NEWS
author kuncar
Wed Oct 02 10:13:54 2013 +0300 (2013-10-02)
changeset 54021 8089e82833b6
parent 54010 5ac1495fed4e
child 54029 4edfd0fd5536
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS and CONTRIBUTORS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    17 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    18 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    19 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    20 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    21 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    22 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    23 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    24 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    25 syntax.
    26 
    27 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    28 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    31 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    32 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    34 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    35 
    36 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    40 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    41 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    44 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    45 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    46 
    47 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    48 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    52 
    53 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    54 Documentation panel.
    55 
    56 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    57 documentation.
    58 
    59 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    60 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    61 
    62 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    63 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    64 normal editing and checking process.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    67 timing information.
    68 
    69 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    70 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    71 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    72 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    73 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    74 
    75 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    76 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    77 such command executions while editing.
    78 
    79 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    80 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    81 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    82 
    83 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    84 document content.
    85 
    86 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    87 toplevel theorem statements.
    88 
    89 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    90 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    91 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
    92 
    93 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
    94 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
    95 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
    96 
    97 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
    98 / Global Options / Appearance".
    99 
   100 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   101 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   102 
   103 
   104 *** Pure ***
   105 
   106 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
   107 Particularly, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
   108 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.  See
   109 "isar-ref" manual for details.
   110 
   111 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   114 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   115 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   116 
   117 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   121 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   122 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   123 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   126 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   127 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   130 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   131 
   132 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   133 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   134 situations.
   135 
   136 
   137 *** HOL ***
   138 
   139 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   140 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   141 
   142 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   143 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   144 to distinguish both when desired.
   145 
   146 * Code generator:
   147   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   148     'code_instance'.
   149   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   150     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   151 
   152 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   153 examples.
   154 
   155 * HOL/BNF:
   156   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including new
   157     commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "datatype_new_compat",
   158     as well as documentation. See "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   159   - Renamed keywords:
   160     data ~> datatype_new
   161     codata ~> codatatype
   162     bnf_def ~> bnf
   163   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   164     discs ~> disc
   165     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   166     map_id' ~> map_id
   167     sels ~> sel
   168     set_map' ~> set_map
   169     sets ~> set
   170 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * Lifting:
   173   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   174     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in 
   175       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   176       transfer rules
   177     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   178       correspondence relation can be generated
   179     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   180       parametricity
   181     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   182   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   183   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   184     copies
   185   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   186     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   187     anonymous context)
   188   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in 
   189     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   190   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   191     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   192   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps. 
   193     INCOMPATIBILITY
   194 
   195 * Transfer:
   196   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T 
   197     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   198   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   199   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   200     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   201   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   202   
   203 
   204 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   205 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   206 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   207 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   208 
   209 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   210 automatically generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x =
   211 t".
   212 
   213 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   214 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   215 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   216 
   217 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   218   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   219   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   220     generated code.
   221   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   222   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   223   - Fact renames:
   224     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   225     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   226     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   227 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   230   sets defined by Lifting/Transfer
   231 
   232 * Reification and reflection:
   233   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   234     "Reification".
   235   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   236   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   237 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238 
   239 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   240 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   244 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   245 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   246 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   247 
   248   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   249 
   250 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   251 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   252 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   253 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   254 
   255 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   256 
   257 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   258   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   259     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   260     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   261   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   262     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   263   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   264     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   265     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   266     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   267     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   268     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   269     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   270     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   271   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   272     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   273   - Fact renames:
   274       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   275       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   277 
   278 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   279 
   280 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   281 
   282 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals: natural
   283 (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former code_int).
   284 Conversions are available as integer_of_natural / natural_of_integer /
   285 integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   286 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   287 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   290 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   291 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   292 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   293 
   294 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   295 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   296 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   300 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   301 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   302 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   303 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   304 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   305 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   306 lemmas.
   307 
   308 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   309 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   310 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311 
   312 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   313 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   314 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   315 
   316 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   317 top and bottom elements.
   318 
   319 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   320 
   321 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   322 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   323 
   324  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   325    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   326    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   327 
   328  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   329    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   330    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   331 
   332    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   333    arbitrary filter.
   334 
   335  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   336    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   337    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   338    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   339    on a compact set.
   340 
   341  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   342    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   343    linear_continuum_topology).
   344 
   345  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   346    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   347    on all sequences converging to x.
   348 
   349  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   350    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   351    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   352    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   353    left or right.
   354 
   355  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   356 
   357      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   358 
   359  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   360    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   361 
   362  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   363    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   364    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   365    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   366    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   367    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   368 
   369  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   370 
   371    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   372 
   373    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   374      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   375 
   376    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   377 
   378    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   379      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   380 
   381    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   382 
   383    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   384 
   385  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   386 
   387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   390 
   391     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   392     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   393 
   394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395 
   396 * Nitpick:
   397   - Added option "spy"
   398   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   399 
   400 * Sledgehammer:
   401   - Renamed option:
   402       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   405   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   406   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   407 
   408 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   409 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   410 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   411 
   412 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   413 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   414 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   415 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 
   418 *** ML ***
   419 
   420 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   421 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   422 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   423 Examples.thy in particular.
   424 
   425 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   426 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   427 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   428 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   429 
   430 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   431 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   432 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   433 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   437 
   438     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   439     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   440 
   441 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   444 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   445 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   446 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   447 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   448 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   449 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   450 
   451 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   452 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   453 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   454 clasets separately from the context.
   455 
   456 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   457 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   458 
   459 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   460 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   461 
   462 
   463 *** System ***
   464 
   465 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   466 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   469 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   472 settings variable.
   473 
   474 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   475 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   476 always pdf.
   477 
   478 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   479 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   480 
   481 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   482 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   483 
   484 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   485 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   486 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   487 
   488 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   489 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   490 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   491 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   492 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   493 for HTML presentation of theories.
   494 
   495 
   496 
   497 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   498 -----------------------------------
   499 
   500 *** General ***
   501 
   502 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   503 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   504 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   505 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   506 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   507 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   508 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   509 
   510 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   511 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   512 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   513 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   514 
   515 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   516 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   517 
   518 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   519 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   520 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   521 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   522 dependencies properly.
   523 
   524 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   525 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   526 
   527 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   528 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   529 
   530 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   531 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   532 and "class ... context ...".
   533 
   534 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   535 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   536 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   537 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   538 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   539 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   540 
   541 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   542 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   543 
   544 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   545 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   546 
   547 
   548 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   549 
   550 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   551 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   552 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   553 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   554 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   555 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   556 
   557 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   558 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   559 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   560 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   561 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   562 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   563 
   564 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   565 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   566 browser on demand.
   567 
   568 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   569 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   570 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   571 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   572 
   573 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   574 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   575 
   576 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   577 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   578 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   579 potentially infinite message streams.
   580 
   581 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   582 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   583 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   584 schemes.
   585 
   586 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   587 symbols.
   588 
   589 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   590 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   591 
   592 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   593 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   594 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   595 
   596 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   597 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   598 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   599 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   600 
   601 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   602 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   603 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   604 
   605 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   606 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   607 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   608 Isabelle distribution.
   609 
   610 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   611 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   612 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   613 
   614 
   615 *** Pure ***
   616 
   617 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   618 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   619 
   620 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   621 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   622 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   625 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   626 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   627 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   628 with some care where this is really required.
   629 
   630 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   631 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   632 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   633 
   634   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   635 
   636 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   637 a Hasse diagram.
   638 
   639 
   640 *** HOL ***
   641 
   642 * Sledgehammer:
   643 
   644   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   645     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   646   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   647   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   648   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   649   - Renamed options:
   650       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   651       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   652       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   653       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   654 
   655 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   656 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   657 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   658 
   659 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   661 
   662 * Lifting:
   663   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   664   - quot_del attribute
   665   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   666 
   667 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   668 expressions.
   669 
   670 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   671 pointfree expressions.
   672 
   673 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   674 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   675 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   676 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678 
   679 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   680 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   681 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   682 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   683 accordingly.
   684 
   685 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   686 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   689 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   694 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   695 
   696 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   697 
   698 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   699 
   700   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   701   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   702 
   703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   704 
   705 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   706 
   707   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   708   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   709 
   710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   711 
   712 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   713 
   714   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   715     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   716     output f x converges to G.
   717 
   718   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   719     infinity (at_bot).
   720 
   721   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   722     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   723 
   724   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   725     at_top".
   726 
   727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   730 lattice type classes.
   731 
   732 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   733 
   734     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   735     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   736 
   737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   740 changes as follows.
   741 
   742   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   743 
   744       prefix ~> prefixeq
   745       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   746 
   747   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   748     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   749     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   750     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   751 
   752   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   753     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   754     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   755 
   756   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   757     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   758     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   759     Library/Prefix_Order.
   760 
   761   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   762     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   763 
   764       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   765       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   766       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   767       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   768       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   769       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   770       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   771       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   772       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   773       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   774       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   775       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   776       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   777       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   778       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   779       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   780 
   781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   784 
   785 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   786 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   787 
   788 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   789 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   790 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   791 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   792 
   793   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   794   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   795   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   796   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   797   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   798   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   799   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   800   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   801   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   802   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   803 
   804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   805 
   806 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   807 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   808 Data").
   809 
   810 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   811 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   812 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   813 code.
   814 
   815 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   816 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   817 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   821 
   822 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   823 
   824 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   825 
   826   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   827   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   828 
   829 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   830 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   831 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   832 
   833   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   834 
   835     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   836     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   837     cart_base i  removed
   838     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   839 
   840   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   841 
   842   Renamed lemmas:
   843 
   844     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   845     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   846     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   847     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   848     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   849     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   850     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   851     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   852     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   853     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   854 
   855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * HOL/Probability:
   858 
   859   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   860 
   861   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   862     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   863     (borel_measurable_induct).
   864 
   865   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   866     projective family).
   867 
   868 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   869 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   870 
   871 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   872 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   873 datatypes.
   874 
   875 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   876 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   877 
   878 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   879 trees for the code generator.
   880 
   881 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   882 Lifting/Transfer.
   883 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888 
   889 *** Document preparation ***
   890 
   891 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   892 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   893 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   894 
   895 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   896 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   897 
   898 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   899 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   900 document/root.tex.
   901 
   902 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   903 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 
   906 *** ML ***
   907 
   908 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   909 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   910 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   911 
   912 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   913 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   914 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   915 
   916 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   917 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   918 necessarily printing visible text.
   919 
   920 
   921 *** System ***
   922 
   923 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   924 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   925 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   926 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   927 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   928 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   929 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   930 
   931 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   932 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   933 
   934   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   935 
   936 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   937 
   938 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   939 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   940 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   941 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   942 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   943 
   944 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   945 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   946 
   947 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   948 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   949 
   950 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   952 
   953 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   954 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   955 version of Isabelle.
   956 
   957 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   958 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   959 
   960 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   961 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   962 for home-made settings.
   963 
   964 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   965 
   966 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   967 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   968 configuration.
   969 
   970 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   971 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   972 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   973 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   974 bundled as Isabelle component.
   975 
   976 
   977 
   978 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   979 ------------------------------
   980 
   981 *** General ***
   982 
   983 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   984 
   985   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   986     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   987   - markup for bound variables
   988   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   989   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   990   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   991     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   992 
   993 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   994 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   995 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   996 
   997 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   998 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   999 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1000 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1001 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1002 
  1003   context
  1004     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1005     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1006   begin
  1007 
  1008   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1009 
  1010   end
  1011 
  1012   thm my_trans
  1013 
  1014 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1015 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1016 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1017 
  1018 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1019 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1020 
  1021 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1022 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1023 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1024 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1025 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1026 
  1027 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1028 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1029 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1030 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1031 indices of schematic variables.
  1032 
  1033 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1034 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1035 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1036 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1037 etc. was exploited.
  1038 
  1039 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1040 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1041 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1042 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1043 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1044 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1045 
  1046 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1047 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1048 manual.
  1049 
  1050 
  1051 *** Pure ***
  1052 
  1053 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1054 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1055 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1056 
  1057 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1058 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1059 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1060 undocumented feature.)
  1061 
  1062 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1063 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1064 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1065 
  1066   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1067 
  1068   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1069     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1070 
  1071 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1072 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1073 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1074 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1075 
  1076 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1077 
  1078     num ~> num_token
  1079     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1080     xstr ~> str_token
  1081 
  1082 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1083 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1084 position information via constraints).
  1085 
  1086 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1087 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1088 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1089 
  1090 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1091 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1092 
  1093 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1094 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1095 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1096 
  1097 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1098 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1101 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1102 
  1103   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1104 
  1105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1108 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1109 
  1110 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1111 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1112 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1113 
  1114 
  1115 *** HOL ***
  1116 
  1117 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1118 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1119 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1120 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1121 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1122 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1123 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1124 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1125 possible.
  1126 
  1127 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1128 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1129 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1130 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1131 
  1132 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1133 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134 
  1135 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1136 
  1137 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1138 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1139 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1140 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1141 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1142 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1143 
  1144   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1145     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1146 
  1147   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1148     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1149     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1150 
  1151   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1152     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1153 
  1154   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1155     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1156     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1157 
  1158   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1159     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1160 
  1161 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1162 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1163 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1164 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1165 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1166 
  1167   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1168     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1169     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1170     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1171     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1172 
  1173     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1174     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1175 
  1176   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1177     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1178     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1179     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1180     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1181     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1182     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1183     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1184 
  1185   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1186     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1187     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1188     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1189 
  1190   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1191     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1192     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1193     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1194 
  1195   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1196     from type nat to type int.
  1197 
  1198 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1199 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1200 
  1201   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1202     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1203     type.  Example syntax:
  1204 
  1205     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1206       is List.insert
  1207 
  1208     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1209     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1210     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1211     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1212     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1213     by the package.
  1214 
  1215   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1216     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1217     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1218     code generation for each constant.
  1219 
  1220   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1221     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1222     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1223     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1224     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1225 
  1226   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1227     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1228     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1229 
  1230 * Quotient package:
  1231 
  1232   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1233     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1234 
  1235   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1236     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1237 
  1238   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1239     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1240     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1243     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1244 
  1245 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1246 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1247 
  1248 * Quickcheck:
  1249 
  1250   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1251     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1252     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1253     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1254     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1255 
  1256     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1257     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1258     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1259 
  1260     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1261     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1262 
  1263     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1264     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1265     show genuine counterexamples.
  1266 
  1267   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1268     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1269 
  1270     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1271     constructors of that type.
  1272 
  1273   - Support for multisets.
  1274 
  1275   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1276 
  1277   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1278     conjectures in a locale context.
  1279 
  1280 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1281 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1282 
  1283 * Sledgehammer:
  1284   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1285     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1286   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1287   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1288     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1289   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1290   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1291   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1292   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1293 
  1294 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1295 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1296 
  1297 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1298 
  1299 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1300 
  1301 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1302 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1303 
  1304   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1305 
  1306 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1307 a list and a nat.
  1308 
  1309 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1310 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1311 
  1312 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1313 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1314 default.
  1315 
  1316 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1317 
  1318   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1319 
  1320 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1321 
  1322 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1323 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1324 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1325 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1326 one_case.
  1327 
  1328 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1329 the result of the fact expression.
  1330 
  1331 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1332 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1333 of some relation theorems:
  1334 
  1335   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1336   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1337   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1338   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1339   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1340   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1341 
  1342 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1343 
  1344 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1345 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1346 
  1347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1348 
  1349 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1350 to match the constant's name:
  1351 
  1352   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1353   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1354   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1355   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1356   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1357   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1358   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1359   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1360   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1361   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1362   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1363   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1364   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1365   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1366   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1367   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1368   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1369   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1370   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1371   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1372   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1373   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1374   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1375   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1376 
  1377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1380 and corresponding theorem names:
  1381 
  1382   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1383 
  1384   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1385 
  1386   - Renamed theorems:
  1387 
  1388     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1389     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1390     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1391     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1392     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1393     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1394     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1395     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1396     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1397     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1398     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1399     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1400     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1401     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1402     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1403     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1404     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1405     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1406     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1407     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1408     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1409     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1410     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1411 
  1412     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1413 
  1414     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1415 
  1416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417 
  1418 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1419 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1420 
  1421   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1422   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1423   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1424   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1425   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1426   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1427   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1428   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1429   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1430   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1431   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1432   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1433   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1434   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1435   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1436   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1437   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1438   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1439   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1440   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1441   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1442 
  1443 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1444 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1445 
  1446 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1447 
  1448 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1449 
  1450   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1451   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1452   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1453   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1454   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1455   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1456   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1457   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1458   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1459   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1460   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1461   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1462   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1463   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1464   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1465   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1466   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1467   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1468 
  1469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1472 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1473 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1474 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1475 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1476 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1477 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1478 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1479 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1480 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1481 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1482 
  1483 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1484 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1485 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1486 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1487 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1488 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1489 
  1490 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1491 through option types.
  1492 
  1493 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1494 relations.
  1495 
  1496 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1497 
  1498 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1499 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1500 
  1501   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1502   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1503   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1504   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1505   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1506   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1507   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1508   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1509   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1510   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1511   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1512   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1513   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1514   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1515   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1516   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1517   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1518   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1519   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1520   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1521   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1522   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1523   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1524   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1525   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1526   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1527   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1528   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1529   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1530   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1531   zless_le ~> less_le
  1532   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1533   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1534   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1535 
  1536 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1537 
  1538   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1539 
  1540 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1541 
  1542 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1543 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1544 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1545 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1549 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1550 
  1551 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1552 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1553 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1554 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1555 follows:
  1556 
  1557   Operations:
  1558   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1559   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1560   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1561   del -> rbt_del
  1562   delete -> rbt_delete
  1563   ins -> rbt_ins
  1564   insert -> rbt_insert
  1565   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1566   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1567   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1568   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1569   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1570   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1571   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1572   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1573   union -> rbt_union
  1574   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1575   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1576 
  1577   Lemmas:
  1578   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1579   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1580   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1581   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1582   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1583   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1584   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1585   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1586   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1587   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1588   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1589   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1590   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1591   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1592   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1593   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1594   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1595   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1596   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1597   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1598   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1599   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1600   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1601   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1602   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1603   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1604   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1605   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1606   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1607   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1608   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1609   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1610   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1611   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1612   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1613   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1614   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1615   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1616   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1617   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1618   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1619   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1620   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1621   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1622   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1623   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1624   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1625   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1626   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1627   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1628   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1629   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1630   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1631   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1632   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1633   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1634   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1635   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1636   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1637   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1638   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1639   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1640   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1641   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1642   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1643   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1644   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1645   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1646   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1647   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1648   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1649   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1650   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1651   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1652   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1653   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1654   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1655   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1656   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1657   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1658   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1659   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1660   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1661 
  1662 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1663 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1664 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666   Changed Operations:
  1667   float_abs -> abs
  1668   float_nprt -> nprt
  1669   float_pprt -> pprt
  1670   pow2 -> use powr
  1671   round_down -> float_round_down
  1672   round_up -> float_round_up
  1673   scale -> exponent
  1674 
  1675   Removed Operations:
  1676   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1677 
  1678   Renamed Lemmas:
  1679   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1680   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1681   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1682   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1683   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1684   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1685   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1686   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1687   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1688   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1689   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1690   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1691   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1692   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1693   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1694   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1695   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1696   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1697   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1698   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1699   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1700   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1701   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1702   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1703   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1704   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1705   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1706   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1707   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1708   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1709   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1710   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1711   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1712   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1713   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1714   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1715 
  1716   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1717   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1718   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1719   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1720   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1721   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1722   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1723   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1724   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1725   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1726 
  1727 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1728 association lists with distinct keys.
  1729 
  1730 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1731 annotated commands.
  1732 
  1733 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1734 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1735 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1736 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1737 
  1738 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1739 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1740 instead.
  1741 
  1742   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1743   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1744   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1745   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1746   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1747   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1748   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1749   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1750   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1751   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1752   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1753   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1754   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1755   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1756   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1757   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1758   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1759   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1760   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1761   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1762   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1763   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1764   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1765   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1766   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1767   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1768   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1769   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1770   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1771   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1772   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1773   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1774   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1775   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1776   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1777   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1778   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1779   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1780   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1781   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1782   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1783 
  1784 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1785 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1786 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1787 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1788 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1789 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1790 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1791 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1792 
  1793 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1794 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1795 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1796 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1797 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1798 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1799 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1800 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1801 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1802 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1803 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1804 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1805 
  1806   Renamed constants:
  1807   measure -> emeasure
  1808   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1809   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1810   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1811   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1812 
  1813   Removed locales:
  1814   completeable_measure_space
  1815   finite_measure_space
  1816   finite_prob_space
  1817   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1818   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1819   finite_sigma_algebra
  1820   measure_space
  1821   pair_finite_prob_space
  1822   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1823   pair_finite_space
  1824   pair_sigma_algebra
  1825   product_sigma_algebra
  1826 
  1827   Removed constants:
  1828   conditional_space
  1829   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1830   image_space
  1831   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1832   pair_measure_generator
  1833   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1834   subvimage
  1835 
  1836   Replacement theorems:
  1837   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1838   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1839   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1840   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1841   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1842   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1843   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1844   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1845   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1846   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1847   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1848   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1849   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1850   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1851   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1852   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1853   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1854   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1855   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1856   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1857   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1858   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1859   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1860   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1861   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1862   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1863   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1864   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1865   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1866   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1867   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1868   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1869   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1870   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1871   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1872   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1873   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1874   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1875   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1876   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1877   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1878   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1879   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1880   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1881   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1882   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1883   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1884   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1885   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1886   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1887   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1888   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1889   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1890   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1891   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1892   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1893   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1894   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1895   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1896   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1897   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1898   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1899   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1900   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1901   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1902   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1903   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1904   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1905   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1906   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1907   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1908   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1909   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1910   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1911   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1912   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1913   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1914   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1915   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1916   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1917   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1918   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1919   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1920   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1921   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1922   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1923   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1924   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1925   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1926   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1927   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1928   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1929   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1930   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1931   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1932   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1933   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1934   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1935   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1936   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1937   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1938   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1939   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1940   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1941   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1942   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1943   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1944   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1945   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1946   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1947   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1948   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1949   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1950   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1951   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1952   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1953   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1954   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1955   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1956   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1957   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1958   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1959   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1960   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1961   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1962   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1963   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1964   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1965 
  1966 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1967 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1968 
  1969 
  1970 *** FOL ***
  1971 
  1972 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1973 
  1974 
  1975 *** ZF ***
  1976 
  1977 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1978 analysis.
  1979 
  1980 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1981 
  1982 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 
  1985 *** ML ***
  1986 
  1987 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1988 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1989 
  1990 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1991 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1992 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1993 
  1994 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1995 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1996 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1997 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1998 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1999 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2000 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2001 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2002 
  2003 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2004 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2005 
  2006 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2007 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2008 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2009 
  2010 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2011 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2012 
  2013 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2014 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2015 context as well.
  2016 
  2017 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2018 
  2019   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2020   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2021   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2022   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2023   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2024   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2025   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2026   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2027   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2028   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2029   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2030   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2031 
  2032 
  2033 *** System ***
  2034 
  2035 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2036 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2037 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2038 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2039 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2040 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2041 the generic user home was intended.
  2042 
  2043 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2044 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2045 
  2046 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2047 (not just JRE).
  2048 
  2049 
  2050 
  2051 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2052 ------------------------------------
  2053 
  2054 *** General ***
  2055 
  2056 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2057 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2058 
  2059   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2060     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2061     files for checking).
  2062 
  2063   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2064     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2065     positions.
  2066 
  2067   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2068     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2069     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2070 
  2071   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2072     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2073     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2074 
  2075   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2076     cores.
  2077 
  2078   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2079     versions (garbage collection).
  2080 
  2081 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2082 including some remaining limitations.
  2083 
  2084 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2085 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2086 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2087 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2088 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2090 
  2091 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2092 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2093 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2094 
  2095 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2096 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2097 usedir option -Q.
  2098 
  2099 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2100 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2101 
  2102   long_names   ~> names_long
  2103   short_names  ~> names_short
  2104   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2105 
  2106 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2107 
  2108   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2109 
  2110 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2111 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2112 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2113 
  2114 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2115 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2116 
  2117 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2118   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2119   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2120   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2121     "Classical Reasoner".
  2122 
  2123 
  2124 *** HOL ***
  2125 
  2126 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2127 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2130 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2131 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2132 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2133 class complete_linorder.
  2134 
  2135 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2136 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2137 
  2138 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2139 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2140 
  2141   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2142   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2143   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2144   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2145   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2146   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2147   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2148   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2149   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2150   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2151   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2152 
  2153 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2154 
  2155   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2156   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2157   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2158   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2159   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2160   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2161   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2162   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2163   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2164   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2165   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2166   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2167   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2168   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2169   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2170   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2171 
  2172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173 
  2174 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2178 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2179 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2180 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2181 
  2182 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2183 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2184 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2188 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2189 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2190 
  2191 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2192 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2193 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194 
  2195 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2196 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2197 
  2198 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2199 
  2200     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2201     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2202 
  2203 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2204 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2205 
  2206 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2207 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2208 
  2209 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2210 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2211 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2212 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213 
  2214   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2215   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2216   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2217   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2218   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2219   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2220   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2221 
  2222 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2223 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224 
  2225   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2226   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2227   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2228   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2229   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2230   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2231   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2232   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2233   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2234   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2235   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2236   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2237   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2238   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2239   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2240   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2241   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2242   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2243   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2244   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2245   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2246   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2247   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2248   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2249   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2250   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2251   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2252   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2253   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2254   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2255   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2256   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2257   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2258   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2259   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2260   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2261   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2262   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2263   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2264   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2265   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2266   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2267   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2268   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2269   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2270   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2271   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2272   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2273   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2274   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2275   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2276   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2277   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2278   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2279   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2280   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2281   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2282   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2283   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2284   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2285   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2286   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2287   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2288   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2289   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2290   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2291   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2292   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2293   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2294   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2295   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2296   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2297   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2298   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2299   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2300   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2301   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2302   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2303   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2304   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2305   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2306   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2307 
  2308 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2309 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2310 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2311 
  2312 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2313 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2314 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2315 
  2316 * Code generation:
  2317 
  2318   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2319     characters in the target language.
  2320 
  2321   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2322     instead.
  2323 
  2324   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2325 
  2326   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2327     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2328 
  2329       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2330 
  2331 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2334 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2335 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2336 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2337 syntax.
  2338 
  2339 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2340 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2341 
  2342 * Nitpick:
  2343   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2344   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2345   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2346     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2347 
  2348 * Sledgehammer:
  2349   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2350   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2351     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2352   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2353     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2354   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2355     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2357     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2358   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2359     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Metis:
  2362   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2363   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2364     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Command 'try':
  2367   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2368     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2370     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2371 
  2372 * Quickcheck:
  2373   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2374     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2375   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2376     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2377   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2378     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2379     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2380     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2381   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2382     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2383 
  2384 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2385 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2386 
  2387 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2388 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2389 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2390 
  2391 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2392 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2396 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2399 arithmetic.
  2400 
  2401 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2402 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2403 and lattice type classes.
  2404 
  2405 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2406 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2407 
  2408 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2409 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2410 
  2411 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2412 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2413 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2414 
  2415   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2416   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2417   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2418   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2419 
  2420 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2421 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2422 constants:
  2423 
  2424   type inat   ~> type enat
  2425   Fin         ~> enat
  2426   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2427   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2428   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2429 
  2430 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2431 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432 
  2433 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2434 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2435 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2436 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2437 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2438 
  2439 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2440 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2441 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2442 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2443 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2444 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2445 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2446 
  2447   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2448   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2449   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2450   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2451 
  2452 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2453 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2454 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2455 
  2456   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2457   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2458   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2459   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2460   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2461   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2462   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2463   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2464   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2465   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2466   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2467   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2468   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2469   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2470   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2471   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2472   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2473   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2474   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2475   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2476   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2477   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2478   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2479   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2480   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2481   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2482   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2483   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2484   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2485   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2486   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2487   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2488   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2489   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2490   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2491   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2492   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2493   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2494   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2495   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2496   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2497   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2498   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2499   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2500   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2501   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2502   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2503   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2504   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2505   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2506   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2507 
  2508 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2509   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2510   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2511   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2512   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2513     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2514 
  2515 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2518   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2519   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2520   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2521   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2522   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2523   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2524   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2525   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2526   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2527   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2528   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2529   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2530   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2531   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2532   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2533   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2534   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2535   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2536   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2537   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2538   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2539   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2540   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2541   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2542 
  2543 
  2544 *** Document preparation ***
  2545 
  2546 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2547 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2548 same.
  2549 
  2550 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2551 result.
  2552 
  2553 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2554 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2555 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2556 
  2557 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2558 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2559 
  2560 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2561 like this:
  2562 
  2563   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2564   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2565 
  2566 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2567 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2568 layouts.
  2569 
  2570 
  2571 *** ML ***
  2572 
  2573 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2574 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2575 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2576 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2577 under external program control.
  2578 
  2579 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2580 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2581 
  2582 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2583 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2584 (better known as Proof General).
  2585 
  2586 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2587 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2588 
  2589 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2590 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2591 
  2592 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2593 (including quotes etc.).
  2594 
  2595 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2596 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2597 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2598 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2599 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2600 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2601 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2602 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2603 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2604 
  2605 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2606 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2607 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2608 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2609 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2610 
  2611 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2612 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2613 
  2614 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2615 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2616 
  2617 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2618 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2619 
  2620 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2621 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2622 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2623 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2624 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2625 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2626 proper Proof.context.
  2627 
  2628 
  2629 *** System ***
  2630 
  2631 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2632 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2633 
  2634 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2635 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2636 
  2637 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2638 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2639 
  2640   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2641   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2642   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2643   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2644   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2645 
  2646 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2647 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2650 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2651 example:
  2652 
  2653   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2654 
  2655 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2656 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2657 
  2658 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2659 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2660 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2661 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2662 
  2663 
  2664 
  2665 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2666 ----------------------------------
  2667 
  2668 *** General ***
  2669 
  2670 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2671 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2672 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2673 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2674 like this:
  2675 
  2676   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2677 
  2678 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2679 
  2680 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2681 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2682 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2683 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2684 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2685 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2686 
  2687 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2688 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2689 the following package declarations:
  2690 
  2691   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2692   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2693 
  2694 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2695 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2696 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2697 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2698 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2699 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2700 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2701 
  2702 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2703 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2704 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2705 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2706 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2707 
  2708 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2709 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2710 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2711 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2712 
  2713 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2714 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2715 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2716 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2717 
  2718   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2719 
  2720   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2721   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2722   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2723   show_types                    show_types
  2724   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2725   show_consts                   show_consts
  2726   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2727 
  2728   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2729   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2730   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2731 
  2732   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2733   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2734 
  2735   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2736 
  2737   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2738   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2739   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2740   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2741   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2742 
  2743 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2744 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2745 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2746 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2747 
  2748 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2752   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2753 
  2754 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2755 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2756 float_token.
  2757 
  2758 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2759 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2763 DejaVu Sans.
  2764 
  2765 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2766 
  2767 
  2768 *** Pure ***
  2769 
  2770 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2771 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2772 time.
  2773 
  2774 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2775 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2776 
  2777 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2778 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2779 
  2780 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2781 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2782 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2783 command already provided this functionality.
  2784 
  2785 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2786 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2787 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2788 without interpretations.
  2789 
  2790 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2791 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2792 
  2793 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2794 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2795 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2796 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2797 
  2798 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2799 'definition' instead.
  2800 
  2801 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2802 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2803 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2804 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2805 
  2806 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2807 constructors.
  2808 
  2809 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2810 the local file system.
  2811 
  2812 
  2813 *** HOL ***
  2814 
  2815 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2816 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2817 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2818 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2819 
  2820   declare [[coercion f]]
  2821 
  2822 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2823 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2824 
  2825   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2826 
  2827 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2828 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2829 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2830 other theories like this:
  2831 
  2832   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2833 
  2834 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2835 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2836 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2837 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2838 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2839 for examples.
  2840 
  2841 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2842 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2845 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2846 
  2847 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2848 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2849 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2850 
  2851 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2852 functorial structure of types.
  2853 
  2854 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2855 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2856 
  2857 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2858 languages.
  2859 
  2860 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2861 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2862 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2865 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2866 
  2867 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2868 combinators any longer.
  2869 
  2870 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2871 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2872 
  2873 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2874 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2875 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2876 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2877 
  2878   record 'a foo = ...
  2879   ...
  2880   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2881 
  2882 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2883 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2887 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2888 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2889 
  2890 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2891 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2892 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2893 
  2894 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2895 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2898 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2899 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2900 independently.
  2901 
  2902 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2903 counter example search.
  2904 
  2905 * Sledgehammer:
  2906   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2907     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2908     sledgehammer").
  2909   - Renamed commands:
  2910     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2911     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2912     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2913     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2914   - Renamed options:
  2915     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2916     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2917     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2918     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2919     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Nitpick:
  2922   - Renamed options:
  2923     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2924     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2925     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2927   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2928   - Added "whack" option.
  2929   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2930   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2931   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2932   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2933     higher cardinalities.
  2934   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2935 
  2936 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2937 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2938 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2939 
  2940     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2941 
  2942 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2943 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2944 
  2945 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2946 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2947 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2948 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2949 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2950 "smt_solver".
  2951 
  2952 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2953 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2954 
  2955 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2956 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2957 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2958 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2961   - Renamed:
  2962     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2963     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2964     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965   - Added:
  2966     smt_verbose
  2967     smt_random_seed
  2968     smt_datatypes
  2969     smt_infer_triggers
  2970     smt_monomorph_limit
  2971     cvc3_options
  2972     remote_cvc3_options
  2973     remote_z3_options
  2974     yices_options
  2975 
  2976 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2977 header.
  2978 
  2979 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2980 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2981 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2982 
  2983   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2984 
  2985 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2988 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2993 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2996 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2997 
  2998 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2999 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000 
  3001 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3002 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3003 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3011 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3012 
  3013 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3014 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3015 for congruent(2)).
  3016 
  3017 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3018 
  3019   types
  3020     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3021     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3022 
  3023   constants
  3024     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3025     True ~> HOL.True
  3026     False ~> HOL.False
  3027     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3028     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3029     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3030     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3031     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3032     The ~> HOL.The
  3033     All ~> HOL.All
  3034     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3035     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3036     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3037     If ~> HOL.If
  3038     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3039     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3040     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3041     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3042     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3043     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3044     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3045     op : ~> Set.member
  3046     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3047 
  3048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3051 
  3052     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3053     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3054     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3055     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3056     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3057     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3058     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3059     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3060 
  3061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * More stylized fact names:
  3064 
  3065   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3066   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3067   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3068   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3069 
  3070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3073 
  3074   constants
  3075     null ~> List.null
  3076 
  3077   facts
  3078     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3079     null_empty ~> null_def
  3080 
  3081 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3082 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3083 generation.
  3084 
  3085 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3086 Haskell code.
  3087 
  3088 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3089 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3090 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3093 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3096 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3097 
  3098 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3099 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3100 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3103 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3109 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3110 referred to by its qualified name.
  3111 
  3112   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3113   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3114   product ~>  Enum.product
  3115 
  3116 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3117 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3119 
  3120 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3121 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3122 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3126 sort_key.
  3127 
  3128 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3129 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3130 
  3131 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3132 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3133 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3134 
  3135   types
  3136     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3137               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3138               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3139         (depends on your needs)
  3140 
  3141   constants
  3142      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3143      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3144      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3145 
  3146 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3147 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3148 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3149 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3152 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3153 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3154 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3155 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3161 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3162 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3163 
  3164 
  3165 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3166 
  3167 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3168 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3169 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3170 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3171 compatibility.
  3172 
  3173 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3174 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3175 
  3176 
  3177 *** HOLCF ***
  3178 
  3179 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3180 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3181 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3183 
  3184 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3185 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3186 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3187 
  3188   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3189   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3190   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3191 
  3192 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3193 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3194 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3197 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3198 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3199 domain definition now works:
  3200 
  3201   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3202 
  3203 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3204 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3205 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3206 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3207 
  3208   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3209     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3210 
  3211   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3212 
  3213 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3214 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3215 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216 
  3217 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3218 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3219 
  3220 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3221 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3222 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3223 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3224 
  3225 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3226 
  3227 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3235 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3236 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3237 
  3238 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3239 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3240 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3243 still supported as an input translation.
  3244 
  3245 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3246 
  3247   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3248   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3249   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3250   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3251   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3252   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3253   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3254 
  3255 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3256 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3259   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3260   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3261   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3262   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3263   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3264 
  3265 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3266 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3269 
  3270   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3271   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3272   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3273   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3274 
  3275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3276 
  3277 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3278 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3281 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3284   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3285   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3286   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3287   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3288   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3289   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3290   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3291   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3292   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3293   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3294   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3295   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3296   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3297   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3298   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3299   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3300   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3301   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3302   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3303 
  3304 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3307   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3308   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3309   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3310   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3311   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3312   box_less             ~> box_below
  3313   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3314   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3315   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3316   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3317   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3318   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3319   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3320   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3321   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3322   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3323   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3324   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3325   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3326   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3327   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3328   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3329   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3330   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3331   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3332   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3333   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3334   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3335   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3336   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3337   up_less              ~> up_below
  3338   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3339   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3340   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3341   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3342   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3343   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3344   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3345   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3346   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3347   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3348   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3349   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3350   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3351 
  3352 
  3353 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3354 
  3355 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3356 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 
  3359 *** ML ***
  3360 
  3361 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3362 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3363 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3364 
  3365 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3366 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3367 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3368 
  3369 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3370 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3371 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3372 
  3373 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3374 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3375 
  3376 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3377 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3378 
  3379 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3380 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3381 
  3382 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3383 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3384 
  3385 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3386 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3387 almost all situations.
  3388 
  3389 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3390 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3391 Isabelle/ML.
  3392 
  3393 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3394 meaning.
  3395 
  3396 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3397 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3398 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3399 
  3400 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3401 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3402 
  3403 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3404 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3405 
  3406 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3407 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3408 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3409 
  3410 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3411 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3412 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3413 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3414 configuration options.
  3415 
  3416 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3417 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3418 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3419 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3420 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3421 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3422 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3423 
  3424 
  3425 
  3426 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3427 ---------------------------------
  3428 
  3429 *** General ***
  3430 
  3431 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3432 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3433 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3434 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3435 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3436 their full internal name.
  3437 
  3438 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3439 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3440 Some hints on upgrading:
  3441 
  3442   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3443     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3444     which are independent of this issue.
  3445 
  3446   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3447     provides the following special forms:
  3448 
  3449       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3450       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3451       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3452 
  3453     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3454     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3455     extra variables".
  3456 
  3457     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3458     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3459     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3460     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3461     "logic".
  3462 
  3463   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3464     antiquotations:
  3465 
  3466       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3467       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3468       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3469       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3470 
  3471   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3472     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3473     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3474     antiquotations.
  3475 
  3476 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3477 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3478 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3479 diagnose syntax problems.
  3480 
  3481 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3482 
  3483 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3484 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3485 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3486 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3487 
  3488 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3489 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3490 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3491 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3494 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3495 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3496 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3497 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3500 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3501 
  3502 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3503 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3504 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3505 
  3506   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3507 
  3508 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3509 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3510 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3511 
  3512 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3513 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3514 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3517 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3518 
  3519 
  3520 *** Pure ***
  3521 
  3522 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3523 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3524 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3525 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3526 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3527 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3528 inspect proof terms.
  3529 
  3530 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3531 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3532 are added internally.  For example:
  3533 
  3534   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3535 
  3536 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3537 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538 
  3539 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3542 'class' instead.
  3543 
  3544 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3545 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3549 invariants.
  3550 
  3551 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3552 user space functionality any longer.
  3553 
  3554 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3555 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3559 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3560 
  3561 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3562 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3563 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3564 
  3565 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3566 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3567 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3568 
  3569 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3570 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 
  3573 *** HOL ***
  3574 
  3575 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3576 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3577 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3578 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3579 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3580 
  3581 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3582 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3583 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3584 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3585 
  3586   fun
  3587     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3588   where
  3589     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3590 
  3591   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3592     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3593 
  3594   quotient_definition
  3595     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3596 
  3597 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3598 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3599 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3600 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3601 
  3602 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3603 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3604 
  3605 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3606 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3607 
  3608 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3610 
  3611 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3612 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3613 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3614 
  3615 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3616 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3625 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3628 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3629 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3632   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3633   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3634   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3635   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3636   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3637   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3638   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3639   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3640   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3641   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3642   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3643   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3644   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3645   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3646   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3647   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3648   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3649   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3650   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3651   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3652   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3653   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3654   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3655   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3656   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3657   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3658   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3659   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3660   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3661 
  3662 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3663 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3664 
  3665 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3666 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3667 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3668 
  3669 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3670 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3671 
  3672 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3673 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3674 
  3675 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3676 
  3677 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3678 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3681 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 
  3685 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3686 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3687 
  3688 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3689 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3690 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3691 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3692 
  3693 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3694   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3695   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3696   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3700 lattices):
  3701 
  3702     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3703     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3704 
  3705     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3706 
  3707     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3708     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3709     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3710     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3711     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3712     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3713     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3714     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3715     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3716     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3717     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3718     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3719     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3720 
  3721     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3722     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3723     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3724     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3725     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3726     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3727     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3728     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3729     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3730     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3731     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3732     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3733     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3734     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3735     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3736     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3737     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3738     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3739 
  3740   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3741   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3742 
  3743     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3744     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3745     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3746     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3747     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3748 
  3749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Refined field classes:
  3752   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3753     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3754     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3755   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3759   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3760   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3761   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3762     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3763   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3764     equal_neg_zero.
  3765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3768 sets to lattices:
  3769 
  3770   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3771   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3772   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3773   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3774   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3775   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3776   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3777   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3778   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3779   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3780 
  3781 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3782 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3783 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3784 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3785 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3786 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3787 
  3788 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3789 multiset order:
  3790 
  3791   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3792     <= and <;
  3793   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3794     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3795     multiset_order;
  3796   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3797     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3798     generation;
  3799   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3800     if needed.
  3801 
  3802 Renamed:
  3803 
  3804   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3805   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3806   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3807 
  3808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3811 
  3812 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3813 
  3814 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3815 
  3816 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3817 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3818 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820   Constants:
  3821   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3822   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3823   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3824   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3825   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3826   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3827   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3828   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3829   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3830   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3831   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3832   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3833   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3834 
  3835   Lemmas:
  3836   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3837   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3838   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3839   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3840   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3841   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3842   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3843   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3844   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3845   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3846   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3847   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3848   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3849 
  3850 * Sledgehammer:
  3851   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3852     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3853     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3854     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3855     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3856     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3857     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3859   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3860     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3861   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3862     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3863     is still experimental.)
  3864   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3865     full-typed mode.
  3866   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3867 
  3868 * Nitpick:
  3869   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3870   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3871   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3872     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3873   - Added support for quotient types.
  3874   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3875     constructs.
  3876   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3877     "termination" proofs).
  3878   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3879   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3880   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3881   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3882     record getters.
  3883   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3884   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3885   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3886   - Added "atoms" option.
  3887   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3888     problems.
  3889   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3890     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3891     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3893     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3897   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3898   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3899   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3900   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3901   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3902   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3903   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3904   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3905   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 
  3908 *** HOLCF ***
  3909 
  3910 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3911 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3912 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3915 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3916 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3917 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3920 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3921 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3922 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3923 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3926 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3927 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3928 
  3929 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3930 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3931 
  3932   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3933   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3934 
  3935 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3936 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3939   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3940   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3941   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3942   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3943 
  3944 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3945 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3948   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3949   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3950 
  3951 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3952 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3956 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3961 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 
  3964 *** ML ***
  3965 
  3966 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3967 
  3968     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3969     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3970 
  3971     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3972     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3973     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3974     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3975 
  3976     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3977     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3978     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3979 
  3980 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3981 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3982 
  3983 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3984 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3985 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3986 
  3987 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3988 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3989 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3990 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3991 
  3992 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3993 the context or even global references.
  3994 
  3995 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3996 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3997 
  3998 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3999 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4000 
  4001   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4002   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4003   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4004   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4005   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4006   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4007   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4008   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4009   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4010   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4011 
  4012 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4013 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4014 
  4015 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4016 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4017 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4018 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4019 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4020 
  4021 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4022 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4023 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4024 Theory_Data version.
  4025 
  4026 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4027 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4028 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4029 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4030 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4031 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4032 explicitly in rare situations.
  4033 
  4034 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4035 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4037 
  4038 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4039 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4042 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4043 quite rare).
  4044 
  4045 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4046 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4047 
  4048 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4049 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4050 terms.
  4051 
  4052 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4053 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4054 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4055 
  4056 
  4057 *** System ***
  4058 
  4059 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4060 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4061 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4062 
  4063 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4064 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4065 respectively.
  4066 
  4067 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4068 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4069 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4070 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4071 
  4072   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4073 
  4074 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4075 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4076 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4077 component.
  4078 
  4079 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4080 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4081 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4082 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4083 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4084 the user for manual installation.
  4085 
  4086 
  4087 
  4088 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4089 -------------------------------------
  4090 
  4091 *** General ***
  4092 
  4093 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4094 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4095 
  4096 
  4097 *** Pure ***
  4098 
  4099 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4100 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4101 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4102 
  4103 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4104 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4105 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4106 
  4107 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4108 interpretation.
  4109 
  4110 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4111 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113 
  4114 *** Document preparation ***
  4115 
  4116 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4117 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4118 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4119 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4120 
  4121 
  4122 *** HOL ***
  4123 
  4124 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4125 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4126 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4127 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4128 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4129 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4130 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4131 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4132 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4133 
  4134 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4135 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4136 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4137 
  4138 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4139 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4140 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4141 
  4142 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4143 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4144 
  4145 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4146 
  4147 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4148 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4149 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4150 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4151 
  4152 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4153 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4154 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4155 "mirabelle" utility.
  4156 
  4157 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4158 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4159 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4160 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4161 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4162 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4163 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4164 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4165 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4166 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4167 
  4168 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4169 procedure only.
  4170 
  4171 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4172 
  4173 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4174 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4175 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4176 that fail later.
  4177 
  4178 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4179 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4180 
  4181 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4182 the same method as the approximation method.
  4183 
  4184 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4185 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4186 series expansion.
  4187 
  4188 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4189 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4190 
  4191 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4192 reals.
  4193 
  4194 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4195 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4196 
  4197 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4198 fixpoint theorem.
  4199 
  4200 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4201   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4202     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4203   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4204     accordingly
  4205   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4206     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4207   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4208     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4209 
  4210 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4211 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4212 lattice.
  4213 
  4214 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4215 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4216 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4217 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4218 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4219 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4223   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4224     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4225   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4226     le_inf_iff
  4227   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4228     sup_aci)
  4229   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4230   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4231   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4232     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4233     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4234     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4235     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4236     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4237     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4238     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4239     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4240     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4241     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4242   - authentic syntax for
  4243     Set.Pow
  4244     Set.image
  4245   - mere abbreviations:
  4246     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4247     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4248     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4249     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4250     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4251     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4252     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4253     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4254   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4255 
  4256 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4257 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4258 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4259 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4260 
  4261 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4262 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4263 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4266 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4267 
  4268 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4269 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4270 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4271 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4272 
  4273 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4274 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4275 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4276 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4277 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4278 
  4279 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4280 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4281 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4284 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4287 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4288 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4289 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4290 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4291 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4292 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4296     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4297     code_post       replaces    code post
  4298     etc.
  4299   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 
  4301 * Renamed methods:
  4302     sizechange -> size_change
  4303     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4304   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4307 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4308 
  4309 * Renamed theorems:
  4310     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4311     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4312     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4313     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4314     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4315   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 
  4324 *** HOLCF ***
  4325 
  4326 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4327 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4328 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4329 
  4330 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4331 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4332 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4333 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4334 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4335 
  4336 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4337 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4338 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4339 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4340 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4341 
  4342 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4343 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4344 constructor are pre-configured.
  4345 
  4346 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4347 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4348 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4349 
  4350 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4351 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4352 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4353 as well.)
  4354 
  4355 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4356 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4357 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4358 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4359 examples.
  4360 
  4361 
  4362 *** ML ***
  4363 
  4364 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4365 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4366 
  4367 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4368 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4369 position, logical grouping etc.
  4370 
  4371 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4372 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4373 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4374 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4375 
  4376 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4377 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4378 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4379 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4380 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4381 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4382 
  4383 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4384 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4385 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4386 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4387 experiments with references.
  4388 
  4389 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4390 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4391 
  4392 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4393 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4394 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4395 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4396 
  4397 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4398 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4399 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4400 
  4401 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4402 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4403 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4411 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4412 
  4413 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4414 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4415 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4416 
  4417 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4418 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4419 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4422 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4423 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4427 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4428 instead of global theory.
  4429 
  4430 
  4431 *** System ***
  4432 
  4433 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4434 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4435 usedir option -q.
  4436 
  4437 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4438 also the system manual.
  4439 
  4440 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4441 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4442 
  4443 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4444 this is always enabled.
  4445 
  4446 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4447 
  4448 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4449 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4450 currently supported on Linux only.
  4451 
  4452 
  4453 
  4454 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4455 --------------------------------
  4456 
  4457 *** General ***
  4458 
  4459 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4460 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4461 
  4462   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4463     "isatool."
  4464 
  4465   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4466     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4467 
  4468   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4469     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4470 
  4471 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4472 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4473 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4474 
  4475 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4476 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4477 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4478 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4479 via "isabelle emacs".
  4480 
  4481 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4482 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4483 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4484 
  4485 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4486 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4487 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4488 
  4489 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4490 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4491 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4492 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4493 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4494 
  4495 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4496 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4497 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4498 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4499 
  4500 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4501 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4502 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4503 
  4504 
  4505 *** Pure ***
  4506 
  4507 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4508 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4509 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4510 
  4511 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4512 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4513 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4514 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4515 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4516 
  4517 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4518 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4519 useful in locale declarations.
  4520 
  4521 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4522 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4523 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4524 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4525 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4526 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4527 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4528 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4529 no longer generated.
  4530 
  4531 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4532 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4533 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4534 
  4535 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4536 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4537 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4538 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4539 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4540 
  4541 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4542 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4543 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4544 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4545 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4546 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4547 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4548 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4549 
  4550 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4551 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4552 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4553 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4554 
  4555 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4558 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4559 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4560 
  4561 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4562 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4565 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4566 in HOL, write
  4567 
  4568     class foo = ...
  4569 
  4570 instead of
  4571 
  4572     class foo = type + ...
  4573 
  4574 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4575 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4578 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4579 
  4580 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4581 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4582 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4583 
  4584 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4585 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4586 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4587 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4588 directly in regular applications.
  4589 
  4590 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4591 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4592 
  4593 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4594 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4595 
  4596 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4597 theory context.
  4598 
  4599 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4600 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4601 
  4602 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4603 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4604 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4605 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4606 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4607 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4608 
  4609   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4610 
  4611 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4612 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4613 normalization.
  4614 
  4615 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4616 addressing etc.
  4617 
  4618 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4619 
  4620   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4621   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4622 
  4623 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4624 
  4625   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4626      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4627      parts of the code generator framework).
  4628 
  4629   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4630      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4631      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4632 
  4633 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4634 
  4635 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4636 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4637 
  4638 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4639 patterns, e.g.
  4640 
  4641     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4642 
  4643 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4644 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4645 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4646 hyphen:
  4647 
  4648     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4649 
  4650 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4651 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4652 
  4653 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4654 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4655 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4656 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4657 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4658 higher-order unification.
  4659 
  4660 
  4661 *** Document preparation ***
  4662 
  4663 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4664 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4665 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4666 
  4667 
  4668 *** HOL ***
  4669 
  4670 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4671 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4672 
  4673 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4674 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4675 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4676 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4677 Main, as before.
  4678 
  4679 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4680 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4681 
  4682 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4683 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4684 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4685 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4686 
  4687 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4688 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4689 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4690 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4691 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4692 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4693 
  4694 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4695 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4696 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4697 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4698 
  4699 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4700 menu.
  4701 
  4702 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4703 (contains the empty clause).
  4704 
  4705 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4706 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4707 
  4708 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4709 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4710 
  4711 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4712 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4713 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4716 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4717 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4718 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4719 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4720 
  4721 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4722 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4723 
  4724 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4725 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4726 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4727 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4728 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4729 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4730 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4731 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4732 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4733 
  4734 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4735 
  4736 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4737 
  4738 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4739 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4742 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4743 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4744 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4745 
  4746 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4747 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4748 
  4749     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4750     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4751     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4752     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4753     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4754     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4755     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4756     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4757 
  4758 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4759 theory Set.
  4760 
  4761 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4762 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4763 
  4764 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4765 
  4766 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4767 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4768 
  4769 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4770 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4771 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4772 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4773 allowed. For examples see
  4774 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4775 
  4776 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4777 
  4778 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4780 
  4781 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4782 structure:
  4783 
  4784     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4785     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4786     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4787     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4788     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4789     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4790     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4791     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4792     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4793     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4794     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4795     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4796     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4797     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4798     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4799     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4801     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4802     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4803     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4804     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4805     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4806     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4807     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4808     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4809     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4810     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4811     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4812     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4813     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4814     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4815     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4816     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4817 
  4818     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4819     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4820     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4821     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4822     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4823     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4824     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4825     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4826     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4827     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4828 
  4829     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4830     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4831     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4832     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4833     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4834     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4835 
  4836 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4837 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4838 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4839 
  4840 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4841 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4842 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4843 
  4844 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4845 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4848 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4849 
  4850 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4851 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4852 proofs, e.g.
  4853 
  4854   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4855 
  4856 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4857 
  4858 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4859 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4860 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4861 
  4862 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4863 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4865 
  4866 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4867 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4868 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4872 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4873 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4874 preorder_class.*.
  4875 
  4876 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4877 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4878 
  4879 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4880 
  4881   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4882 
  4883 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4884 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4885 fold_image.
  4886 
  4887 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4888 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4889 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4890 the former will disappear at some point.
  4891 
  4892 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4893 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4894 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4895 
  4896 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4897 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4898 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4899 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4900 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4901 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4902 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4903 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4904 
  4905 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4906 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4907 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4908 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4909 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4910 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4911 
  4912     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4913     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4914     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4915     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4916     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4917     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4918     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4919 
  4920 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4921 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4922 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4923 
  4924 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4925 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4926 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4927 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4928 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4929 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4930 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4931 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4932 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4933 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4934 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4935 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4936 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4937 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4938 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4939 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4940 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4941 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4942 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4943 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4944 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4945 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4946 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4947 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4948 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4949 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4950 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4951 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4952 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4953 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4954 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4955 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4956 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4957 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4958 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4959 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4960 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4961 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4962 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4963 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4964 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4965 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4966 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4967 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4968 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4969 
  4970 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4973 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4974 
  4975 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4976 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4977 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4978 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4979 
  4980 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4981 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4982 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4983 theory RealVector.
  4984 
  4985 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4986 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4987 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4988 and inner products are included.
  4989 
  4990 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4991 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4992 supported.
  4993 
  4994 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4995 first diagonalization argument.
  4996 
  4997 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4998 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4999 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5000 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5001 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5002 
  5003     hide (open) const gcd
  5004     abbreviation gcd where
  5005       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5006     notation (output)
  5007       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5008 
  5009 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5010 
  5011 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5012 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5013 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5016 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5017 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5018 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5019 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5020 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5021 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5022 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5023 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5024 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5025 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5026 cases.
  5027 
  5028 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5029 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5030 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5031 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5032 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5033 
  5034     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5035     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5036     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5037     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5038     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5039 
  5040 
  5041 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5042 
  5043 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5044 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5045 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5046 
  5047 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5048 
  5049 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5050 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5051 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5052 
  5053 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5054 
  5055 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5056 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5057 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5058 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5059 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5060 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5061 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5062 
  5063 
  5064 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5065 
  5066 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5067 
  5068 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5069 theory targets.
  5070 
  5071 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5072 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5073 'inductive' etc.
  5074 
  5075 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5076 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5077 
  5078 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5079 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5080 
  5081 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5082 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5083 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5084 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5085 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5086 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5087 the algorithm W:
  5088 
  5089  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5090  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5091          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5092 
  5093 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5094 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5095 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5096 
  5097 
  5098 *** HOLCF ***
  5099 
  5100 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5101 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5102 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5103 
  5104 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5105 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5106 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5107 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5108 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5109 
  5110 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5111 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5112 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5113 
  5114 
  5115 *** ZF ***
  5116 
  5117 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5118 
  5119 
  5120 *** ML ***
  5121 
  5122 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5123 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5124 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5125 5.2.1!
  5126 
  5127 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5128 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5129 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5130 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5131 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5132 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5133 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5134 
  5135 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5136 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5137 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5138 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5139 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5140 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5141 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5142 
  5143 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5144 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5145 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5146 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5147 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5148 
  5149 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5150 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5151 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5152 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5153 Method.add_method.
  5154 
  5155 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5156 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5157 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5158 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5159 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5160 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5161 
  5162 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5163 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5164 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5165 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5166 examples.
  5167 
  5168 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5169 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5170 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5171 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5172 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5173 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5174 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5175 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5176 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5177 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5178 
  5179 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5180 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5181 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5182 
  5183 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5184 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5185 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5186 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5187 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5188 resort for legacy applications.
  5189 
  5190 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5191 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5192 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5193 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5194 explicit runtime argument.
  5195 
  5196 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5197 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5198 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5199 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5200 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5203 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5204 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5205 theory state.
  5206 
  5207 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5208 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5209 
  5210   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5211   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5212   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5213   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5214   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5215   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5216   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5217   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5218   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5219   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5220 
  5221 
  5222 *** System ***
  5223 
  5224 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5225 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5226 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5227 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5228 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5229 
  5230 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5231 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5232 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5233 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5234 
  5235 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5236 
  5237 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5238 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5239 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5240 prover operations.
  5241 
  5242 
  5243 
  5244 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5245 -------------------------------
  5246 
  5247 *** General ***
  5248 
  5249 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5250 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5251 
  5252 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5253 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5254 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5255 provides a proper context already.
  5256 
  5257 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5258 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5259 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5260 
  5261 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5262 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5263 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5264 swap theory imports.
  5265 
  5266 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5267 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5268 
  5269 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5270 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5271 white space without escapes.
  5272 
  5273 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5274 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5275 "foo_bar".
  5276 
  5277 
  5278 *** Pure ***
  5279 
  5280 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5281 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5282 
  5283 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5284 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5285 
  5286 (1) unused_thms
  5287      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5288 
  5289 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5290      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5291      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5292 
  5293 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5294      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5295      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5296      their ancestors.
  5297 
  5298 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5299 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5300 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5301 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5302 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5303 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5304 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5305 
  5306 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5307 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5308 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5309 
  5310 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5311 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5312 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5313 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5314 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5315 
  5316 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5317 
  5318 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5319 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5320 update of theories within ML code.
  5321 
  5322 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5323 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5324 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5325 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5326 
  5327 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5328 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5329 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5331 
  5332 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5333 
  5334 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5335 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5336 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5337 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5338 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5339 
  5340 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5341 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5342 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5343 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5344 situations.
  5345 
  5346 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5347 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5348 proof text.
  5349 
  5350 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5351 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5352 
  5353 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5354 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5355 predicates.
  5356 
  5357 
  5358 *** Document preparation ***
  5359 
  5360 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5361 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5362 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5363 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5364 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5365 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5366 
  5367 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5368 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5369 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5370 
  5371 
  5372 *** HOL ***
  5373 
  5374 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5375 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5376 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5377 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5378 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5379 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5380 
  5381 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5382 with multithreading.
  5383 
  5384 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5385 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5386 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5387 
  5388 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5389 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5390 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5391 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5392 
  5393 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5394 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5395 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5396 and makes them available separately.  See
  5397 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5398 
  5399 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5400 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5401 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5402 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5403 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5404 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5405 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5406 the declared rules.
  5407 
  5408 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5409 
  5410   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5411 
  5412 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5413 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5414 
  5415 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5416 
  5417   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5418 
  5419   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5420     definitions on => and bool.
  5421 
  5422   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5423     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5424     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5425 
  5426       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5427       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5428       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5429       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5430       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5431       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5432       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5433       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5434 
  5435   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5436     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5437     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5438 
  5439   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5440     The proof pattern
  5441 
  5442       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5443       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5444 
  5445     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5446     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5447 
  5448       have "EX S. P S"
  5449       proof
  5450         show "P S" <...>
  5451       qed
  5452 
  5453   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5454     The proof pattern
  5455 
  5456       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5457       also have "S = T" <...>
  5458       finally have "P T" .
  5459 
  5460     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5461     must be replaced by something like
  5462 
  5463       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5464       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5465       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5466 
  5467   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5468     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5469 
  5470       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5471 
  5472     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5473     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5474     type of the form
  5475 
  5476       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5477 
  5478     rather than
  5479 
  5480       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5481 
  5482 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5483 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5484 
  5485 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5486 
  5487 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5488 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5490 
  5491 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5492 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5495 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5496 
  5497 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5498 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5499 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5502 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5503 
  5504   less_trans
  5505   less_linear
  5506   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5507   le_less_trans
  5508   less_le_trans
  5509   less_not_sym
  5510   less_asym
  5511 
  5512 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5513 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5514 and different variable names.
  5515 
  5516 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5517 
  5518 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5519 finite maps.
  5520 
  5521 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5522 
  5523 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5524 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5525 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5526 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5527 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5528 accordingly.
  5529 
  5530 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5531 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5532 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5533 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5534 
  5535 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5536 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5537 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5538 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5539 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5543 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5544 
  5545 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5546 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5547 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5548 
  5549 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5553 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5554 
  5555 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5556 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5559 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5560 
  5561 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5562 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5563 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5564 
  5565 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5566 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5569 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5570 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5571 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5572 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5573 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5576 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5577 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5578 
  5579 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5580 
  5581 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5582 
  5583 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5584 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5585 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5586 
  5587 
  5588 *** ZF ***
  5589 
  5590 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5591 same session:
  5592 
  5593   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5594   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5595   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5596   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5597   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5598   List      -> List_ZF
  5599   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5600 
  5601 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5602 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5603 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5604 
  5605 
  5606 *** ML ***
  5607 
  5608 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5609 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5610 
  5611 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5612 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5613 
  5614 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5615 
  5616 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5617 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5618 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5619 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5620 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5621 
  5622 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5623 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5624 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5625 
  5626 
  5627 *** System ***
  5628 
  5629 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5630 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5631 
  5632 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5633 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5634 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5635 
  5636 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5637 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5638 
  5639 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5640 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5641 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5642 
  5643 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5644 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5645 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5646 
  5647 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5648 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5649 
  5650 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5651 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5652 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5653 script.
  5654 
  5655 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5656 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5657 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5658 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5659 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5660 
  5661 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5662 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5663 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5664 
  5665 
  5666 
  5667 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5668 -----------------------------------
  5669 
  5670 *** General ***
  5671 
  5672 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5673 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5674 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5675 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5676 
  5677 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5678 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5679 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5680 
  5681 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5682 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5683 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5684 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5685 
  5686 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5687 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5688 quotes.
  5689 
  5690 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5691 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5692 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5693 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5694 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5695 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5696 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5697 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5698 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5699 
  5700 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5701 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5702 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5703 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5704 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5705 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5706 
  5707 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5708 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5709 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5710 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5711 
  5712 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5713 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5714 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5715 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5716 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5717 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5718 
  5719 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5720 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5721 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5722 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5723 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5724 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5725 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5726 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5727 
  5728 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5729 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5730 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5731 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5732 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5733 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5734 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5735 
  5736 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5737 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5738 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5739 
  5740 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5741 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5742 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5743 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5744 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5745 limit is imposed.
  5746 
  5747 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5748 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5749 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5750 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5751 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5752 and scalability.
  5753 
  5754 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5755 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5756 
  5757 
  5758 *** Document preparation ***
  5759 
  5760 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5761 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5762 current context.
  5763 
  5764 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5765 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5766 
  5767 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5768 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5769 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5770 
  5771 
  5772 *** Pure ***
  5773 
  5774 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5775 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5776 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5777 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5778 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5779 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5780 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5781 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5782 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5783 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5784 
  5785 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5786 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5787 sketch:
  5788 
  5789     internal compilation:
  5790         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5791     writing SML code to a file:
  5792         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5793     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5794         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5795     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5796         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5797 
  5798     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5799         method ``eval''
  5800 
  5801 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5802 
  5803 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5804 
  5805     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5806     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5807     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5808     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5809 
  5810 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5811 
  5812     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5813       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5814 
  5815     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5816       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5817 
  5818     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5819       {(target)}+
  5820         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5821 
  5822     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5823       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5824         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5825 
  5826 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5827 
  5828 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5829 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5830 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5831 codegen".
  5832 
  5833 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5834 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5835 annotations).
  5836 
  5837 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5838 syntax.
  5839 
  5840 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5841 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5842 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5843 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5844 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5845 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5846 
  5847 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5848 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5849 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5850 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5851 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5852 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5853 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5854 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5855 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5856 equations, see section "definitions".
  5857 
  5858 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5859 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5860 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5861 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5862 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5863 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5864 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5865 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5866 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5867 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5868 
  5869 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5870 configuration options:
  5871 
  5872   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5873   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5874   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5875   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5876   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5877   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5878   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5879   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5880   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5881 
  5882 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5883 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5884 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5885 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5886 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5887 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5888 order.
  5889 
  5890 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5891 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5892 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5893 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5894 context encountered later on.
  5895 
  5896 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5897 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5898 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5899 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5900 
  5901 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5902 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5903 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5904 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5905 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5906 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5907 
  5908 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5909 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5910 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5911 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5912 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5913 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5914 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5915 more permissive.
  5916 
  5917 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5918 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5919 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5920 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5921 maintainability of proof texts.
  5922 
  5923 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5924 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5925 
  5926   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5927   then guess x and y by clarify
  5928 
  5929 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5930 proof tools being involved here.
  5931 
  5932 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5933 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5934 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5935 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5936 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5937 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5938 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5939 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5940 
  5941 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5942 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5943 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5944 
  5945   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5946   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5947   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5948   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5949 
  5950 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5951 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5952 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5953 
  5954 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5955 both named and unnamed ones.
  5956 
  5957 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5958 
  5959   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5960 
  5961 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5962 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5963 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5964 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5965 
  5966 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5967 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5968 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5969 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5970 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5971 
  5972 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5973 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5974 
  5975 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5976 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5977 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5978 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5979 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5980 originally first one.
  5981 
  5982 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5983 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5984 expected.
  5985 
  5986 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5987 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5988 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5989 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5990 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5991 
  5992   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5993     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5994     obtains x where "P x"
  5995 
  5996   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5997     assumes "A & B"
  5998     obtains A and B
  5999 
  6000   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6001     assumes "A | B"
  6002     obtains
  6003       A
  6004     | B
  6005 
  6006 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6007 explicitly:
  6008 
  6009   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6010     obtains "~ thesis"
  6011 
  6012   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6013     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6014 
  6015 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6016 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6017 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6018 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6019 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6020 case_names).
  6021 
  6022 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6023 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6024 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6025 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6026 
  6027 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6028 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6029 top-level lemma.
  6030 
  6031 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6032 introduction rule (default "that").
  6033 
  6034 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6035 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6036 to occur.
  6037 
  6038 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6039 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6040 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6041 representations independently of name spaces.
  6042 
  6043 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6044 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6045 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6046 
  6047 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6048 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6049 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6050 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6051 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6052 current context.
  6053 
  6054 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6055 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6056 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6057 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6058 
  6059   axiomatization
  6060     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6061     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6062 
  6063   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6064   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6065 
  6066   abbreviation
  6067     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6068     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6069 
  6070 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6071 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6072 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6073 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6074 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6075 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6076 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6077 
  6078 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6079 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6080 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6081 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6082 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6083 
  6084 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6085 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6086 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6087 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6088 
  6089 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6090 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6091 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6092 
  6093   definition "K x _ = x"
  6094 
  6095   inductive conj for A B
  6096   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6097 
  6098 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6099 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6100 abbreviations on output.
  6101 
  6102 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6103 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6104 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6105 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6106 
  6107 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6108 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6109 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6110 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6111 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6112 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6113 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6114 
  6115 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6116 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6117 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6118 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6119 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6120 
  6121 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6122 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6123 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6124 
  6125 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6126 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6127 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6128 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6129 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6130 
  6131   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6132     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6133 
  6134 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6135 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6136 partial_order.
  6137 
  6138 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6139 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6140 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6141 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6142 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6143 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6144 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6145 examples.
  6146 
  6147 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6148 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6149 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6150 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6151 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6152 
  6153 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6154 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6155 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6156 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6157 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6158 
  6159   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6160   (induct set: foo bar)
  6161   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6162   (induct type: foo bar)
  6163 
  6164 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6165 new format.
  6166 
  6167 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6168 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6169 
  6170 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6171 considered a legacy feature.
  6172 
  6173 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6174 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6175 
  6176 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6177 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6178 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6179 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6180   
  6181 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6182 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6183 manipulating the claset.
  6184 
  6185 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6186 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6187 least one premise.
  6188 
  6189 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6190 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6191 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6192 rule steps.
  6193 
  6194 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6195 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6196 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6197 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6198 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6199 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6200 
  6201 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6202 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6203 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6204 
  6205 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6206 the graph browser tool.
  6207 
  6208 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6209 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6210 
  6211 
  6212 *** HOL ***
  6213 
  6214 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6215 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6216 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6217 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6218 multi-threading.
  6219   
  6220 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6221 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6222 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6223 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6224 work with multi-threading.
  6225 
  6226 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6227 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6228 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6229 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6230 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6231 
  6232 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6233 
  6234 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6235 equality.
  6236 
  6237 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6238 the new 'class' package:
  6239 
  6240     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6241     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6242     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6243     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6244     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6245     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6246     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6247     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6248     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6249     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6250     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6251     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6252     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6253     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6254     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup