NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Sep 28 14:36:04 2013 +0200 (2013-09-28)
changeset 53968 814dbc4e84a3
parent 53886 c83727c7a510
child 53971 c4156b37627f
permissions -rw-r--r--
uniform $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    10 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    11 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    12 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    13 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    14 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    15 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    16 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    17 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    18 syntax.
    19 
    20 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    21 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    24 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    25 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    26 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    27 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    28 
    29 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    30 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    31 
    32 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    33 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    34 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    35 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    36 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    37 presentation of theories.
    38 
    39 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    40 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    41 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    44 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    47 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    48 
    49 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    50 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    51 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    52 
    53 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    54 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    55 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    56 
    57 
    58 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    59 
    60 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
    61 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
    62 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
    63 
    64 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality.
    65 
    66 * Separate manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    67 Documentation panel.
    68 
    69 * Improved "Theories" panel: Continuous checking of proof document
    70 (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly, using check
    71 box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may be marked
    72 explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box or
    73 shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    74 
    75 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancelation of
    76 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    77 such command executions while editing.
    78 
    79 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    80 document content.
    81 
    82 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    83 toplevel theorem statements.
    84 
    85 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    86 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    87 
    88 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    89 documentation.
    90 
    91 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    92 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    93 normal editing and checking process.
    94 
    95 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    96 timing information.
    97 
    98 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    99 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
   100 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
   101 
   102 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   103 / Global Options / Appearance".
   104 
   105 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   106 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.
   107 
   108   - Various Isabelle plugin options to control popup behaviour and
   109     immediate insertion into buffer.
   110 
   111   - Light-weight popup, which avoids explicit window (more reactive
   112     and more robust).  Interpreted key events include TAB, ESCAPE, UP,
   113     DOWN, PAGE_UP, PAGE_DOWN.  All other key events are passed to
   114     the jEdit text area.
   115 
   116   - Explicit completion via standard jEdit shortcut C+b, which has
   117     been remapped to action "isabelle.complete" (fall-back on regular
   118     "complete-word" for non-Isabelle buffers).
   119 
   120   - Implicit completion via keyboard input on text area, with popup or
   121     immediate insertion into buffer.
   122 
   123   - Implicit completion of plain words requires at least 3 characters
   124     (was 2 before).
   125 
   126   - Immediate completion ignores plain words; it requires > 1
   127     characters of symbol abbreviation to complete, otherwise fall-back
   128     on completion popup.
   129 
   130   - Isabelle Symbols are only completed in backslashed forms,
   131     e.g. \forall or \<forall> that both produce the Isabelle symbol
   132     \<forall> in its Unicode rendering.
   133 
   134   - Refined table of Isabelle symbol abbreviations (see
   135     $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   136 
   137 
   138 *** Pure ***
   139 
   140 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   141 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   142 
   143 * Type theory is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   144 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   145 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   146 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   150 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   151 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   152 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   153 
   154 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   155 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   156 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157 
   158 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
   159 Particulary, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
   160 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.  See
   161 "isar-ref" manual for details.
   162 
   163 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   164 
   165 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   166 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   167 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   168 
   169 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   173 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   174 situations.
   175 
   176 
   177 *** HOL ***
   178 
   179 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   180 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   181 
   182 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   183 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   184 to distinguish both when desired.
   185 
   186 * Code generator:
   187   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   188     'code_instance'.
   189   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   190     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   191   See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories
   192   for examples.
   193 
   194 * HOL/BNF:
   195   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including new
   196     commands "primrec_new", "primcorecursive", and "datatype_new_compat",
   197     as well as documentation. See "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   198   - Renamed keywords:
   199     data ~> datatype_new
   200     codata ~> codatatype
   201     bnf_def ~> bnf
   202   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   203     discs ~> disc
   204     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   205     map_id' ~> map_id
   206     sels ~> sel
   207     set_map' ~> set_map
   208     sets ~> set
   209 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   212 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   213 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   214 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   215 
   216 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   217 automatically generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x =
   218 t".
   219 
   220 * New command "fun_cases" derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   221 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   222 inductive_cases.  See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   223 
   224 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   225   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   226   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   227     generated code.
   228   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   229   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   230   - Fact renames:
   231     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   232     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   233     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   234 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Reification and reflection:
   237   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   238     "Reification".
   239   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   240   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on sets,
   244 in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   247 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   248 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   249 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   250 
   251   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   252 
   253 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   254 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   255 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   256 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   257 
   258 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   259 
   260 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   261   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   262     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   263     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   264   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   265     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   266   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   267     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   268     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   269     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   270     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   271     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   272     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   273     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
   274   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   275     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   276   - Fact renames:
   277       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   278       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   282 
   283 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   284 
   285 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
   286 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
   287 
   288 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals: natural
   289 (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former code_int).
   290 Conversions are available as integer_of_natural / natural_of_integer /
   291 integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   292 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   293 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   294 
   295 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   296 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   297 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   298 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   301 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   302 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   306 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   307 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   308 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   309 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   310 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   311 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   312 lemmas.
   313 
   314 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   315 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   316 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top 
   319 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions. 
   320 INCOMPATIBILITY: Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   321 
   322 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   323 top and bottom elements.
   324 
   325 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   326 
   327 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   328 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   329 
   330  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and linear_continuum_topology.
   331    Allows to generalize theorems about limits and order.
   332    Instances are reals and extended reals.
   333 
   334  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   335    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.
   336    "isCont" is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   337 
   338    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an arbitrary
   339    filter.
   340 
   341  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma
   342    to prove compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   343    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a continuous
   344    function is continuous, when the function is continuous on a compact set.
   345 
   346  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   347    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   348    linear_continuum_topology).
   349 
   350  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   351    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and on
   352    all sequences converging to x.
   353 
   354  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved theorems
   355    from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the definition of DERIV on
   356    FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV which are restricted to sets,
   357    i.e. to represent derivatives from left or right.
   358 
   359  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   360 
   361      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   362 
   363  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   364    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   365 
   366  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros, continuous_intros,
   367    continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems in tendsto_intros (or
   368    FDERIV_intros) are also available as tendsto_eq_intros (or
   369    FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side is replaced by a congruence
   370    rule. This allows to apply them as intro rules and then proving
   371    equivalence by the simplifier.
   372 
   373  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   374 
   375    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   376 
   377    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   378      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   379 
   380    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   381 
   382    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces, Real_Vector_Spaces, and
   383      Limits
   384 
   385    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   386 
   387    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   388 
   389  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   390 
   391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   392 
   393 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   394 
   395     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   396     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   397 
   398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399 
   400 * Nitpick:
   401   - Added option "spy"
   402   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   403 
   404 * Sledgehammer:
   405   - Renamed option:
   406       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   407     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   409   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   410   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   411 
   412 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   413 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   414 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   415 
   416 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   417 .../poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   418 src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides integration
   419 with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   420 
   421 
   422 *** ML ***
   423 
   424 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   425 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   426 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   427 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   428 
   429 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   430 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   431 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   432 Examples.thy in particular.
   433 
   434 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   435 
   436     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   437     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   438 
   439 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   440 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   441 
   442 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   443 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   444 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   445 clasets separately from the context.
   446 
   447 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   448 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   449 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   450 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   451 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   452 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   453 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   454 
   455 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   456 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   457 
   458 
   459 *** System ***
   460 
   461 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   462 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   465 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   466 
   467 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   468 settings variable.
   469 
   470 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   471 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   472 always pdf.
   473 
   474 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   475 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   476 
   477 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   478 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   479 
   480 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   481 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   482 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   483 
   484 
   485 
   486 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   487 -----------------------------------
   488 
   489 *** General ***
   490 
   491 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   492 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   493 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   494 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   495 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   496 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   497 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   498 
   499 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   500 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   501 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   502 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   503 
   504 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   505 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   506 
   507 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   508 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   509 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   510 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   511 dependencies properly.
   512 
   513 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   514 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   515 
   516 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   517 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   518 
   519 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   520 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   521 and "class ... context ...".
   522 
   523 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   524 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   525 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   526 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   527 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   528 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   529 
   530 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   531 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   532 
   533 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   534 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   535 
   536 
   537 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   538 
   539 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   540 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   541 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   542 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   543 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   544 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   545 
   546 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   547 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   548 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   549 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   550 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   551 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   552 
   553 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   554 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   555 browser on demand.
   556 
   557 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   558 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   559 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   560 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   561 
   562 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   563 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   564 
   565 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   566 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   567 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   568 potentially infinite message streams.
   569 
   570 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   571 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   572 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   573 schemes.
   574 
   575 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   576 symbols.
   577 
   578 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   579 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   580 
   581 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   582 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   583 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   584 
   585 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   586 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   587 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   588 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   589 
   590 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   591 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   592 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   593 
   594 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   595 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   596 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   597 Isabelle distribution.
   598 
   599 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   600 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   601 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   602 
   603 
   604 *** Pure ***
   605 
   606 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   607 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   608 
   609 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   610 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   611 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   614 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   615 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   616 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   617 with some care where this is really required.
   618 
   619 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   620 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   621 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   622 
   623   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   624 
   625 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   626 a Hasse diagram.
   627 
   628 
   629 *** HOL ***
   630 
   631 * Sledgehammer:
   632 
   633   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   634     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   635   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   636   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   637   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   638   - Renamed options:
   639       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   640       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   641       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   642       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   643 
   644 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   645 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   646 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   647 
   648 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Lifting:
   652   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   653   - quot_del attribute
   654   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   655 
   656 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   657 expressions.
   658 
   659 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   660 pointfree expressions.
   661 
   662 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   663 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   664 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   665 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   667 
   668 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   669 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   670 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   671 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   672 accordingly.
   673 
   674 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   675 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   678 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   681 
   682 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   683 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   684 
   685 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   686 
   687 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   688 
   689   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   690   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   691 
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   695 
   696   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   697   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   698 
   699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   700 
   701 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   702 
   703   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   704     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   705     output f x converges to G.
   706 
   707   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   708     infinity (at_bot).
   709 
   710   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   711     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   712 
   713   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   714     at_top".
   715 
   716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   717 
   718 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   719 lattice type classes.
   720 
   721 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   722 
   723     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   724     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   725 
   726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   729 changes as follows.
   730 
   731   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   732 
   733       prefix ~> prefixeq
   734       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   735 
   736   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   737     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   738     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   739     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   740 
   741   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   742     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   743     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   744 
   745   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   746     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   747     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   748     Library/Prefix_Order.
   749 
   750   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   751     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   752 
   753       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   754       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   755       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   756       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   757       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   758       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   759       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   760       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   761       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   762       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   763       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   764       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   765       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   766       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   767       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   768       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   769 
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   773 
   774 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   775 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   776 
   777 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   778 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   779 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   780 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   781 
   782   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   783   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   784   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   785   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   786   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   787   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   788   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   789   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   790   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   791   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   792 
   793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   794 
   795 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   796 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   797 Data").
   798 
   799 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   800 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   801 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   802 code.
   803 
   804 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   805 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   806 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   810 
   811 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   812 
   813 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   814 
   815   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   816   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   817 
   818 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   819 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   820 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   821 
   822   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   823 
   824     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   825     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   826     cart_base i  removed
   827     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   828 
   829   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   830 
   831   Renamed lemmas:
   832 
   833     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   834     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   835     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   836     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   837     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   838     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   839     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   840     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   841     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   842     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   843 
   844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * HOL/Probability:
   847 
   848   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   849 
   850   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   851     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   852     (borel_measurable_induct).
   853 
   854   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   855     projective family).
   856 
   857 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   858 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   859 
   860 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   861 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   862 datatypes.
   863 
   864 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   865 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   866 
   867 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   868 trees for the code generator.
   869 
   870 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   871 Lifting/Transfer.
   872 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   875 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 
   878 *** Document preparation ***
   879 
   880 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   881 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   882 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   883 
   884 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   885 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   886 
   887 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   888 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   889 document/root.tex.
   890 
   891 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   892 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   893 
   894 
   895 *** ML ***
   896 
   897 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   898 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   899 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   900 
   901 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   902 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   903 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   904 
   905 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   906 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   907 necessarily printing visible text.
   908 
   909 
   910 *** System ***
   911 
   912 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   913 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   914 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   915 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   916 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   917 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   918 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   919 
   920 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   921 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   922 
   923   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   924 
   925 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   926 
   927 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   928 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   929 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   930 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   931 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   932 
   933 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   934 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   935 
   936 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   937 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   938 
   939 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941 
   942 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   943 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   944 version of Isabelle.
   945 
   946 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   947 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   948 
   949 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   950 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   951 for home-made settings.
   952 
   953 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   954 
   955 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   956 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   957 configuration.
   958 
   959 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   960 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   961 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   962 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   963 bundled as Isabelle component.
   964 
   965 
   966 
   967 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   968 ------------------------------
   969 
   970 *** General ***
   971 
   972 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   973 
   974   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   975     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   976   - markup for bound variables
   977   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   978   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   979   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   980     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   981 
   982 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   983 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   984 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   985 
   986 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   987 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   988 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   989 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   990 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   991 
   992   context
   993     fixes x y z :: 'a
   994     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   995   begin
   996 
   997   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   998 
   999   end
  1000 
  1001   thm my_trans
  1002 
  1003 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1004 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1005 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1006 
  1007 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1008 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1009 
  1010 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1011 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1012 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1013 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1014 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1015 
  1016 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1017 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1018 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1019 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1020 indices of schematic variables.
  1021 
  1022 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1023 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1024 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1025 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1026 etc. was exploited.
  1027 
  1028 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1029 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1030 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1031 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1032 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1033 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1034 
  1035 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1036 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1037 manual.
  1038 
  1039 
  1040 *** Pure ***
  1041 
  1042 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1043 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1044 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1045 
  1046 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1047 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1048 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1049 undocumented feature.)
  1050 
  1051 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1052 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1053 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1054 
  1055   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1056 
  1057   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1058     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1059 
  1060 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1061 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1062 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1063 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1064 
  1065 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1066 
  1067     num ~> num_token
  1068     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1069     xstr ~> str_token
  1070 
  1071 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1072 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1073 position information via constraints).
  1074 
  1075 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1076 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1077 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1078 
  1079 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1080 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1081 
  1082 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1083 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1084 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1085 
  1086 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1087 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1088 
  1089 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1090 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1091 
  1092   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1093 
  1094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1097 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1098 
  1099 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1100 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1101 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1102 
  1103 
  1104 *** HOL ***
  1105 
  1106 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1107 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1108 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1109 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1110 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1111 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1112 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1113 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1114 possible.
  1115 
  1116 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1117 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1118 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1119 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1120 
  1121 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1122 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1125 
  1126 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1127 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1128 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1129 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1130 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1131 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1132 
  1133   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1134     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1135 
  1136   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1137     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1138     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1139 
  1140   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1141     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1142 
  1143   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1144     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1145     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1146 
  1147   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1148     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1149 
  1150 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1151 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1152 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1153 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1154 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1155 
  1156   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1157     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1158     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1159     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1160     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1161 
  1162     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1163     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1164 
  1165   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1166     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1167     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1168     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1169     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1170     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1171     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1172     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1173 
  1174   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1175     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1176     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1177     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1178 
  1179   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1180     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1181     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1182     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1183 
  1184   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1185     from type nat to type int.
  1186 
  1187 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1188 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1189 
  1190   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1191     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1192     type.  Example syntax:
  1193 
  1194     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1195       is List.insert
  1196 
  1197     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1198     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1199     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1200     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1201     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1202     by the package.
  1203 
  1204   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1205     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1206     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1207     code generation for each constant.
  1208 
  1209   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1210     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1211     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1212     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1213     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1214 
  1215   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1216     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1217     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1218 
  1219 * Quotient package:
  1220 
  1221   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1222     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1223 
  1224   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1225     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1226 
  1227   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1228     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1229     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1230 
  1231   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1232     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1233 
  1234 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1235 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1236 
  1237 * Quickcheck:
  1238 
  1239   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1240     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1241     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1242     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1243     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1244 
  1245     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1246     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1247     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1248 
  1249     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1250     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1251 
  1252     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1253     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1254     show genuine counterexamples.
  1255 
  1256   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1257     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1258 
  1259     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1260     constructors of that type.
  1261 
  1262   - Support for multisets.
  1263 
  1264   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1265 
  1266   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1267     conjectures in a locale context.
  1268 
  1269 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1270 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1271 
  1272 * Sledgehammer:
  1273   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1274     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1275   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1276   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1277     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1278   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1279   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1280   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1281   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1282 
  1283 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1284 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1285 
  1286 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1287 
  1288 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1289 
  1290 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1291 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1292 
  1293   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1294 
  1295 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1296 a list and a nat.
  1297 
  1298 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1299 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1300 
  1301 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1302 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1303 default.
  1304 
  1305 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1306 
  1307   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1308 
  1309 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1310 
  1311 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1312 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1313 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1314 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1315 one_case.
  1316 
  1317 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1318 the result of the fact expression.
  1319 
  1320 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1321 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1322 of some relation theorems:
  1323 
  1324   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1325   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1326   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1327   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1328   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1329   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1330 
  1331 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1332 
  1333 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1334 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1335 
  1336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1337 
  1338 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1339 to match the constant's name:
  1340 
  1341   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1342   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1343   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1344   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1345   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1346   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1347   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1348   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1349   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1350   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1351   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1352   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1353   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1354   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1355   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1356   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1357   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1358   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1359   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1360   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1361   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1362   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1363   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1364   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1365 
  1366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1367 
  1368 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1369 and corresponding theorem names:
  1370 
  1371   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1372 
  1373   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1374 
  1375   - Renamed theorems:
  1376 
  1377     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1378     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1379     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1380     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1381     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1382     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1383     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1384     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1385     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1386     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1387     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1388     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1389     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1390     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1391     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1392     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1393     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1394     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1395     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1396     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1397     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1398     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1399     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1400 
  1401     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1402 
  1403     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1404 
  1405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1406 
  1407 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1408 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1409 
  1410   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1411   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1412   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1413   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1414   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1415   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1416   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1417   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1418   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1419   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1420   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1421   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1422   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1423   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1424   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1425   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1426   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1427   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1428   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1429   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1430   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1431 
  1432 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1433 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1436 
  1437 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1438 
  1439   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1440   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1441   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1442   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1443   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1444   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1445   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1446   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1447   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1448   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1449   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1450   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1451   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1452   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1453   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1454   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1455   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1456   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1457 
  1458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1459 
  1460 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1461 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1462 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1463 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1464 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1465 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1466 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1467 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1468 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1469 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1470 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1471 
  1472 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1473 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1474 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1475 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1476 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1477 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1478 
  1479 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1480 through option types.
  1481 
  1482 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1483 relations.
  1484 
  1485 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1488 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1489 
  1490   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1491   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1492   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1493   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1494   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1495   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1496   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1497   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1498   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1499   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1500   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1501   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1502   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1503   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1504   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1505   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1506   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1507   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1508   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1509   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1510   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1511   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1512   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1513   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1514   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1515   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1516   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1517   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1518   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1519   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1520   zless_le ~> less_le
  1521   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1522   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1523   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1524 
  1525 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1526 
  1527   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1528 
  1529 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1530 
  1531 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1532 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1533 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1534 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1538 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1539 
  1540 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1541 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1542 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1543 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1544 follows:
  1545 
  1546   Operations:
  1547   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1548   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1549   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1550   del -> rbt_del
  1551   delete -> rbt_delete
  1552   ins -> rbt_ins
  1553   insert -> rbt_insert
  1554   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1555   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1556   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1557   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1558   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1559   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1560   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1561   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1562   union -> rbt_union
  1563   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1564   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1565 
  1566   Lemmas:
  1567   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1568   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1569   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1570   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1571   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1572   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1573   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1574   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1575   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1576   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1577   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1578   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1579   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1580   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1581   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1582   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1583   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1584   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1585   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1586   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1587   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1588   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1589   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1590   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1591   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1592   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1593   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1594   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1595   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1596   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1597   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1598   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1599   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1600   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1601   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1602   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1603   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1604   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1605   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1606   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1607   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1608   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1609   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1610   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1611   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1612   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1613   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1614   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1615   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1616   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1617   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1618   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1619   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1620   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1621   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1622   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1623   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1624   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1625   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1626   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1627   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1628   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1629   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1630   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1631   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1632   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1633   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1634   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1635   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1636   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1637   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1638   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1639   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1640   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1641   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1642   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1643   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1644   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1645   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1646   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1647   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1648   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1649   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1650 
  1651 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1652 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1653 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655   Changed Operations:
  1656   float_abs -> abs
  1657   float_nprt -> nprt
  1658   float_pprt -> pprt
  1659   pow2 -> use powr
  1660   round_down -> float_round_down
  1661   round_up -> float_round_up
  1662   scale -> exponent
  1663 
  1664   Removed Operations:
  1665   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1666 
  1667   Renamed Lemmas:
  1668   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1669   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1670   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1671   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1672   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1673   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1674   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1675   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1676   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1677   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1678   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1679   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1680   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1681   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1682   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1683   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1684   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1685   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1686   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1687   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1688   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1689   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1690   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1691   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1692   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1693   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1694   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1695   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1696   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1697   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1698   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1699   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1700   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1701   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1702   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1703   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1704 
  1705   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1706   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1707   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1708   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1709   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1710   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1711   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1712   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1713   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1714   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1715 
  1716 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1717 association lists with distinct keys.
  1718 
  1719 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1720 annotated commands.
  1721 
  1722 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1723 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1724 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1725 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1728 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1729 instead.
  1730 
  1731   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1732   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1733   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1734   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1735   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1736   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1737   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1738   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1739   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1740   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1741   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1742   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1743   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1744   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1745   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1746   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1747   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1748   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1749   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1750   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1751   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1752   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1753   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1754   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1755   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1756   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1757   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1758   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1759   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1760   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1761   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1762   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1763   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1764   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1765   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1766   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1767   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1768   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1769   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1770   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1771   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1772 
  1773 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1774 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1775 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1776 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1777 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1778 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1779 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1780 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1781 
  1782 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1783 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1784 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1785 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1786 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1787 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1788 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1789 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1790 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1791 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1792 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1793 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795   Renamed constants:
  1796   measure -> emeasure
  1797   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1798   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1799   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1800   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1801 
  1802   Removed locales:
  1803   completeable_measure_space
  1804   finite_measure_space
  1805   finite_prob_space
  1806   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1807   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1808   finite_sigma_algebra
  1809   measure_space
  1810   pair_finite_prob_space
  1811   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1812   pair_finite_space
  1813   pair_sigma_algebra
  1814   product_sigma_algebra
  1815 
  1816   Removed constants:
  1817   conditional_space
  1818   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1819   image_space
  1820   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1821   pair_measure_generator
  1822   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1823   subvimage
  1824 
  1825   Replacement theorems:
  1826   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1827   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1828   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1829   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1830   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1831   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1832   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1833   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1834   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1835   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1836   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1837   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1838   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1839   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1840   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1841   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1842   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1843   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1844   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1845   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1846   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1847   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1848   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1849   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1850   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1851   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1852   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1853   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1854   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1855   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1856   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1857   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1858   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1859   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1860   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1861   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1862   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1863   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1864   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1865   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1866   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1867   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1868   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1869   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1870   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1871   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1872   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1873   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1874   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1875   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1876   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1877   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1878   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1879   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1880   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1881   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1882   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1883   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1884   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1885   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1886   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1887   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1888   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1889   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1890   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1891   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1892   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1893   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1894   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1895   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1896   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1897   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1898   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1899   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1900   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1901   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1902   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1903   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1904   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1905   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1906   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1907   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1908   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1909   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1910   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1911   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1912   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1913   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1914   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1915   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1916   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1917   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1918   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1919   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1920   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1921   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1922   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1923   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1924   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1925   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1926   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1927   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1928   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1929   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1930   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1931   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1932   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1933   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1934   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1935   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1936   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1937   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1938   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1939   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1940   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1941   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1942   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1943   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1944   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1945   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1946   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1947   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1948   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1949   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1950   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1951   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1952   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1953   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1954 
  1955 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1956 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1957 
  1958 
  1959 *** FOL ***
  1960 
  1961 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1962 
  1963 
  1964 *** ZF ***
  1965 
  1966 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1967 analysis.
  1968 
  1969 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1970 
  1971 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1972 
  1973 
  1974 *** ML ***
  1975 
  1976 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1977 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1978 
  1979 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1980 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1981 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1982 
  1983 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1984 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1985 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1986 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1987 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1988 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1989 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1990 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1991 
  1992 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1993 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1994 
  1995 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1996 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1997 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1998 
  1999 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2000 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2003 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2004 context as well.
  2005 
  2006 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2007 
  2008   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2009   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2010   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2011   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2012   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2013   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2014   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2015   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2016   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2017   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2018   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2019   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2020 
  2021 
  2022 *** System ***
  2023 
  2024 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2025 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2026 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2027 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2028 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2029 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2030 the generic user home was intended.
  2031 
  2032 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2033 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2034 
  2035 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2036 (not just JRE).
  2037 
  2038 
  2039 
  2040 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2041 ------------------------------------
  2042 
  2043 *** General ***
  2044 
  2045 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2046 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2047 
  2048   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2049     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2050     files for checking).
  2051 
  2052   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2053     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2054     positions.
  2055 
  2056   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2057     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2058     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2059 
  2060   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2061     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2062     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2063 
  2064   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2065     cores.
  2066 
  2067   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2068     versions (garbage collection).
  2069 
  2070 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2071 including some remaining limitations.
  2072 
  2073 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2074 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2075 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2076 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2077 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2079 
  2080 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2081 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2082 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2083 
  2084 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2085 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2086 usedir option -Q.
  2087 
  2088 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2089 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2090 
  2091   long_names   ~> names_long
  2092   short_names  ~> names_short
  2093   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2094 
  2095 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2096 
  2097   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2098 
  2099 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2100 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2101 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2102 
  2103 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2104 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2105 
  2106 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2107   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2108   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2109   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2110     "Classical Reasoner".
  2111 
  2112 
  2113 *** HOL ***
  2114 
  2115 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2116 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2117 
  2118 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2119 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2120 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2121 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2122 class complete_linorder.
  2123 
  2124 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2125 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2126 
  2127 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2128 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2129 
  2130   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2131   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2132   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2133   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2134   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2135   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2136   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2137   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2138   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2139   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2140   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2141 
  2142 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2143 
  2144   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2145   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2146   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2147   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2148   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2149   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2150   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2151   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2152   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2153   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2154   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2155   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2156   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2157   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2158   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2159   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2160 
  2161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2162 
  2163 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2167 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2168 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2169 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2170 
  2171 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2172 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2173 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2177 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2178 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2179 
  2180 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2181 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2182 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2185 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2186 
  2187 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2188 
  2189     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2190     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2191 
  2192 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2193 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2194 
  2195 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2196 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2199 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2200 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2201 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2202 
  2203   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2204   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2205   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2206   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2207   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2208   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2209   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2210 
  2211 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2212 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213 
  2214   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2215   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2216   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2217   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2218   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2219   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2220   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2221   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2222   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2223   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2224   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2225   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2226   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2227   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2228   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2229   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2230   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2231   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2232   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2233   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2234   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2235   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2236   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2237   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2238   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2239   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2240   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2241   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2242   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2243   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2244   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2245   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2246   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2247   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2248   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2249   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2250   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2251   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2252   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2253   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2254   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2255   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2256   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2257   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2258   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2259   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2260   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2261   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2262   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2263   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2264   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2265   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2266   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2267   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2268   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2269   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2270   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2271   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2272   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2273   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2274   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2275   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2276   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2277   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2278   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2279   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2280   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2281   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2282   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2283   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2284   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2285   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2286   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2287   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2288   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2289   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2290   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2291   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2292   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2293   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2294   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2295   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2296 
  2297 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2298 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2299 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2300 
  2301 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2302 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2303 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2304 
  2305 * Code generation:
  2306 
  2307   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2308     characters in the target language.
  2309 
  2310   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2311     instead.
  2312 
  2313   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2314 
  2315   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2316     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2317 
  2318       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2319 
  2320 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2323 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2324 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2325 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2326 syntax.
  2327 
  2328 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2329 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2330 
  2331 * Nitpick:
  2332   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2333   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2334   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2335     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2336 
  2337 * Sledgehammer:
  2338   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2339   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2340     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2341   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2342     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2343   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2344     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2346     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2347   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2348     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Metis:
  2351   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2352   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2353     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2354 
  2355 * Command 'try':
  2356   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2357     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2359     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2360 
  2361 * Quickcheck:
  2362   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2363     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2364   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2365     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2366   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2367     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2368     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2369     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2370   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2371     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2372 
  2373 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2374 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2375 
  2376 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2377 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2378 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2379 
  2380 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2381 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2385 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2388 arithmetic.
  2389 
  2390 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2391 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2392 and lattice type classes.
  2393 
  2394 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2395 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2396 
  2397 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2398 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2399 
  2400 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2401 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2402 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2405   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2406   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2407   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2408 
  2409 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2410 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2411 constants:
  2412 
  2413   type inat   ~> type enat
  2414   Fin         ~> enat
  2415   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2416   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2417   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2418 
  2419 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2420 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421 
  2422 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2423 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2424 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2425 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2426 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2427 
  2428 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2429 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2430 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2431 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2432 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2433 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2434 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2435 
  2436   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2437   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2438   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2439   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2440 
  2441 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2442 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2443 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444 
  2445   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2446   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2447   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2448   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2449   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2450   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2451   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2452   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2453   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2454   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2455   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2456   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2457   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2458   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2459   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2460   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2461   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2462   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2463   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2464   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2465   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2466   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2467   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2468   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2469   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2470   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2471   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2472   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2473   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2474   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2475   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2476   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2477   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2478   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2479   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2480   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2481   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2482   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2483   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2484   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2485   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2486   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2487   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2488   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2489   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2490   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2491   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2492   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2493   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2494   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2495   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2496 
  2497 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2498   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2499   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2500   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2501   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2502     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2505 
  2506   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2507   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2508   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2509   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2510   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2511   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2512   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2513   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2514   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2515   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2516   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2517   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2518   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2519   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2520   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2521   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2522   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2523   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2524   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2525   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2526   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2527   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2528   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2529   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2530   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2531 
  2532 
  2533 *** Document preparation ***
  2534 
  2535 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2536 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2537 same.
  2538 
  2539 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2540 result.
  2541 
  2542 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2543 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2544 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2545 
  2546 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2547 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2548 
  2549 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2550 like this:
  2551 
  2552   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2553   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2554 
  2555 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2556 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2557 layouts.
  2558 
  2559 
  2560 *** ML ***
  2561 
  2562 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2563 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2564 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2565 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2566 under external program control.
  2567 
  2568 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2569 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2570 
  2571 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2572 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2573 (better known as Proof General).
  2574 
  2575 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2576 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2577 
  2578 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2579 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2580 
  2581 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2582 (including quotes etc.).
  2583 
  2584 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2585 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2586 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2587 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2588 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2589 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2590 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2591 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2592 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2593 
  2594 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2595 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2596 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2597 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2598 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2599 
  2600 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2601 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2602 
  2603 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2604 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2605 
  2606 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2607 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2608 
  2609 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2610 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2611 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2612 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2613 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2614 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2615 proper Proof.context.
  2616 
  2617 
  2618 *** System ***
  2619 
  2620 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2621 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2622 
  2623 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2624 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2625 
  2626 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2627 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2628 
  2629   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2630   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2631   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2632   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2633   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2634 
  2635 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2636 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2639 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2640 example:
  2641 
  2642   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2643 
  2644 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2645 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2646 
  2647 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2648 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2649 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2650 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2651 
  2652 
  2653 
  2654 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2655 ----------------------------------
  2656 
  2657 *** General ***
  2658 
  2659 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2660 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2661 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2662 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2663 like this:
  2664 
  2665   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2666 
  2667 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2668 
  2669 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2670 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2671 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2672 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2673 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2674 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2675 
  2676 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2677 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2678 the following package declarations:
  2679 
  2680   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2681   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2682 
  2683 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2684 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2685 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2686 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2687 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2688 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2689 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2690 
  2691 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2692 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2693 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2694 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2695 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2696 
  2697 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2698 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2699 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2700 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2701 
  2702 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2703 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2704 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2705 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2706 
  2707   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2708 
  2709   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2710   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2711   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2712   show_types                    show_types
  2713   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2714   show_consts                   show_consts
  2715   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2716 
  2717   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2718   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2719   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2720 
  2721   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2722   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2723 
  2724   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2725 
  2726   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2727   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2728   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2729   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2730   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2731 
  2732 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2733 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2734 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2735 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2736 
  2737 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2739 
  2740   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2741   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2742 
  2743 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2744 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2745 float_token.
  2746 
  2747 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2748 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2752 DejaVu Sans.
  2753 
  2754 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2755 
  2756 
  2757 *** Pure ***
  2758 
  2759 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2760 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2761 time.
  2762 
  2763 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2764 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2767 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2770 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2771 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2772 command already provided this functionality.
  2773 
  2774 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2775 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2776 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2777 without interpretations.
  2778 
  2779 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2780 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2781 
  2782 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2783 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2784 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2785 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2786 
  2787 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2788 'definition' instead.
  2789 
  2790 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2791 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2792 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2793 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2794 
  2795 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2796 constructors.
  2797 
  2798 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2799 the local file system.
  2800 
  2801 
  2802 *** HOL ***
  2803 
  2804 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2805 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2806 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2807 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2808 
  2809   declare [[coercion f]]
  2810 
  2811 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2812 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2813 
  2814   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2815 
  2816 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2817 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2818 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2819 other theories like this:
  2820 
  2821   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2822 
  2823 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2824 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2825 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2826 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2827 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2828 for examples.
  2829 
  2830 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2831 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2834 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2835 
  2836 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2837 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2838 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2839 
  2840 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2841 functorial structure of types.
  2842 
  2843 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2844 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2845 
  2846 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2847 languages.
  2848 
  2849 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2850 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2854 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2855 
  2856 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2857 combinators any longer.
  2858 
  2859 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2860 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2861 
  2862 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2863 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2864 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2865 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2866 
  2867   record 'a foo = ...
  2868   ...
  2869   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2870 
  2871 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2872 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2876 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2877 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2878 
  2879 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2880 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2881 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2882 
  2883 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2884 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2887 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2888 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2889 independently.
  2890 
  2891 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2892 counter example search.
  2893 
  2894 * Sledgehammer:
  2895   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2896     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2897     sledgehammer").
  2898   - Renamed commands:
  2899     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2900     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2901     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2902     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903   - Renamed options:
  2904     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2905     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2906     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2907     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2908     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909 
  2910 * Nitpick:
  2911   - Renamed options:
  2912     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2913     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2914     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2916   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2917   - Added "whack" option.
  2918   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2919   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2920   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2921   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2922     higher cardinalities.
  2923   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2924 
  2925 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2926 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2927 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2928 
  2929     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2930 
  2931 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2932 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2933 
  2934 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2935 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2936 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2937 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2938 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2939 "smt_solver".
  2940 
  2941 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2942 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2943 
  2944 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2945 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2946 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2947 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2948 
  2949 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2950   - Renamed:
  2951     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2952     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2953     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954   - Added:
  2955     smt_verbose
  2956     smt_random_seed
  2957     smt_datatypes
  2958     smt_infer_triggers
  2959     smt_monomorph_limit
  2960     cvc3_options
  2961     remote_cvc3_options
  2962     remote_z3_options
  2963     yices_options
  2964 
  2965 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2966 header.
  2967 
  2968 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2969 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2970 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2971 
  2972   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2973 
  2974 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975 
  2976 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2977 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978 
  2979 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980 
  2981 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2982 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2985 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2986 
  2987 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2988 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2991 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2992 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993 
  2994 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2995 
  2996 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3000 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3003 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3004 for congruent(2)).
  3005 
  3006 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3007 
  3008   types
  3009     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3010     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3011 
  3012   constants
  3013     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3014     True ~> HOL.True
  3015     False ~> HOL.False
  3016     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3017     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3018     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3019     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3020     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3021     The ~> HOL.The
  3022     All ~> HOL.All
  3023     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3024     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3025     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3026     If ~> HOL.If
  3027     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3028     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3029     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3030     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3031     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3032     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3033     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3034     op : ~> Set.member
  3035     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3036 
  3037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038 
  3039 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3040 
  3041     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3042     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3043     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3044     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3045     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3046     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3047     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3048     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3049 
  3050 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * More stylized fact names:
  3053 
  3054   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3055   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3056   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3057   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3058 
  3059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3062 
  3063   constants
  3064     null ~> List.null
  3065 
  3066   facts
  3067     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3068     null_empty ~> null_def
  3069 
  3070 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3071 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3072 generation.
  3073 
  3074 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3075 Haskell code.
  3076 
  3077 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3078 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3079 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3080 
  3081 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3082 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3085 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3086 
  3087 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3088 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3089 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3092 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093 
  3094 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3098 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3099 referred to by its qualified name.
  3100 
  3101   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3102   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3103   product ~>  Enum.product
  3104 
  3105 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3106 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3108 
  3109 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3110 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3111 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3115 sort_key.
  3116 
  3117 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3119 
  3120 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3121 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3122 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3123 
  3124   types
  3125     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3126               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3127               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3128         (depends on your needs)
  3129 
  3130   constants
  3131      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3132      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3133      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3134 
  3135 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3136 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3137 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3138 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3141 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3142 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3143 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3144 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3150 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3151 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3152 
  3153 
  3154 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3155 
  3156 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3157 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3158 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3159 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3160 compatibility.
  3161 
  3162 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3163 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3164 
  3165 
  3166 *** HOLCF ***
  3167 
  3168 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3169 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3170 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3174 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3175 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3178   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3179   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3180 
  3181 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3182 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3183 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3186 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3187 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3188 domain definition now works:
  3189 
  3190   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3191 
  3192 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3193 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3194 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3195 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3196 
  3197   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3198     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3199 
  3200   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3201 
  3202 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3203 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3204 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3207 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3210 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3211 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3212 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3213 
  3214 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3215 
  3216 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3219 
  3220 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222 
  3223 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3224 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3225 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3226 
  3227 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3228 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3229 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3232 still supported as an input translation.
  3233 
  3234 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3235 
  3236   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3237   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3238   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3239   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3240   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3241   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3242   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3243 
  3244 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3245 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3248   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3249   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3250   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3251   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3252   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3253 
  3254 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3255 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3258 
  3259   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3260   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3261   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3262   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3263 
  3264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265 
  3266 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3267 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3270 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3273   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3274   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3275   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3276   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3277   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3278   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3279   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3280   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3281   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3282   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3283   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3284   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3285   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3286   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3287   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3288   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3289   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3290   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3291   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3292 
  3293 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3296   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3297   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3298   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3299   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3300   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3301   box_less             ~> box_below
  3302   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3303   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3304   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3305   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3306   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3307   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3308   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3309   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3310   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3311   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3312   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3313   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3314   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3315   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3316   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3317   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3318   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3319   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3320   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3321   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3322   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3323   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3324   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3325   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3326   up_less              ~> up_below
  3327   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3328   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3329   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3330   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3331   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3332   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3333   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3334   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3335   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3336   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3337   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3338   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3339   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3340 
  3341 
  3342 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3343 
  3344 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3345 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346 
  3347 
  3348 *** ML ***
  3349 
  3350 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3351 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3352 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3353 
  3354 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3355 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3356 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3357 
  3358 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3359 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3360 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3361 
  3362 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3363 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3364 
  3365 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3366 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3367 
  3368 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3369 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3370 
  3371 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3372 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3373 
  3374 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3375 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3376 almost all situations.
  3377 
  3378 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3379 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3380 Isabelle/ML.
  3381 
  3382 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3383 meaning.
  3384 
  3385 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3386 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3387 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3388 
  3389 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3390 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3391 
  3392 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3393 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3394 
  3395 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3396 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3397 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3398 
  3399 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3400 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3401 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3402 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3403 configuration options.
  3404 
  3405 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3406 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3407 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3408 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3409 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3410 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3411 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3412 
  3413 
  3414 
  3415 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3416 ---------------------------------
  3417 
  3418 *** General ***
  3419 
  3420 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3421 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3422 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3423 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3424 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3425 their full internal name.
  3426 
  3427 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3428 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3429 Some hints on upgrading:
  3430 
  3431   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3432     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3433     which are independent of this issue.
  3434 
  3435   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3436     provides the following special forms:
  3437 
  3438       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3439       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3440       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3441 
  3442     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3443     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3444     extra variables".
  3445 
  3446     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3447     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3448     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3449     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3450     "logic".
  3451 
  3452   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3453     antiquotations:
  3454 
  3455       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3456       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3457       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3458       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3459 
  3460   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3461     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3462     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3463     antiquotations.
  3464 
  3465 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3466 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3467 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3468 diagnose syntax problems.
  3469 
  3470 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3471 
  3472 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3473 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3474 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3475 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3476 
  3477 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3478 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3479 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3480 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3483 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3484 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3485 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3486 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3489 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3490 
  3491 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3492 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3493 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3494 
  3495   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3496 
  3497 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3498 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3499 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3500 
  3501 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3502 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3504 
  3505 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3506 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3507 
  3508 
  3509 *** Pure ***
  3510 
  3511 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3512 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3513 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3514 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3515 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3516 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3517 inspect proof terms.
  3518 
  3519 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3520 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3521 are added internally.  For example:
  3522 
  3523   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3524 
  3525 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3526 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3531 'class' instead.
  3532 
  3533 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3534 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3538 invariants.
  3539 
  3540 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3541 user space functionality any longer.
  3542 
  3543 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3544 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3548 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3549 
  3550 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3551 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3552 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3553 
  3554 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3555 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3556 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3557 
  3558 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3559 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561 
  3562 *** HOL ***
  3563 
  3564 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3565 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3566 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3567 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3568 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3569 
  3570 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3571 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3572 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3573 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3574 
  3575   fun
  3576     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3577   where
  3578     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3579 
  3580   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3581     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3582 
  3583   quotient_definition
  3584     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3585 
  3586 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3587 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3588 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3589 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3590 
  3591 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3592 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3593 
  3594 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3595 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3596 
  3597 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3601 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3602 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3603 
  3604 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3605 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3606 
  3607 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3609 
  3610 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3614 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3617 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3618 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3619 
  3620   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3621   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3622   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3623   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3624   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3625   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3626   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3627   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3628   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3629   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3630   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3631   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3632   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3633   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3634   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3635   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3636   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3637   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3638   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3639   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3640   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3641   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3642   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3643   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3644   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3645   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3646   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3647   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3648   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3649   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3650 
  3651 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3652 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3653 
  3654 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3655 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3656 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3657 
  3658 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3659 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3660 
  3661 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3662 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3665 
  3666 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3667 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3670 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3675 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3676 
  3677 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3678 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3679 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3680 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3683   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3684   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3685   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3689 lattices):
  3690 
  3691     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3692     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3693 
  3694     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3695 
  3696     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3697     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3698     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3699     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3700     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3701     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3702     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3703     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3704     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3705     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3706     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3707     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3708     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3709 
  3710     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3711     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3712     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3713     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3714     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3715     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3716     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3717     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3718     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3719     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3720     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3721     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3722     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3723     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3724     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3725     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3726     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3727     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3728 
  3729   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3730   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3731 
  3732     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3733     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3734     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3735     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3736     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3737 
  3738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Refined field classes:
  3741   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3742     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3743     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3744   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3748   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3749   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3750   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3751     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3752   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3753     equal_neg_zero.
  3754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3757 sets to lattices:
  3758 
  3759   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3760   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3761   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3762   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3763   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3764   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3765   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3766   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3767   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3768   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3769 
  3770 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3771 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3772 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3773 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3774 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3775 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3778 multiset order:
  3779 
  3780   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3781     <= and <;
  3782   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3783     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3784     multiset_order;
  3785   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3786     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3787     generation;
  3788   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3789     if needed.
  3790 
  3791 Renamed:
  3792 
  3793   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3794   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3795   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3796 
  3797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3800 
  3801 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3802 
  3803 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3804 
  3805 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3806 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3807 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809   Constants:
  3810   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3811   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3812   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3813   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3814   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3815   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3816   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3817   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3818   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3819   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3820   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3821   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3822   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3823 
  3824   Lemmas:
  3825   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3826   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3827   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3828   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3829   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3830   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3831   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3832   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3833   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3834   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3835   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3836   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3837   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3838 
  3839 * Sledgehammer:
  3840   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3841     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3842     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3843     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3844     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3845     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3846     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3847   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3848   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3849     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3850   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3851     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3852     is still experimental.)
  3853   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3854     full-typed mode.
  3855   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3856 
  3857 * Nitpick:
  3858   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3859   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3860   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3861     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3862   - Added support for quotient types.
  3863   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3864     constructs.
  3865   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3866     "termination" proofs).
  3867   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3868   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3869   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3870   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3871     record getters.
  3872   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3873   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3874   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3875   - Added "atoms" option.
  3876   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3877     problems.
  3878   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3879     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3880     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3882     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3886   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3887   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3888   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3889   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3890   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3891   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3892   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3893   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3894   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 
  3897 *** HOLCF ***
  3898 
  3899 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3900 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3901 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3904 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3905 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3906 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3909 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3910 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3911 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3912 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3915 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3916 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3919 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3922   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3923 
  3924 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3925 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3928   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3929   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3930   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3931   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3932 
  3933 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3934 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3937   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3938   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3939 
  3940 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3941 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3945 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948 
  3949 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3950 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 
  3953 *** ML ***
  3954 
  3955 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3956 
  3957     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3958     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3959 
  3960     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3961     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3962     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3963     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3964 
  3965     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3966     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3967     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3968 
  3969 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3970 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3971 
  3972 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3973 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3974 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3975 
  3976 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3977 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3978 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3979 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3980 
  3981 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3982 the context or even global references.
  3983 
  3984 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3985 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3986 
  3987 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3988 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3989 
  3990   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3991   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3992   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3993   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3994   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3995   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3996   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3997   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3998   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3999   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4000 
  4001 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4002 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4003 
  4004 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4005 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4006 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4007 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4008 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4009 
  4010 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4011 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4012 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4013 Theory_Data version.
  4014 
  4015 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4016 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4017 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4018 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4019 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4020 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4021 explicitly in rare situations.
  4022 
  4023 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4024 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4028 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4031 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4032 quite rare).
  4033 
  4034 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4035 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4036 
  4037 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4038 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4039 terms.
  4040 
  4041 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4042 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4043 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4044 
  4045 
  4046 *** System ***
  4047 
  4048 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4049 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4050 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4051 
  4052 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4053 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4054 respectively.
  4055 
  4056 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4057 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4058 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4059 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4060 
  4061   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4062 
  4063 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4064 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4065 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4066 component.
  4067 
  4068 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4069 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4070 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4071 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4072 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4073 the user for manual installation.
  4074 
  4075 
  4076 
  4077 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4078 -------------------------------------
  4079 
  4080 *** General ***
  4081 
  4082 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4083 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4084 
  4085 
  4086 *** Pure ***
  4087 
  4088 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4089 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4090 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4091 
  4092 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4093 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4094 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4095 
  4096 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4097 interpretation.
  4098 
  4099 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4100 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4101 
  4102 
  4103 *** Document preparation ***
  4104 
  4105 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4106 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4107 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4108 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4109 
  4110 
  4111 *** HOL ***
  4112 
  4113 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4114 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4115 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4116 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4117 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4118 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4119 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4120 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4121 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4122 
  4123 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4124 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4125 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4126 
  4127 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4128 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4129 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4130 
  4131 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4132 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4133 
  4134 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4135 
  4136 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4137 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4138 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4139 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4140 
  4141 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4142 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4143 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4144 "mirabelle" utility.
  4145 
  4146 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4147 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4148 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4149 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4150 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4151 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4152 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4153 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4154 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4155 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4156 
  4157 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4158 procedure only.
  4159 
  4160 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4161 
  4162 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4163 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4164 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4165 that fail later.
  4166 
  4167 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4168 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4169 
  4170 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4171 the same method as the approximation method.
  4172 
  4173 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4174 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4175 series expansion.
  4176 
  4177 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4178 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4179 
  4180 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4181 reals.
  4182 
  4183 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4184 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4185 
  4186 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4187 fixpoint theorem.
  4188 
  4189 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4190   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4191     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4192   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4193     accordingly
  4194   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4195     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4196   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4197     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4198 
  4199 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4200 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4201 lattice.
  4202 
  4203 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4204 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4205 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4206 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4207 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4208 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4212   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4213     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4214   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4215     le_inf_iff
  4216   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4217     sup_aci)
  4218   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4219   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4220   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4221     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4222     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4223     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4224     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4225     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4226     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4227     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4228     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4229     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4230     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4231   - authentic syntax for
  4232     Set.Pow
  4233     Set.image
  4234   - mere abbreviations:
  4235     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4236     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4237     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4238     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4239     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4240     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4241     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4242     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4243   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4244 
  4245 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4246 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4247 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4248 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4249 
  4250 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4251 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4252 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4253 
  4254 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4255 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4256 
  4257 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4258 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4259 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4260 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4261 
  4262 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4263 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4264 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4265 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4266 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4267 
  4268 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4269 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4270 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4271 
  4272 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4273 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4276 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4277 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4278 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4279 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4280 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4281 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4283 
  4284 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4285     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4286     code_post       replaces    code post
  4287     etc.
  4288   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 * Renamed methods:
  4291     sizechange -> size_change
  4292     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4293   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4296 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4297 
  4298 * Renamed theorems:
  4299     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4300     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4301     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4302     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4303     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4304   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4308 
  4309 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4311 
  4312 
  4313 *** HOLCF ***
  4314 
  4315 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4316 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4317 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4318 
  4319 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4320 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4321 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4322 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4323 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4324 
  4325 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4326 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4327 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4328 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4329 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4330 
  4331 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4332 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4333 constructor are pre-configured.
  4334 
  4335 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4336 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4337 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4338 
  4339 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4340 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4341 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4342 as well.)
  4343 
  4344 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4345 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4346 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4347 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4348 examples.
  4349 
  4350 
  4351 *** ML ***
  4352 
  4353 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4354 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4355 
  4356 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4357 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4358 position, logical grouping etc.
  4359 
  4360 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4361 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4362 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4363 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4364 
  4365 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4366 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4367 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4368 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4369 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4370 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4371 
  4372 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4373 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4374 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4375 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4376 experiments with references.
  4377 
  4378 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4379 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4380 
  4381 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4382 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4383 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4384 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4385 
  4386 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4387 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4388 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4389 
  4390 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4391 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4392 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4398 
  4399 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4400 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4401 
  4402 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4403 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4404 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4405 
  4406 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4407 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4408 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4411 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4412 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4416 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4417 instead of global theory.
  4418 
  4419 
  4420 *** System ***
  4421 
  4422 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4423 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4424 usedir option -q.
  4425 
  4426 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4427 also the system manual.
  4428 
  4429 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4430 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4431 
  4432 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4433 this is always enabled.
  4434 
  4435 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4436 
  4437 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4438 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4439 currently supported on Linux only.
  4440 
  4441 
  4442 
  4443 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4444 --------------------------------
  4445 
  4446 *** General ***
  4447 
  4448 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4449 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4450 
  4451   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4452     "isatool."
  4453 
  4454   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4455     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4456 
  4457   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4458     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4459 
  4460 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4461 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4462 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4463 
  4464 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4465 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4466 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4467 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4468 via "isabelle emacs".
  4469 
  4470 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4471 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4472 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4473 
  4474 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4475 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4476 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4477 
  4478 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4479 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4480 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4481 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4482 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4483 
  4484 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4485 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4486 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4487 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4488 
  4489 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4490 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4491 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4492 
  4493 
  4494 *** Pure ***
  4495 
  4496 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4497 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4498 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4499 
  4500 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4501 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4502 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4503 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4504 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4505 
  4506 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4507 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4508 useful in locale declarations.
  4509 
  4510 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4511 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4512 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4513 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4514 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4515 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4516 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4517 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4518 no longer generated.
  4519 
  4520 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4521 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4522 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4523 
  4524 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4525 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4526 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4527 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4528 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4529 
  4530 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4531 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4532 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4533 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4534 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4535 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4536 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4537 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4538 
  4539 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4540 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4541 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4542 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4543 
  4544 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4545 
  4546 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4547 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4548 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4549 
  4550 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4551 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4554 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4555 in HOL, write
  4556 
  4557     class foo = ...
  4558 
  4559 instead of
  4560 
  4561     class foo = type + ...
  4562 
  4563 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4564 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4567 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4568 
  4569 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4570 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4571 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4572 
  4573 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4574 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4575 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4576 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4577 directly in regular applications.
  4578 
  4579 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4580 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4581 
  4582 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4583 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4584 
  4585 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4586 theory context.
  4587 
  4588 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4589 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4590 
  4591 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4592 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4593 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4594 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4595 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4596 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4597 
  4598   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4599 
  4600 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4601 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4602 normalization.
  4603 
  4604 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4605 addressing etc.
  4606 
  4607 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4608 
  4609   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4610   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4611 
  4612 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4613 
  4614   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4615      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4616      parts of the code generator framework).
  4617 
  4618   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4619      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4620      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4621 
  4622 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4623 
  4624 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4625 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4626 
  4627 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4628 patterns, e.g.
  4629 
  4630     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4631 
  4632 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4633 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4634 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4635 hyphen:
  4636 
  4637     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4638 
  4639 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4640 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4641 
  4642 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4643 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4644 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4645 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4646 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4647 higher-order unification.
  4648 
  4649 
  4650 *** Document preparation ***
  4651 
  4652 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4653 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4654 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4655 
  4656 
  4657 *** HOL ***
  4658 
  4659 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4660 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4661 
  4662 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4663 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4664 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4665 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4666 Main, as before.
  4667 
  4668 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4669 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4670 
  4671 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4672 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4673 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4674 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4675 
  4676 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4677 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4678 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4679 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4680 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4681 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4682 
  4683 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4684 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4685 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4686 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4687 
  4688 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4689 menu.
  4690 
  4691 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4692 (contains the empty clause).
  4693 
  4694 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4695 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4696 
  4697 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4698 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4699 
  4700 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4701 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4702 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4705 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4706 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4707 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4708 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4709 
  4710 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4711 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4712 
  4713 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4714 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4715 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4716 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4717 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4718 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4719 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4720 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4721 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4722 
  4723 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4724 
  4725 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4726 
  4727 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4728 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4731 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4732 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4733 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4734 
  4735 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4736 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4737 
  4738     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4739     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4740     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4741     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4742     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4743     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4744     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4745     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4746 
  4747 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4748 theory Set.
  4749 
  4750 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4751 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4752 
  4753 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4754 
  4755 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4756 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4757 
  4758 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4759 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4760 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4761 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4762 allowed. For examples see
  4763 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4764 
  4765 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4766 
  4767 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4769 
  4770 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4771 structure:
  4772 
  4773     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4774     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4775     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4776     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4777     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4778     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4779     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4780     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4781     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4782     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4783     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4784     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4785     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4786     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4787     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4788     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4789     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4790     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4791     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4792     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4793     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4794     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4795     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4796     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4797     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4798     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4799     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4800     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4801     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4802     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4803     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4804     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4805     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4806 
  4807     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4808     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4809     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4810     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4811     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4812     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4813     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4814     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4815     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4816     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4817 
  4818     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4819     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4820     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4821     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4822     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4823     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4824 
  4825 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4826 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4827 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4828 
  4829 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4830 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4831 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4832 
  4833 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4834 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4837 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4838 
  4839 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4840 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4841 proofs, e.g.
  4842 
  4843   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4844 
  4845 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4846 
  4847 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4848 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4849 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4850 
  4851 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4852 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4854 
  4855 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4856 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4857 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4861 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4862 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4863 preorder_class.*.
  4864 
  4865 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4866 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4867 
  4868 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4869 
  4870   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4871 
  4872 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4873 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4874 fold_image.
  4875 
  4876 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4877 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4878 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4879 the former will disappear at some point.
  4880 
  4881 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4882 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4883 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4884 
  4885 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4886 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4887 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4888 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4889 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4890 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4891 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4892 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4893 
  4894 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4895 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4896 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4897 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4898 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4899 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4900 
  4901     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4902     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4903     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4904     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4905     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4906     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4907     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4908 
  4909 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4910 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4911 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4912 
  4913 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4914 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4915 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4916 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4917 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4918 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4919 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4920 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4921 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4922 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4923 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4924 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4925 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4926 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4927 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4928 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4929 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4930 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4931 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4932 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4933 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4934 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4935 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4936 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4937 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4938 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4939 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4940 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4941 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4942 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4943 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4944 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4945 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4946 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4947 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4948 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4949 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4950 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4951 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4952 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4953 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4954 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4955 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4956 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4957 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4958 
  4959 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4962 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4963 
  4964 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4965 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4966 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4967 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4968 
  4969 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4970 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4971 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4972 theory RealVector.
  4973 
  4974 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4975 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4976 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4977 and inner products are included.
  4978 
  4979 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4980 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4981 supported.
  4982 
  4983 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4984 first diagonalization argument.
  4985 
  4986 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4987 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4988 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4989 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4990 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4991 
  4992     hide (open) const gcd
  4993     abbreviation gcd where
  4994       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4995     notation (output)
  4996       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4997 
  4998 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4999 
  5000 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5001 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5002 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5003 
  5004 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5005 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5006 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5007 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5008 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5009 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5010 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5011 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5012 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5013 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5014 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5015 cases.
  5016 
  5017 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5018 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5019 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5020 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5021 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5022 
  5023     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5024     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5025     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5026     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5027     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5028 
  5029 
  5030 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5031 
  5032 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5033 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5034 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5035 
  5036 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5037 
  5038 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5039 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5040 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5041 
  5042 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5043 
  5044 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5045 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5046 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5047 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5048 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5049 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5050 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5051 
  5052 
  5053 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5054 
  5055 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5056 
  5057 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5058 theory targets.
  5059 
  5060 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5061 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5062 'inductive' etc.
  5063 
  5064 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5065 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5066 
  5067 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5068 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5069 
  5070 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5071 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5072 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5073 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5074 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5075 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5076 the algorithm W:
  5077 
  5078  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5079  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5080          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5081 
  5082 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5083 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5084 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5085 
  5086 
  5087 *** HOLCF ***
  5088 
  5089 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5090 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5091 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5092 
  5093 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5094 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5095 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5096 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5097 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5098 
  5099 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5100 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5101 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5102 
  5103 
  5104 *** ZF ***
  5105 
  5106 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5107 
  5108 
  5109 *** ML ***
  5110 
  5111 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5112 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5113 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5114 5.2.1!
  5115 
  5116 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5117 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5118 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5119 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5120 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5121 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5122 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5123 
  5124 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5125 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5126 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5127 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5128 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5129 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5130 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5131 
  5132 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5133 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5134 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5135 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5136 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5137 
  5138 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5139 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5140 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5141 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5142 Method.add_method.
  5143 
  5144 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5145 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5146 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5147 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5148 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5149 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5150 
  5151 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5152 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5153 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5154 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5155 examples.
  5156 
  5157 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5158 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5159 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5160 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5161 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5162 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5163 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5164 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5165 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5166 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5167 
  5168 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5169 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5170 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5171 
  5172 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5173 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5174 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5175 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5176 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5177 resort for legacy applications.
  5178 
  5179 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5180 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5181 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5182 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5183 explicit runtime argument.
  5184 
  5185 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5186 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5187 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5188 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5189 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5190 
  5191 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5192 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5193 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5194 theory state.
  5195 
  5196 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5197 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5198 
  5199   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5200   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5201   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5202   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5203   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5204   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5205   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5206   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5207   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5208   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5209 
  5210 
  5211 *** System ***
  5212 
  5213 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5214 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5215 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5216 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5217 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5218 
  5219 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5220 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5221 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5222 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5223 
  5224 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5225 
  5226 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5227 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5228 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5229 prover operations.
  5230 
  5231 
  5232 
  5233 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5234 -------------------------------
  5235 
  5236 *** General ***
  5237 
  5238 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5239 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5240 
  5241 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5242 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5243 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5244 provides a proper context already.
  5245 
  5246 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5247 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5248 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5249 
  5250 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5251 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5252 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5253 swap theory imports.
  5254 
  5255 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5256 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5257 
  5258 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5259 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5260 white space without escapes.
  5261 
  5262 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5263 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5264 "foo_bar".
  5265 
  5266 
  5267 *** Pure ***
  5268 
  5269 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5270 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5271 
  5272 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5273 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5274 
  5275 (1) unused_thms
  5276      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5277 
  5278 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5279      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5280      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5281 
  5282 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5283      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5284      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5285      their ancestors.
  5286 
  5287 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5288 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5289 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5290 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5291 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5292 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5293 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5294 
  5295 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5296 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5297 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5298 
  5299 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5300 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5301 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5302 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5303 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5304 
  5305 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5306 
  5307 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5308 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5309 update of theories within ML code.
  5310 
  5311 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5312 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5313 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5314 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5315 
  5316 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5317 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5318 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5320 
  5321 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5322 
  5323 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5324 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5325 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5326 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5327 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5328 
  5329 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5330 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5331 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5332 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5333 situations.
  5334 
  5335 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5336 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5337 proof text.
  5338 
  5339 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5340 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5341 
  5342 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5343 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5344 predicates.
  5345 
  5346 
  5347 *** Document preparation ***
  5348 
  5349 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5350 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5351 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5352 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5353 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5354 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5355 
  5356 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5357 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5358 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5359 
  5360 
  5361 *** HOL ***
  5362 
  5363 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5364 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5365 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5366 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5367 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5368 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5369 
  5370 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5371 with multithreading.
  5372 
  5373 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5374 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5375 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5376 
  5377 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5378 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5379 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5380 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5383 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5384 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5385 and makes them available separately.  See
  5386 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5387 
  5388 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5389 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5390 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5391 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5392 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5393 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5394 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5395 the declared rules.
  5396 
  5397 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5398 
  5399   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5400 
  5401 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5402 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5403 
  5404 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5405 
  5406   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5407 
  5408   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5409     definitions on => and bool.
  5410 
  5411   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5412     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5413     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5414 
  5415       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5416       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5417       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5418       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5419       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5420       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5421       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5422       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5423 
  5424   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5425     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5426     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5427 
  5428   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5429     The proof pattern
  5430 
  5431       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5432       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5433 
  5434     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5435     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5436 
  5437       have "EX S. P S"
  5438       proof
  5439         show "P S" <...>
  5440       qed
  5441 
  5442   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5443     The proof pattern
  5444 
  5445       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5446       also have "S = T" <...>
  5447       finally have "P T" .
  5448 
  5449     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5450     must be replaced by something like
  5451 
  5452       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5453       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5454       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5455 
  5456   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5457     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5458 
  5459       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5460 
  5461     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5462     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5463     type of the form
  5464 
  5465       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5466 
  5467     rather than
  5468 
  5469       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5470 
  5471 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5472 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5473 
  5474 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5477 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5481 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5482 
  5483 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5484 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5487 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5488 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489 
  5490 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5491 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5492 
  5493   less_trans
  5494   less_linear
  5495   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5496   le_less_trans
  5497   less_le_trans
  5498   less_not_sym
  5499   less_asym
  5500 
  5501 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5502 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5503 and different variable names.
  5504 
  5505 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5506 
  5507 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5508 finite maps.
  5509 
  5510 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5511 
  5512 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5513 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5514 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5515 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5516 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5517 accordingly.
  5518 
  5519 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5520 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5521 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5522 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5523 
  5524 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5525 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5526 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5527 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5528 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5532 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5535 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5536 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5537 
  5538 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5540 
  5541 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5542 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5543 
  5544 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5545 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5546 
  5547 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5548 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5549 
  5550 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5551 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5552 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5553 
  5554 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5555 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5556 
  5557 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5558 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5559 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5560 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5561 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5562 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5563 
  5564 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5565 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5566 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5567 
  5568 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5569 
  5570 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5571 
  5572 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5573 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5574 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5575 
  5576 
  5577 *** ZF ***
  5578 
  5579 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5580 same session:
  5581 
  5582   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5583   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5584   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5585   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5586   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5587   List      -> List_ZF
  5588   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5589 
  5590 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5591 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5592 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5593 
  5594 
  5595 *** ML ***
  5596 
  5597 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5598 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5599 
  5600 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5601 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5602 
  5603 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5604 
  5605 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5606 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5607 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5608 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5609 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5612 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5613 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5614 
  5615 
  5616 *** System ***
  5617 
  5618 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5619 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5620 
  5621 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5622 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5623 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5624 
  5625 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5626 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5627 
  5628 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5629 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5630 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5631 
  5632 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5633 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5634 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5635 
  5636 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5637 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5638 
  5639 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5640 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5641 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5642 script.
  5643 
  5644 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5645 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5646 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5647 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5648 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5649 
  5650 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5651 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5652 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5653 
  5654 
  5655 
  5656 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5657 -----------------------------------
  5658 
  5659 *** General ***
  5660 
  5661 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5662 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5663 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5664 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5665 
  5666 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5667 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5668 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5669 
  5670 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5671 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5672 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5673 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5674 
  5675 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5676 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5677 quotes.
  5678 
  5679 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5680 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5681 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5682 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5683 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5684 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5685 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5686 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5687 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5688 
  5689 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5690 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5691 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5692 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5693 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5694 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5695 
  5696 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5697 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5698 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5699 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5700 
  5701 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5702 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5703 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5704 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5705 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5706 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5707 
  5708 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5709 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5710 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5711 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5712 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5713 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5714 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5715 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5716 
  5717 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5718 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5719 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5720 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5721 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5722 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5723 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5724 
  5725 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5726 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5727 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5728 
  5729 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5730 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5731 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5732 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5733 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5734 limit is imposed.
  5735 
  5736 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5737 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5738 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5739 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5740 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5741 and scalability.
  5742 
  5743 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5744 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5745 
  5746 
  5747 *** Document preparation ***
  5748 
  5749 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5750 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5751 current context.
  5752 
  5753 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5754 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5755 
  5756 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5757 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5758 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5759 
  5760 
  5761 *** Pure ***
  5762 
  5763 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5764 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5765 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5766 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5767 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5768 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5769 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5770 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5771 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5772 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5773 
  5774 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5775 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5776 sketch:
  5777 
  5778     internal compilation:
  5779         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5780     writing SML code to a file:
  5781         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5782     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5783         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5784     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5785         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5786 
  5787     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5788         method ``eval''
  5789 
  5790 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5791 
  5792 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5793 
  5794     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5795     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5796     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5797     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5798 
  5799 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5800 
  5801     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5802       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5803 
  5804     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5805       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5806 
  5807     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5808       {(target)}+
  5809         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5810 
  5811     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5812       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5813         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5814 
  5815 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5816 
  5817 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5818 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5819 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5820 codegen".
  5821 
  5822 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5823 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5824 annotations).
  5825 
  5826 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5827 syntax.
  5828 
  5829 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5830 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5831 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5832 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5833 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5834 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5835 
  5836 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5837 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5838 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5839 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5840 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5841 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5842 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5843 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5844 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5845 equations, see section "definitions".
  5846 
  5847 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5848 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5849 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5850 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5851 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5852 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5853 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5854 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5855 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5856 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5857 
  5858 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5859 configuration options:
  5860 
  5861   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5862   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5863   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5864   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5865   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5866   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5867   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5868   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5869   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5870 
  5871 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5872 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5873 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5874 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5875 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5876 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5877 order.
  5878 
  5879 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5880 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5881 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5882 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5883 context encountered later on.
  5884 
  5885 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5886 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5887 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5888 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5889 
  5890 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5891 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5892 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5893 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5894 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5895 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5896 
  5897 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5898 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5899 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5900 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5901 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5902 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5903 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5904 more permissive.
  5905 
  5906 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5907 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5908 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5909 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5910 maintainability of proof texts.
  5911 
  5912 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5913 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5914 
  5915   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5916   then guess x and y by clarify
  5917 
  5918 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5919 proof tools being involved here.
  5920 
  5921 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5922 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5923 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5924 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5925 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5926 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5927 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5928 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5929 
  5930 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5931 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5932 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5933 
  5934   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5935   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5936   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5937   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5938 
  5939 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5940 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5941 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5942 
  5943 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5944 both named and unnamed ones.
  5945 
  5946 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5947 
  5948   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5949 
  5950 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5951 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5952 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5953 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5954 
  5955 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5956 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5957 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5958 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5959 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5960 
  5961 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5962 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5963 
  5964 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5965 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5966 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5967 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5968 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5969 originally first one.
  5970 
  5971 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5972 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5973 expected.
  5974 
  5975 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5976 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5977 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5978 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5979 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5980 
  5981   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5982     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5983     obtains x where "P x"
  5984 
  5985   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5986     assumes "A & B"
  5987     obtains A and B
  5988 
  5989   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5990     assumes "A | B"
  5991     obtains
  5992       A
  5993     | B
  5994 
  5995 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5996 explicitly:
  5997 
  5998   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5999     obtains "~ thesis"
  6000 
  6001   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6002     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6003 
  6004 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6005 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6006 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6007 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6008 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6009 case_names).
  6010 
  6011 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6012 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6013 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6014 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6015 
  6016 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6017 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6018 top-level lemma.
  6019 
  6020 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6021 introduction rule (default "that").
  6022 
  6023 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6024 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6025 to occur.
  6026 
  6027 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6028 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6029 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6030 representations independently of name spaces.
  6031 
  6032 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6033 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6034 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6035 
  6036 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6037 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6038 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6039 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6040 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6041 current context.
  6042 
  6043 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6044 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6045 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6046 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6047 
  6048   axiomatization
  6049     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6050     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6051 
  6052   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6053   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6054 
  6055   abbreviation
  6056     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6057     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6058 
  6059 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6060 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6061 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6062 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6063 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6064 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6065 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6066 
  6067 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6068 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6069 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6070 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6071 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6072 
  6073 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6074 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6075 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6076 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6077 
  6078 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6079 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6080 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6081 
  6082   definition "K x _ = x"
  6083 
  6084   inductive conj for A B
  6085   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6086 
  6087 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6088 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6089 abbreviations on output.
  6090 
  6091 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6092 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6093 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6094 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6095 
  6096 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6097 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6098 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6099 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6100 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6101 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6102 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6103 
  6104 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6105 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6106 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6107 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6108 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6109 
  6110 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6111 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6112 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6113 
  6114 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6115 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6116 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6117 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6118 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6119 
  6120   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6121     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6122 
  6123 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6124 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6125 partial_order.
  6126 
  6127 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6128 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6129 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6130 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6131 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6132 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6133 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6134 examples.
  6135 
  6136 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6137 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6138 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6139 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6140 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6141 
  6142 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6143 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6144 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6145 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6146 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6147 
  6148   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6149   (induct set: foo bar)
  6150   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6151   (induct type: foo bar)
  6152 
  6153 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6154 new format.
  6155 
  6156 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6157 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6158 
  6159 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6160 considered a legacy feature.
  6161 
  6162 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6163 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6164 
  6165 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6166 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6167 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6168 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6169   
  6170 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6171 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6172 manipulating the claset.
  6173 
  6174 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6175 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6176 least one premise.
  6177 
  6178 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6179 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6180 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6181 rule steps.
  6182 
  6183 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6184 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6185 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6186 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6187 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6188 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6189 
  6190 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6191 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6192 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6193 
  6194 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6195 the graph browser tool.
  6196 
  6197 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6198 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6199 
  6200 
  6201 *** HOL ***
  6202 
  6203 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6204 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6205 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6206 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6207 multi-threading.
  6208   
  6209 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6210 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6211 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6212 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6213 work with multi-threading.
  6214 
  6215 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6216 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6217 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6218 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6219 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6220 
  6221 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6222 
  6223 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6224 equality.
  6225 
  6226 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6227 the new 'class' package:
  6228 
  6229     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6230     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6231     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6232     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6233     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6234     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6235     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6236     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6237     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6238     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6239     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6240     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6241     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6242     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6243     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6244     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6245     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6246     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6247     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6248     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6249 
  6250 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6251 
  6252 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6253 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6254 &qu