NEWS
author blanchet
Fri Jan 04 19:00:49 2013 +0100 (2013-01-04)
changeset 50720 834847691d99
parent 50717 30bcdd5c8e78
child 50731 72624ff45676
permissions -rw-r--r--
updated docs
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    65 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    66 browser on demand.
    67 
    68 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    69 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    70 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    71 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    72 
    73 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    74 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    75 
    76 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    77 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    78 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    79 potentially infinite message streams.
    80 
    81 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    82 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    83 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    84 schemes.
    85 
    86 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    87 symbols.
    88 
    89 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
    90 
    91 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    92 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    93 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    94 
    95 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    96 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    97 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    98 
    99 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   100 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   101 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   102 Isabelle distribution.
   103 
   104 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   105 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   106 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   107 
   108 
   109 *** Pure ***
   110 
   111 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   112 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   113 
   114 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   115 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   116 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   117 
   118 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   119 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   120 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   121 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   122 with some care where this is really required.
   123 
   124 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   125 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   126 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   127 
   128   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   129 
   130 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   131 a Hasse diagram.
   132 
   133 
   134 *** HOL ***
   135 
   136 * Sledgehammer:
   137 
   138   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   139     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   140   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   141   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   142   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   143   - Renamed options:
   144       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   145       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   146       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   147       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   148 
   149 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   150 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   151 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   152 
   153 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   154 expressions.
   155 
   156 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   157 pointfree expressions.
   158 
   159 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   160 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   161 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   162 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   166 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   167 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   168 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   169 accordingly.
   170 
   171 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   172 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   173 
   174 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   175 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   176 
   177 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   180 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   181 
   182 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   183 
   184 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   185 
   186   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   187   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   188 
   189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   192 
   193   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   194   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   195 
   196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   199 
   200   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   201     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   202     output f x converges to G.
   203 
   204   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   205     infinity (at_bot).
   206 
   207   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   208     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   209 
   210   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   211     at_top".
   212 
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   216 lattice type classes.
   217 
   218 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   219 
   220     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   221     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   222 
   223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   226 changes as follows.
   227 
   228   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   229 
   230       prefix ~> prefixeq
   231       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   232 
   233   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   234     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   235     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   236     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   237 
   238   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   239     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   240     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   241 
   242   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   243     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   244     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   245     Library/Prefix_Order.
   246 
   247   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   248     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   249 
   250       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   251       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   252       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   253       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   254       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   255       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   256       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   257       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   258       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   259       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   260       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   261       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   262       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   263       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   264       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   265       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   266 
   267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 
   270 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   271 
   272 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   273 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   274 
   275 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   276 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   277 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   278 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   279 
   280   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   281   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   282   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   283   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   284   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   285   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   286   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   287   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   288   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   289   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   290 
   291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   294 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   295 Data").
   296 
   297 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   298 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   299 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   300 code.
   301 
   302 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   303 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   304 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   308 
   309 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   310 
   311 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   312 
   313   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   314   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   315 
   316 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   317 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   318 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   319 
   320   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   321 
   322     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   323     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   324     cart_base i  removed
   325     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   326 
   327   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   328 
   329   Renamed lemmas:
   330 
   331     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   332     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   333     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   334     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   335     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   336     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   337     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   338     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   339     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   340     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   341 
   342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   343 
   344 * HOL/Probability:
   345 
   346   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   347 
   348   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   349     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   350     (borel_measurable_induct).
   351 
   352   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   353     projective family).
   354 
   355 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   356 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   357 
   358 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   359 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   360 datatypes.
   361 
   362 
   363 *** Document preparation ***
   364 
   365 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   366 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   367 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   368 
   369 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   370 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   371 
   372 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   373 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   374 document/root.tex.
   375 
   376 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   377 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 
   380 *** ML ***
   381 
   382 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   383 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   384 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   385 
   386 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   387 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   388 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   389 
   390 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   391 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   392 necessarily printing visible text.
   393 
   394 
   395 *** System ***
   396 
   397 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   398 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   399 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   400 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   401 
   402 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   403 
   404 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   405 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   406 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   407 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   408 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   409 
   410 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   411 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   412 
   413   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   414 
   415 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   416 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   417 
   418 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   419 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   420 "isabelle usedir".
   421 
   422 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   423 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   424 
   425 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   426 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   427 
   428 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   429 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   430 version of Isabelle.
   431 
   432 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   433 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   434 
   435 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   436 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   437 for home-made settings.
   438 
   439 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   440 
   441 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   442 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   443 configuration.
   444 
   445 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   446 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   448 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   449 bundled as Isabelle component.
   450 
   451 
   452 
   453 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   454 ------------------------------
   455 
   456 *** General ***
   457 
   458 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   459 
   460   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   461     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   462   - markup for bound variables
   463   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   464   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   465   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   466     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   467 
   468 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   469 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   470 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   471 
   472 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   473 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   474 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   475 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   476 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   477 
   478   context
   479     fixes x y z :: 'a
   480     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   481   begin
   482 
   483   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   484 
   485   end
   486 
   487   thm my_trans
   488 
   489 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   490 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   491 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   492 
   493 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   494 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   495 
   496 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   497 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   498 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   499 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   500 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   501 
   502 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   503 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   504 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   505 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   506 indices of schematic variables.
   507 
   508 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   509 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   510 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   511 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   512 etc. was exploited.
   513 
   514 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   515 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   516 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   517 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   518 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   519 of the material of that old tutorial.
   520 
   521 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   522 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   523 manual.
   524 
   525 
   526 *** Pure ***
   527 
   528 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   529 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   530 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   531 
   532 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   533 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   534 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   535 undocumented feature.)
   536 
   537 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   538 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   539 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   540 
   541   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   542 
   543   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   544     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   545 
   546 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   547 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   548 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   549 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   550 
   551 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   552 
   553     num ~> num_token
   554     xnum ~> xnum_token
   555     xstr ~> str_token
   556 
   557 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   558 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   559 position information via constraints).
   560 
   561 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   562 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   563 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   566 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   567 
   568 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   569 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   570 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   571 
   572 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   573 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   574 
   575 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   576 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   577 
   578   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   579 
   580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   581 
   582 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   583 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   584 
   585 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   586 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   587 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   588 
   589 
   590 *** HOL ***
   591 
   592 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   593 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   594 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   595 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   596 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   597 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   598 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   599 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   600 possible.
   601 
   602 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   603 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   604 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   605 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   606 
   607 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   608 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   609 
   610 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   611 
   612 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   613 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   614 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   615 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   616 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   617 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   618 
   619   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   620     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   621 
   622   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   623     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   624     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   625 
   626   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   627     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   628 
   629   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   630     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   631     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   632 
   633   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   634     Redefine using other integer operations.
   635 
   636 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   637 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   638 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   639 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   640 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   641 
   642   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   643     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   644     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   645     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   646     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   647 
   648     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   649     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   650 
   651   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   652     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   653     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   654     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   655     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   656     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   657     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   658     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   659 
   660   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   661     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   662     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   663     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   664 
   665   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   666     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   667     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   668     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   669 
   670   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   671     from type nat to type int.
   672 
   673 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   674 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   675 
   676   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   677     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   678     type.  Example syntax:
   679 
   680     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   681       is List.insert
   682 
   683     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   684     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   685     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   686     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   687     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   688     by the package.
   689 
   690   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   691     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   692     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   693     code generation for each constant.
   694 
   695   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   696     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   697     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   698     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   699     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   700 
   701   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   702     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   703     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   704 
   705 * Quotient package:
   706 
   707   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   708     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   709 
   710   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   711     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   712 
   713   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   714     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   715     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   718     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   721 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   722 
   723 * Quickcheck:
   724 
   725   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   726     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   727     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   728     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   729     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   730 
   731     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   732     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   733     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   734 
   735     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   736     continues searching for genuine ones.
   737 
   738     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   739     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   740     show genuine counterexamples.
   741 
   742   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   743     value generators for a given type and operations.
   744 
   745     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   746     constructors of that type.
   747 
   748   - Support for multisets.
   749 
   750   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   751 
   752   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   753     conjectures in a locale context.
   754 
   755 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   756 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   757 
   758 * Sledgehammer:
   759   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   760     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   761   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   762   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   763     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   764   - Sped up the minimizer.
   765   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   766   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   767   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   768 
   769 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   770 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   771 
   772 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   773 
   774 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   777 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   778 
   779   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   780 
   781 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   782 a list and a nat.
   783 
   784 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   785 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   786 
   787 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   788 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   789 default.
   790 
   791 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   792 
   793   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   794 
   795 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   796 
   797 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   798 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   799 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   800 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   801 one_case.
   802 
   803 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   804 the result of the fact expression.
   805 
   806 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   807 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   808 of some relation theorems:
   809 
   810   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   811   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   812   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   813   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   814   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   815   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   816 
   817 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   818 
   819 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   820 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   821 
   822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823 
   824 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   825 to match the constant's name:
   826 
   827   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   828   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   829   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   830   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   831   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   832   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   833   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   834   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   835   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   836   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   837   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   838   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   839   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   840   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   841   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   842   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   843   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   844   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   845   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   846   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   847   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   848   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   849   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   850   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   851 
   852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853 
   854 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   855 and corresponding theorem names:
   856 
   857   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   858 
   859   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   860 
   861   - Renamed theorems:
   862 
   863     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   864     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   865     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   866     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   867     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   868     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   869     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   870     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   871     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   872     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   873     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   874     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   875     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   876     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   877     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   878     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   879     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   880     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   881     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   882     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   883     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   884     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   885     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   886 
   887     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   888 
   889     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   890 
   891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   894 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   895 
   896   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   897   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   898   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   899   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   900   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   901   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   902   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   903   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   904   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   905   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   906   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   907   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   908   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   909   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   910   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   911   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   912   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   913   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   914   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   915   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   916   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   917 
   918 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   919 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   922 
   923 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   924 
   925   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   926   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   927   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   928   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   929   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   930   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   931   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   932   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   933   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   934   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   935   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   936   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   937   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   938   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   939   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   940   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   941   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   942   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   943 
   944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   947 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   948 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   949 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   950 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   951 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   952 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   953 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   954 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   955 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   956 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   957 
   958 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   959 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   960 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   961 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   962 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   963 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   964 
   965 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   966 through option types.
   967 
   968 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   969 relations.
   970 
   971 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   974 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   975 
   976   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   977   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   978   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   979   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   980   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   981   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   982   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   983   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   984   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   985   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   986   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   987   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   988   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   989   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   990   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   991   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   992   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   993   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   994   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   995   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   996   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   997   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   998   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   999   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1000   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1001   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1002   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1003   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1004   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1005   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1006   zless_le ~> less_le
  1007   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1008   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1009   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1010 
  1011 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1012 
  1013   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1014 
  1015 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1016 
  1017 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1018 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1019 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1020 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022 
  1023 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1024 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1025 
  1026 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1027 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1028 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1029 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1030 follows:
  1031 
  1032   Operations:
  1033   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1034   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1035   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1036   del -> rbt_del
  1037   delete -> rbt_delete
  1038   ins -> rbt_ins
  1039   insert -> rbt_insert
  1040   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1041   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1042   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1043   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1044   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1045   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1046   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1047   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1048   union -> rbt_union
  1049   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1050   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1051 
  1052   Lemmas:
  1053   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1054   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1055   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1056   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1057   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1058   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1059   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1060   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1061   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1062   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1063   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1064   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1065   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1066   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1067   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1068   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1069   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1070   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1071   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1072   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1073   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1074   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1075   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1076   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1077   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1078   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1079   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1080   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1081   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1082   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1083   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1084   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1085   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1086   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1087   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1088   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1089   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1090   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1091   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1092   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1093   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1094   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1095   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1096   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1097   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1098   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1099   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1100   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1101   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1102   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1103   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1104   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1105   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1106   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1107   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1108   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1109   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1110   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1111   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1112   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1113   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1114   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1115   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1116   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1117   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1118   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1119   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1120   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1121   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1122   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1123   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1124   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1125   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1126   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1127   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1128   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1129   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1130   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1131   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1132   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1133   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1134   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1135   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1136 
  1137 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1138 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1139 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141   Changed Operations:
  1142   float_abs -> abs
  1143   float_nprt -> nprt
  1144   float_pprt -> pprt
  1145   pow2 -> use powr
  1146   round_down -> float_round_down
  1147   round_up -> float_round_up
  1148   scale -> exponent
  1149 
  1150   Removed Operations:
  1151   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1152 
  1153   Renamed Lemmas:
  1154   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1155   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1156   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1157   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1158   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1159   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1160   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1161   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1162   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1163   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1164   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1165   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1166   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1167   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1168   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1169   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1170   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1171   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1172   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1173   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1174   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1175   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1176   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1177   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1178   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1179   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1180   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1181   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1182   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1183   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1184   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1185   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1186   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1187   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1188   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1189   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1190 
  1191   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1192   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1193   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1194   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1195   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1196   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1197   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1198   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1199   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1200   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1201 
  1202 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1203 association lists with distinct keys.
  1204 
  1205 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1206 annotated commands.
  1207 
  1208 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1209 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1210 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1211 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1214 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1215 instead.
  1216 
  1217   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1218   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1219   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1220   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1221   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1222   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1223   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1224   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1225   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1226   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1227   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1228   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1229   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1230   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1231   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1232   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1233   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1234   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1235   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1236   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1237   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1238   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1239   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1240   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1241   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1242   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1243   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1244   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1245   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1246   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1247   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1248   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1249   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1250   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1251   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1252   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1253   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1254   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1255   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1256   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1257   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1258 
  1259 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1260 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1261 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1262 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1263 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1264 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1265 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1266 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1267 
  1268 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1269 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1270 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1271 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1272 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1273 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1274 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1275 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1276 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1277 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1278 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1279 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1280 
  1281   Renamed constants:
  1282   measure -> emeasure
  1283   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1284   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1285   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1286   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1287 
  1288   Removed locales:
  1289   completeable_measure_space
  1290   finite_measure_space
  1291   finite_prob_space
  1292   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1293   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1294   finite_sigma_algebra
  1295   measure_space
  1296   pair_finite_prob_space
  1297   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1298   pair_finite_space
  1299   pair_sigma_algebra
  1300   product_sigma_algebra
  1301 
  1302   Removed constants:
  1303   conditional_space
  1304   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1305   image_space
  1306   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1307   pair_measure_generator
  1308   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1309   subvimage
  1310 
  1311   Replacement theorems:
  1312   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1313   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1314   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1315   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1316   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1317   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1318   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1319   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1320   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1321   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1322   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1323   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1324   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1325   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1326   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1327   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1328   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1329   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1330   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1331   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1332   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1333   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1334   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1335   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1336   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1337   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1338   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1339   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1340   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1341   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1342   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1343   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1344   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1345   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1346   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1347   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1348   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1349   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1350   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1351   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1352   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1353   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1354   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1355   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1356   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1357   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1358   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1359   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1360   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1361   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1362   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1363   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1364   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1365   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1366   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1367   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1368   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1369   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1370   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1371   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1372   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1373   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1374   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1375   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1376   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1377   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1378   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1379   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1380   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1381   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1382   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1383   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1384   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1385   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1386   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1387   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1388   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1389   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1390   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1391   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1392   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1393   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1394   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1395   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1396   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1397   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1398   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1399   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1400   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1401   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1402   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1403   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1404   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1405   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1406   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1407   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1408   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1409   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1410   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1411   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1412   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1413   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1414   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1415   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1416   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1417   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1418   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1419   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1420   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1421   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1422   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1423   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1424   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1425   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1426   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1427   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1428   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1429   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1430   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1431   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1432   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1433   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1434   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1435   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1436   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1437   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1438   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1439   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1440 
  1441 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1442 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1443 
  1444 
  1445 *** FOL ***
  1446 
  1447 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1448 
  1449 
  1450 *** ZF ***
  1451 
  1452 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1453 analysis.
  1454 
  1455 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1456 
  1457 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 
  1460 *** ML ***
  1461 
  1462 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1463 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1464 
  1465 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1466 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1467 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1468 
  1469 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1470 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1471 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1472 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1473 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1474 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1475 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1476 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1477 
  1478 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1479 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1480 
  1481 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1482 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1483 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1484 
  1485 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1486 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1487 
  1488 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1489 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1490 context as well.
  1491 
  1492 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1493 
  1494   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1495   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1496   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1497   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1498   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1499   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1500   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1501   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1502   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1503   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1504   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1505   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1506 
  1507 
  1508 *** System ***
  1509 
  1510 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1511 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1512 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1513 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1514 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1515 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1516 the generic user home was intended.
  1517 
  1518 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1519 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1520 
  1521 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1522 (not just JRE).
  1523 
  1524 
  1525 
  1526 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1527 ------------------------------------
  1528 
  1529 *** General ***
  1530 
  1531 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1532 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1533 
  1534   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1535     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1536     files for checking).
  1537 
  1538   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1539     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1540     positions.
  1541 
  1542   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1543     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1544     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1545 
  1546   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1547     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1548     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1549 
  1550   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1551     cores.
  1552 
  1553   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1554     versions (garbage collection).
  1555 
  1556 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1557 including some remaining limitations.
  1558 
  1559 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1560 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1561 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1562 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1563 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1565 
  1566 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1567 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1568 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1569 
  1570 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1571 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1572 usedir option -Q.
  1573 
  1574 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1575 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1576 
  1577   long_names   ~> names_long
  1578   short_names  ~> names_short
  1579   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1580 
  1581 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1582 
  1583   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1584 
  1585 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1586 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1587 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1588 
  1589 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1590 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1591 
  1592 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1593   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1594   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1595   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1596     "Classical Reasoner".
  1597 
  1598 
  1599 *** HOL ***
  1600 
  1601 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1602 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1605 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1606 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1607 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1608 class complete_linorder.
  1609 
  1610 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1611 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1612 
  1613 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1614 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1615 
  1616   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1617   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1618   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1619   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1620   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1621   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1622   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1623   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1624   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1625   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1626   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1627 
  1628 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1629 
  1630   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1631   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1632   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1633   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1634   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1635   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1636   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1637   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1638   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1639   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1640   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1641   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1642   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1643   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1644   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1645   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1646 
  1647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1648 
  1649 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1651 
  1652 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1653 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1654 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1655 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1658 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1659 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661 
  1662 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1663 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1664 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1665 
  1666 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1667 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1668 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1669 
  1670 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1671 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1672 
  1673 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1674 
  1675     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1676     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1677 
  1678 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1679 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1680 
  1681 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1682 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1685 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1686 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1687 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1690   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1691   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1692   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1693   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1694   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1695   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1696 
  1697 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1698 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1699 
  1700   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1701   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1702   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1703   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1704   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1705   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1706   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1707   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1708   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1709   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1710   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1711   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1712   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1713   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1714   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1715   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1716   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1717   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1718   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1719   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1720   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1721   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1722   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1723   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1724   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1725   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1726   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1727   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1728   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1729   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1730   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1731   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1732   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1733   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1734   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1735   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1736   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1737   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1738   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1739   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1740   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1741   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1742   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1743   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1744   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1745   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1746   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1747   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1748   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1749   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1750   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1751   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1752   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1753   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1754   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1755   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1756   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1757   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1758   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1759   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1760   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1761   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1762   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1763   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1764   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1765   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1766   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1767   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1768   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1769   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1770   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1771   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1772   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1773   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1774   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1775   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1776   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1777   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1778   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1779   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1780   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1781   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1782 
  1783 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1784 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1785 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1786 
  1787 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1788 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1789 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1790 
  1791 * Code generation:
  1792 
  1793   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1794     characters in the target language.
  1795 
  1796   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1797     instead.
  1798 
  1799   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1800 
  1801   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1802     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1803 
  1804       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1805 
  1806 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1809 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1810 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1811 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1812 syntax.
  1813 
  1814 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1815 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1816 
  1817 * Nitpick:
  1818   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1819   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1820   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1821     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1822 
  1823 * Sledgehammer:
  1824   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1825   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1826     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1827   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1828     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1829   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1830     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1831   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1832     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1833   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1834     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835 
  1836 * Metis:
  1837   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1839     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * Command 'try':
  1842   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1843     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1845     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1846 
  1847 * Quickcheck:
  1848   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1849     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1850   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1851     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1852   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1853     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1854     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1855     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1856   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1857     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1858 
  1859 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1860 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1861 
  1862 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1863 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1864 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1865 
  1866 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1867 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869 
  1870 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1871 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1874 arithmetic.
  1875 
  1876 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1877 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1878 and lattice type classes.
  1879 
  1880 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1881 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1882 
  1883 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1884 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1885 
  1886 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1887 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1888 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1891   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1892   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1893   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1894 
  1895 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1896 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1897 constants:
  1898 
  1899   type inat   ~> type enat
  1900   Fin         ~> enat
  1901   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1902   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1903   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1904 
  1905 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1906 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1907 
  1908 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1909 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1910 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1911 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1912 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1913 
  1914 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1915 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1916 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1917 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1918 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1919 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1920 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1921 
  1922   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1923   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1924   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1925   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1926 
  1927 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1928 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1929 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1930 
  1931   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1932   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1933   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1934   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1935   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1936   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1937   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1938   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1939   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1940   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1941   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1942   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1943   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1944   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1945   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1946   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1947   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1948   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1949   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1950   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1951   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1952   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1953   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1954   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1955   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1956   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1957   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1958   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1959   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1960   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1961   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1962   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1963   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1964   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1965   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1966   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1967   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1968   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1969   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1970   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1971   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1972   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1973   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1974   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1975   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1976   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1977   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1978   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1979   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1980   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1981   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1982 
  1983 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1984   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1985   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1986   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1987   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1988     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1989 
  1990 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1993   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1994   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1995   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1996   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1997   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1998   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1999   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2000   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2001   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2002   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2003   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2004   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2005   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2006   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2007   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2008   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2009   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2010   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2011   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2012   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2013   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2014   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2015   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2016   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2017 
  2018 
  2019 *** Document preparation ***
  2020 
  2021 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2022 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2023 same.
  2024 
  2025 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2026 result.
  2027 
  2028 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2029 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2030 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2031 
  2032 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2033 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2034 
  2035 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2036 like this:
  2037 
  2038   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2039   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2040 
  2041 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2042 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2043 layouts.
  2044 
  2045 
  2046 *** ML ***
  2047 
  2048 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2049 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2050 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2051 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2052 under external program control.
  2053 
  2054 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2055 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2056 
  2057 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2058 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2059 (better known as Proof General).
  2060 
  2061 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2062 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2063 
  2064 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2065 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2066 
  2067 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2068 (including quotes etc.).
  2069 
  2070 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2071 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2072 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2073 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2074 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2075 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2076 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2077 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2078 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2079 
  2080 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2081 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2082 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2083 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2084 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2085 
  2086 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2087 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2088 
  2089 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2090 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2091 
  2092 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2093 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2094 
  2095 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2096 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2097 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2098 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2099 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2100 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2101 proper Proof.context.
  2102 
  2103 
  2104 *** System ***
  2105 
  2106 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2107 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2108 
  2109 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2110 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2111 
  2112 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2113 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2114 
  2115   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2116   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2117   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2118   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2119   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2120 
  2121 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2122 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2125 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2126 example:
  2127 
  2128   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2129 
  2130 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2131 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2132 
  2133 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2134 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2135 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2136 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2137 
  2138 
  2139 
  2140 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2141 ----------------------------------
  2142 
  2143 *** General ***
  2144 
  2145 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2146 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2147 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2148 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2149 like this:
  2150 
  2151   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2152 
  2153 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2154 
  2155 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2156 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2157 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2158 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2159 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2160 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2161 
  2162 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2163 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2164 the following package declarations:
  2165 
  2166   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2167   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2168 
  2169 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2170 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2171 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2172 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2173 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2174 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2175 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2176 
  2177 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2178 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2179 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2180 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2181 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2182 
  2183 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2184 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2185 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2186 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2187 
  2188 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2189 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2190 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2191 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2192 
  2193   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2194 
  2195   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2196   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2197   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2198   show_types                    show_types
  2199   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2200   show_consts                   show_consts
  2201   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2202 
  2203   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2204   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2205   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2206 
  2207   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2208   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2209 
  2210   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2211 
  2212   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2213   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2214   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2215   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2216   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2217 
  2218 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2219 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2220 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2221 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2222 
  2223 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2227   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2228 
  2229 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2230 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2231 float_token.
  2232 
  2233 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2234 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2238 DejaVu Sans.
  2239 
  2240 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2241 
  2242 
  2243 *** Pure ***
  2244 
  2245 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2246 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2247 time.
  2248 
  2249 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2250 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2253 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2256 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2257 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2258 command already provided this functionality.
  2259 
  2260 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2261 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2262 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2263 without interpretations.
  2264 
  2265 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2266 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2267 
  2268 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2269 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2270 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2271 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2272 
  2273 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2274 'definition' instead.
  2275 
  2276 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2277 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2278 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2279 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2280 
  2281 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2282 constructors.
  2283 
  2284 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2285 the local file system.
  2286 
  2287 
  2288 *** HOL ***
  2289 
  2290 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2291 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2292 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2293 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2294 
  2295   declare [[coercion f]]
  2296 
  2297 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2298 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2299 
  2300   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2301 
  2302 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2303 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2304 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2305 other theories like this:
  2306 
  2307   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2308 
  2309 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2310 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2311 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2312 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2313 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2314 for examples.
  2315 
  2316 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2317 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2320 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2321 
  2322 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2323 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2324 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2325 
  2326 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2327 functorial structure of types.
  2328 
  2329 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2330 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2331 
  2332 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2333 languages.
  2334 
  2335 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2336 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2340 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2343 combinators any longer.
  2344 
  2345 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2346 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2347 
  2348 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2349 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2350 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2351 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2352 
  2353   record 'a foo = ...
  2354   ...
  2355   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2356 
  2357 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2358 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2360 
  2361 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2362 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2363 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2364 
  2365 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2366 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2367 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2368 
  2369 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2370 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2373 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2374 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2375 independently.
  2376 
  2377 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2378 counter example search.
  2379 
  2380 * Sledgehammer:
  2381   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2382     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2383     sledgehammer").
  2384   - Renamed commands:
  2385     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2386     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2387     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389   - Renamed options:
  2390     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2391     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2392     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2393     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2394     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396 * Nitpick:
  2397   - Renamed options:
  2398     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2399     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2400     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2402   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2403   - Added "whack" option.
  2404   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2405   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2406   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2407   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2408     higher cardinalities.
  2409   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2410 
  2411 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2412 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2413 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2414 
  2415     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2416 
  2417 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2418 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2419 
  2420 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2421 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2422 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2423 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2424 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2425 "smt_solver".
  2426 
  2427 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2428 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2429 
  2430 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2431 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2432 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2433 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434 
  2435 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2436   - Renamed:
  2437     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2438     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2439     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440   - Added:
  2441     smt_verbose
  2442     smt_random_seed
  2443     smt_datatypes
  2444     smt_infer_triggers
  2445     smt_monomorph_limit
  2446     cvc3_options
  2447     remote_cvc3_options
  2448     remote_z3_options
  2449     yices_options
  2450 
  2451 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2452 header.
  2453 
  2454 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2455 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2456 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2457 
  2458   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2459 
  2460 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2463 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2464 
  2465 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2466 
  2467 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2468 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2469 
  2470 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2471 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2472 
  2473 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2474 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2475 
  2476 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2477 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2478 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2481 
  2482 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2484 
  2485 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2486 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2489 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2490 for congruent(2)).
  2491 
  2492 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2493 
  2494   types
  2495     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2496     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2497 
  2498   constants
  2499     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2500     True ~> HOL.True
  2501     False ~> HOL.False
  2502     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2503     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2504     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2505     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2506     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2507     The ~> HOL.The
  2508     All ~> HOL.All
  2509     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2510     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2511     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2512     If ~> HOL.If
  2513     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2514     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2515     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2516     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2517     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2518     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2519     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2520     op : ~> Set.member
  2521     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2522 
  2523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2526 
  2527     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2528     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2529     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2530     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2531     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2532     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2533     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2534     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2535 
  2536 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537 
  2538 * More stylized fact names:
  2539 
  2540   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2541   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2542   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2543   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2544 
  2545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546 
  2547 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2548 
  2549   constants
  2550     null ~> List.null
  2551 
  2552   facts
  2553     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2554     null_empty ~> null_def
  2555 
  2556 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2557 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2558 generation.
  2559 
  2560 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2561 Haskell code.
  2562 
  2563 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2564 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2565 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2568 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2569 
  2570 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2571 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2572 
  2573 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2574 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2575 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2578 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2582 
  2583 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2584 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2585 referred to by its qualified name.
  2586 
  2587   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2588   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2589   product ~>  Enum.product
  2590 
  2591 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2592 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2596 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2597 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2601 sort_key.
  2602 
  2603 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2605 
  2606 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2607 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2608 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2609 
  2610   types
  2611     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2612               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2613               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2614         (depends on your needs)
  2615 
  2616   constants
  2617      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2618      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2619      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2620 
  2621 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2622 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2623 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2624 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2627 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2628 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2629 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2630 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2631 
  2632 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2636 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2637 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2638 
  2639 
  2640 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2641 
  2642 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2643 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2644 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2645 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2646 compatibility.
  2647 
  2648 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2649 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2650 
  2651 
  2652 *** HOLCF ***
  2653 
  2654 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2655 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2656 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2660 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2661 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2664   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2665   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2666 
  2667 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2668 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2669 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670 
  2671 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2672 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2673 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2674 domain definition now works:
  2675 
  2676   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2677 
  2678 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2679 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2680 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2681 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2682 
  2683   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2684     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2685 
  2686   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2687 
  2688 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2689 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2690 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2693 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2696 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2697 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2698 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2699 
  2700 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2701 
  2702 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2708 
  2709 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2710 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2711 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2712 
  2713 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2714 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2715 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2716 
  2717 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2718 still supported as an input translation.
  2719 
  2720 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2721 
  2722   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2723   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2724   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2725   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2726   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2727   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2728   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2729 
  2730 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2731 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2732 
  2733   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2734   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2735   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2736   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2737   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2738   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2739 
  2740 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2741 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742 
  2743 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2744 
  2745   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2746   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2747   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2748   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2749 
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2753 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2754 
  2755 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2756 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2759   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2760   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2761   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2762   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2763   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2764   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2765   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2766   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2767   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2768   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2769   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2770   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2771   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2772   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2773   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2774   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2775   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2776   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2777   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2778 
  2779 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2782   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2783   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2784   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2785   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2786   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2787   box_less             ~> box_below
  2788   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2789   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2790   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2791   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2792   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2793   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2794   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2795   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2796   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2797   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2798   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2799   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2800   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2801   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2802   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2803   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2804   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2805   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2806   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2807   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2808   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2809   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2810   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2811   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2812   up_less              ~> up_below
  2813   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2814   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2815   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2816   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2817   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2818   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2819   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2820   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2821   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2822   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2823   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2824   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2825   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2826 
  2827 
  2828 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2829 
  2830 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2831 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 
  2834 *** ML ***
  2835 
  2836 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2837 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2838 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2839 
  2840 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2841 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2842 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2843 
  2844 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2845 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2846 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2847 
  2848 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2849 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2850 
  2851 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2852 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2853 
  2854 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2855 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2856 
  2857 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2858 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2859 
  2860 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2861 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2862 almost all situations.
  2863 
  2864 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2865 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2866 Isabelle/ML.
  2867 
  2868 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2869 meaning.
  2870 
  2871 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2872 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2873 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2874 
  2875 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2876 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2877 
  2878 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2879 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2880 
  2881 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2882 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2883 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2884 
  2885 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2886 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2887 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2888 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2889 configuration options.
  2890 
  2891 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2892 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2893 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2894 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2895 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2896 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2897 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2898 
  2899 
  2900 
  2901 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2902 ---------------------------------
  2903 
  2904 *** General ***
  2905 
  2906 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2907 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2908 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2909 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2910 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2911 their full internal name.
  2912 
  2913 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2914 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2915 Some hints on upgrading:
  2916 
  2917   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2918     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2919     which are independent of this issue.
  2920 
  2921   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2922     provides the following special forms:
  2923 
  2924       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2925       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2926       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2927 
  2928     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2929     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2930     extra variables".
  2931 
  2932     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2933     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2934     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2935     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2936     "logic".
  2937 
  2938   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2939     antiquotations:
  2940 
  2941       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2942       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2943       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2944       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2945 
  2946   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2947     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2948     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2949     antiquotations.
  2950 
  2951 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2952 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2953 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2954 diagnose syntax problems.
  2955 
  2956 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2957 
  2958 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2959 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2960 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2961 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2962 
  2963 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2964 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2965 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2966 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2967 
  2968 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2969 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2970 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2971 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2972 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2975 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2976 
  2977 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2978 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2979 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2980 
  2981   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2982 
  2983 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2984 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2985 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2986 
  2987 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2988 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2992 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2993 
  2994 
  2995 *** Pure ***
  2996 
  2997 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2998 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2999 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3000 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3001 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3002 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3003 inspect proof terms.
  3004 
  3005 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3006 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3007 are added internally.  For example:
  3008 
  3009   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3010 
  3011 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3012 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3013 
  3014 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3015 
  3016 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3017 'class' instead.
  3018 
  3019 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3020 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3024 invariants.
  3025 
  3026 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3027 user space functionality any longer.
  3028 
  3029 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3030 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3032 
  3033 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3034 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3035 
  3036 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3037 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3038 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3039 
  3040 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3041 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3042 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3043 
  3044 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3045 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 
  3048 *** HOL ***
  3049 
  3050 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3051 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3052 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3053 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3054 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3055 
  3056 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3057 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3058 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3059 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3060 
  3061   fun
  3062     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3063   where
  3064     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3065 
  3066   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3067     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3068 
  3069   quotient_definition
  3070     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3071 
  3072 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3073 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3074 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3075 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3076 
  3077 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3078 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3079 
  3080 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3081 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3082 
  3083 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3085 
  3086 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3087 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3088 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3089 
  3090 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3091 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3092 
  3093 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3098 
  3099 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3100 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3103 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3104 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3107   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3108   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3109   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3110   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3111   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3112   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3113   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3114   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3115   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3116   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3117   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3118   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3119   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3120   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3121   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3122   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3123   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3124   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3125   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3126   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3127   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3128   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3129   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3130   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3131   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3132   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3133   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3134   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3135   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3136 
  3137 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3138 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3139 
  3140 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3141 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3142 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3143 
  3144 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3145 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3146 
  3147 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3148 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3149 
  3150 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3151 
  3152 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3153 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3156 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3161 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3162 
  3163 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3164 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3165 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3166 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3167 
  3168 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3169   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3170   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3171   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3172 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3173 
  3174 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3175 lattices):
  3176 
  3177     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3178     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3179 
  3180     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3181 
  3182     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3183     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3184     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3185     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3186     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3187     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3188     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3189     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3190     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3191     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3192     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3193     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3194     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3195 
  3196     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3197     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3198     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3199     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3200     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3201     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3202     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3203     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3204     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3205     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3206     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3207     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3208     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3209     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3210     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3211     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3212     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3213     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3214 
  3215   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3216   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3217 
  3218     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3219     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3220     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3221     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3222     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3223 
  3224 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Refined field classes:
  3227   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3228     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3229     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3230   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3234   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3235   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3236   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3237     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3238   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3239     equal_neg_zero.
  3240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3243 sets to lattices:
  3244 
  3245   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3246   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3247   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3248   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3249   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3250   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3251   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3252   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3253   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3254   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3255 
  3256 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3257 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3258 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3259 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3260 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3261 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3264 multiset order:
  3265 
  3266   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3267     <= and <;
  3268   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3269     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3270     multiset_order;
  3271   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3272     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3273     generation;
  3274   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3275     if needed.
  3276 
  3277 Renamed:
  3278 
  3279   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3280   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3281   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3282 
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3286 
  3287 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3288 
  3289 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3290 
  3291 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3292 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3293 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295   Constants:
  3296   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3297   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3298   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3299   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3300   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3301   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3302   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3303   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3304   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3305   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3306   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3307   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3308   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3309 
  3310   Lemmas:
  3311   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3312   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3313   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3314   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3315   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3316   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3317   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3318   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3319   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3320   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3321   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3322   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3323   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3324 
  3325 * Sledgehammer:
  3326   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3327     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3328     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3329     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3330     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3331     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3332     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3334   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3335     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3336   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3337     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3338     is still experimental.)
  3339   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3340     full-typed mode.
  3341   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3342 
  3343 * Nitpick:
  3344   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3345   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3346   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3347     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3348   - Added support for quotient types.
  3349   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3350     constructs.
  3351   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3352     "termination" proofs).
  3353   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3354   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3355   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3356   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3357     record getters.
  3358   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3359   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3360   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3361   - Added "atoms" option.
  3362   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3363     problems.
  3364   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3365     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3366     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3368     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3372   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3373   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3374   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3375   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3376   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3377   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3378   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3379   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3380   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 
  3383 *** HOLCF ***
  3384 
  3385 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3386 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3387 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3388 
  3389 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3390 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3391 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3392 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3395 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3396 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3397 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3398 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3401 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3402 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3405 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3408   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3409 
  3410 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3411 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412 
  3413   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3414   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3415   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3416   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3417   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3418 
  3419 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3420 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3423   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3424   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3425 
  3426 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3427 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3431 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3436 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 
  3439 *** ML ***
  3440 
  3441 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3442 
  3443     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3444     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3445 
  3446     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3447     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3448     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3449     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3450 
  3451     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3452     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3453     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3454 
  3455 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3456 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3457 
  3458 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3459 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3460 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3461 
  3462 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3463 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3464 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3465 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3466 
  3467 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3468 the context or even global references.
  3469 
  3470 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3471 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3472 
  3473 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3474 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3475 
  3476   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3477   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3478   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3479   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3480   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3481   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3482   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3483   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3484   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3485   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3486 
  3487 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3488 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3489 
  3490 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3491 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3492 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3493 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3494 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3495 
  3496 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3497 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3498 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3499 Theory_Data version.
  3500 
  3501 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3502 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3503 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3504 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3505 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3506 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3507 explicitly in rare situations.
  3508 
  3509 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3510 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3514 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3515 
  3516 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3517 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3518 quite rare).
  3519 
  3520 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3521 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3524 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3525 terms.
  3526 
  3527 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3528 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3529 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3530 
  3531 
  3532 *** System ***
  3533 
  3534 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3535 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3536 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3537 
  3538 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3539 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3540 respectively.
  3541 
  3542 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3543 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3544 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3545 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3546 
  3547   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3548 
  3549 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3550 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3551 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3552 component.
  3553 
  3554 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3555 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3556 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3557 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3558 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3559 the user for manual installation.
  3560 
  3561 
  3562 
  3563 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3564 -------------------------------------
  3565 
  3566 *** General ***
  3567 
  3568 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3569 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3570 
  3571 
  3572 *** Pure ***
  3573 
  3574 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3575 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3576 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3577 
  3578 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3579 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3580 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3581 
  3582 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3583 interpretation.
  3584 
  3585 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3586 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 
  3589 *** Document preparation ***
  3590 
  3591 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3592 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3593 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3594 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3595 
  3596 
  3597 *** HOL ***
  3598 
  3599 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3600 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3601 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3602 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3603 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3604 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3605 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3606 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3607 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3608 
  3609 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3610 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3611 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3612 
  3613 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3614 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3615 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3616 
  3617 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3618 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3619 
  3620 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3621 
  3622 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3623 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3624 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3625 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3626 
  3627 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3628 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3629 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3630 "mirabelle" utility.
  3631 
  3632 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3633 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3634 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3635 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3636 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3637 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3638 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3639 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3640 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3641 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3642 
  3643 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3644 procedure only.
  3645 
  3646 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3647 
  3648 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3649 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3650 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3651 that fail later.
  3652 
  3653 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3654 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3655 
  3656 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3657 the same method as the approximation method.
  3658 
  3659 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3660 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3661 series expansion.
  3662 
  3663 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3664 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3665 
  3666 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3667 reals.
  3668 
  3669 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3670 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3671 
  3672 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3673 fixpoint theorem.
  3674 
  3675 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3676   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3677     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3678   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3679     accordingly
  3680   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3681     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3682   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3683     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3684 
  3685 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3686 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3687 lattice.
  3688 
  3689 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3690 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3691 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3692 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3693 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3694 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3698   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3699     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3700   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3701     le_inf_iff
  3702   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3703     sup_aci)
  3704   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3705   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3706   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3707     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3708     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3709     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3710     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3711     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3712     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3713     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3714     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3715     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3716     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3717   - authentic syntax for
  3718     Set.Pow
  3719     Set.image
  3720   - mere abbreviations:
  3721     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3722     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3723     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3724     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3725     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3726     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3727     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3728     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3729   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3730 
  3731 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3732 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3733 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3734 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3735 
  3736 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3737 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3738 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3741 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3744 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3745 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3746 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3747 
  3748 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3749 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3750 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3751 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3752 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3753 
  3754 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3755 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3759 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3760 
  3761 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3762 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3763 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3764 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3765 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3766 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3767 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3771     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3772     code_post       replaces    code post
  3773     etc.
  3774   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 * Renamed methods:
  3777     sizechange -> size_change
  3778     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3779   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3782 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3783 
  3784 * Renamed theorems:
  3785     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3786     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3787     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3788     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3789     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3790   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 
  3799 *** HOLCF ***
  3800 
  3801 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3802 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3803 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3804 
  3805 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3806 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3807 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3808 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3809 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3810 
  3811 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3812 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3813 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3814 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3815 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3816 
  3817 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3818 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3819 constructor are pre-configured.
  3820 
  3821 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3822 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3823 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3824 
  3825 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3826 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3827 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3828 as well.)
  3829 
  3830 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3831 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3832 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3833 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3834 examples.
  3835 
  3836 
  3837 *** ML ***
  3838 
  3839 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3840 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3841 
  3842 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3843 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3844 position, logical grouping etc.
  3845 
  3846 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3847 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3848 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3849 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3850 
  3851 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3852 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3853 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3854 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3855 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3856 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3857 
  3858 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3859 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3860 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3861 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3862 experiments with references.
  3863 
  3864 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3865 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3866 
  3867 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3868 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3869 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3870 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3871 
  3872 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3873 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3874 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3875 
  3876 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3877 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3878 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3886 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3887 
  3888 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3889 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3890 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3891 
  3892 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3893 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3894 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3897 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3898 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900 
  3901 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3902 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3903 instead of global theory.
  3904 
  3905 
  3906 *** System ***
  3907 
  3908 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3909 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3910 usedir option -q.
  3911 
  3912 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3913 also the system manual.
  3914 
  3915 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3916 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3917 
  3918 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3919 this is always enabled.
  3920 
  3921 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3922 
  3923 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3924 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3925 currently supported on Linux only.
  3926 
  3927 
  3928 
  3929 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3930 --------------------------------
  3931 
  3932 *** General ***
  3933 
  3934 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3935 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3936 
  3937   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3938     "isatool."
  3939 
  3940   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3941     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3942 
  3943   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3944     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3945 
  3946 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3947 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3948 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3949 
  3950 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3951 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3952 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3953 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3954 via "isabelle emacs".
  3955 
  3956 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3957 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3958 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3959 
  3960 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3961 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3962 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3963 
  3964 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3965 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3966 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3967 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3968 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3969 
  3970 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3971 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3972 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3973 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3974 
  3975 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3976 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3977 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3978 
  3979 
  3980 *** Pure ***
  3981 
  3982 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3983 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3984 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3985 
  3986 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3987 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3988 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3989 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3990 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3991 
  3992 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3993 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3994 useful in locale declarations.
  3995 
  3996 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3997 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3998 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3999 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4000 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4001 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4002 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4003 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4004 no longer generated.
  4005 
  4006 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4007 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4008 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4009 
  4010 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4011 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4012 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4013 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4014 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4015 
  4016 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4018 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4019 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4020 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4021 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4022 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4023 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4024 
  4025 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4026 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4027 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4028 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4029 
  4030 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4031 
  4032 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4033 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4034 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4035 
  4036 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4037 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4040 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4041 in HOL, write
  4042 
  4043     class foo = ...
  4044 
  4045 instead of
  4046 
  4047     class foo = type + ...
  4048 
  4049 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4050 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4053 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4054 
  4055 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4056 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4057 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4058 
  4059 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4060 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4061 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4062 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4063 directly in regular applications.
  4064 
  4065 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4066 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4067 
  4068 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4069 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4070 
  4071 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4072 theory context.
  4073 
  4074 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4075 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4078 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4079 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4080 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4081 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4082 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4083 
  4084   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4085 
  4086 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4087 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4088 normalization.
  4089 
  4090 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4091 addressing etc.
  4092 
  4093 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4094 
  4095   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4096   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4097 
  4098 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4099 
  4100   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4101      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4102      parts of the code generator framework).
  4103 
  4104   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4105      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4106      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4107 
  4108 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4109 
  4110 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4111 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4112 
  4113 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4114 patterns, e.g.
  4115 
  4116     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4117 
  4118 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4119 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4120 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4121 hyphen:
  4122 
  4123     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4124 
  4125 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4126 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4127 
  4128 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4129 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4130 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4131 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4132 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4133 higher-order unification.
  4134 
  4135 
  4136 *** Document preparation ***
  4137 
  4138 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4139 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4140 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4141 
  4142 
  4143 *** HOL ***
  4144 
  4145 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4146 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4147 
  4148 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4149 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4150 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4151 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4152 Main, as before.
  4153 
  4154 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4155 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4156 
  4157 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4158 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4159 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4160 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4161 
  4162 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4163 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4164 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4165 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4166 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4167 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4168 
  4169 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4170 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4171 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4172 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4173 
  4174 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4175 menu.
  4176 
  4177 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4178 (contains the empty clause).
  4179 
  4180 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4181 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4182 
  4183 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4184 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4185 
  4186 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4187 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4188 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4191 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4192 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4193 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4194 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4195 
  4196 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4197 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4198 
  4199 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4200 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4201 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4202 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4203 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4204 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4205 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4206 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4207 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4208 
  4209 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4210 
  4211 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4212 
  4213 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4214 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4217 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4218 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4219 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4220 
  4221 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4222 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4223 
  4224     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4225     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4226     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4227     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4228     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4229     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4230     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4231     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4232 
  4233 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4234 theory Set.
  4235 
  4236 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4237 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4238 
  4239 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4240 
  4241 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4242 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4243 
  4244 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4245 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4246 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4247 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4248 allowed. For examples see
  4249 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4250 
  4251 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4252 
  4253 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4257 structure:
  4258 
  4259     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4260     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4261     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4262     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4263     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4264     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4265     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4266     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4267     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4268     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4269     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4270     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4271     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4272     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4273     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4274     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4275     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4276     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4277     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4278     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4279     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4280     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4281     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4282     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4283     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4284     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4285     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4286     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4287     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4288     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4289     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4290     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4291     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4292 
  4293     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4294     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4295     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4296     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4297     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4298     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4299     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4300     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4301     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4302     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4303 
  4304     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4305     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4306     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4307     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4308     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4309     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4310 
  4311 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4312 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4313 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4314 
  4315 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4316 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4317 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4318 
  4319 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4320 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4323 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4324 
  4325 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4326 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4327 proofs, e.g.
  4328 
  4329   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4330 
  4331 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4332 
  4333 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4334 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4335 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4336 
  4337 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4338 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340 
  4341 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4342 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4343 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4345 
  4346 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4347 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4348 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4349 preorder_class.*.
  4350 
  4351 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4352 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4353 
  4354 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4355 
  4356   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4357 
  4358 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4359 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4360 fold_image.
  4361 
  4362 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4363 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4364 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4365 the former will disappear at some point.
  4366 
  4367 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4368 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4369 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4370 
  4371 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4372 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4373 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4374 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4375 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4376 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4377 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4378 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4379 
  4380 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4381 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4382 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4383 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4384 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4385 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4386 
  4387     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4388     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4389     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4390     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4391     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4392     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4393     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4394 
  4395 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4396 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4397 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4398 
  4399 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4400 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4401 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4402 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4403 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4404 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4405 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4406 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4407 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4408 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4409 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4410 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4411 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4412 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4413 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4414 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4415 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4416 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4417 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4418 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4419 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4420 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4421 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4422 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4423 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4424 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4425 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4426 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4427 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4428 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4429 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4430 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4431 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4432 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4433 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4434 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4435 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4436 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4437 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4438 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4439 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4440 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4441 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4442 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4443 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4444 
  4445 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4446 
  4447 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4448 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4449 
  4450 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4451 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4452 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4453 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4454 
  4455 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4456 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4457 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4458 theory RealVector.
  4459 
  4460 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4461 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4462 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4463 and inner products are included.
  4464 
  4465 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4466 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4467 supported.
  4468 
  4469 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4470 first diagonalization argument.
  4471 
  4472 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4473 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4474 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4475 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4476 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4477 
  4478     hide (open) const gcd
  4479     abbreviation gcd where
  4480       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4481     notation (output)
  4482       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4483 
  4484 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4485 
  4486 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4487 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4488 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4491 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4492 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4493 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4494 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4495 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4496 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4497 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4498 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4499 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4500 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4501 cases.
  4502 
  4503 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4504 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4505 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4506 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4507 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4508 
  4509     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4510     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4511     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4512     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4513     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4514 
  4515 
  4516 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4517 
  4518 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4519 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4520 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4521 
  4522 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4523 
  4524 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4525 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4526 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4527 
  4528 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4529 
  4530 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4531 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4532 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4533 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4534 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4535 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4536 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4537 
  4538 
  4539 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4540 
  4541 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4542 
  4543 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4544 theory targets.
  4545 
  4546 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4547 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4548 'inductive' etc.
  4549 
  4550 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4551 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4552 
  4553 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4554 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4555 
  4556 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4557 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4558 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4559 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4560 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4561 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4562 the algorithm W:
  4563 
  4564  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4565  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4566          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4567 
  4568 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4569 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4570 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4571 
  4572 
  4573 *** HOLCF ***
  4574 
  4575 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4576 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4577 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4578 
  4579 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4580 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4581 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4582 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4583 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4586 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4587 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 
  4590 *** ZF ***
  4591 
  4592 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4593 
  4594 
  4595 *** ML ***
  4596 
  4597 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4598 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4599 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4600 5.2.1!
  4601 
  4602 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4603 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4604 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4605 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4606 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4607 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4608 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4609 
  4610 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4611 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4612 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4613 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4614 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4615 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4616 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4617 
  4618 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4619 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4620 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4621 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4622 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4623 
  4624 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4625 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4626 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4627 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4628 Method.add_method.
  4629 
  4630 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4631 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4632 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4633 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4634 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4635 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4636 
  4637 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4638 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4639 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4640 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4641 examples.
  4642 
  4643 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4644 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4645 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4646 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4647 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4648 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4649 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4650 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4651 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4652 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4653 
  4654 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4655 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4656 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4657 
  4658 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4659 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4660 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4661 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4662 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4663 resort for legacy applications.
  4664 
  4665 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4666 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4667 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4668 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4669 explicit runtime argument.
  4670 
  4671 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4672 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4673 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4674 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4675 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4678 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4679 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4680 theory state.
  4681 
  4682 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4683 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4684 
  4685   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4686   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4687   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4688   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4689   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4690   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4691   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4692   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4693   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4694   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4695 
  4696 
  4697 *** System ***
  4698 
  4699 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4700 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4701 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4702 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4703 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4704 
  4705 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4706 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4707 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4708 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4709 
  4710 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4711 
  4712 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4713 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4714 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4715 prover operations.
  4716 
  4717 
  4718 
  4719 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4720 -------------------------------
  4721 
  4722 *** General ***
  4723 
  4724 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4725 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4726 
  4727 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4728 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4729 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4730 provides a proper context already.
  4731 
  4732 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4733 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4734 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4735 
  4736 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4737 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4738 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4739 swap theory imports.
  4740 
  4741 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4742 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4743 
  4744 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4745 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4746 white space without escapes.
  4747 
  4748 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4749 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4750 "foo_bar".
  4751 
  4752 
  4753 *** Pure ***
  4754 
  4755 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4756 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4757 
  4758 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4759 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4760 
  4761 (1) unused_thms
  4762      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4763 
  4764 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4765      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4766      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4767 
  4768 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4769      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4770      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4771      their ancestors.
  4772 
  4773 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4774 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4775 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4776 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4777 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4778 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4779 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4780 
  4781 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4782 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4783 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4784 
  4785 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4786 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4787 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4788 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4789 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4790 
  4791 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4792 
  4793 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4794 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4795 update of theories within ML code.
  4796 
  4797 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4798 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4799 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4800 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4801 
  4802 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4803 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4804 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4806 
  4807 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4808 
  4809 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4810 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4811 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4812 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4813 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4814 
  4815 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4816 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4817 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4818 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4819 situations.
  4820 
  4821 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4822 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4823 proof text.
  4824 
  4825 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4826 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4827 
  4828 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4829 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4830 predicates.
  4831 
  4832 
  4833 *** Document preparation ***
  4834 
  4835 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4836 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4837 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4838 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4839 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4840 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4841 
  4842 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4843 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4844 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4845 
  4846 
  4847 *** HOL ***
  4848 
  4849 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4850 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4851 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4852 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4853 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4854 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4855 
  4856 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4857 with multithreading.
  4858 
  4859 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4860 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4861 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4862 
  4863 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4864 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4865 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4866 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4867 
  4868 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4869 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4870 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4871 and makes them available separately.  See
  4872 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4873 
  4874 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4875 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4876 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4877 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4878 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4879 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4880 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4881 the declared rules.
  4882 
  4883 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4884 
  4885   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4886 
  4887 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4888 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4889 
  4890 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4891 
  4892   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4893 
  4894   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4895     definitions on => and bool.
  4896 
  4897   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4898     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4899     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4900 
  4901       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4902       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4903       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4904       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4905       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4906       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4907       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4908       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4909 
  4910   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4911     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4912     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4913 
  4914   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4915     The proof pattern
  4916 
  4917       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4918       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4919 
  4920     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4921     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4922 
  4923       have "EX S. P S"
  4924       proof
  4925         show "P S" <...>
  4926       qed
  4927 
  4928   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4929     The proof pattern
  4930 
  4931       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4932       also have "S = T" <...>
  4933       finally have "P T" .
  4934 
  4935     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4936     must be replaced by something like
  4937 
  4938       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4939       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4940       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4941 
  4942   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4943     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4944 
  4945       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4946 
  4947     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4948     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4949     type of the form
  4950 
  4951       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4952 
  4953     rather than
  4954 
  4955       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4956 
  4957 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4958 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4959 
  4960 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4961 
  4962 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4963 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4967 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4970 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4973 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4974 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4975 
  4976 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4977 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4978 
  4979   less_trans
  4980   less_linear
  4981   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4982   le_less_trans
  4983   less_le_trans
  4984   less_not_sym
  4985   less_asym
  4986 
  4987 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4988 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4989 and different variable names.
  4990 
  4991 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4992 
  4993 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4994 finite maps.
  4995 
  4996 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4997 
  4998 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4999 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5000 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5001 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5002 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5003 accordingly.
  5004 
  5005 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5006 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5007 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5008 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5009 
  5010 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5011 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5012 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5013 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5014 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5018 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5021 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5022 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5023 
  5024 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5028 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5029 
  5030 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5031 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5032 
  5033 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5034 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5037 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5039 
  5040 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5041 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5044 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5045 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5046 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5047 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5048 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5051 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5052 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5053 
  5054 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5055 
  5056 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5057 
  5058 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5059 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5060 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5061 
  5062 
  5063 *** ZF ***
  5064 
  5065 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5066 same session:
  5067 
  5068   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5069   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5070   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5071   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5072   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5073   List      -> List_ZF
  5074   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5075 
  5076 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5077 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5078 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5079 
  5080 
  5081 *** ML ***
  5082 
  5083 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5084 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5085 
  5086 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5087 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5088 
  5089 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5090 
  5091 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5092 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5093 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5094 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5095 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5096 
  5097 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5098 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5099 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5100 
  5101 
  5102 *** System ***
  5103 
  5104 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5105 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5106 
  5107 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5108 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5109 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5110 
  5111 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5112 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5113 
  5114 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5115 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5116 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5117 
  5118 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5119 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5120 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5121 
  5122 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5123 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5124 
  5125 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5126 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5127 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5128 script.
  5129 
  5130 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5131 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5132 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5133 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5134 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5135 
  5136 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5137 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5138 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5139 
  5140 
  5141 
  5142 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5143 -----------------------------------
  5144 
  5145 *** General ***
  5146 
  5147 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5148 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5149 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5150 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5151 
  5152 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5153 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5154 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5155 
  5156 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5157 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5158 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5159 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5160 
  5161 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5162 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5163 quotes.
  5164 
  5165 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5166 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5167 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5168 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5169 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5170 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5171 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5172 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5173 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5174 
  5175 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5176 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5177 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5178 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5179 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5180 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5181 
  5182 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5183 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5184 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5185 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5186 
  5187 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5188 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5189 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5190 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5191 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5192 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5193 
  5194 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5195 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5196 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5197 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5198 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5199 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5200 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5201 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5202 
  5203 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5204 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5205 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5206 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5207 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5208 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5209 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5210 
  5211 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5212 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5213 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5214 
  5215 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5216 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5217 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5218 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5219 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5220 limit is imposed.
  5221 
  5222 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5223 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5224 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5225 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5226 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5227 and scalability.
  5228 
  5229 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5230 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5231 
  5232 
  5233 *** Document preparation ***
  5234 
  5235 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5236 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5237 current context.
  5238 
  5239 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5240 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5241 
  5242 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5243 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5244 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5245 
  5246 
  5247 *** Pure ***
  5248 
  5249 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5250 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5251 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5252 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5253 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5254 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5255 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5256 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5257 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5258 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5259 
  5260 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5261 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5262 sketch:
  5263 
  5264     internal compilation:
  5265         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5266     writing SML code to a file:
  5267         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5268     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5269         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5270     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5271         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5272 
  5273     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5274         method ``eval''
  5275 
  5276 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5277 
  5278 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5279 
  5280     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5281     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5282     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5283     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5284 
  5285 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5286 
  5287     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5288       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5289 
  5290     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5291       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5292 
  5293     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5294       {(target)}+
  5295         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5296 
  5297     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5298       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5299         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5300 
  5301 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5302 
  5303 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5304 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5305 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5306 codegen".
  5307 
  5308 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5309 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5310 annotations).
  5311 
  5312 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5313 syntax.
  5314 
  5315 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5316 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5317 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5318 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5319 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5320 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5321 
  5322 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5323 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5324 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5325 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5326 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5327 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5328 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5329 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5330 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5331 equations, see section "definitions".
  5332 
  5333 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5334 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5335 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5336 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5337 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5338 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5339 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5340 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5341 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5342 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5343 
  5344 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5345 configuration options:
  5346 
  5347   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5348   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5349   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5350   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5351   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5352   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5353   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5354   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5355   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5356 
  5357 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5358 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5359 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5360 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5361 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5362 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5363 order.
  5364 
  5365 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5366 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5367 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5368 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5369 context encountered later on.
  5370 
  5371 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5372 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5373 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5374 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5375 
  5376 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5377 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5378 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5379 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5380 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5381 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5382 
  5383 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5384 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5385 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5386 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5387 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5388 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5389 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5390 more permissive.
  5391 
  5392 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5393 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5394 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5395 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5396 maintainability of proof texts.
  5397 
  5398 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5399 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5400 
  5401   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5402   then guess x and y by clarify
  5403 
  5404 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5405 proof tools being involved here.
  5406 
  5407 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5408 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5409 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5410 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5411 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5412 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5413 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5414 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5415 
  5416 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5417 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5418 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5419 
  5420   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5421   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5422   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5423   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5426 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5427 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5428 
  5429 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5430 both named and unnamed ones.
  5431 
  5432 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5433 
  5434   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5435 
  5436 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5437 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5438 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5439 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5440 
  5441 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5442 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5443 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5444 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5445 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5446 
  5447 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5448 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5449 
  5450 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5451 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5452 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5453 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5454 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5455 originally first one.
  5456 
  5457 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5458 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5459 expected.
  5460 
  5461 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5462 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5463 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5464 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5465 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5466 
  5467   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5468     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5469     obtains x where "P x"
  5470 
  5471   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5472     assumes "A & B"
  5473     obtains A and B
  5474 
  5475   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5476     assumes "A | B"
  5477     obtains
  5478       A
  5479     | B
  5480 
  5481 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5482 explicitly:
  5483 
  5484   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5485     obtains "~ thesis"
  5486 
  5487   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5488     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5489 
  5490 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5491 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5492 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5493 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5494 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5495 case_names).
  5496 
  5497 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5498 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5499 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5500 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5501 
  5502 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5503 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5504 top-level lemma.
  5505 
  5506 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5507 introduction rule (default "that").
  5508 
  5509 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5510 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5511 to occur.
  5512 
  5513 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5514 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5515 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5516 representations independently of name spaces.
  5517 
  5518 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5519 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5520 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5521 
  5522 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5523 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5524 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5525 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5526 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5527 current context.
  5528 
  5529 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5530 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5531 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5532 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5533 
  5534   axiomatization
  5535     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5536     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5537 
  5538   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5539   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5540 
  5541   abbreviation
  5542     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5543     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5544 
  5545 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5546 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5547 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5548 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5549 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5550 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5551 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5552 
  5553 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5554 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5555 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5556 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5557 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5558 
  5559 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5560 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5561 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5562 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5563 
  5564 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5565 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5566 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5567 
  5568   definition "K x _ = x"
  5569 
  5570   inductive conj for A B
  5571   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5572 
  5573 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5574 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5575 abbreviations on output.
  5576 
  5577 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5578 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5579 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5580 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5581 
  5582 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5583 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5584 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5585 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5586 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5587 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5588 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5589 
  5590 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5591 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5592 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5593 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5594 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5595 
  5596 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5597 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5598 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5599 
  5600 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5601 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5602 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5603 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5604 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5605 
  5606   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5607     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5608 
  5609 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5610 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5611 partial_order.
  5612 
  5613 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5614 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5615 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5616 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5617 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5618 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5619 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5620 examples.
  5621 
  5622 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5623 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5624 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5625 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5626 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5627 
  5628 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5629 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5630 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5631 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5632 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5633 
  5634   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5635   (induct set: foo bar)
  5636   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5637   (induct type: foo bar)
  5638 
  5639 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5640 new format.
  5641 
  5642 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5643 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5644 
  5645 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5646 considered a legacy feature.
  5647 
  5648 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5649 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5650 
  5651 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5652 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5653 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5654 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5655   
  5656 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5657 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5658 manipulating the claset.
  5659 
  5660 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5661 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5662 least one premise.
  5663 
  5664 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5665 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5666 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5667 rule steps.
  5668 
  5669 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5670 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5671 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5672 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5673 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5674 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5675 
  5676 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5677 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5678 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5679 
  5680 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5681 the graph browser tool.
  5682 
  5683 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5684 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5685 
  5686 
  5687 *** HOL ***
  5688 
  5689 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5690 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5691 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5692 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5693 multi-threading.
  5694   
  5695 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5696 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5697 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5698 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5699 work with multi-threading.
  5700 
  5701 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5702 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5703 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5704 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5705 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5706 
  5707 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5708 
  5709 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5710 equality.
  5711 
  5712 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5713 the new 'class' package:
  5714 
  5715     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5716     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5717     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5718     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5719     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5720     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5721     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5722     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5723     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5724     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5725     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5726     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5727     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5728     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5729     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5730     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5731     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5732     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5733     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5734     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5735 
  5736 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5737 
  5738 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5739 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5740 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5741 names.
  5742 
  5743 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5744 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5745 
  5746 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5747 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5748 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5749 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5750 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5751 
  5752 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5753 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5754 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5755 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5756 
  5757 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5758 
  5759 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5760 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5761 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5762 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5764 
  5765 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5766 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5767 
  5768 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5769 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5770 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5773 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5774 
  5775 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5776 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5777 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5778 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5779 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5780 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5781 in the current context.
  5782 
  5783 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5784 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5786 
  5787 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5788 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5789 
  5790 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5791 
  5792     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5793     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5794 
  5795     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5796       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5797     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5798     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5799 
  5800     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5801     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5802 
  5803   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5804 
  5805     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5806     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5807     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5808     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5809     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5810     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5811     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5812     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5813     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5814     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5815     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5816     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5817     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5818     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5819     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5820     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5821     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5822     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5823     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5824     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5825     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5826     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5827     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5828     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5829     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5830     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5831     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5832     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5833     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5834     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5835     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5836     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5837     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5838     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5839     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5840 
  5841     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5842     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5843     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5844     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5845     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5846     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5847     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5848     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5849     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5850     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5851     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5852     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5853     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5854     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5855     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5856     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5857     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5858 
  5859     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5860     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5861     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5862     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5863     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5864     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5865     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5866     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5867     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5868     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5869     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5870     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5871     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5872     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5873     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5874     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5875     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5876     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5877     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5878     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5879     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5880     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5881     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5882     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5883     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5884     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5885     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5886     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5887 
  5888     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5889     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5890     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5891     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5892     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5893     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5894 
  5895     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5896     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5897     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5898     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5899 
  5900     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5901     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5902 
  5903     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5904     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5905 
  5906 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5907 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5908 
  5909 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5910 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5911 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5912 "*.size".
  5913 
  5914 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5916 
  5917 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5918 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5919 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5920 
  5921 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5922 
  5923 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5924 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5925 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5926 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5927 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5928 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5929 numerals on all operations.
  5930 
  5931 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5932 
  5933 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5934 
  5935 * Code generator library theories:
  5936   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5937     languages.
  5938   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5939     languages.
  5940   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5941     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5942   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5943   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5944     denominator).
  5945   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5946     representable by rational numbers.
  5947   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5948     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5949     includes Code_Integer.
  5950   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5951     target-language built-in integers.
  5952   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5953     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5954 
  5955 * New package for inductive predicates
  5956 
  5957   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5958 
  5959     inductive
  5960       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5961       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5962     where
  5963       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5964     | ...
  5965 
  5966   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5967 
  5968     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5969 
  5970     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5971     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5972 
  5973     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5974     intros
  5975       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5976       ...
  5977 
  5978   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5979   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5980 
  5981     inductive_set
  5982       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5983       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5984     where
  5985       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5986     | ...
  5987 
  5988   or
  5989 
  5990     inductive_set
  5991       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5992       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5993       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5994     where
  5995       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5996     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5997     | ...
  5998 
  5999   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6000 
  6001   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6002   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6003 
  6004   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6005 
  6006   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6007     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6008     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6009     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6010     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6011 
  6012   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6013     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6014     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6015     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6016     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6017     statements of the form
  6018 
  6019       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6020 
  6021     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6022     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6023 
  6024       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6025 
  6026   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6027 
  6028       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6029         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6030         ==> ... ==> P
  6031 
  6032     for predicates and
  6033 
  6034       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6035         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6036         ==> ... ==> P
  6037 
  6038     for sets rather than
  6039 
  6040       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6041         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6042         ==> ... ==> P
  6043 
  6044     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6045     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6046     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6047 
  6048   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6049     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6050     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6051 
  6052 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6053 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6054 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6055 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6056 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6057 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6058 
  6059 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6060 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6061 
  6062 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6063 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6064 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6065 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6066 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6067 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6068 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6069 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6070 variable.
  6071 
  6072 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6073 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6074 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6075 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6076   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6077   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6078 
  6079 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6080 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6081 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6082 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6083 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6084 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6085 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6086 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6087 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6088 
  6089 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6090 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6091 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6092 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6093 rat, etc.
  6094 
  6095 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6096 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6097 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6098 
  6099 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6100 
  6101 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6102 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6103 
  6104 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6105 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6106 
  6107 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6108 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6109 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6112 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6114 
  6115 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6116 
  6117 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6118 
  6119 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6120 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6121 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6122 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6123 
  6124 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6125 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6126 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6127 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6130 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6131 algebraic operations.
  6132 
  6133 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6135 
  6136 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6138 
  6139 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6140 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6141 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6142 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6143 adapted.
  6144  
  6145 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6146 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6147 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6148 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6149 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6150 
  6151 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6152 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6153 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6154 
  6155 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6156 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6157 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6158 
  6159 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6162 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6163 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6164   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6165       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6166   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6167   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6168   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6169 
  6170 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6171 
  6172 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6173 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6174 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6175 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6176 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6177 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6178 
  6179 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6180 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6181 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6182 
  6183 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6184 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6185 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6187 
  6188 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6189 
  6190 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6191 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6192 
  6193 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6194 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6195 
  6196 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6197 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6198 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6199 
  6200 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6201 True/False.
  6202 
  6203 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6204 
  6205 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6206 
  6207 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6208 ``rule'' method.
  6209 
  6210 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6211 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6212 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6213 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6214 
  6215 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6216 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6217 
  6218 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6219 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6220 
  6221 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6222 Library.
  6223 
  6224 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6225 
  6226 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6227 as greatest fixed-point.
  6228 
  6229 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6230 association lists.
  6231 
  6232 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6233 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6234 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6235 
  6236 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6237 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6238 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6239 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6240 behavior.
  6241 
  6242 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6243