NEWS
author hoelzl
Wed Nov 21 10:48:22 2012 +0100 (2012-11-21)
changeset 50139 7eb626617bbe
parent 50138 ca989d793b34
child 50140 74773e3dc85d
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS (changeset 69b35a75caf3): document changes in FuncSet
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    46 
    47 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    48 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    49 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    50 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    51 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    52 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    53 
    54 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    55 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    56 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    57 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    58 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    59 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    60 
    61 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    62 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    63 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    64 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    65 
    66 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    67 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    68 
    69 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    70 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    71 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    72 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    73 potentially infinite message streams.
    74 
    75 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    76 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    77 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    78 schemes.
    79 
    80 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    81 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    82 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    83 
    84 
    85 *** Pure ***
    86 
    87 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    88 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    89 
    90 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    91 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    92 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    93 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    94 
    95 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    96 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    97 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    98 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    99 with some care where this is really required.
   100 
   101 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   102 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   103 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   104 
   105   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   106 
   107 
   108 *** HOL ***
   109 
   110 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   111 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   114 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   117 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   118 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   119 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   120 accordingly.
   121 
   122 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   123 
   124   - Renamed constants
   125       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   126 
   127   - Renamed facts
   128       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   129 
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   135 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   136 
   137 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   138 to lattice type classes.
   139 
   140 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   141 
   142 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   144 
   145   - Renamed constants:
   146 
   147       prefix ~> prefixeq
   148       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   149 
   150     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   153     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   154     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   155     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   158     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   159 
   160   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   161     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   162     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   163     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   166     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   167 
   168       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   169       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   170       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   171       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   172       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   173       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   174       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   175       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   176       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   177       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   178       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   179       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   180       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   181       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   182       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   183       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   184 
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   188 
   189 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   190 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   191 
   192 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   195 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   196 non-free datatypes.
   197 
   198 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   199 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   200 
   201 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   202 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   203 
   204 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   205 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   206 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   207 
   208       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   209       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   210       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   211       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   212       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   213       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   214       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   215       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   216       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   217       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   218 
   219   INCOMPATIBUILITY.
   220 
   221 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   222 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   223 
   224 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   225 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   226 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   227 
   228 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   229 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   230 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   233 
   234 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   235 expressions.
   236 
   237 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   238 pointfree expressions.
   239 
   240 * Quickcheck:
   241 
   242   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   243     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   244     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   245 
   246 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   247 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   248 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   249 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   250 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Sledgehammer:
   253 
   254   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   255     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   256   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   257   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   258   - Renamed options:
   259       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   260       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   261       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   262       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   263 
   264 
   265 *** Document preparation ***
   266 
   267 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   268 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   269 
   270 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   271 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   272 document/root.tex.
   273 
   274 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   275 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 
   278 *** ML ***
   279 
   280 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   281 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   282 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   283 
   284 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   285 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   286 necessarily printing visible text.
   287 
   288 
   289 *** System ***
   290 
   291 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   292 instead of 4.
   293 
   294 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   295 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   296 for home-made configurations.
   297 
   298 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   299 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   300 
   301 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   302 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   303 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   304 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   305 
   306 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   307 
   308 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   309 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   310 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   311 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   312 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   313 
   314 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   315 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   316 
   317   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   318 
   319 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   320 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   321 
   322 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   323 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   324 "isabelle usedir".
   325 
   326 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   327 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   328 version of Isabelle.
   329 
   330 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   332 
   333 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   334 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   335 configuration.
   336 
   337 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   338 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   339 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   340 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   341 bundled as Isabelle component.
   342 
   343 
   344 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   345 ------------------------------
   346 
   347 *** General ***
   348 
   349 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   350 
   351   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   352     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   353   - markup for bound variables
   354   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   355   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   356   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   357     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   358 
   359 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   360 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   361 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   362 
   363 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   364 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   365 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   366 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   367 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   368 
   369   context
   370     fixes x y z :: 'a
   371     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   372   begin
   373 
   374   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   375 
   376   end
   377 
   378   thm my_trans
   379 
   380 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   381 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   382 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   383 
   384 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   385 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   386 
   387 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   388 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   389 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   390 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   391 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   392 
   393 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   394 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   395 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   396 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   397 indices of schematic variables.
   398 
   399 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   400 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   401 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   402 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   403 etc. was exploited.
   404 
   405 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   406 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   407 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   408 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   409 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   410 of the material of that old tutorial.
   411 
   412 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   413 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   414 manual.
   415 
   416 
   417 *** Pure ***
   418 
   419 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   420 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   421 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   422 
   423 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   424 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   425 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   426 undocumented feature.)
   427 
   428 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   429 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   430 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   431 
   432   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   433 
   434   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   435     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   436 
   437 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   438 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   439 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   440 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   441 
   442 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   443 
   444     num ~> num_token
   445     xnum ~> xnum_token
   446     xstr ~> str_token
   447 
   448 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   449 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   450 position information via constraints).
   451 
   452 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   453 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   454 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   455 
   456 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   457 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   458 
   459 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   460 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   461 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   464 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   465 
   466 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   467 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   468 
   469   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   470 
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   474 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   475 
   476 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   477 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   478 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   479 
   480 
   481 *** HOL ***
   482 
   483 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   484 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   485 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   486 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   487 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   488 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   489 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   490 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   491 possible.
   492 
   493 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   494 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   495 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   496 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   497 
   498 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   499 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   502 
   503 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   504 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   505 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   506 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   507 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   508 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   509 
   510   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   511     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   512 
   513   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   514     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   515     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   516 
   517   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   518     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   519 
   520   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   521     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   522     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   523 
   524   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   525     Redefine using other integer operations.
   526 
   527 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   528 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   529 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   530 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   531 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   532 
   533   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   534     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   535     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   536     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   537     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   538 
   539     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   540     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   541 
   542   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   543     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   544     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   545     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   546     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   547     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   548     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   549     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   550 
   551   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   552     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   553     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   554     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   555 
   556   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   557     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   558     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   559     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   560 
   561   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   562     from type nat to type int.
   563 
   564 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   565 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   566 
   567   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   568     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   569     type.  Example syntax:
   570 
   571     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   572       is List.insert
   573 
   574     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   575     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   576     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   577     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   578     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   579     by the package.
   580 
   581   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   582     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   583     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   584     code generation for each constant.
   585 
   586   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   587     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   588     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   589     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   590     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   591 
   592   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   593     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   594     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   595 
   596 * Quotient package:
   597 
   598   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   599     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   600 
   601   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   602     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   603 
   604   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   605     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   606     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   609     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   612 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   613 
   614 * Quickcheck:
   615 
   616   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   617     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   618     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   619     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   620     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   621 
   622     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   623     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   624     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   625 
   626     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   627     continues searching for genuine ones.
   628 
   629     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   630     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   631     show genuine counterexamples.
   632 
   633   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   634     value generators for a given type and operations.
   635 
   636     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   637     constructors of that type.
   638 
   639   - Support for multisets.
   640 
   641   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   642 
   643   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   644     conjectures in a locale context.
   645 
   646 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   647 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   648 
   649 * Sledgehammer:
   650   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   651     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   652   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   653   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   654     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   655   - Sped up the minimizer.
   656   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   657   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   658   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   659 
   660 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   661 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   662 
   663 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   664 
   665 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   666 
   667 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   668 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   669 
   670   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   671 
   672 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   673 a list and a nat.
   674 
   675 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   676 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   677 
   678 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   679 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   680 default.
   681 
   682 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   683 
   684   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   685 
   686 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   687 
   688 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   689 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   690 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   691 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   692 one_case.
   693 
   694 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   695 the result of the fact expression.
   696 
   697 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   698 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   699 of some relation theorems:
   700 
   701   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   702   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   703   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   704   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   705   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   706   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   707 
   708 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   709 
   710 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   711 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   712 
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   716 to match the constant's name:
   717 
   718   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   719   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   720   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   721   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   722   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   723   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   724   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   725   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   726   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   727   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   728   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   729   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   730   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   731   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   732   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   733   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   734   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   735   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   736   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   737   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   738   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   739   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   740   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   741   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   742 
   743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   746 and corresponding theorem names:
   747 
   748   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   749 
   750   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   751 
   752   - Renamed theorems:
   753 
   754     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   755     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   756     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   757     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   758     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   759     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   760     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   761     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   762     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   763     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   764     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   765     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   766     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   767     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   768     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   769     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   770     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   771     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   772     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   773     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   774     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   775     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   776     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   777 
   778     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   779 
   780     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   781 
   782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   785 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   786 
   787   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   788   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   789   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   790   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   791   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   792   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   793   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   794   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   795   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   796   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   797   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   798   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   799   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   800   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   801   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   802   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   803   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   804   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   805   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   806   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   807   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   808 
   809 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   810 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   811 
   812 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   813 
   814 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   815 
   816   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   817   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   818   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   819   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   820   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   821   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   822   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   823   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   824   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   825   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   826   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   827   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   828   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   829   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   830   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   831   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   832   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   833   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   834 
   835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   838 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   839 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   840 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   841 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   842 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   843 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   844 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   845 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   846 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   847 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   848 
   849 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   850 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   851 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   852 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   853 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   854 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   855 
   856 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   857 through option types.
   858 
   859 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   860 relations.
   861 
   862 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   863 
   864 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   865 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   866 
   867   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   868   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   869   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   870   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   871   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   872   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   873   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   874   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   875   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   876   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   877   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   878   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   879   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   880   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   881   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   882   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   883   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   884   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   885   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   886   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   887   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   888   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   889   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   890   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   891   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   892   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   893   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   894   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   895   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   896   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   897   zless_le ~> less_le
   898   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   899   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   900   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   901 
   902 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   903 
   904   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   905 
   906 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   907 
   908 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   909 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   910 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   911 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   915 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   916 
   917 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   918 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   919 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   920 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   921 follows:
   922 
   923   Operations:
   924   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   925   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   926   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   927   del -> rbt_del
   928   delete -> rbt_delete
   929   ins -> rbt_ins
   930   insert -> rbt_insert
   931   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   932   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   933   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   934   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   935   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   936   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   937   tree_less -> rbt_less
   938   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   939   union -> rbt_union
   940   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   941   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   942 
   943   Lemmas:
   944   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   945   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   946   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   947   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   948   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   949   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   950   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   951   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   952   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   953   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   954   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   955   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   956   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   957   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   958   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   959   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   960   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   961   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   962   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   963   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   964   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   965   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   966   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   967   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   968   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   969   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   970   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   971   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   972   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   973   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   974   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   975   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   976   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   977   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   978   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   979   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   980   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   981   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   982   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   983   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   984   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   985   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   986   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   987   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   988   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   989   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   990   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   991   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   992   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   993   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   994   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   995   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   996   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   997   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   998   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   999   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1000   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1001   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1002   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1003   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1004   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1005   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1006   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1007   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1008   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1009   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1010   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1011   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1012   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1013   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1014   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1015   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1016   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1017   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1018   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1019   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1020   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1021   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1022   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1023   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1024   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1025   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1026   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1027 
  1028 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1029 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1030 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032   Changed Operations:
  1033   float_abs -> abs
  1034   float_nprt -> nprt
  1035   float_pprt -> pprt
  1036   pow2 -> use powr
  1037   round_down -> float_round_down
  1038   round_up -> float_round_up
  1039   scale -> exponent
  1040 
  1041   Removed Operations:
  1042   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1043 
  1044   Renamed Lemmas:
  1045   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1046   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1047   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1048   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1049   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1050   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1051   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1052   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1053   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1054   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1055   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1056   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1057   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1058   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1059   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1060   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1061   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1062   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1063   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1064   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1065   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1066   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1067   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1068   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1069   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1070   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1071   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1072   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1073   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1074   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1075   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1076   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1077   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1078   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1079   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1080   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1081 
  1082   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1083   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1084   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1085   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1086   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1087   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1088   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1089   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1090   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1091   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1092 
  1093 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1094 association lists with distinct keys.
  1095 
  1096 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1097 annotated commands.
  1098 
  1099 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1100 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1101 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1102 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1103 
  1104 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1105 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1106 instead.
  1107 
  1108   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1109   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1110   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1111   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1112   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1113   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1114   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1115   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1116   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1117   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1118   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1119   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1120   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1121   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1122   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1123   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1124   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1125   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1126   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1127   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1128   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1129   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1130   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1131   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1132   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1133   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1134   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1135   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1136   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1137   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1138   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1139   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1140   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1141   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1142   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1143   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1144   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1145   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1146   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1147   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1148   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1149 
  1150 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1151 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1152 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1153 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1154 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1155 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1156 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1157 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1158 
  1159 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1160 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1161 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1162 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1163 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1164 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1165 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1166 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1167 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1168 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1169 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1170 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172   Renamed constants:
  1173   measure -> emeasure
  1174   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1175   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1176   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1177   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1178 
  1179   Removed locales:
  1180   completeable_measure_space
  1181   finite_measure_space
  1182   finite_prob_space
  1183   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1184   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1185   finite_sigma_algebra
  1186   measure_space
  1187   pair_finite_prob_space
  1188   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1189   pair_finite_space
  1190   pair_sigma_algebra
  1191   product_sigma_algebra
  1192 
  1193   Removed constants:
  1194   conditional_space
  1195   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1196   image_space
  1197   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1198   pair_measure_generator
  1199   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1200   subvimage
  1201 
  1202   Replacement theorems:
  1203   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1204   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1205   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1206   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1207   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1208   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1209   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1210   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1211   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1212   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1213   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1214   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1215   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1216   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1217   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1218   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1219   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1220   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1221   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1222   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1223   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1224   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1225   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1226   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1227   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1228   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1229   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1230   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1231   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1232   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1233   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1234   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1235   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1236   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1237   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1238   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1239   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1240   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1241   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1242   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1243   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1244   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1245   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1246   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1247   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1248   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1249   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1250   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1251   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1252   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1253   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1254   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1255   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1256   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1257   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1258   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1259   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1260   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1261   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1262   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1263   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1264   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1265   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1266   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1267   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1268   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1269   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1270   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1271   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1272   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1273   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1274   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1275   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1276   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1277   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1278   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1279   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1280   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1281   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1282   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1283   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1284   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1285   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1286   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1287   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1288   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1289   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1290   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1291   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1292   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1293   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1294   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1295   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1296   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1297   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1298   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1299   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1300   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1301   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1302   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1303   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1304   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1305   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1306   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1307   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1308   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1309   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1310   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1311   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1312   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1313   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1314   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1315   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1316   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1317   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1318   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1319   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1320   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1321   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1322   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1323   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1324   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1325   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1326   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1327   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1328   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1329   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1330   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1331 
  1332 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1333 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1334 
  1335 
  1336 *** FOL ***
  1337 
  1338 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1339 
  1340 
  1341 *** ZF ***
  1342 
  1343 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1344 analysis.
  1345 
  1346 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1347 
  1348 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1349 
  1350 
  1351 *** ML ***
  1352 
  1353 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1354 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1355 
  1356 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1357 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1358 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1359 
  1360 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1361 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1362 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1363 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1364 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1365 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1366 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1367 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1368 
  1369 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1370 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1371 
  1372 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1373 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1374 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1375 
  1376 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1377 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1380 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1381 context as well.
  1382 
  1383 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1384 
  1385   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1386   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1387   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1388   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1389   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1390   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1391   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1392   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1393   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1394   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1395   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1396   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1397 
  1398 
  1399 *** System ***
  1400 
  1401 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1402 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1403 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1404 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1405 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1406 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1407 the generic user home was intended.
  1408 
  1409 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1410 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1411 
  1412 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1413 (not just JRE).
  1414 
  1415 
  1416 
  1417 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1418 ------------------------------------
  1419 
  1420 *** General ***
  1421 
  1422 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1423 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1424 
  1425   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1426     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1427     files for checking).
  1428 
  1429   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1430     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1431     positions.
  1432 
  1433   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1434     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1435     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1436 
  1437   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1438     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1439     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1440 
  1441   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1442     cores.
  1443 
  1444   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1445     versions (garbage collection).
  1446 
  1447 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1448 including some remaining limitations.
  1449 
  1450 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1451 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1452 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1453 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1454 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1458 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1459 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1460 
  1461 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1462 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1463 usedir option -Q.
  1464 
  1465 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1466 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1467 
  1468   long_names   ~> names_long
  1469   short_names  ~> names_short
  1470   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1471 
  1472 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1473 
  1474   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1475 
  1476 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1477 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1478 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1479 
  1480 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1481 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1482 
  1483 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1484   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1485   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1486   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1487     "Classical Reasoner".
  1488 
  1489 
  1490 *** HOL ***
  1491 
  1492 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1493 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1496 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1497 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1498 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1499 class complete_linorder.
  1500 
  1501 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1502 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1503 
  1504 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1505 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1506 
  1507   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1508   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1509   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1510   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1511   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1512   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1513   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1514   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1515   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1516   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1517   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1518 
  1519 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1520 
  1521   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1522   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1523   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1524   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1525   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1526   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1527   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1528   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1529   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1530   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1531   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1532   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1533   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1534   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1535   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1536   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1537 
  1538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1544 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1545 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1546 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1549 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1550 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1554 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1555 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1556 
  1557 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1558 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1559 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1562 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1563 
  1564 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1565 
  1566     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1567     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1568 
  1569 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1570 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1573 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1576 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1577 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1578 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1581   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1582   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1583   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1584   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1585   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1586   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1587 
  1588 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1589 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1590 
  1591   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1592   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1593   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1594   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1595   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1596   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1597   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1598   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1599   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1600   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1601   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1602   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1603   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1604   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1605   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1606   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1607   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1608   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1609   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1610   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1611   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1612   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1613   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1614   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1615   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1616   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1617   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1618   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1619   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1620   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1621   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1622   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1623   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1624   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1625   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1626   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1627   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1628   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1629   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1630   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1631   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1632   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1633   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1634   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1635   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1636   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1637   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1638   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1639   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1640   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1641   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1642   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1643   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1644   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1645   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1646   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1647   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1648   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1649   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1650   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1651   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1652   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1653   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1654   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1655   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1656   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1657   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1658   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1659   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1660   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1661   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1662   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1663   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1664   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1665   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1666   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1667   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1668   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1669   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1670   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1671   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1672   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1673 
  1674 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1675 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1676 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1677 
  1678 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1679 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1680 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1681 
  1682 * Code generation:
  1683 
  1684   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1685     characters in the target language.
  1686 
  1687   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1688     instead.
  1689 
  1690   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1691 
  1692   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1693     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1694 
  1695       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1696 
  1697 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1698 
  1699 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1700 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1701 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1702 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1703 syntax.
  1704 
  1705 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1706 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1707 
  1708 * Nitpick:
  1709   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1710   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1711   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1712     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713 
  1714 * Sledgehammer:
  1715   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1716   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1717     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1718   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1719     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1720   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1721     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1723     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1724   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1725     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Metis:
  1728   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1729   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1730     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732 * Command 'try':
  1733   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1734     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1735   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1736     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1737 
  1738 * Quickcheck:
  1739   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1740     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1741   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1742     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1743   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1744     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1745     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1746     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1747   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1748     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1749 
  1750 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1751 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1752 
  1753 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1754 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1755 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1756 
  1757 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1758 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1760 
  1761 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1762 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1765 arithmetic.
  1766 
  1767 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1768 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1769 and lattice type classes.
  1770 
  1771 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1772 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1773 
  1774 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1775 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1776 
  1777 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1778 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1779 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1782   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1783   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1784   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1785 
  1786 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1787 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1788 constants:
  1789 
  1790   type inat   ~> type enat
  1791   Fin         ~> enat
  1792   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1793   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1794   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1795 
  1796 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1797 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1798 
  1799 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1800 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1801 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1802 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1803 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1804 
  1805 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1806 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1807 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1808 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1809 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1810 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1811 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1812 
  1813   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1814   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1815   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1816   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1817 
  1818 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1819 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1820 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821 
  1822   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1823   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1824   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1825   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1826   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1827   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1828   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1829   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1830   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1831   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1832   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1833   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1834   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1835   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1836   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1837   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1838   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1839   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1840   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1841   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1842   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1843   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1844   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1845   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1846   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1847   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1848   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1849   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1850   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1851   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1852   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1853   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1854   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1855   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1856   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1857   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1858   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1859   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1860   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1861   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1862   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1863   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1864   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1865   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1866   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1867   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1868   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1869   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1870   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1871   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1872   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1873 
  1874 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1875   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1876   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1877   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1878   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1879     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1882 
  1883   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1884   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1885   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1886   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1887   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1888   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1889   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1890   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1891   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1892   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1893   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1894   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1895   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1896   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1897   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1898   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1899   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1900   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1901   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1902   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1903   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1904   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1905   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1906   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1907   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1908 
  1909 
  1910 *** Document preparation ***
  1911 
  1912 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1913 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1914 same.
  1915 
  1916 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1917 result.
  1918 
  1919 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1920 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1921 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1922 
  1923 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1924 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1925 
  1926 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1927 like this:
  1928 
  1929   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1930   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1931 
  1932 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1933 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1934 layouts.
  1935 
  1936 
  1937 *** ML ***
  1938 
  1939 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1940 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1941 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1942 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1943 under external program control.
  1944 
  1945 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1946 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1947 
  1948 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1949 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1950 (better known as Proof General).
  1951 
  1952 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1953 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1954 
  1955 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1956 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1957 
  1958 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1959 (including quotes etc.).
  1960 
  1961 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1962 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1963 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1964 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1965 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1966 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1967 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1968 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1969 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1970 
  1971 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1972 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1973 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1974 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1975 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1976 
  1977 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1978 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1979 
  1980 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1981 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1982 
  1983 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1984 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1985 
  1986 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1987 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1988 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1989 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1990 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1991 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1992 proper Proof.context.
  1993 
  1994 
  1995 *** System ***
  1996 
  1997 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1998 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1999 
  2000 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2001 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2002 
  2003 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2004 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2005 
  2006   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2007   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2008   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2009   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2010   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2011 
  2012 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2013 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2014 
  2015 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2016 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2017 example:
  2018 
  2019   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2020 
  2021 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2022 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2023 
  2024 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2025 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2026 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2027 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2028 
  2029 
  2030 
  2031 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2032 ----------------------------------
  2033 
  2034 *** General ***
  2035 
  2036 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2037 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2038 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2039 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2040 like this:
  2041 
  2042   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2043 
  2044 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2045 
  2046 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2047 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2048 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2049 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2050 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2051 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2052 
  2053 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2054 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2055 the following package declarations:
  2056 
  2057   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2058   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2059 
  2060 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2061 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2062 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2063 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2064 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2065 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2066 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2067 
  2068 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2069 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2070 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2071 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2072 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2073 
  2074 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2075 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2076 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2077 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2078 
  2079 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2080 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2081 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2082 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2083 
  2084   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2085 
  2086   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2087   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2088   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2089   show_types                    show_types
  2090   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2091   show_consts                   show_consts
  2092   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2093 
  2094   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2095   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2096   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2097 
  2098   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2099   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2100 
  2101   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2102 
  2103   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2104   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2105   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2106   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2107   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2108 
  2109 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2110 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2111 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2112 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2113 
  2114 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2118   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2119 
  2120 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2121 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2122 float_token.
  2123 
  2124 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2125 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2129 DejaVu Sans.
  2130 
  2131 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2132 
  2133 
  2134 *** Pure ***
  2135 
  2136 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2137 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2138 time.
  2139 
  2140 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2141 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2144 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145 
  2146 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2147 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2148 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2149 command already provided this functionality.
  2150 
  2151 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2152 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2153 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2154 without interpretations.
  2155 
  2156 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2157 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2158 
  2159 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2160 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2161 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2162 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2163 
  2164 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2165 'definition' instead.
  2166 
  2167 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2168 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2169 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2170 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2171 
  2172 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2173 constructors.
  2174 
  2175 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2176 the local file system.
  2177 
  2178 
  2179 *** HOL ***
  2180 
  2181 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2182 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2183 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2184 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2185 
  2186   declare [[coercion f]]
  2187 
  2188 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2189 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2190 
  2191   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2192 
  2193 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2194 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2195 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2196 other theories like this:
  2197 
  2198   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2199 
  2200 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2201 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2202 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2203 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2204 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2205 for examples.
  2206 
  2207 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2208 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2209 
  2210 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2211 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2212 
  2213 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2214 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2215 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2216 
  2217 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2218 functorial structure of types.
  2219 
  2220 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2221 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2222 
  2223 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2224 languages.
  2225 
  2226 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2227 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2231 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2232 
  2233 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2234 combinators any longer.
  2235 
  2236 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2237 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2238 
  2239 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2240 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2241 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2242 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2243 
  2244   record 'a foo = ...
  2245   ...
  2246   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2247 
  2248 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2249 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2253 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2254 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2255 
  2256 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2257 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2258 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2259 
  2260 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2261 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2262 
  2263 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2264 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2265 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2266 independently.
  2267 
  2268 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2269 counter example search.
  2270 
  2271 * Sledgehammer:
  2272   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2273     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2274     sledgehammer").
  2275   - Renamed commands:
  2276     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2277     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2278     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2279     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280   - Renamed options:
  2281     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2282     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2283     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2284     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2285     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2286 
  2287 * Nitpick:
  2288   - Renamed options:
  2289     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2290     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2291     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2293   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2294   - Added "whack" option.
  2295   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2296   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2297   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2298   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2299     higher cardinalities.
  2300   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2301 
  2302 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2303 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2304 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2305 
  2306     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2307 
  2308 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2309 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2310 
  2311 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2312 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2313 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2314 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2315 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2316 "smt_solver".
  2317 
  2318 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2319 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2320 
  2321 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2322 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2323 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2324 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2327   - Renamed:
  2328     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2329     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2331   - Added:
  2332     smt_verbose
  2333     smt_random_seed
  2334     smt_datatypes
  2335     smt_infer_triggers
  2336     smt_monomorph_limit
  2337     cvc3_options
  2338     remote_cvc3_options
  2339     remote_z3_options
  2340     yices_options
  2341 
  2342 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2343 header.
  2344 
  2345 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2346 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2347 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2348 
  2349   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2350 
  2351 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352 
  2353 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2354 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2355 
  2356 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2357 
  2358 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2359 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2362 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2363 
  2364 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2365 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2368 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2369 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2377 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2380 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2381 for congruent(2)).
  2382 
  2383 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2384 
  2385   types
  2386     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2387     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2388 
  2389   constants
  2390     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2391     True ~> HOL.True
  2392     False ~> HOL.False
  2393     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2394     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2395     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2396     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2397     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2398     The ~> HOL.The
  2399     All ~> HOL.All
  2400     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2401     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2402     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2403     If ~> HOL.If
  2404     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2405     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2406     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2407     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2408     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2409     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2410     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2411     op : ~> Set.member
  2412     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2413 
  2414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2417 
  2418     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2419     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2420     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2421     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2422     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2423     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2424     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2425     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2426 
  2427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429 * More stylized fact names:
  2430 
  2431   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2432   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2433   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2434   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2435 
  2436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2439 
  2440   constants
  2441     null ~> List.null
  2442 
  2443   facts
  2444     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2445     null_empty ~> null_def
  2446 
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2448 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2449 generation.
  2450 
  2451 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2452 Haskell code.
  2453 
  2454 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2455 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2456 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2457 
  2458 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2459 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2460 
  2461 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2462 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2463 
  2464 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2465 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2466 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2469 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2475 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2476 referred to by its qualified name.
  2477 
  2478   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2479   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2480   product ~>  Enum.product
  2481 
  2482 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2483 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2485 
  2486 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2487 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2488 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2490 
  2491 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2492 sort_key.
  2493 
  2494 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2496 
  2497 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2498 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2499 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2500 
  2501   types
  2502     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2503               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2504               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2505         (depends on your needs)
  2506 
  2507   constants
  2508      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2509      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2510      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2511 
  2512 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2513 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2514 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2515 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2518 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2519 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2520 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2521 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525 
  2526 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2527 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2528 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2529 
  2530 
  2531 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2532 
  2533 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2534 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2535 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2536 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2537 compatibility.
  2538 
  2539 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2540 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2541 
  2542 
  2543 *** HOLCF ***
  2544 
  2545 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2546 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2547 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2551 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2552 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2555   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2556   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2557 
  2558 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2559 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2560 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2561 
  2562 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2563 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2564 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2565 domain definition now works:
  2566 
  2567   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2568 
  2569 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2570 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2571 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2572 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2573 
  2574   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2575     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2576 
  2577   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2578 
  2579 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2580 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2581 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2582 
  2583 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2584 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2587 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2588 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2589 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2590 
  2591 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2592 
  2593 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2596 
  2597 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2601 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2602 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2603 
  2604 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2605 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2606 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2609 still supported as an input translation.
  2610 
  2611 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2612 
  2613   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2614   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2615   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2616   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2617   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2618   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2619   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2620 
  2621 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2622 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2625   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2626   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2627   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2628   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2629   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2630 
  2631 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2632 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2633 
  2634 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2635 
  2636   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2637   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2638   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2639   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2640 
  2641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2644 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2647 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2650   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2651   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2652   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2653   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2654   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2655   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2656   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2657   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2658   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2659   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2660   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2661   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2662   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2663   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2664   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2665   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2666   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2667   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2668   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2669 
  2670 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2671 
  2672   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2673   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2674   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2675   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2676   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2677   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2678   box_less             ~> box_below
  2679   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2680   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2681   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2682   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2683   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2684   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2685   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2686   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2687   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2688   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2689   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2690   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2691   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2692   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2693   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2694   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2695   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2696   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2697   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2698   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2699   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2700   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2701   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2702   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2703   up_less              ~> up_below
  2704   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2705   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2706   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2707   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2708   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2709   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2710   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2711   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2712   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2713   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2714   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2715   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2716   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2717 
  2718 
  2719 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2720 
  2721 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2722 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 
  2725 *** ML ***
  2726 
  2727 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2728 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2729 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2730 
  2731 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2732 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2733 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2734 
  2735 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2736 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2737 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2738 
  2739 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2740 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2741 
  2742 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2743 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2744 
  2745 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2746 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2747 
  2748 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2749 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2750 
  2751 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2752 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2753 almost all situations.
  2754 
  2755 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2756 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2757 Isabelle/ML.
  2758 
  2759 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2760 meaning.
  2761 
  2762 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2763 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2764 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2765 
  2766 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2767 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2768 
  2769 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2770 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2771 
  2772 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2773 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2774 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2775 
  2776 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2777 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2778 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2779 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2780 configuration options.
  2781 
  2782 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2783 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2784 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2785 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2786 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2787 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2788 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2789 
  2790 
  2791 
  2792 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2793 ---------------------------------
  2794 
  2795 *** General ***
  2796 
  2797 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2798 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2799 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2800 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2801 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2802 their full internal name.
  2803 
  2804 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2805 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2806 Some hints on upgrading:
  2807 
  2808   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2809     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2810     which are independent of this issue.
  2811 
  2812   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2813     provides the following special forms:
  2814 
  2815       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2816       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2817       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2818 
  2819     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2820     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2821     extra variables".
  2822 
  2823     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2824     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2825     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2826     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2827     "logic".
  2828 
  2829   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2830     antiquotations:
  2831 
  2832       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2833       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2834       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2835       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2836 
  2837   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2838     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2839     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2840     antiquotations.
  2841 
  2842 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2843 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2844 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2845 diagnose syntax problems.
  2846 
  2847 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2848 
  2849 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2850 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2851 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2852 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2853 
  2854 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2855 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2856 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2857 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858 
  2859 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2860 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2861 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2862 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2863 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2864 
  2865 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2866 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2867 
  2868 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2869 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2870 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2871 
  2872   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2873 
  2874 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2875 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2876 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2877 
  2878 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2879 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2883 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2884 
  2885 
  2886 *** Pure ***
  2887 
  2888 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2889 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2890 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2891 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2892 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2893 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2894 inspect proof terms.
  2895 
  2896 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2897 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2898 are added internally.  For example:
  2899 
  2900   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2901 
  2902 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2903 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2908 'class' instead.
  2909 
  2910 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2911 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2913 
  2914 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2915 invariants.
  2916 
  2917 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2918 user space functionality any longer.
  2919 
  2920 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2921 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2925 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2926 
  2927 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2928 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2929 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2930 
  2931 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2932 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2933 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2934 
  2935 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2936 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 
  2939 *** HOL ***
  2940 
  2941 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2942 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2943 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2944 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2945 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2946 
  2947 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2948 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2949 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2950 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2951 
  2952   fun
  2953     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2954   where
  2955     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2956 
  2957   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2958     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2959 
  2960   quotient_definition
  2961     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2962 
  2963 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2964 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2965 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2966 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2967 
  2968 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2969 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2970 
  2971 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2972 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2973 
  2974 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2978 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2979 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2980 
  2981 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2982 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2991 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2994 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2995 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2998   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2999   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3000   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3001   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3002   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3003   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3004   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3005   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3006   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3007   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3008   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3009   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3010   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3011   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3012   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3013   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3014   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3015   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3016   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3017   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3018   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3019   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3020   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3021   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3022   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3023   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3024   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3025   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3026   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3027 
  3028 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3029 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3030 
  3031 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3032 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3033 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3034 
  3035 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3036 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3037 
  3038 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3039 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040 
  3041 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3042 
  3043 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3044 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3045 
  3046 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3047 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3048 
  3049 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3052 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3053 
  3054 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3055 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3056 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3057 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3060   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3061   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3062   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3066 lattices):
  3067 
  3068     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3069     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3070 
  3071     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3072 
  3073     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3074     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3075     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3076     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3077     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3078     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3079     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3080     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3081     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3082     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3083     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3084     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3085     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3086 
  3087     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3088     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3089     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3090     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3091     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3092     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3093     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3094     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3095     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3096     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3097     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3098     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3099     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3100     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3101     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3102     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3103     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3104     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3105 
  3106   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3107   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3108 
  3109     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3110     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3111     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3112     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3113     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3114 
  3115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117 * Refined field classes:
  3118   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3119     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3120     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3121   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3125   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3126   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3127   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3128     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3129   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3130     equal_neg_zero.
  3131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3132 
  3133 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3134 sets to lattices:
  3135 
  3136   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3137   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3138   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3139   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3140   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3141   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3142   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3143   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3144   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3145   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3146 
  3147 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3148 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3149 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3150 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3151 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3152 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3155 multiset order:
  3156 
  3157   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3158     <= and <;
  3159   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3160     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3161     multiset_order;
  3162   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3163     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3164     generation;
  3165   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3166     if needed.
  3167 
  3168 Renamed:
  3169 
  3170   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3171   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3172   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3173 
  3174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3175 
  3176 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3177 
  3178 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3179 
  3180 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3181 
  3182 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3183 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3184 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186   Constants:
  3187   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3188   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3189   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3190   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3191   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3192   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3193   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3194   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3195   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3196   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3197   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3198   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3199   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3200 
  3201   Lemmas:
  3202   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3203   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3204   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3205   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3206   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3207   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3208   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3209   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3210   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3211   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3212   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3213   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3214   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3215 
  3216 * Sledgehammer:
  3217   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3218     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3219     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3220     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3221     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3222     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3223     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3225   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3226     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3227   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3228     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3229     is still experimental.)
  3230   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3231     full-typed mode.
  3232   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3233 
  3234 * Nitpick:
  3235   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3236   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3237   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3238     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3239   - Added support for quotient types.
  3240   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3241     constructs.
  3242   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3243     "termination" proofs).
  3244   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3245   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3246   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3247   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3248     record getters.
  3249   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3250   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3251   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3252   - Added "atoms" option.
  3253   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3254     problems.
  3255   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3256     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3257     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3259     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3263   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3264   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3265   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3266   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3267   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3268   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3269   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3270   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3271   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 
  3274 *** HOLCF ***
  3275 
  3276 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3277 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3278 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3281 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3282 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3283 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3286 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3287 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3288 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3289 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3292 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3293 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3296 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3299   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3300 
  3301 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3302 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3305   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3306   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3307   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3308   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3309 
  3310 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3311 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3314   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3315   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3316 
  3317 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3318 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3322 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323 
  3324 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3327 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 
  3330 *** ML ***
  3331 
  3332 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3333 
  3334     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3335     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3336 
  3337     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3338     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3339     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3340     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3341 
  3342     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3343     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3344     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3345 
  3346 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3347 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3348 
  3349 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3350 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3351 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3352 
  3353 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3354 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3355 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3356 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3357 
  3358 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3359 the context or even global references.
  3360 
  3361 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3362 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3363 
  3364 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3365 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3366 
  3367   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3368   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3369   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3370   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3371   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3372   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3373   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3374   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3375   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3376   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3377 
  3378 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3379 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3380 
  3381 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3382 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3383 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3384 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3385 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3386 
  3387 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3388 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3389 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3390 Theory_Data version.
  3391 
  3392 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3393 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3394 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3395 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3396 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3397 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3398 explicitly in rare situations.
  3399 
  3400 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3401 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3405 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3408 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3409 quite rare).
  3410 
  3411 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3412 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3415 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3416 terms.
  3417 
  3418 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3419 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3420 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3421 
  3422 
  3423 *** System ***
  3424 
  3425 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3426 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3427 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3428 
  3429 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3430 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3431 respectively.
  3432 
  3433 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3434 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3435 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3436 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3437 
  3438   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3439 
  3440 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3441 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3442 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3443 component.
  3444 
  3445 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3446 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3447 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3448 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3449 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3450 the user for manual installation.
  3451 
  3452 
  3453 
  3454 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3455 -------------------------------------
  3456 
  3457 *** General ***
  3458 
  3459 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3460 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3461 
  3462 
  3463 *** Pure ***
  3464 
  3465 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3466 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3467 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3468 
  3469 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3470 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3471 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3472 
  3473 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3474 interpretation.
  3475 
  3476 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3477 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3478 
  3479 
  3480 *** Document preparation ***
  3481 
  3482 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3483 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3484 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3485 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3486 
  3487 
  3488 *** HOL ***
  3489 
  3490 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3491 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3492 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3493 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3494 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3495 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3496 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3497 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3498 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3499 
  3500 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3501 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3502 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3503 
  3504 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3505 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3506 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3507 
  3508 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3509 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3510 
  3511 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3512 
  3513 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3514 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3515 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3516 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3517 
  3518 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3519 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3520 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3521 "mirabelle" utility.
  3522 
  3523 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3524 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3525 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3526 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3527 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3528 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3529 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3530 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3531 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3532 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3533 
  3534 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3535 procedure only.
  3536 
  3537 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3538 
  3539 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3540 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3541 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3542 that fail later.
  3543 
  3544 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3545 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3546 
  3547 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3548 the same method as the approximation method.
  3549 
  3550 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3551 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3552 series expansion.
  3553 
  3554 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3555 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3556 
  3557 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3558 reals.
  3559 
  3560 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3561 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3562 
  3563 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3564 fixpoint theorem.
  3565 
  3566 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3567   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3568     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3569   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3570     accordingly
  3571   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3572     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3573   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3574     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3575 
  3576 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3577 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3578 lattice.
  3579 
  3580 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3581 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3582 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3583 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3584 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3585 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3589   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3590     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3591   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3592     le_inf_iff
  3593   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3594     sup_aci)
  3595   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3596   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3597   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3598     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3599     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3600     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3601     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3602     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3603     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3604     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3605     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3606     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3607     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3608   - authentic syntax for
  3609     Set.Pow
  3610     Set.image
  3611   - mere abbreviations:
  3612     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3613     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3614     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3615     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3616     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3617     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3618     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3619     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3620   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3621 
  3622 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3623 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3624 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3625 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3626 
  3627 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3628 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3629 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3632 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3635 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3636 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3637 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3640 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3641 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3642 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3643 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3644 
  3645 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3646 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3650 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3653 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3654 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3655 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3656 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3657 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3658 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3662     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3663     code_post       replaces    code post
  3664     etc.
  3665   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * Renamed methods:
  3668     sizechange -> size_change
  3669     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3670   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3673 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3674 
  3675 * Renamed theorems:
  3676     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3677     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3678     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3679     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3680     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3681   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3685 
  3686 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3688 
  3689 
  3690 *** HOLCF ***
  3691 
  3692 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3693 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3694 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3695 
  3696 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3697 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3698 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3699 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3700 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3701 
  3702 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3703 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3704 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3705 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3706 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3707 
  3708 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3709 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3710 constructor are pre-configured.
  3711 
  3712 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3713 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3714 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3715 
  3716 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3717 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3718 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3719 as well.)
  3720 
  3721 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3722 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3723 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3724 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3725 examples.
  3726 
  3727 
  3728 *** ML ***
  3729 
  3730 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3731 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3732 
  3733 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3734 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3735 position, logical grouping etc.
  3736 
  3737 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3738 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3739 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3740 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3741 
  3742 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3743 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3744 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3745 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3746 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3747 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3748 
  3749 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3750 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3751 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3752 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3753 experiments with references.
  3754 
  3755 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3756 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3757 
  3758 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3759 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3760 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3761 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3762 
  3763 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3764 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3765 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3766 
  3767 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3768 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3769 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3777 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3778 
  3779 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3780 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3781 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3782 
  3783 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3784 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3785 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3786 
  3787 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3788 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3789 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3793 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3794 instead of global theory.
  3795 
  3796 
  3797 *** System ***
  3798 
  3799 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3800 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3801 usedir option -q.
  3802 
  3803 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3804 also the system manual.
  3805 
  3806 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3807 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3808 
  3809 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3810 this is always enabled.
  3811 
  3812 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3813 
  3814 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3815 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3816 currently supported on Linux only.
  3817 
  3818 
  3819 
  3820 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3821 --------------------------------
  3822 
  3823 *** General ***
  3824 
  3825 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3826 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3827 
  3828   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3829     "isatool."
  3830 
  3831   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3832     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3833 
  3834   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3835     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3836 
  3837 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3838 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3839 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3840 
  3841 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3842 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3843 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3844 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3845 via "isabelle emacs".
  3846 
  3847 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3848 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3849 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3850 
  3851 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3852 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3853 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3854 
  3855 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3856 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3857 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3858 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3859 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3860 
  3861 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3862 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3863 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3864 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3865 
  3866 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3867 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3868 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3869 
  3870 
  3871 *** Pure ***
  3872 
  3873 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3874 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3875 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3876 
  3877 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3878 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3879 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3880 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3881 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3882 
  3883 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3884 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3885 useful in locale declarations.
  3886 
  3887 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3888 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3889 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3890 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3891 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3892 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3893 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3894 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3895 no longer generated.
  3896 
  3897 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3898 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3899 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3900 
  3901 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3902 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3903 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3904 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3905 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3906 
  3907 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3909 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3910 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3911 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3912 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3913 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3914 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3915 
  3916 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3917 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3918 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3919 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3920 
  3921 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3925 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3926 
  3927 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3928 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3931 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3932 in HOL, write
  3933 
  3934     class foo = ...
  3935 
  3936 instead of
  3937 
  3938     class foo = type + ...
  3939 
  3940 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3941 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3944 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3945 
  3946 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3947 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3948 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3949 
  3950 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3951 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3952 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3953 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3954 directly in regular applications.
  3955 
  3956 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3957 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3958 
  3959 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3960 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3961 
  3962 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3963 theory context.
  3964 
  3965 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3966 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3969 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3970 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3971 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3972 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3973 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3974 
  3975   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3976 
  3977 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3978 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3979 normalization.
  3980 
  3981 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3982 addressing etc.
  3983 
  3984 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3985 
  3986   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3987   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3988 
  3989 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3990 
  3991   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3992      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3993      parts of the code generator framework).
  3994 
  3995   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3996      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3997      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3998 
  3999 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 
  4001 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4002 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4005 patterns, e.g.
  4006 
  4007     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4008 
  4009 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4010 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4011 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4012 hyphen:
  4013 
  4014     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4015 
  4016 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4017 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4018 
  4019 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4020 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4021 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4022 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4023 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4024 higher-order unification.
  4025 
  4026 
  4027 *** Document preparation ***
  4028 
  4029 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4030 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4031 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4032 
  4033 
  4034 *** HOL ***
  4035 
  4036 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4037 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4038 
  4039 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4040 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4041 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4042 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4043 Main, as before.
  4044 
  4045 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4046 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4047 
  4048 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4049 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4050 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4051 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4052 
  4053 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4054 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4055 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4056 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4057 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4058 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4059 
  4060 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4061 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4062 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4063 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4064 
  4065 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4066 menu.
  4067 
  4068 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4069 (contains the empty clause).
  4070 
  4071 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4072 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4073 
  4074 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4075 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4076 
  4077 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4078 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4079 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4082 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4083 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4084 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4085 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4086 
  4087 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4088 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4089 
  4090 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4091 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4092 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4093 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4094 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4095 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4096 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4097 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4098 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4099 
  4100 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4101 
  4102 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4103 
  4104 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4105 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4106 
  4107 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4108 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4109 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4110 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4111 
  4112 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4113 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4114 
  4115     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4116     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4117     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4118     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4119     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4120     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4121     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4122     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4123 
  4124 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4125 theory Set.
  4126 
  4127 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4128 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4129 
  4130 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4131 
  4132 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4133 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4134 
  4135 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4136 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4137 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4138 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4139 allowed. For examples see
  4140 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4141 
  4142 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4143 
  4144 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4148 structure:
  4149 
  4150     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4151     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4152     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4153     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4154     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4155     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4156     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4157     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4158     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4159     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4160     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4161     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4162     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4163     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4164     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4165     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4166     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4167     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4168     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4169     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4170     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4171     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4172     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4173     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4174     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4175     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4176     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4177     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4178     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4179     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4180     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4181     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4182     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4183 
  4184     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4185     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4186     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4187     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4188     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4189     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4190     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4191     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4192     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4193     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4194 
  4195     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4196     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4197     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4198     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4199     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4200     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4201 
  4202 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4203 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4204 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4205 
  4206 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4207 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4208 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4209 
  4210 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4211 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4212 
  4213 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4214 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4215 
  4216 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4217 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4218 proofs, e.g.
  4219 
  4220   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4221 
  4222 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4223 
  4224 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4225 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4226 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4229 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4233 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4234 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4238 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4239 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4240 preorder_class.*.
  4241 
  4242 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4243 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4244 
  4245 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4246 
  4247   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4248 
  4249 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4250 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4251 fold_image.
  4252 
  4253 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4254 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4255 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4256 the former will disappear at some point.
  4257 
  4258 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4259 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4260 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4261 
  4262 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4263 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4264 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4265 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4266 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4267 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4268 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4269 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4270 
  4271 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4272 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4273 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4274 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4275 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4276 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4277 
  4278     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4279     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4280     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4281     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4282     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4283     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4284     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4285 
  4286 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4287 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4288 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4289 
  4290 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4291 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4292 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4293 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4294 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4295 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4296 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4297 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4298 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4299 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4300 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4301 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4302 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4303 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4304 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4305 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4306 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4307 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4308 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4309 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4310 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4311 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4312 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4313 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4314 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4315 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4316 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4317 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4318 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4319 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4320 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4321 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4322 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4323 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4324 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4325 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4326 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4327 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4328 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4329 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4330 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4331 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4332 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4333 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4334 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4335 
  4336 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4337 
  4338 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4339 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4340 
  4341 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4342 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4343 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4344 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4345 
  4346 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4347 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4348 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4349 theory RealVector.
  4350 
  4351 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4352 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4353 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4354 and inner products are included.
  4355 
  4356 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4357 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4358 supported.
  4359 
  4360 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4361 first diagonalization argument.
  4362 
  4363 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4364 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4365 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4366 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4367 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4368 
  4369     hide (open) const gcd
  4370     abbreviation gcd where
  4371       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4372     notation (output)
  4373       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4374 
  4375 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4376 
  4377 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4378 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4379 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4382 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4383 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4384 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4385 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4386 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4387 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4388 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4389 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4390 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4391 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4392 cases.
  4393 
  4394 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4395 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4396 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4397 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4398 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4399 
  4400     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4401     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4402     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4403     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4404     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4405 
  4406 
  4407 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4408 
  4409 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4410 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4411 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4412 
  4413 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4414 
  4415 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4416 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4417 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4418 
  4419 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4420 
  4421 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4422 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4423 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4424 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4425 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4426 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4427 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4428 
  4429 
  4430 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4431 
  4432 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4433 
  4434 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4435 theory targets.
  4436 
  4437 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4438 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4439 'inductive' etc.
  4440 
  4441 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4442 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4443 
  4444 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4445 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4446 
  4447 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4448 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4449 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4450 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4451 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4452 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4453 the algorithm W:
  4454 
  4455  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4456  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4457          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4458 
  4459 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4460 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4461 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4462 
  4463 
  4464 *** HOLCF ***
  4465 
  4466 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4467 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4468 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4469 
  4470 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4471 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4472 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4473 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4474 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4475 
  4476 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4477 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4478 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 
  4481 *** ZF ***
  4482 
  4483 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4484 
  4485 
  4486 *** ML ***
  4487 
  4488 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4489 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4490 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4491 5.2.1!
  4492 
  4493 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4494 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4495 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4496 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4497 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4498 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4499 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4500 
  4501 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4502 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4503 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4504 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4505 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4506 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4507 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4508 
  4509 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4510 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4511 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4512 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4513 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4514 
  4515 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4516 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4517 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4518 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4519 Method.add_method.
  4520 
  4521 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4522 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4523 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4524 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4525 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4526 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4527 
  4528 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4529 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4530 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4531 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4532 examples.
  4533 
  4534 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4535 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4536 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4537 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4538 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4539 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4540 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4541 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4542 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4543 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4544 
  4545 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4546 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4547 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4548 
  4549 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4550 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4551 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4552 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4553 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4554 resort for legacy applications.
  4555 
  4556 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4557 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4558 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4559 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4560 explicit runtime argument.
  4561 
  4562 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4563 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4564 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4565 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4566 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4567 
  4568 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4569 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4570 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4571 theory state.
  4572 
  4573 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4574 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4575 
  4576   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4577   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4578   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4579   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4580   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4581   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4582   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4583   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4584   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4585   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4586 
  4587 
  4588 *** System ***
  4589 
  4590 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4591 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4592 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4593 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4594 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4595 
  4596 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4597 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4598 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4599 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4600 
  4601 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4602 
  4603 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4604 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4605 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4606 prover operations.
  4607 
  4608 
  4609 
  4610 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4611 -------------------------------
  4612 
  4613 *** General ***
  4614 
  4615 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4616 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4617 
  4618 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4619 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4620 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4621 provides a proper context already.
  4622 
  4623 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4624 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4625 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4626 
  4627 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4628 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4629 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4630 swap theory imports.
  4631 
  4632 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4633 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4634 
  4635 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4636 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4637 white space without escapes.
  4638 
  4639 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4640 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4641 "foo_bar".
  4642 
  4643 
  4644 *** Pure ***
  4645 
  4646 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4647 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4648 
  4649 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4650 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4651 
  4652 (1) unused_thms
  4653      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4654 
  4655 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4656      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4657      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4658 
  4659 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4660      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4661      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4662      their ancestors.
  4663 
  4664 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4665 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4666 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4667 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4668 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4669 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4670 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4671 
  4672 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4673 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4674 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4675 
  4676 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4677 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4678 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4679 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4680 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4681 
  4682 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4683 
  4684 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4685 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4686 update of theories within ML code.
  4687 
  4688 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4689 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4690 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4691 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4692 
  4693 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4694 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4695 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4699 
  4700 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4701 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4702 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4703 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4704 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4705 
  4706 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4707 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4708 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4709 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4710 situations.
  4711 
  4712 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4713 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4714 proof text.
  4715 
  4716 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4717 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4718 
  4719 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4720 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4721 predicates.
  4722 
  4723 
  4724 *** Document preparation ***
  4725 
  4726 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4727 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4728 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4729 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4730 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4731 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4732 
  4733 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4734 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4735 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4736 
  4737 
  4738 *** HOL ***
  4739 
  4740 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4741 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4742 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4743 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4744 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4745 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4746 
  4747 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4748 with multithreading.
  4749 
  4750 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4751 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4752 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4753 
  4754 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4755 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4756 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4757 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4760 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4761 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4762 and makes them available separately.  See
  4763 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4764 
  4765 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4766 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4767 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4768 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4769 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4770 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4771 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4772 the declared rules.
  4773 
  4774 This setup also deals with rules like
  4775 
  4776   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4777 
  4778 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4779 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4780 
  4781 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4782 
  4783   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4784 
  4785   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4786     definitions on => and bool.
  4787 
  4788   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4789     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4790     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4791 
  4792       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4793       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4794       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4795       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4796       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4797       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4798       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4799       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4800 
  4801   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4802     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4803     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4804 
  4805   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4806     The proof pattern
  4807 
  4808       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4809       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4810 
  4811     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4812     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4813 
  4814       have "EX S. P S"
  4815       proof
  4816         show "P S" <...>
  4817       qed
  4818 
  4819   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4820     The proof pattern
  4821 
  4822       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4823       also have "S = T" <...>
  4824       finally have "P T" .
  4825 
  4826     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4827     must be replaced by something like
  4828 
  4829       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4830       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4831       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4832 
  4833   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4834     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4835 
  4836       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4837 
  4838     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4839     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4840     type of the form
  4841 
  4842       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4843 
  4844     rather than
  4845 
  4846       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4847 
  4848 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4849 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4850 
  4851 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4852 
  4853 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4854 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4858 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4861 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4864 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4865 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4866 
  4867 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4868 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4869 
  4870   less_trans
  4871   less_linear
  4872   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4873   le_less_trans
  4874   less_le_trans
  4875   less_not_sym
  4876   less_asym
  4877 
  4878 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4879 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4880 and different variable names.
  4881 
  4882 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4883 
  4884 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4885 finite maps.
  4886 
  4887 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4888 
  4889 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4890 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4891 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4892 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4893 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4894 accordingly.
  4895 
  4896 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4897 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4898 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4899 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4900 
  4901 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4902 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4903 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4904 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4905 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4907 
  4908 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4909 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4912 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4913 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4914 
  4915 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4917 
  4918 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4919 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4920 
  4921 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4922 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4925 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4926 
  4927 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4928 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4930 
  4931 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4932 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4933 
  4934 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4935 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4936 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4937 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4938 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4939 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4942 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4943 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4944 
  4945 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4946 
  4947 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4948 
  4949 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4950 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4951 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4952 
  4953 
  4954 *** ZF ***
  4955 
  4956 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4957 same session:
  4958 
  4959   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4960   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4961   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4962   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4963   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4964   List      -> List_ZF
  4965   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4966 
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4968 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4969 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4970 
  4971 
  4972 *** ML ***
  4973 
  4974 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4975 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4976 
  4977 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4978 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4979 
  4980 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4981 
  4982 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4983 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4984 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4985 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4986 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4987 
  4988 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4989 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4990 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4991 
  4992 
  4993 *** System ***
  4994 
  4995 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4996 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4997 
  4998 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4999 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5000 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5001 
  5002 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5003 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5004 
  5005 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5006 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5007 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5008 
  5009 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5010 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5011 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5012 
  5013 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5014 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5015 
  5016 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5017 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5018 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5019 script.
  5020 
  5021 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5022 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5023 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5024 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5025 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5026 
  5027 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5028 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5029 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5030 
  5031 
  5032 
  5033 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5034 -----------------------------------
  5035 
  5036 *** General ***
  5037 
  5038 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5039 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5040 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5041 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5042 
  5043 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5044 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5045 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5048 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5049 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5050 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5051 
  5052 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5053 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5054 quotes.
  5055 
  5056 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5057 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5058 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5059 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5060 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5061 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5062 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5063 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5064 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5065 
  5066 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5067 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5068 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5069 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5070 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5071 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5072 
  5073 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5074 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5075 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5076 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5077 
  5078 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5079 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5080 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5081 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5082 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5083 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5084 
  5085 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5086 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5087 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5088 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5089 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5090 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5091 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5092 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5093 
  5094 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5095 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5096 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5097 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5098 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5099 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5100 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5101 
  5102 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5103 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5104 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5105 
  5106 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5107 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5108 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5109 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5110 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5111 limit is imposed.
  5112 
  5113 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5114 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5115 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5116 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5117 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5118 and scalability.
  5119 
  5120 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5121 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5122 
  5123 
  5124 *** Document preparation ***
  5125 
  5126 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5127 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5128 current context.
  5129 
  5130 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5131 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5132 
  5133 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5134 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5135 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5136 
  5137 
  5138 *** Pure ***
  5139 
  5140 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5141 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5142 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5143 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5144 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5145 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5146 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5147 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5148 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5149 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5150 
  5151 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5152 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5153 sketch:
  5154 
  5155     internal compilation:
  5156         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5157     writing SML code to a file:
  5158         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5159     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5160         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5161     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5162         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5163 
  5164     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5165         method ``eval''
  5166 
  5167 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5168 
  5169 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5170 
  5171     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5172     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5173     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5174     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5175 
  5176 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5177 
  5178     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5179       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5180 
  5181     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5182       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5183 
  5184     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5185       {(target)}+
  5186         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5187 
  5188     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5189       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5190         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5191 
  5192 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5193 
  5194 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5195 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5196 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5197 codegen".
  5198 
  5199 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5200 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5201 annotations).
  5202 
  5203 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5204 syntax.
  5205 
  5206 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5207 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5208 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5209 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5210 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5211 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5212 
  5213 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5214 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5215 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5216 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5217 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5218 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5219 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5220 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5221 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5222 equations, see section "definitions".
  5223 
  5224 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5225 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5226 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5227 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5228 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5229 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5230 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5231 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5232 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5233 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5234 
  5235 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5236 configuration options:
  5237 
  5238   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5239   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5240   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5241   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5242   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5243   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5244   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5245   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5246   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5247 
  5248 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5249 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5250 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5251 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5252 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5253 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5254 order.
  5255 
  5256 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5257 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5258 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5259 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5260 context encountered later on.
  5261 
  5262 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5263 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5264 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5265 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5266 
  5267 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5268 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5269 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5270 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5271 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5272 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5273 
  5274 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5275 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5276 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5277 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5278 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5279 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5280 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5281 more permissive.
  5282 
  5283 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5284 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5285 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5286 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5287 maintainability of proof texts.
  5288 
  5289 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5290 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5291 
  5292   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5293   then guess x and y by clarify
  5294 
  5295 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5296 proof tools being involved here.
  5297 
  5298 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5299 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5300 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5301 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5302 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5303 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5304 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5305 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5306 
  5307 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5308 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5309 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5310 
  5311   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5312   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5313   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5314   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5315 
  5316 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5317 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5318 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5319 
  5320 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5321 both named and unnamed ones.
  5322 
  5323 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5324 
  5325   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5326 
  5327 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5328 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5329 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5330 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5331 
  5332 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5333 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5334 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5335 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5336 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5337 
  5338 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5339 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5340 
  5341 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5342 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5343 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5344 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5345 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5346 originally first one.
  5347 
  5348 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5349 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5350 expected.
  5351 
  5352 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5353 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5354 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5355 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5356 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5357 
  5358   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5359     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5360     obtains x where "P x"
  5361 
  5362   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5363     assumes "A & B"
  5364     obtains A and B
  5365 
  5366   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5367     assumes "A | B"
  5368     obtains
  5369       A
  5370     | B
  5371 
  5372 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5373 explicitly:
  5374 
  5375   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5376     obtains "~ thesis"
  5377 
  5378   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5379     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5380 
  5381 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5382 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5383 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5384 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5385 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5386 case_names).
  5387 
  5388 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5389 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5390 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5391 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5392 
  5393 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5394 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5395 top-level lemma.
  5396 
  5397 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5398 introduction rule (default "that").
  5399 
  5400 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5401 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5402 to occur.
  5403 
  5404 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5405 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5406 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5407 representations independently of name spaces.
  5408 
  5409 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5410 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5411 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5412 
  5413 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5414 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5415 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5416 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5417 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5418 current context.
  5419 
  5420 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5421 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5422 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5423 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5424 
  5425   axiomatization
  5426     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5427     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5428 
  5429   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5430   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5431 
  5432   abbreviation
  5433     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5434     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5435 
  5436 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5437 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5438 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5439 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5440 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5441 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5442 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5443 
  5444 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5445 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5446 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5447 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5448 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5449 
  5450 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5451 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5452 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5453 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5454 
  5455 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5456 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5457 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5458 
  5459   definition "K x _ = x"
  5460 
  5461   inductive conj for A B
  5462   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5463 
  5464 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5465 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5466 abbreviations on output.
  5467 
  5468 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5469 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5470 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5471 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5472 
  5473 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5474 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5475 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5476 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5477 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5478 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5479 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5480 
  5481 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5482 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5483 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5484 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5485 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5486 
  5487 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5488 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5489 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5490 
  5491 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5492 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5493 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5494 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5495 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5496 
  5497   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5498     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5499 
  5500 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5501 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5502 partial_order.
  5503 
  5504 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5505 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5506 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5507 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5508 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5509 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5510 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5511 examples.
  5512 
  5513 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5514 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5515 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5516 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5517 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5518 
  5519 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5520 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5521 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5522 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5523 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5524 
  5525   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5526   (induct set: foo bar)
  5527   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5528   (induct type: foo bar)
  5529 
  5530 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5531 new format.
  5532 
  5533 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5534 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5535 
  5536 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5537 considered a legacy feature.
  5538 
  5539 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5540 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5543 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5544 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5545 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5546 
  5547 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5548 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5549 manipulating the claset.
  5550 
  5551 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5552 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5553 least one premise.
  5554 
  5555 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5556 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5557 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5558 rule steps.
  5559 
  5560 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5561 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5562 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5563 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5564 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5565 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5566 
  5567 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5568 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5569 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5570 
  5571 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5572 the graph browser tool.
  5573 
  5574 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5575 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5576 
  5577 
  5578 *** HOL ***
  5579 
  5580 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5581 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5582 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5583 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5584 multi-threading.
  5585 
  5586 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5587 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5588 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5589 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5590 work with multi-threading.
  5591 
  5592 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5593 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5594 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5595 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5596 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5597 
  5598 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5599 
  5600 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5601 equality.
  5602 
  5603 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5604 the new 'class' package:
  5605 
  5606     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5607     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5608     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5609     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5610     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5611     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5612     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5613     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5614     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5615     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5616     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5617     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5618     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5619     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5620     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5621     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5622     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5623     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5624     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5625     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5626 
  5627 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5628 
  5629 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5630 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5631 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5632 names.
  5633 
  5634 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5635 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5636 
  5637 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5638 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5639 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5640 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5641 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5642 
  5643 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5644 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5645 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5646 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5647 
  5648 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5649 
  5650 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5651 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5652 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5653 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5655 
  5656 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5657 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5660 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5661 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5662 
  5663 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5664 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5665 
  5666 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5667 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5668 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5669 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5670 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5671 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5672 in the current context.
  5673 
  5674 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5675 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5677 
  5678 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5679 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5680 
  5681 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5682 
  5683     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5684     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5685 
  5686     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5687       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5688     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5689     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5690 
  5691     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5692     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5693 
  5694   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5695 
  5696     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5697     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5698     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5699     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5700     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5701     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5702     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5703     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5704     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5705     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5706     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5707     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5708     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5709     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5710     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5711     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5712     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5713     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5714     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5715     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5716     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5717     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5718     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5719     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5720     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5721     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5722     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5723     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5724     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5725     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5726     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5727     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5728     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5729     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5730     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5731 
  5732     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5733     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5734     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5735     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5736     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5737     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5738     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5739     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5740     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5741     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5742     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5743     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5744     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5745     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5746     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5747     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5748     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5749 
  5750     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5751     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5752     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5753     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5754     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5755     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5756     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5757     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5758     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5759     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5760     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5761     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5762     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5763     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5764     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5765     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5766     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5767     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5768     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5769     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5770     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5771     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5772     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5773     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5774     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5775     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5776     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5777     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5778 
  5779     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5780     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5781     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5782     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5783     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5784     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5785 
  5786     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5787     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5788     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5789     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5790 
  5791     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5792     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5793 
  5794     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5795     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5796 
  5797 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5798 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5799 
  5800 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5801 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5802 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5803 "*.size".
  5804 
  5805 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5807 
  5808 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5809 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5810 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5811 
  5812 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5815 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5816 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5817 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5818 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5819 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5820 numerals on all operations.
  5821 
  5822 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5823 
  5824 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5825 
  5826 * Code generator library theories:
  5827   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5828     languages.
  5829   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5830     languages.
  5831   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5832     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5833   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5834   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5835     denominator).
  5836   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5837     representable by rational numbers.
  5838   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5839     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5840     includes Code_Integer.
  5841   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5842     target-language built-in integers.
  5843   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5844     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5845 
  5846 * New package for inductive predicates
  5847 
  5848   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5849 
  5850     inductive
  5851       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5852       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5853     where
  5854       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5855     | ...
  5856 
  5857   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5858 
  5859     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5860 
  5861     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5862     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5863 
  5864     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5865     intros
  5866       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5867       ...
  5868 
  5869   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5870   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5871 
  5872     inductive_set
  5873       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5874       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5875     where
  5876       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5877     | ...
  5878 
  5879   or
  5880 
  5881     inductive_set
  5882       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5883       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5884       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5885     where
  5886       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5887     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5888     | ...
  5889 
  5890   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5891 
  5892   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5893   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5894 
  5895   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5896 
  5897   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5898     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5899     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5900     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5901     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5902 
  5903   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5904     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5905     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5906     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5907     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5908     statements of the form
  5909 
  5910       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5911 
  5912     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5913     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5914 
  5915       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5916 
  5917   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5918 
  5919       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5920         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5921         ==> ... ==> P
  5922 
  5923     for predicates and
  5924 
  5925       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5926         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5927         ==> ... ==> P
  5928 
  5929     for sets rather than
  5930 
  5931       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5932         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5933         ==> ... ==> P
  5934 
  5935     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5936     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5937     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5938 
  5939   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5940     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5941     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5942 
  5943 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5944 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5945 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5946 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5947 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5948 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5949 
  5950 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5951 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5952 
  5953 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5954 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5955 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5956 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5957 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5958 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5959 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5960 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5961 variable.
  5962 
  5963 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5964 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5965 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5966 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5967   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5968   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5969 
  5970 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5971 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5972 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5973 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5974 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5975 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5976 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5977 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5978 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5979 
  5980 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5981 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5982 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5983 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5984 rat, etc.
  5985 
  5986 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5987 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5988 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5989 
  5990 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5991 
  5992 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5993 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5994 
  5995 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5996 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5997 
  5998 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5999 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6000 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6003 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6005 
  6006 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6007 
  6008 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6009 
  6010 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6011 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6012 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6013 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6014 
  6015 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6016 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6017 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6018 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6019 
  6020 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6021 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6022 algebraic operations.
  6023 
  6024 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6026 
  6027 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6031 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6032 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6033 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6034 adapted.
  6035 
  6036 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6037 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6038 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6039 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6040 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6041 
  6042 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6043 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6044 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6045 
  6046 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6047 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6048 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6049 
  6050 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6051 
  6052 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6053 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6054 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6055   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6056       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6057   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6058   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6059   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6060 
  6061 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6062 
  6063 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6064 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6065 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6066 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6067 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6068 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6069 
  6070 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6071 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6072 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6073 
  6074 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6075 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6076 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078 
  6079 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6080 
  6081 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6082 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6083 
  6084 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6085 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6086 
  6087 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6088 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6089 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6090 
  6091 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6092 True/False.
  6093 
  6094 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6095 
  6096 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6097 
  6098 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6099 ``rule'' method.
  6100 
  6101 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6102 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6103 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6104 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6105 
  6106 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6107 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6108 
  6109 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6110 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6111 
  6112 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6113 Library.
  6114 
  6115 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6116 
  6117 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6118 as greatest fixed-point.
  6119 
  6120 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6121 association lists.
  6122 
  6123 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6124 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6125 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6126 
  6127 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6128 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6129 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6130 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6131 behavior.
  6132 
  6133 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6134 
  6135 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6136 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6137 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6138 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6139 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6140 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6141 
  6142 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6143 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6144 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6145 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6146 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6147 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6148 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6149 
  6150 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6151 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6152 
  6153 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6154 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6155 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6156 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6157 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6158 
  6159 
  6160 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6161 
  6162 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6163 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6164 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6165 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6167 
  6168 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6169 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6170 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6171 
  6172 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6173 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6174 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6175 
  6176 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6177 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6178 
  6179 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6180 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6181 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6183 
  6184   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6185   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6186   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6187   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6188   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6189   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6190   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6191   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6192   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6193   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6194   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6195   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6196   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6197   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6198   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6199 
  6200 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6201 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6202 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6203 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6204 
  6205   approx        <-- capprox
  6206   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6207   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6208   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6209   monad         <-- cmonad
  6210   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6211   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6212   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6213   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6214 
  6215 
  6216 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6217 
  6218 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6219 
  6220 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6222 
  6223 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6224 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6225 
  6226 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6227 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6228 of algebraic structures.
  6229 
  6230 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6231 
  6232 
  6233 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6234 
  6235 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6236 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6237 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6238 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/