182 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3184 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

3185 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

3186 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3188 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

3189 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3191 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

3192 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

3193 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

3194 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

3195 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

3196 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3198 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

3199 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

3200 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

3202 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

3204 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

3206 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

3207 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

3208 well-orders on sets and on types.

3211 *** ZF ***

3213 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

3214 same session:

3216 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

3217 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

3218 Int -> Int_ZF

3219 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

3220 Nat -> Nat_ZF

3221 List -> List_ZF

3222 Main -> Main_ZF

3224 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

3225 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

3226 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

3229 *** ML ***

3231 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

3232 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

3234 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

3235 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

3237 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

3239 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

3240 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

3241 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

3242 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

3243 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3245 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

3246 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

3247 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

3250 *** System ***

3252 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

3253 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

3255 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

3256 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

3257 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

3259 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

3260 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

3262 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

3263 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

3264 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

3266 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

3267 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

3268 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

3270 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

3271 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

3273 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

3274 way of changing the user's settings is via

3275 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

3276 script.

3278 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

3279 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

3280 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

3281 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

3282 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

3284 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

3285 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

3286 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

3290 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

3291 -----------------------------------

3293 *** General ***

3295 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

3296 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

3297 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

3298 legacy features will disappear eventually.

3300 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

3301 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

3302 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3304 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

3305 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

3306 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

3307 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3309 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

3310 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

3311 quotes.

3313 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

3314 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

3315 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

3316 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

3317 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

3318 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

3319 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

3320 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

3321 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

3323 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

3324 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

3325 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

3326 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

3327 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

3328 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

3330 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3331 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

3332 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

3333 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

3335 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

3336 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

3337 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

3338 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

3339 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

3340 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

3342 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

3343 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

3344 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

3345 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

3346 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

3347 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

3348 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

3349 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

3351 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

3352 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

3353 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

3354 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

3355 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

3356 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

3357 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

3359 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

3360 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

3361 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

3363 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

3364 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

3365 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

3366 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

3367 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

3368 limit is imposed.

3370 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

3371 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

3372 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

3373 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

3374 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

3375 and scalability.

3377 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

3378 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

3381 *** Document preparation ***

3383 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

3384 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

3385 current context.

3387 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

3388 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

3390 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

3391 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

3392 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

3395 *** Pure ***

3397 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

3398 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

3399 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

3400 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

3401 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

3402 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

3403 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

3404 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

3405 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

3406 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

3408 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

3409 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

3410 sketch:

3412 internal compilation:

3413 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

3414 writing SML code to a file:

3415 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

3416 writing OCaml code to a file:

3417 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

3418 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

3419 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

3421 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

3422 method ``eval''

3424 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

3426 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

3428 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3429 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3430 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3431 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3433 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

3435 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

3436 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

3438 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

3439 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

3441 code_instance <and-list of instances>

3442 {(target)}+

3443 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

3445 code_class <and_list of classes>

3446 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

3447 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

3449 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

3451 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

3452 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

3453 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

3454 codegen".

3456 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

3457 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

3458 annotations).

3460 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

3461 syntax.

3463 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

3464 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

3465 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

3466 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

3467 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

3468 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

3470 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

3471 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

3472 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

3473 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

3474 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

3475 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

3476 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

3477 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

3478 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

3479 equations, see section "definitions".

3481 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

3482 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

3483 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

3484 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

3485 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

3486 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

3487 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

3488 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

3489 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

3490 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

3492 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

3493 configuration options:

3495 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

3496 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

3497 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

3498 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

3499 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

3500 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

3501 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

3502 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

3503 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

3505 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

3506 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

3507 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

3508 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

3509 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

3510 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

3511 order.

3513 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

3514 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

3515 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

3516 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

3517 context encountered later on.

3519 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

3520 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

3521 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

3522 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

3524 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

3525 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

3526 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

3527 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

3528 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

3529 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

3531 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

3532 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

3533 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

3534 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

3535 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

3536 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

3537 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

3538 more permissive.

3540 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

3541 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

3542 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

3543 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

3544 maintainability of proof texts.

3546 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

3547 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

3549 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

3550 then guess x and y by clarify

3552 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

3553 proof tools being involved here.

3555 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

3556 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

3557 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

3558 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

3559 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

3560 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

3561 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

3562 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

3564 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

3565 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

3566 certain special cases of literal facts:

3568 have "A" by fact == note `A`

3569 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

3570 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

3571 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

3573 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

3574 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

3575 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

3577 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

3578 both named and unnamed ones.

3580 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

3582 def x == "t" and y == "u"

3584 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

3585 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

3586 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

3587 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

3589 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

3590 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

3591 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

3592 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

3593 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

3595 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

3596 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

3598 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

3599 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

3600 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

3601 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

3602 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

3603 originally first one.

3605 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

3606 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

3607 expected.

3609 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

3610 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

3611 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

3612 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

3613 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

3615 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3616 assumes "EX x. P x"

3617 obtains x where "P x"

3619 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3620 assumes "A & B"

3621 obtains A and B

3623 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3624 assumes "A | B"

3625 obtains

3626 A

3627 | B

3629 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

3630 explicitly:

3632 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3633 obtains "~ thesis"

3635 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3636 obtains "thesis ==> something"

3638 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

3639 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

3640 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

3641 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

3642 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

3643 case_names).

3645 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

3646 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

3647 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

3648 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

3650 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

3651 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

3652 top-level lemma.

3654 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

3655 introduction rule (default "that").

3657 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3658 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

3659 to occur.

3661 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

3662 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

3663 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

3664 representations independently of name spaces.

3666 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

3667 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

3668 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3670 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

3671 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

3672 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

3673 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

3674 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

3675 current context.

3677 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

3678 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

3679 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

3680 isar-ref manual. Examples:

3682 axiomatization

3683 eq (infix "===" 50) where

3684 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

3686 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

3687 definition g where "g x = f x x"

3689 abbreviation

3690 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

3691 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

3693 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

3694 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

3695 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

3696 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

3697 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

3698 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

3699 entities from a monomorphic theory.

3701 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

3702 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

3703 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

3704 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

3705 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

3707 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

3708 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

3709 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

3710 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

3712 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

3713 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

3714 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

3716 definition "K x _ = x"

3718 inductive conj for A B

3719 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

3721 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

3722 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

3723 abbreviations on output.

3725 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

3726 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

3727 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

3728 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

3730 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

3731 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

3732 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

3733 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

3734 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

3735 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

3736 `unfold_locales'; see below.

3738 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

3739 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

3740 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

3741 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

3742 unfold predicates to assumptions.

3744 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

3745 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

3746 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

3748 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

3749 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

3750 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

3751 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

3752 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

3754 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

3755 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

3757 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

3758 definition specification element in the context of locale

3759 partial_order.

3761 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

3762 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

3763 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

3764 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

3765 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

3766 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

3767 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

3768 examples.

3770 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

3771 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

3772 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

3773 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

3774 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

3776 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

3777 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

3778 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

3779 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

3780 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

3782 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

3783 (induct set: foo bar)

3784 (induct pred: foo bar)

3785 (induct type: foo bar)

3787 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

3788 new format.

3790 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

3791 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

3793 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

3794 considered a legacy feature.

3796 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

3797 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3799 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

3800 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

3801 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

3802 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

3804 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

3805 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

3806 manipulating the claset.

3808 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

3809 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

3810 least one premise.

3812 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

3813 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

3814 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

3815 rule steps.

3817 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

3818 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

3819 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

3820 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

3821 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

3822 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

3824 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

3825 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

3826 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

3828 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

3829 the graph browser tool.

3831 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

3832 default; use '!' option for full details.

3835 *** HOL ***

3837 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

3838 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

3839 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

3840 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

3841 multi-threading.

3843 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

3844 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

3845 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

3846 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

3847 work with multi-threading.

3849 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

3850 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

3851 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

3852 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

3853 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

3855 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

3857 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

3858 equality.

3860 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

3861 the new 'class' package:

3863 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

3864 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

3865 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

3866 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

3867 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

3868 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

3869 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

3870 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

3871 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

3872 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

3873 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

3874 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

3875 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

3876 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

3877 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

3878 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

3879 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

3880 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

3881 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

3882 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

3884 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

3886 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

3887 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

3888 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

3889 names.

3891 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

3892 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

3894 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

3895 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

3896 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

3897 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

3898 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

3900 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

3901 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

3902 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

3903 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

3905 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

3907 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

3908 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

3909 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

3910 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

3911 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3913 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

3914 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3916 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

3917 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

3918 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3920 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

3921 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

3923 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

3924 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

3925 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

3926 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

3927 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

3928 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

3929 in the current context.

3931 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

3932 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

3933 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3935 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

3936 with new class dense_linear_order.

3938 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

3940 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

3941 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

3943 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

3944 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

3945 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

3946 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

3948 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

3949 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

3951 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

3953 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

3954 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

3955 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

3956 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

3957 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

3958 le_meetI ~> le_infI

3959 join_leI ~> le_supI

3960 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

3961 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

3962 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

3963 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

3964 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

3965 join_comm ~> sup_commute

3966 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

3967 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

3968 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

3969 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

3970 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

3971 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

3972 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

3973 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

3974 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

3975 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

3976 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

3977 join_aci ~> sup_aci

3978 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

3979 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

3980 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

3981 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

3982 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

3983 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

3984 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

3985 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

3986 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

3987 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

3989 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

3990 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

3991 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

3992 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

3993 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

3994 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

3995 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

3996 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

3997 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

3998 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

3999 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

4000 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

4001 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

4002 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

4003 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

4004 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

4005 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

4007 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

4008 mono_join ~> mono_sup

4009 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

4010 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

4011 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

4012 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

4013 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

4014 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

4015 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

4016 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

4017 meet1I ~> inf1I

4018 meet2I ~> inf2I

4019 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

4020 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

4021 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

4022 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

4023 meet1E ~> inf1E

4024 meet2E ~> inf2E

4025 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

4026 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

4027 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4028 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

4029 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4030 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

4031 join1CI ~> sup1CI

4032 join2CI ~> sup2CI

4033 join1E ~> sup1E

4034 join2E ~> sup2E

4036 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

4037 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

4038 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

4039 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

4040 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

4041 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

4043 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

4044 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

4045 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

4046 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

4048 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

4049 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

4051 meet_min ~> inf_min

4052 join_max ~> sup_max

4054 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

4055 type "'a::size ==> bool"

4057 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

4058 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

4059 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

4060 "*.size".

4062 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

4063 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4065 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

4066 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

4067 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4069 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4071 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

4072 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

4073 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

4074 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

4075 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

4076 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

4077 numerals on all operations.

4079 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

4081 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

4083 * Code generator library theories:

4084 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

4085 languages.

4086 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

4087 languages.

4088 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

4089 codes; includes Code_Integer.

4090 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

4091 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

4092 denominator).

4093 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

4094 representable by rational numbers.

4095 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

4096 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

4097 includes Code_Integer.

4098 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

4099 target-language built-in integers.

4100 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

4101 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

4103 * New package for inductive predicates

4105 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

4107 inductive

4108 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4109 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4110 where

4111 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4112 | ...

4114 with full support for type-inference, rather than

4116 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4118 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4119 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4121 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

4122 intros

4123 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4124 ...

4126 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

4127 sets to be defined with the new package via

4129 inductive_set

4130 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4131 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4132 where

4133 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4134 | ...

4136 or

4138 inductive_set

4139 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4140 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4141 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4142 where

4143 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4144 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4145 | ...

4147 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

4149 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

4150 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

4152 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4154 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

4155 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

4156 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

4157 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

4158 than before the actual inductive definition.

4160 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

4161 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

4162 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

4163 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

4164 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

4165 statements of the form

4167 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

4169 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

4170 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

4172 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

4174 - The format of the elimination rules is now

4176 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

4177 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4178 ==> ... ==> P

4180 for predicates and

4182 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4183 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4184 ==> ... ==> P

4186 for sets rather than

4188 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4189 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

4190 ==> ... ==> P

4192 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

4193 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

4194 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

4196 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

4197 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

4198 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

4200 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

4201 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

4202 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

4203 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

4204 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

4205 users are encouraged to use the new package.

4207 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

4208 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

4210 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

4211 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

4212 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

4213 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

4214 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

4215 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

4216 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

4217 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

4218 variable.

4220 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

4221 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

4222 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

4223 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

4224 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

4225 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

4227 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

4228 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

4229 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

4230 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

4231 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

4232 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

4233 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

4234 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

4235 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

4237 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

4238 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

4239 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

4240 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

4241 rat, etc.

4243 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

4244 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

4245 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

4247 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

4249 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

4250 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

4252 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

4253 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

4255 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

4256 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

4257 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4259 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

4260 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

4261 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4263 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

4265 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

4267 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

4268 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

4269 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

4270 positive/negative (in inequations).

4272 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

4273 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

4274 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

4275 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4277 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

4278 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

4279 algebraic operations.

4281 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

4282 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4284 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

4285 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4287 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

4288 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

4289 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

4290 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

4291 adapted.

4293 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

4294 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

4295 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

4296 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

4297 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

4299 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

4300 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

4301 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

4303 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

4304 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

4305 better use 'abbreviation'.

4307 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4309 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

4310 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

4311 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

4312 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

4313 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

4314 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

4315 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

4316 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

4318 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

4320 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

4321 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

4322 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

4323 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

4324 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

4325 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

4327 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

4328 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

4329 "A = B" (with priority 50).

4331 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

4332 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

4333 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

4334 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4336 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

4338 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

4339 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4341 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

4342 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

4344 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

4345 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

4346 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

4348 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

4349 True/False.

4351 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

4353 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

4355 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

4356 ``rule'' method.

4358 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

4359 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

4360 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

4361 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

4363 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

4364 zChaff is still supported as well.

4366 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

4367 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

4369 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

4370 Library.

4372 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

4374 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

4375 as greatest fixed-point.

4377 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

4378 association lists.

4380 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

4381 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

4382 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

4384 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

4385 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

4386 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4387 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

4388 behavior.

4390 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

4392 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

4393 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

4394 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

4395 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

4396 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

4397 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

4399 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

4400 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

4401 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

4402 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

4403 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

4404 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

4405 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

4407 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

4408 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

4410 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

4411 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

4412 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

4413 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

4414 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

4417 *** HOL-Complex ***

4419 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

4420 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

4421 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

4422 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

4423 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4425 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

4426 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

4427 and norm :: 'a => real.

4429 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

4430 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

4431 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4433 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

4434 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

4436 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

4437 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

4438 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

4439 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4441 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4442 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4443 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4444 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

4445 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4446 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4447 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4448 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4449 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4450 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4451 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

4452 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4453 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

4454 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

4455 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

4457 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

4458 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

4459 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

4460 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4462 approx <-- capprox

4463 HFinite <-- CFinite

4464 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

4465 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

4466 monad <-- cmonad

4467 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

4468 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

4469 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

4470 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

4473 *** HOL-Algebra ***

4475 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

4477 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

4478 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4480 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

4481 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4483 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

4484 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

4485 of algebraic structures.

4487 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

4490 *** HOL-Nominal ***

4492 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

4493 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

4494 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

4495 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

4498 *** ML ***

4500 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

4501 (even on SML/NJ).

4503 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

4504 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

4505 compile-time. For example:

4507 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

4508 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

4509 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

4510 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

4511 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

4512 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

4513 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

4514 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

4515 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

4516 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

4517 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

4518 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

4519 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

4520 ML {* @{context} *}

4521 ML {* @{theory} *}

4522 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

4523 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

4524 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

4525 ML {* @{simpset} *}

4526 ML {* @{claset} *}

4527 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

4529 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

4531 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

4532 ML_Context.trace enabled.

4534 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

4535 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

4536 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

4538 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

4539 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

4541 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

4542 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

4543 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

4545 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

4546 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

4547 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

4548 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

4549 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

4550 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

4551 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

4552 declarations and definitions.

4554 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

4555 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

4556 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

4557 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

4559 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

4560 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

4561 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

4562 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4564 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

4565 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

4566 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

4567 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

4568 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

4569 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

4571 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

4572 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

4573 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

4574 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

4575 attributes, methods, etc.

4577 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

4578 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

4579 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

4580 fold_map combinators.

4582 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

4583 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

4584 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

4585 derivation.

4587 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

4588 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

4589 achieve the old behaviour.

4591 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

4592 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

4593 statements.

4595 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

4596 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

4597 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

4599 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

4600 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

4601 some popular functions from term.ML:

4603 Term.variant -> Name.variant

4604 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

4605 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

4607 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

4608 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

4610 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

4611 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

4612 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

4613 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

4614 various freeze_thaw operations.

4616 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

4617 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

4618 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

4619 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

4620 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

4621 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

4622 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

4623 in a locale context).

4625 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

4626 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

4627 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

4628 which are considered legacy and await removal.

4630 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

4631 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

4632 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

4633 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

4634 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

4635 a mere theory instead of a full context.

4637 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

4638 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

4639 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

4640 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

4641 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

4643 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

4645 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

4646 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

4647 this:

4649 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

4651 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

4652 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

4653 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

4654 -- use plain ERROR instead.

4656 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

4657 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

4659 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

4660 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

4662 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

4663 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

4664 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

4665 batch mode.

4667 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

4668 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

4669 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

4670 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4672 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

4673 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

4674 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

4675 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

4676 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

4678 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

4679 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

4680 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

4681 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

4682 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

4683 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

4685 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

4686 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

4687 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4690 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

4691 "Trueprop" etc.

4694 *** System ***

4696 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

4697 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

4698 Isabelle installations.

4700 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

4701 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

4702 code.

4704 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

4706 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

4707 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

4708 independent theories, according to the given theory header

4709 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

4710 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

4711 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

4712 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

4713 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

4714 Implementation manual.

4718 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

4719 ----------------------------------

4721 *** General ***

4723 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

4725 theory <name>

4726 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

4727 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

4728 begin

4730 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

4732 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

4734 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

4735 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

4736 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

4738 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

4739 relative and absolute paths.

4741 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

4742 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

4743 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

4744 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

4745 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

4746 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

4747 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

4748 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

4749 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

4751 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

4753 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

4754 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

4755 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

4757 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

4758 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

4760 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

4761 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

4762 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

4763 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

4765 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

4766 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

4768 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

4769 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

4770 faster.

4773 *** Document preparation ***

4775 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

4776 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

4777 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

4778 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

4779 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

4780 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

4782 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

4783 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

4784 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

4785 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

4786 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

4787 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

4788 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

4789 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

4790 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

4791 \isadroptag.

4793 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

4794 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

4795 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

4796 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

4797 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

4798 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

4799 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

4800 specified above.

4802 * Several new antiquotations:

4804 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

4806 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

4808 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

4809 argument is a known logical constant;

4811 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

4812 theorem applying a "style" to it

4814 @{ML text}

4816 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

4817 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

4818 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

4819 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

4820 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

4821 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

4822 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

4824 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

4825 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

4826 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

4827 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

4829 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

4830 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

4831 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

4833 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

4834 a proof context.

4836 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

4837 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

4839 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

4840 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

4842 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

4843 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

4844 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

4847 *** Pure ***

4849 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

4850 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

4851 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

4852 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

4853 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

4854 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

4855 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

4857 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

4858 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

4859 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

4860 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

4861 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

4862 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

4863 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

4864 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

4866 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

4867 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

4868 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

4870 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

4871 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

4872 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

4874 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

4875 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

4876 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

4877 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

4878 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4880 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

4881 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

4882 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

4883 axclasses vs. locales.

4885 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

4886 instead of base 26 numbers.

4888 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

4889 marks in schematic variable names.

4891 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

4892 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

4893 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

4895 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

4896 by simp

4898 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

4900 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

4901 annotations as "(00...)".

4903 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

4904 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

4905 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

4906 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

4907 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

4908 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

4909 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

4911 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

4912 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

4913 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

4914 specifications.

4916 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

4917 locally fixed variables as well.

4919 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

4920 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

4921 Limit.

4923 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

4924 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

4925 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

4926 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

4927 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

4928 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

4929 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

4931 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

4932 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

4933 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

4935 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4937 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

4938 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

4939 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

4940 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

4941 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

4942 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

4944 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

4945 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

4947 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

4948 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

4949 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

4951 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

4953 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

4954 theory development.

4956 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

4957 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

4958 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

4959 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

4961 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

4962 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

4963 quoted when used as identifier.

4966 *** Locales ***

4968 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

4969 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

4970 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

4971 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

4972 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

4973 commands is a follows:

4975 (1) interpretation expr inst

4976 (2) interpretation target < expr

4977 (3) interpret expr inst

4979 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

4980 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

4981 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

4982 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

4983 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

4984 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

4985 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

4986 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

4987 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

4988 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

4990 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

4991 'interpret' instead.

4993 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

4994 parameters.

4996 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

4997 redeclaration.

4999 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

5001 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

5002 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

5003 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

5004 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

5005 to attribute arguments as expected.

5007 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

5008 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

5009 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

5010 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

5011 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

5012 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

5013 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

5014 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

5015 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

5016 values to argument tokens explicitly.

5018 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

5019 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

5020 theorem statement in rare situations.

5022 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

5023 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

5026 *** Provers ***

5028 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

5029 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

5030 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

5031 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

5032 still available as 'simplesubst'.

5034 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

5035 and quasi orders.

5037 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

5038 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

5040 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

5041 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

5043 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

5044 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

5045 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5048 *** HOL ***

5050 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

5052 syntax (epsilon)

5053 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

5055 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

5056 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

5057 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

5058 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

5060 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

5061 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

5062 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

5063 support corresponding Isar calculations.

5065 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

5066 instead of ":".

5068 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

5070 Old New

5071 {..n(} {..<n}

5072 {)n..} {n<..}

5073 {m..n(} {m..<n}

5074 {)m..n} {m<..n}

5075 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

5077 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

5078 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

5079 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

5081 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

5082 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

5084 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

5085 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

5086 interface.

5088 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

5089 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

5090 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

5091 be a tuple pattern.

5093 Some new syntax forms are available:

5095 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

5096 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

5097 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

5098 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

5100 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

5101 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

5103 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

5104 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

5105 (insert F x)'.

5107 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

5108 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

5109 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

5111 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

5112 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

5113 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

5115 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

5116 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

5117 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

5118 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5119 in unstructured proof scripts.

5121 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

5122 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

5123 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

5124 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

5125 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

5126 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

5127 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

5128 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

5129 <record_name>_ext_type.

5131 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

5132 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

5133 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

5134 quite long.

5136 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

5137 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

5138 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

5139 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

5141 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

5142 type-variables in the term.

5144 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

5145 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

5146 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

5147 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

5148 goals than previously.

5150 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

5151 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

5152 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

5153 just like y <= x.

5155 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

5156 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

5157 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

5158 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

5159 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

5160 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

5161 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

5163 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

5165 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

5166 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

5168 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

5169 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

5170 inequalities.

5172 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5173 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5175 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

5176 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

5177 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

5178 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

5179 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

5180 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

5181 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

5182 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

5183 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

5184 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

5185 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

5187 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

5189 zero_le_square

5190 not_square_less_zero

5192 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

5194 realpow_zero_zero

5195 realpow_two

5196 realpow_less

5197 zero_le_power

5198 realpow_two_le

5199 abs_realpow_two

5200 realpow_two_abs

5202 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

5204 * Theory List:

5206 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5207 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5209 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

5210 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

5211 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

5212 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

5214 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

5215 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

5218 *** HOL-Complex ***

5220 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

5221 integers in the reals.

5223 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5224 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5226 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

5227 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5228 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5229 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5230 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5232 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

5234 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

5236 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

5237 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

5239 hypreal = real star

5240 hypnat = nat star

5241 hcomplex = complex star

5243 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

5244 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5246 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

5248 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

5249 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

5250 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

5251 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

5252 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

5254 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5255 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

5256 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

5257 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

5258 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

5260 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

5261 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5263 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

5264 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

5265 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

5266 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

5267 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

5268 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

5269 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

5270 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

5271 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

5272 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

5273 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

5274 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

5275 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

5276 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

5277 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

5278 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

5279 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

5280 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

5281 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

5282 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

5283 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

5284 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

5285 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

5286 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

5288 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

5289 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

5290 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5292 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

5293 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

5294 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

5295 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

5296 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

5297 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

5298 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

5299 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

5300 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

5301 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

5302 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

5303 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

5304 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

5305 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

5306 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

5307 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

5308 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

5309 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

5310 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

5311 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

5312 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

5313 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

5314 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

5315 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5316 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5317 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

5318 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

5319 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

5320 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

5321 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

5322 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

5323 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

5324 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

5325 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

5326 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

5327 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

5328 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

5329 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

5330 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

5331 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

5332 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

5333 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

5334 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

5335 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

5336 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

5337 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

5338 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

5339 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

5340 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

5341 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

5342 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

5343 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

5344 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

5345 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

5347 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

5348 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

5349 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

5350 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

5351 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

5352 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

5353 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

5354 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

5355 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

5356 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

5357 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

5359 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

5360 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

5361 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

5362 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

5363 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

5364 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

5365 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

5366 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

5367 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

5368 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

5369 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

5370 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

5371 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

5372 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

5373 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

5374 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

5375 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

5376 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

5377 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

5378 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

5379 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

5381 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

5382 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

5383 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

5384 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

5385 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

5386 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

5388 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

5391 *** HOLCF ***

5393 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

5394 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

5395 type-inference.

5397 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

5398 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

5399 instead of exponential time).

5401 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

5402 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

5404 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

5406 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

5407 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

5408 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

5409 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

5410 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

5411 syntax and examples.

5413 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

5414 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

5415 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

5416 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

5417 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

5419 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

5420 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5422 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

5423 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

5424 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

5425 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

5426 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

5427 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

5430 *** ZF ***

5432 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

5433 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

5434 of a homomorphism).

5436 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

5437 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

5438 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

5441 *** Cube ***

5443 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

5444 theories.

5447 *** ML ***

5449 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

5450 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

5452 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

5453 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

5454 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

5455 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

5456 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

5458 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

5459 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

5460 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

5461 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

5463 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

5464 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

5465 suggests how one can translate existing code:

5467 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

5468 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

5469 last_elem xs = List.last xs

5470 flat xss = List.concat xss

5471 seq fs = List.app fs

5472 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

5473 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

5475 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

5476 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

5478 x |> f f #> g

5479 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

5481 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

5483 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

5484 infix 2 ?;

5485 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

5486 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

5488 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

5489 infix operators.

5491 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

5492 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

5493 example:

5495 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

5496 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

5498 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

5499 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

5501 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

5502 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

5504 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

5505 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

5507 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

5508 available:

5510 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

5511 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

5512 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

5513 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

5515 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5516 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

5517 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

5518 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

5519 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

5521 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

5522 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

5523 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

5525 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5527 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

5528 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

5530 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

5531 Naive rewrites:

5533 make_keylist = AList.make

5534 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

5536 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

5537 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

5539 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

5540 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

5542 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

5543 Naive rewrites:

5545 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

5546 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

5548 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

5549 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

5550 lists.

5552 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

5553 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

5554 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

5555 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

5557 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

5558 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

5559 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

5560 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

5561 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

5562 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

5563 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

5564 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

5565 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

5566 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

5567 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

5568 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

5569 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

5570 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

5571 Output.raw have no effect.

5573 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

5574 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

5575 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

5577 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

5578 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

5579 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

5580 internal and external process view of file names are different.

5582 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

5583 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

5584 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

5585 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

5586 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

5587 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

5588 Library.sort_strings on result).

5590 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

5591 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

5592 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

5593 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

5595 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

5596 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

5597 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

5598 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

5599 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

5600 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

5601 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

5602 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

5603 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

5604 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

5605 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

5607 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

5608 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

5609 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

5610 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

5611 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

5612 with earlier declarations.

5614 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

5615 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

5616 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

5618 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

5619 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

5620 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

5621 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

5622 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

5623 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

5625 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

5626 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

5628 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

5629 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

5631 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

5632 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

5633 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

5634 Theory.merge, etc.)

5636 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

5637 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

5638 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

5640 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

5642 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

5643 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

5644 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

5645 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

5647 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

5648 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

5649 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

5650 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

5651 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

5652 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

5653 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

5654 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

5656 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

5657 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

5658 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5660 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

5661 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

5662 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

5664 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

5665 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

5667 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5668 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5669 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5670 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5672 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

5674 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

5675 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

5676 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

5677 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

5678 (both increase the runtime).

5680 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

5681 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

5682 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

5684 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

5685 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

5686 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

5687 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

5688 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

5689 for further details.

5691 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

5692 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

5693 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

5694 scripts for the time being.

5696 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

5697 generated HTML files. For example:

5699 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

5700 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

5703 *** System ***

5705 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

5706 isabelle, isatool etc.).

5708 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

5709 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

5711 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

5712 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

5714 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

5715 distribution being used.

5717 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

5718 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

5719 theories.

5723 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

5724 --------------------------------

5726 *** General ***

5728 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

5729 Replaces linorder.ML.

5731 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

5732 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

5733 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

5734 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

5735 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

5736 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

5737 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

5738 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

5739 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

5740 existing theory and ML files.

5742 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

5744 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

5745 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

5746 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

5747 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

5749 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

5750 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

5751 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

5752 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

5754 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

5755 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

5756 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

5758 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

5759 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

5760 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

5761 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

5762 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

5764 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

5765 (i.e. intersections of classes),

5767 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

5768 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

5769 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

5772 *** Isar ***

5774 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

5775 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

5776 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

5777 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

5778 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

5779 emulations.

5780 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

5781 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

5782 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

5784 * Attributes "where" and "of":

5785 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

5786 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

5787 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

5788 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

5790 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

5791 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

5792 and derived forms.

5794 * Locales:

5795 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

5796 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

5797 "_axioms") in the premise.

5798 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

5799 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

5800 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

5801 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

5802 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

5803 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

5804 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

5805 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

5806 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

5807 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

5808 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

5809 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

5810 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

5811 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

5812 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

5813 with "locale (open)".

5814 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

5816 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

5817 (Isar) contexts.

5820 *** HOL ***

5822 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

5823 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

5824 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

5825 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

5826 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

5828 * Simplifier:

5829 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

5830 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

5831 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

5832 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

5833 to solve goals from the assumptions.

5834 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

5835 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

5836 is solved by simplification already.

5838 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

5839 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

5841 * Numerics:

5842 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

5843 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

5844 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

5845 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

5846 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

5847 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

5848 exponentiation).

5850 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

5852 * Records:

5853 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

5854 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

5855 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

5856 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

5857 (not enabled by default).

5858 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

5859 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

5860 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

5862 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

5863 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

5864 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

5866 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

5868 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

5870 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

5871 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

5873 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

5874 matrix theory to linear programming.

5876 * Unions and Intersections:

5877 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

5878 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

5879 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

5880 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

5882 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

5883 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

5884 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

5885 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

5887 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

5888 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

5890 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

5891 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

5893 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

5894 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

5895 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

5897 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

5898 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

5899 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

5900 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

5901 for examples.

5904 *** HOLCF ***

5906 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

5910 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

5911 ------------------------------

5913 *** General ***

5915 * Provers/simplifier:

5917 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

5918 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

5919 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

5920 the order of assumptions.

5922 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5924 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

5925 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

5927 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

5929 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

5931 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

5933 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

5934 kind of problem.

5936 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

5937 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

5938 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

5939 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

5940 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

5941 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

5942 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

5944 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

5946 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

5947 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

5948 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

5949 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

5950 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

5951 the simplifier would diverge.

5953 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

5955 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

5956 congruence is ignored.

5958 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

5959 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

5960 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

5962 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

5963 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

5964 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

5965 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

5967 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

5968 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

5969 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

5970 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

5971 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

5972 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

5973 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

5975 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

5976 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

5977 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

5978 assumption failed.

5980 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

5981 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

5982 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

5983 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

5984 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

5985 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

5986 on the old view without predicates;

5988 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

5989 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

5990 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

5992 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

5993 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

5994 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

5995 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

5996 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

5997 be given (the default is 40);

5999 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

6000 (batch-mode only);

6002 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

6003 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

6004 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

6006 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

6007 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

6008 for slight decrease in efficiency;

6010 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

6011 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

6013 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

6014 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

6017 *** HOL ***

6019 * arith(_tac)

6021 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

6022 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

6023 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

6024 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

6026 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

6028 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

6029 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

6030 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

6032 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

6033 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

6035 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

6036 are distributed over a sum of terms;

6038 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

6039 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

6040 "<=", "<" and "=").

6042 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

6043 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

6045 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

6046 definition;

6048 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

6049 Finite_Set);

6051 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

6052 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

6054 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

6055 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

6057 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

6058 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

6059 of the empty set.

6061 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

6062 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

6063 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

6064 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

6066 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

6068 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

6069 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

6070 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

6072 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

6074 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

6075 Fleuriot);

6077 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

6079 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

6080 Gray and Kramer);

6082 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

6084 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

6085 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

6087 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

6088 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

6089 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

6090 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

6091 assignment, exceptions.

6094 *** ZF ***

6096 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

6097 universe, etc.);

6099 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

6102 *** ML ***

6104 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

6105 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

6106 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

6108 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

6110 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

6111 up simprocs;

6114 *** Document preparation ***

6116 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

6117 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

6118 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

6120 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

6121 other packages

6123 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

6124 broke \Rightarrow)

6126 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

6127 textcomp package)

6131 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

6132 --------------------------------

6134 *** Document preparation ***

6136 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

6137 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

6138 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

6139 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

6140 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

6141 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

6143 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

6144 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

6145 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

6147 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

6148 blocks after section headings;

6150 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

6151 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

6153 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

6154 better in printed text;

6156 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

6157 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

6158 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

6160 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

6161 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

6162 location;

6165 *** Isar ***

6167 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

6168 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

6169 "case (Suc n)");

6170 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

6171 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

6172 instantiation of cases;

6173 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

6174 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

6175 rules without further ado;

6176 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

6177 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

6178 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

6179 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

6180 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

6181 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

6182 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

6183 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

6184 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

6185 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

6186 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

6187 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

6188 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

6189 below);

6190 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

6191 success (no backtracking);

6192 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

6193 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

6194 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

6195 General versions);

6196 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

6197 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

6199 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

6200 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

6201 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

6202 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

6203 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

6204 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

6205 fails:

6207 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

6209 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

6210 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

6212 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

6213 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

6214 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

6215 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

6216 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

6217 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

6218 some examples;

6220 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

6221 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

6222 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

6223 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

6224 qualified by the locale name);

6226 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

6227 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

6228 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

6229 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with