NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Mar 21 20:33:56 2014 +0100 (2014-03-21)
changeset 56245 84fc7dfa3cd4
parent 56232 31e283f606e2
child 56248 67dc9549fa15
permissions -rw-r--r--
more qualified names;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    39 
    40 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    41 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    42 
    43 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    44 auxiliary ML files.
    45 
    46 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    47 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    48 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    49 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    50 antiquotations.
    51 
    52 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    53 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    54 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    55 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    56 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    57 to the system option "completion_limit").
    58 
    59 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    60 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    61 
    62 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    63 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    64 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    65 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    66 
    67 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    68 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    69 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    70 
    71 
    72 *** Pure ***
    73 
    74 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
    75 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
    76 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
    77 renaming needs to be applied:
    78 
    79   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
    80   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
    81   all            ~>  Pure.all
    82   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
    83   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
    84 
    85 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
    86 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
    87 old constants:
    88 
    89 setup {*
    90   fn thy => thy
    91     |> Sign.root_path
    92     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
    93     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
    94     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
    95     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
    96 *}
    97 
    98 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
    99 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   100 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   101 
   102 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   103 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   104 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   105 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   106 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   107 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   108 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   109 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   110 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   111 
   112 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   113 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   114 instantiated theorem.
   115 
   116 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   117 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   118 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   119 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   120 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   121 
   122   attribute_setup standard =
   123     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   124 
   125 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   126 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   127 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   128 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   129 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   130 
   131 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   132 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   133 differently).
   134 
   135 
   136 *** HOL ***
   137 
   138 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   142 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   145 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146 
   147 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   151   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   152   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   153   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   154   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   155   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   158   can now deal with conjunctions.
   159   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   160   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   161   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   162 
   163 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165 * HOL-Word:
   166   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   167   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   168   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   169   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   170   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   171 
   172 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   176 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   179 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   182 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   185   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   186   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   187   Theory renamings:
   188     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   189     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   190     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   191     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   192     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   193     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   194     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   195     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   196     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   197     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   198     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   199     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   200     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   201     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   202     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   203     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   204     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   205     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   206     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   207     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   208     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   209     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   210   New theories:
   211     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   212     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   213     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   214     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   215     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   216   Discontinued theories:
   217     BNF/BNF.thy
   218     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   219   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * New (co)datatype package:
   222   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   223   * Renamed commands:
   224       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   225       primrec_new ~> primrec
   226       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   227     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   229     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   230     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   232     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   233     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Old datatype package:
   236   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   237     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   238     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   240     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   241     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   244   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   245   datatype package.
   246   Renamed constants:
   247     Option.set ~> set_option
   248     Option.map ~> map_option
   249     option_rel ~> rel_option
   250     option_rec ~> case_option
   251   Renamed theorems:
   252     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   253     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   254     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   255     option.recs ~> option.case
   256     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   257     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   258     map.simps ~> list.map
   259     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   260     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   261     the.simps ~> option.sel
   262   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   265     sum_map ~> map_sum
   266     map_pair ~> map_prod
   267     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   268     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   269     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   270     set_rel ~> rel_set
   271     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   272     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   273     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   274     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   275 
   276 * New theory:
   277     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   278 
   279 * Theory reorganizations:
   280   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   281 
   282 * SMT module:
   283   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   284     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   285     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   286     elsewhere.
   287 
   288 * Sledgehammer:
   289   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   290   - New option:
   291       smt_proofs
   292   - Renamed options:
   293       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   294       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   295     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Metis:
   298   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   299     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   302 
   303 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   306 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   307 
   308 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   309 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   310 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   311 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   312 
   313 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   317 with the given constants.
   318 
   319 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   320 
   321 Fact consolidations:
   322     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   323     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   324     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   325     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   326     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   327     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   328     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   329     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   330     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   331     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   332     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   333     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   334     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   335     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   336     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   337     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   338     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   339     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   340     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   341     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   342     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   343     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   344     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   345     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   346     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   347     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   348     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   349     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   350     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   351     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   352     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   353     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   354     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   355     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   356     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   357     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   358     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   359     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   360     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   361     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   362 
   363 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   364 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   365 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   366 
   367 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   368 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   369 
   370 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   371 
   372 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   373 
   374 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   381 operations on records.
   382 
   383 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   385 
   386 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   387     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   389 
   390 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   391     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   392     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   394 
   395 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   396   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   397   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   398   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   399     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   400   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   401     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   402   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   403 INCOMPATBILITY.
   404 
   405 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   406     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   407     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   408     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   409     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   411 
   412 * Fact name consolidation:
   413     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   414     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   415     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   416     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   417     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   418 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   419 
   420 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   421 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   422 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   423 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   424 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   425 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   426 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   427 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   428 
   429 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   430 
   431 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   432 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   433 
   434 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   435 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   436 
   437 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   438 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   439 or the brute way with
   440 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   441 
   442 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   443 
   444 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   445 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   448 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   449 
   450 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   451 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   452 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   453 INCOMPATIBILITY
   454 
   455 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   456   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   457   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   458   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   459   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   460   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   461   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   462   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   463   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   464   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   465   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   466   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   467 
   468   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   469 
   470   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   471     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   472     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   473     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   474     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   476 
   477 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   478   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   479 
   480   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   481 
   482   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   483 
   484   - removed constant isDiff
   485 
   486   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   487     syntax.
   488 
   489   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   490 
   491   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   492 
   493   - Other renamings:
   494     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   495     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   496     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   497     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   498     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   499     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   503 
   504 * Nitpick:
   505   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   506     infinite values.
   507   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   508     "Rep_Integ".
   509   - Removed "std" option.
   510   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   511     "hide_types".
   512 
   513 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   514   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   515   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   516     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   517     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   518     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   519     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   520     intervals.
   521 
   522 
   523 *** Scala ***
   524 
   525 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   526 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   527 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   528 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   529 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   530 
   531 
   532 *** ML ***
   533 
   534 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   535 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   536 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   537 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   538 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   539 of schematic variables.
   540 
   541 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   542 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   543 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   544 formal context.
   545 
   546 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   547 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   548 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   549 actually belongs to it).
   550 
   551 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   552 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   553 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   554 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   555 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   556 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   557 
   558 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   559 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   560 
   561 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   562 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   563 
   564 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   565 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   566 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   567 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   568 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   569 
   570 
   571 *** System ***
   572 
   573 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   574 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   575 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   576 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   577 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   578 
   579 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   580 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   581 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   582 
   583 
   584 
   585 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   586 -------------------------------------
   587 
   588 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   589 
   590 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   591 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   592 
   593 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   594 after edits surrounding the command location.
   595 
   596 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   597 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   598 e.g. out-of-memory).
   599 
   600 
   601 *** System ***
   602 
   603 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   604 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   605 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   606 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   607 
   608 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   609 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   610 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   611 
   612 
   613 
   614 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   615 -------------------------------------
   616 
   617 *** General ***
   618 
   619 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   620 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   621 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   624 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   625 
   626 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   627 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   628 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   629 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   630 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   631 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   632 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   633 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   634 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   635 syntax.
   636 
   637 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   638 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   639 
   640 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   641 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   642 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   643 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   644 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   645 
   646 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   648 
   649 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   650 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   651 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   652 
   653 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   654 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   655 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   656 
   657 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   658 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   659 
   660 
   661 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   662 
   663 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   664 Documentation panel.
   665 
   666 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   667 documentation.
   668 
   669 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   670 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   671 
   672 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   673 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   674 normal editing and checking process.
   675 
   676 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   677 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   678 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   679 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   680 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   681 
   682 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   683 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   684 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   685 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   686 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   687 
   688 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   689 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   690 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   691 
   692 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   693 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   694 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   695 to resolve conflict.
   696 
   697 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   698 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   699 
   700 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   701 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   702 such command executions while editing.
   703 
   704 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   705 document content.
   706 
   707 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   708 toplevel theorem statements.
   709 
   710 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   711 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   712 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   713 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   714 
   715 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   716 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   717 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   718 
   719 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   720 / Global Options / Appearance".
   721 
   722 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   723 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   724 
   725 
   726 *** Pure ***
   727 
   728 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   729 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   730 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   731 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   732 details.
   733 
   734 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   735 
   736 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   737 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   738 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   739 
   740 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   742 
   743 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   744 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   745 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   746 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   749 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   750 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   753 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   754 
   755 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   756 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   757 situations.
   758 
   759 
   760 *** HOL ***
   761 
   762 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   763 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   767 
   768 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   769 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   770 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   771 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   772 
   773   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   774 
   775 * Code generator:
   776   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   777     'code_instance'.
   778   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   779     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   780 
   781 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   782 examples.
   783 
   784 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   785 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   786 to distinguish both when desired.
   787 
   788 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   789 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   790 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   791 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   794 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   795 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   796 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   797 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   798 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   801 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   802 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   803 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   804 
   805 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   806 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   807 
   808 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   809 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   810 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   811 
   812 * Lifting:
   813   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   814     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   815       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   816       transfer rules
   817     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   818       correspondence relation can be generated
   819     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   820       parametricity
   821     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   822   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   823   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   824     copies
   825   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   826     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   827     anonymous context)
   828   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   829     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   830   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   831     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   832   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   833     INCOMPATIBILITY
   834 
   835 * Transfer:
   836   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   837     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   838   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   839   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   840     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   841   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   842 
   843 * Reification and reflection:
   844   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   845     "Reification".
   846   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   847   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   851   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   852     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   853     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   854   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   855     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   856   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   857     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   858     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   859     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   860     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   861     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   862     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   863     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   864   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   865     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   866   - Fact renames:
   867       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   868       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   872 
   873 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   874 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   875 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   879 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   880 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   881 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   882 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   883 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   884 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   885 lemmas.
   886 
   887 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   888 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   889 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   892 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   893 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   894 
   895 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   896 top and bottom elements.
   897 
   898 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   899 
   900 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   901 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   902 
   903  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   904    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   905    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   906 
   907  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   908    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   909    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   910 
   911    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   912    arbitrary filter.
   913 
   914  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   915    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   916    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   917    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   918    on a compact set.
   919 
   920  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   921    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   922    linear_continuum_topology).
   923 
   924  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   925    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   926    on all sequences converging to x.
   927 
   928  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   929    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   930    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   931    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   932    left or right.
   933 
   934  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   935 
   936      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   937 
   938  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   939    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   940 
   941  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   942    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   943    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   944    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   945    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   946    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   947 
   948  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   949 
   950    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   951 
   952    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   953      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   954 
   955    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   956 
   957    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   958      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   959 
   960    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   961 
   962    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   963 
   964  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   965 
   966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967 
   968 * Nitpick:
   969   - Added option "spy".
   970   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   971 
   972 * Sledgehammer:
   973   - Renamed option:
   974       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   975     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   977   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   978   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   979 
   980 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   981 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   982 
   983 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   984   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   985   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   986     generated code.
   987   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   988   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   989   - Fact renames:
   990     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   991     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   992     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   993 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   994 
   995 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   996 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   997 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   998 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   999 
  1000 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1001 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1002 
  1003 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1004 
  1005 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1006 
  1007     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1008     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1009 
  1010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011 
  1012 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1013 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1014 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1015 
  1016 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1017 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1018 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1019 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1020 
  1021 * HOL-BNF:
  1022   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1023     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1024     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1025     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1026   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1027     coinduct).
  1028   - Renamed keywords:
  1029     data ~> datatype_new
  1030     codata ~> codatatype
  1031     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1032   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1033     discs ~> disc
  1034     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1035     map_id' ~> map_id
  1036     sels ~> sel
  1037     set_map' ~> set_map
  1038     sets ~> set
  1039 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 
  1042 *** ML ***
  1043 
  1044 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1045 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1046 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1047 Examples.thy in particular.
  1048 
  1049 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1050 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1051 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1052 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1053 
  1054 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1055 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1056 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1057 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1059 
  1060 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1061 
  1062     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1063     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1064 
  1065 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1068 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1069 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1070 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1071 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1072 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1073 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1074 
  1075 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1076 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1077 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1078 clasets separately from the context.
  1079 
  1080 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1081 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1082 
  1083 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1084 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1085 
  1086 
  1087 *** System ***
  1088 
  1089 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1090 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091 
  1092 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1093 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1096 settings variable.
  1097 
  1098 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1099 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1100 always pdf.
  1101 
  1102 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1103 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1104 
  1105 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1106 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1107 
  1108 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1109 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1110 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1111 
  1112 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1113 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1114 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1115 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1116 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1117 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1118 
  1119 
  1120 
  1121 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1122 -----------------------------------
  1123 
  1124 *** General ***
  1125 
  1126 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1127 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1128 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1129 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1130 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1131 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1132 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1133 
  1134 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1135 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1136 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1137 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1138 
  1139 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1140 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1141 
  1142 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1143 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1144 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1145 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1146 dependencies properly.
  1147 
  1148 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1149 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1150 
  1151 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1152 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1153 
  1154 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1155 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1156 and "class ... context ...".
  1157 
  1158 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1159 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1160 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1161 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1162 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1163 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1164 
  1165 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1166 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1167 
  1168 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1169 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1170 
  1171 
  1172 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1173 
  1174 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1175 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1176 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1177 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1178 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1179 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1180 
  1181 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1182 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1183 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1184 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1185 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1186 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1187 
  1188 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1189 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1190 browser on demand.
  1191 
  1192 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1193 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1194 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1195 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1196 
  1197 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1198 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1199 
  1200 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1201 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1202 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1203 potentially infinite message streams.
  1204 
  1205 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1206 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1207 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1208 schemes.
  1209 
  1210 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1211 symbols.
  1212 
  1213 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1214 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1215 
  1216 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1217 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1218 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1219 
  1220 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1221 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1222 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1223 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1224 
  1225 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1226 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1227 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1228 
  1229 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1230 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1231 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1232 Isabelle distribution.
  1233 
  1234 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1235 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1236 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1237 
  1238 
  1239 *** Pure ***
  1240 
  1241 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1242 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1243 
  1244 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1245 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1246 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1247 
  1248 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1249 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1250 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1251 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1252 with some care where this is really required.
  1253 
  1254 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1255 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1256 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1257 
  1258   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1259 
  1260 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1261 a Hasse diagram.
  1262 
  1263 
  1264 *** HOL ***
  1265 
  1266 * Sledgehammer:
  1267 
  1268   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1269     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1270   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1271   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1272   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1273   - Renamed options:
  1274       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1275       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1276       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1277       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1278 
  1279 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1280 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1281 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1282 
  1283 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * Lifting:
  1287   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1288   - quot_del attribute
  1289   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1290 
  1291 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1292 expressions.
  1293 
  1294 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1295 pointfree expressions.
  1296 
  1297 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1298 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1299 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1300 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1302 
  1303 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1304 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1305 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1306 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1307 accordingly.
  1308 
  1309 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1310 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1311 
  1312 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1313 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1318 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1319 
  1320 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1321 
  1322 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1323 
  1324   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1325   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1326 
  1327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1330 
  1331   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1332   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1333 
  1334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1335 
  1336 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1337 
  1338   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1339     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1340     output f x converges to G.
  1341 
  1342   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1343     infinity (at_bot).
  1344 
  1345   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1346     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1347 
  1348   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1349     at_top".
  1350 
  1351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1352 
  1353 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1354 lattice type classes.
  1355 
  1356 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1357 
  1358     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1359     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1360 
  1361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1364 changes as follows.
  1365 
  1366   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1367 
  1368       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1369       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1370 
  1371   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1372     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1373     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1374     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1375 
  1376   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1377     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1378     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1379 
  1380   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1381     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1382     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1383     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1384 
  1385   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1386     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1387 
  1388       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1389       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1390       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1391       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1392       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1393       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1394       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1395       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1396       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1397       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1398       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1399       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1400       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1401       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1402       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1403       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1404 
  1405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1406 
  1407 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1408 
  1409 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1410 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1411 
  1412 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1413 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1414 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1415 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1416 
  1417   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1418   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1419   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1420   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1421   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1422   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1423   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1424   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1425   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1426   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1427 
  1428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1431 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1432 Data").
  1433 
  1434 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1435 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1436 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1437 code.
  1438 
  1439 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1440 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1441 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1445 
  1446 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1447 
  1448 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1449 
  1450   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1451   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1452 
  1453 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1454 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1455 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1456 
  1457   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1458 
  1459     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1460     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1461     cart_base i  removed
  1462     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1463 
  1464   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1465 
  1466   Renamed lemmas:
  1467 
  1468     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1469     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1470     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1471     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1472     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1473     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1474     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1475     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1476     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1477     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1478 
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * HOL/Probability:
  1482 
  1483   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1484 
  1485   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1486     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1487     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1488 
  1489   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1490     projective family).
  1491 
  1492 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1493 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1494 
  1495 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1496 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1497 datatypes.
  1498 
  1499 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1500 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1501 
  1502 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1503 trees for the code generator.
  1504 
  1505 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1506 Lifting/Transfer.
  1507 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1508 
  1509 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511 
  1512 
  1513 *** Document preparation ***
  1514 
  1515 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1516 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1517 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1518 
  1519 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1520 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1521 
  1522 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1523 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1524 document/root.tex.
  1525 
  1526 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1527 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529 
  1530 *** ML ***
  1531 
  1532 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1533 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1534 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1535 
  1536 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1537 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1538 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1539 
  1540 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1541 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1542 necessarily printing visible text.
  1543 
  1544 
  1545 *** System ***
  1546 
  1547 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1548 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1549 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1550 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1551 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1552 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1553 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1554 
  1555 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1556 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1557 
  1558   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1559 
  1560 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1561 
  1562 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1563 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1564 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1565 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1566 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1567 
  1568 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1569 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1570 
  1571 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1572 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1573 
  1574 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1578 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1579 version of Isabelle.
  1580 
  1581 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1582 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1583 
  1584 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1585 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1586 for home-made settings.
  1587 
  1588 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1589 
  1590 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1591 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1592 configuration.
  1593 
  1594 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1595 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1596 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1597 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1598 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1599 
  1600 
  1601 
  1602 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1603 ------------------------------
  1604 
  1605 *** General ***
  1606 
  1607 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1608 
  1609   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1610     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1611   - markup for bound variables
  1612   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1613   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1614   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1615     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1616 
  1617 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1618 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1619 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1620 
  1621 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1622 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1623 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1624 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1625 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1626 
  1627   context
  1628     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1629     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1630   begin
  1631 
  1632   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1633 
  1634   end
  1635 
  1636   thm my_trans
  1637 
  1638 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1639 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1640 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1641 
  1642 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1643 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1644 
  1645 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1646 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1647 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1648 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1649 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1650 
  1651 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1652 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1653 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1654 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1655 indices of schematic variables.
  1656 
  1657 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1658 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1659 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1660 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1661 etc. was exploited.
  1662 
  1663 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1664 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1665 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1666 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1667 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1668 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1669 
  1670 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1671 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1672 manual.
  1673 
  1674 
  1675 *** Pure ***
  1676 
  1677 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1678 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1679 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1680 
  1681 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1682 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1683 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1684 undocumented feature.)
  1685 
  1686 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1687 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1688 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1689 
  1690   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1691 
  1692   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1693     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1694 
  1695 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1696 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1697 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1698 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1699 
  1700 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1701 
  1702     num ~> num_token
  1703     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1704     xstr ~> str_token
  1705 
  1706 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1707 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1708 position information via constraints).
  1709 
  1710 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1711 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1712 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713 
  1714 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1715 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1716 
  1717 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1718 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1719 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1720 
  1721 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1722 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1723 
  1724 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1725 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1726 
  1727   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1728 
  1729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1732 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1733 
  1734 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1735 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1736 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1737 
  1738 
  1739 *** HOL ***
  1740 
  1741 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1742 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1743 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1744 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1745 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1746 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1747 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1748 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1749 possible.
  1750 
  1751 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1752 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1753 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1754 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1755 
  1756 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1757 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1760 
  1761 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1762 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1763 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1764 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1765 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1766 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1767 
  1768   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1769     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1770 
  1771   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1772     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1773     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1774 
  1775   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1776     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1777 
  1778   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1779     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1780     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1781 
  1782   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1783     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1784 
  1785 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1786 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1787 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1788 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1789 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1790 
  1791   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1792     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1793     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1794     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1795     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1796 
  1797     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1798     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1799 
  1800   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1801     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1802     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1803     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1804     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1805     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1806     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1807     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1808 
  1809   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1810     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1811     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1812     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1813 
  1814   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1815     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1816     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1817     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1818 
  1819   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1820     from type nat to type int.
  1821 
  1822 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1823 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1824 
  1825   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1826     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1827     type.  Example syntax:
  1828 
  1829     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1830       is List.insert
  1831 
  1832     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1833     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1834     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1835     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1836     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1837     by the package.
  1838 
  1839   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1840     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1841     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1842     code generation for each constant.
  1843 
  1844   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1845     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1846     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1847     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1848     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1849 
  1850   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1851     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1852     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1853 
  1854 * Quotient package:
  1855 
  1856   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1857     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1858 
  1859   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1860     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1861 
  1862   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1863     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1864     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1867     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1868 
  1869 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1870 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1871 
  1872 * Quickcheck:
  1873 
  1874   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1875     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1876     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1877     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1878     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1879 
  1880     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1881     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1882     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1883 
  1884     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1885     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1886 
  1887     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1888     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1889     show genuine counterexamples.
  1890 
  1891   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1892     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1893 
  1894     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1895     constructors of that type.
  1896 
  1897   - Support for multisets.
  1898 
  1899   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1900 
  1901   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1902     conjectures in a locale context.
  1903 
  1904 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1905 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1906 
  1907 * Sledgehammer:
  1908   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1909     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1910   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1911   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1912     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1913   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1914   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1915   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1916   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1917 
  1918 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1919 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1920 
  1921 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1922 
  1923 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1924 
  1925 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1926 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1927 
  1928   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1929 
  1930 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1931 a list and a nat.
  1932 
  1933 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1934 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1935 
  1936 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1937 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1938 default.
  1939 
  1940 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1941 
  1942   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1943 
  1944 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1945 
  1946 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1947 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1948 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1949 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1950 one_case.
  1951 
  1952 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1953 the result of the fact expression.
  1954 
  1955 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1956 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1957 of some relation theorems:
  1958 
  1959   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1960   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1961   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1962   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1963   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1964   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1965 
  1966 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1967 
  1968 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1969 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1970 
  1971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1972 
  1973 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1974 to match the constant's name:
  1975 
  1976   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1977   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1978   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1979   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1980   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1981   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1982   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1983   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1984   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1985   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1986   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1987   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1988   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1989   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1990   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1991   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1992   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1993   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1994   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1995   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1996   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1997   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1998   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1999   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2000 
  2001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2002 
  2003 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2004 and corresponding theorem names:
  2005 
  2006   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2007 
  2008   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2009 
  2010   - Renamed theorems:
  2011 
  2012     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2013     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2014     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2015     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2016     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2017     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2018     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2019     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2020     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2021     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2022     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2023     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2024     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2025     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2026     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2027     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2028     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2029     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2030     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2031     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2032     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2033     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2034     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2035 
  2036     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2037 
  2038     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2039 
  2040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2043 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2044 
  2045   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2046   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2047   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2048   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2049   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2050   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2051   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2052   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2053   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2054   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2055   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2056   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2057   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2058   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2059   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2060   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2061   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2062   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2063   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2064   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2065   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2066 
  2067 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2068 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2071 
  2072 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2073 
  2074   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2075   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2076   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2077   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2078   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2079   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2080   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2081   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2082   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2083   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2084   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2085   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2086   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2087   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2088   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2089   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2090   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2091   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2092 
  2093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2096 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2097 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2098 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2099 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2100 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2101 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2102 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2103 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2104 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2105 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2106 
  2107 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2108 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2109 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2110 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2111 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2112 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2113 
  2114 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2115 through option types.
  2116 
  2117 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2118 relations.
  2119 
  2120 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2123 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2124 
  2125   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2126   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2127   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2128   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2129   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2130   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2131   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2132   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2133   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2134   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2135   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2136   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2137   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2138   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2139   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2140   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2141   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2142   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2143   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2144   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2145   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2146   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2147   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2148   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2149   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2150   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2151   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2152   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2153   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2154   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2155   zless_le ~> less_le
  2156   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2157   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2158   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2159 
  2160 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2161 
  2162   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2163 
  2164 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2165 
  2166 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2167 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2168 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2169 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2173 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2174 
  2175 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2176 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2177 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2178 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2179 follows:
  2180 
  2181   Operations:
  2182   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2183   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2184   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2185   del -> rbt_del
  2186   delete -> rbt_delete
  2187   ins -> rbt_ins
  2188   insert -> rbt_insert
  2189   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2190   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2191   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2192   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2193   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2194   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2195   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2196   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2197   union -> rbt_union
  2198   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2199   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2200 
  2201   Lemmas:
  2202   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2203   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2204   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2205   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2206   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2207   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2208   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2209   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2210   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2211   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2212   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2213   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2214   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2215   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2216   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2217   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2218   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2219   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2220   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2221   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2222   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2223   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2224   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2225   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2226   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2227   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2228   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2229   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2230   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2231   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2232   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2233   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2234   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2235   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2236   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2237   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2238   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2239   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2240   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2241   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2242   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2243   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2244   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2245   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2246   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2247   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2248   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2249   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2250   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2251   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2252   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2253   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2254   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2255   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2256   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2257   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2258   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2259   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2260   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2261   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2262   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2263   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2264   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2265   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2266   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2267   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2268   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2269   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2270   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2271   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2272   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2273   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2274   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2275   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2276   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2277   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2278   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2279   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2280   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2281   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2282   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2283   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2284   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2285 
  2286 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2287 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2288 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2289 
  2290   Changed Operations:
  2291   float_abs -> abs
  2292   float_nprt -> nprt
  2293   float_pprt -> pprt
  2294   pow2 -> use powr
  2295   round_down -> float_round_down
  2296   round_up -> float_round_up
  2297   scale -> exponent
  2298 
  2299   Removed Operations:
  2300   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2301 
  2302   Renamed Lemmas:
  2303   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2304   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2305   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2306   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2307   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2308   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2309   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2310   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2311   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2312   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2313   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2314   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2315   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2316   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2317   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2318   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2319   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2320   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2321   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2322   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2323   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2324   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2325   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2326   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2327   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2328   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2329   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2330   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2331   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2332   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2333   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2334   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2335   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2336   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2337   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2338   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2339 
  2340   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2341   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2342   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2343   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2344   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2345   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2346   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2347   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2348   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2349   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2350 
  2351 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2352 association lists with distinct keys.
  2353 
  2354 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2355 annotated commands.
  2356 
  2357 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2358 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2359 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2360 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2363 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2364 instead.
  2365 
  2366   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2367   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2368   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2369   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2370   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2371   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2372   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2373   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2374   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2375   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2376   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2377   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2378   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2379   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2380   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2381   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2382   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2383   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2384   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2385   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2386   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2387   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2388   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2389   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2390   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2391   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2392   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2393   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2394   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2395   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2396   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2397   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2398   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2399   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2400   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2401   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2402   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2403   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2404   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2405   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2406   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2407 
  2408 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2409 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2410 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2411 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2412 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2413 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2414 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2415 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2416 
  2417 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2418 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2419 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2420 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2421 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2422 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2423 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2424 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2425 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2426 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2427 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2428 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2429 
  2430   Renamed constants:
  2431   measure -> emeasure
  2432   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2433   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2434   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2435   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2436 
  2437   Removed locales:
  2438   completeable_measure_space
  2439   finite_measure_space
  2440   finite_prob_space
  2441   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2442   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2443   finite_sigma_algebra
  2444   measure_space
  2445   pair_finite_prob_space
  2446   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2447   pair_finite_space
  2448   pair_sigma_algebra
  2449   product_sigma_algebra
  2450 
  2451   Removed constants:
  2452   conditional_space
  2453   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2454   image_space
  2455   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2456   pair_measure_generator
  2457   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2458   subvimage
  2459 
  2460   Replacement theorems:
  2461   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2462   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2463   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2464   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2465   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2466   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2467   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2468   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2469   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2470   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2471   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2472   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2473   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2474   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2475   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2476   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2477   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2478   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2479   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2480   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2481   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2482   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2483   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2484   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2485   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2486   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2487   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2488   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2489   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2490   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2491   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2492   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2493   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2494   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2495   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2496   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2497   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2498   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2499   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2500   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2501   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2502   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2503   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2504   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2505   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2506   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2507   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2508   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2509   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2510   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2511   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2512   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2513   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2514   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2515   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2516   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2517   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2518   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2519   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2520   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2521   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2522   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2523   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2524   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2525   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2526   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2527   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2528   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2529   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2530   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2531   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2532   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2533   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2534   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2535   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2536   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2537   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2538   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2539   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2540   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2541   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2542   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2543   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2544   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2545   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2546   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2547   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2548   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2549   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2550   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2551   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2552   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2553   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2554   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2555   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2556   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2557   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2558   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2559   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2560   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2561   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2562   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2563   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2564   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2565   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2566   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2567   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2568   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2569   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2570   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2571   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2572   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2573   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2574   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2575   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2576   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2577   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2578   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2579   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2580   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2581   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2582   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2583   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2584   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2585   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2586   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2587   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2588   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2589 
  2590 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2591 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2592 
  2593 
  2594 *** FOL ***
  2595 
  2596 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2597 
  2598 
  2599 *** ZF ***
  2600 
  2601 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2602 analysis.
  2603 
  2604 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2605 
  2606 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 
  2609 *** ML ***
  2610 
  2611 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2612 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2613 
  2614 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2615 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2616 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2617 
  2618 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2619 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2620 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2621 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2622 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2623 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2624 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2625 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2626 
  2627 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2628 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2629 
  2630 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2631 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2632 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2633 
  2634 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2635 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2638 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2639 context as well.
  2640 
  2641 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2642 
  2643   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2644   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2645   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2646   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2647   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2648   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2649   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2650   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2651   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2652   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2653   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2654   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2655 
  2656 
  2657 *** System ***
  2658 
  2659 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2660 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2661 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2662 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2663 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2664 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2665 the generic user home was intended.
  2666 
  2667 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2668 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2669 
  2670 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2671 (not just JRE).
  2672 
  2673 
  2674 
  2675 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2676 ------------------------------------
  2677 
  2678 *** General ***
  2679 
  2680 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2681 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2682 
  2683   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2684     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2685     files for checking).
  2686 
  2687   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2688     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2689     positions.
  2690 
  2691   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2692     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2693     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2694 
  2695   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2696     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2697     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2698 
  2699   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2700     cores.
  2701 
  2702   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2703     versions (garbage collection).
  2704 
  2705 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2706 including some remaining limitations.
  2707 
  2708 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2709 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2710 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2711 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2712 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2714 
  2715 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2716 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2717 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2718 
  2719 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2720 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2721 usedir option -Q.
  2722 
  2723 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2724 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2725 
  2726   long_names   ~> names_long
  2727   short_names  ~> names_short
  2728   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2729 
  2730 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2731 
  2732   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2733 
  2734 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2735 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2736 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2737 
  2738 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2739 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2740 
  2741 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2742   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2743   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2744   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2745     "Classical Reasoner".
  2746 
  2747 
  2748 *** HOL ***
  2749 
  2750 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2751 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2752 
  2753 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2754 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2755 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2756 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2757 class complete_linorder.
  2758 
  2759 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2760 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2761 
  2762 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2763 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2764 
  2765   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2766   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2767   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2768   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2769   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2770   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2771   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2772   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2773   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2774   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2775   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2776 
  2777 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2778 
  2779   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2780   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2781   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2782   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2783   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2784   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2785   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2786   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2787   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2788   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2789   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2790   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2791   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2792   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2793   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2794   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2795 
  2796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2802 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2803 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2804 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2805 
  2806 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2807 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2808 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2812 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2813 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2814 
  2815 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2816 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2817 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818 
  2819 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2820 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2821 
  2822 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2823 
  2824     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2825     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2826 
  2827 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2828 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829 
  2830 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2831 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2832 
  2833 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2834 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2835 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2836 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2837 
  2838   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2839   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2840   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2841   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2842   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2843   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2844   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2845 
  2846 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2847 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2850   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2851   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2852   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2853   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2854   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2855   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2856   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2857   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2858   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2859   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2860   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2861   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2862   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2863   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2864   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2865   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2866   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2867   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2868   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2869   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2870   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2871   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2872   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2873   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2874   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2875   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2876   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2877   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2878   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2879   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2880   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2881   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2882   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2883   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2884   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2885   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2886   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2887   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2888   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2889   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2890   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2891   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2892   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2893   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2894   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2895   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2896   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2897   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2898   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2899   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2900   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2901   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2902   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2903   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2904   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2905   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2906   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2907   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2908   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2909   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2910   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2911   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2912   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2913   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2914   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2915   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2916   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2917   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2918   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2919   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2920   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2921   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2922   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2923   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2924   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2925   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2926   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2927   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2928   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2929   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2930   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2931 
  2932 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2933 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2934 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2935 
  2936 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2937 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2938 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2939 
  2940 * Code generation:
  2941 
  2942   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2943     characters in the target language.
  2944 
  2945   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2946     instead.
  2947 
  2948   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2949 
  2950   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2951     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2952 
  2953       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2954 
  2955 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2958 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2959 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2960 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2961 syntax.
  2962 
  2963 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2964 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2965 
  2966 * Nitpick:
  2967   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2968   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2969   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2970     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Sledgehammer:
  2973   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2974   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2975     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2976   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2977     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2978   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2979     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2981     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2982   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2983     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Metis:
  2986   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2988     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Command 'try':
  2991   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2992     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2994     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2995 
  2996 * Quickcheck:
  2997   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2998     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2999   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3000     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3001   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3002     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3003     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3004     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3005   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3006     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3007 
  3008 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3009 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3010 
  3011 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3012 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3013 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3014 
  3015 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3016 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3020 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3023 arithmetic.
  3024 
  3025 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3026 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3027 and lattice type classes.
  3028 
  3029 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3030 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3031 
  3032 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3033 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3034 
  3035 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3036 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3037 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3038 
  3039   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3040   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3041   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3042   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3043 
  3044 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3045 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3046 constants:
  3047 
  3048   type inat   ~> type enat
  3049   Fin         ~> enat
  3050   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3051   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3052   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3053 
  3054 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3055 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3058 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3059 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3060 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3061 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3062 
  3063 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3064 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3065 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3066 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3067 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3068 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3069 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3070 
  3071   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3072   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3073   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3074   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3075 
  3076 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3077 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3078 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3081   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3082   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3083   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3084   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3085   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3086   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3087   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3088   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3089   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3090   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3091   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3092   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3093   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3094   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3095   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3096   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3097   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3098   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3099   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3100   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3101   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3102   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3103   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3104   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3105   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3106   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3107   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3108   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3109   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3110   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3111   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3112   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3113   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3114   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3115   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3116   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3117   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3118   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3119   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3120   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3121   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3122   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3123   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3124   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3125   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3126   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3127   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3128   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3129   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3130   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3131 
  3132 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3133   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3134   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3135   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3136   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3137     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3140 
  3141   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3142   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3143   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3144   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3145   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3146   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3147   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3148   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3149   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3150   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3151   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3152   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3153   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3154   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3155   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3156   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3157   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3158   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3159   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3160   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3161   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3162   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3163   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3164   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3165   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3166 
  3167 
  3168 *** Document preparation ***
  3169 
  3170 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3171 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3172 same.
  3173 
  3174 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3175 result.
  3176 
  3177 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3178 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3179 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3180 
  3181 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3182 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3183 
  3184 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3185 like this:
  3186 
  3187   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3188   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3189 
  3190 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3191 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3192 layouts.
  3193 
  3194 
  3195 *** ML ***
  3196 
  3197 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3198 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3199 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3200 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3201 under external program control.
  3202 
  3203 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3204 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3205 
  3206 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3207 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3208 (better known as Proof General).
  3209 
  3210 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3211 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3212 
  3213 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3214 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3215 
  3216 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3217 (including quotes etc.).
  3218 
  3219 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3220 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3221 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3222 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3223 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3224 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3225 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3226 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3227 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3228 
  3229 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3230 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3231 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3232 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3233 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3234 
  3235 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3236 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3237 
  3238 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3239 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3240 
  3241 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3242 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3243 
  3244 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3245 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3246 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3247 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3248 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3249 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3250 proper Proof.context.
  3251 
  3252 
  3253 *** System ***
  3254 
  3255 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3256 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3257 
  3258 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3259 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3260 
  3261 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3262 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3263 
  3264   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3265   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3266   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3267   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3268   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3269 
  3270 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3271 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3274 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3275 example:
  3276 
  3277   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3278 
  3279 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3280 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3281 
  3282 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3283 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3284 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3285 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3286 
  3287 
  3288 
  3289 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3290 ----------------------------------
  3291 
  3292 *** General ***
  3293 
  3294 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3295 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3296 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3297 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3298 like this:
  3299 
  3300   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3301 
  3302 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3303 
  3304 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3305 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3306 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3307 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3308 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3309 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3310 
  3311 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3312 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3313 the following package declarations:
  3314 
  3315   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3316   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3317 
  3318 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3319 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3320 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3321 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3322 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3323 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3324 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3325 
  3326 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3327 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3328 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3329 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3330 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3331 
  3332 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3333 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3334 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3335 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3336 
  3337 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3338 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3339 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3340 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3341 
  3342   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3343 
  3344   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3345   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3346   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3347   show_types                    show_types
  3348   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3349   show_consts                   show_consts
  3350   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3351 
  3352   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3353   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3354   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3355 
  3356   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3357   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3358 
  3359   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3360 
  3361   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3362   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3363   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3364   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3365   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3366 
  3367 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3368 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3369 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3370 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3371 
  3372 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3376   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3377 
  3378 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3379 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3380 float_token.
  3381 
  3382 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3383 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3387 DejaVu Sans.
  3388 
  3389 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3390 
  3391 
  3392 *** Pure ***
  3393 
  3394 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3395 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3396 time.
  3397 
  3398 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3399 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3402 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3405 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3406 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3407 command already provided this functionality.
  3408 
  3409 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3410 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3411 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3412 without interpretations.
  3413 
  3414 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3415 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3416 
  3417 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3418 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3419 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3420 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3421 
  3422 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3423 'definition' instead.
  3424 
  3425 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3426 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3427 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3428 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3429 
  3430 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3431 constructors.
  3432 
  3433 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3434 the local file system.
  3435 
  3436 
  3437 *** HOL ***
  3438 
  3439 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3440 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3441 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3442 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3443 
  3444   declare [[coercion f]]
  3445 
  3446 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3447 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3448 
  3449   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3450 
  3451 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3452 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3453 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3454 other theories like this:
  3455 
  3456   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3457 
  3458 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3459 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3460 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3461 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3462 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3463 for examples.
  3464 
  3465 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3466 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3469 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3470 
  3471 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3472 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3473 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3474 
  3475 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3476 functorial structure of types.
  3477 
  3478 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3479 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3480 
  3481 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3482 languages.
  3483 
  3484 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3485 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3487 
  3488 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3489 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3492 combinators any longer.
  3493 
  3494 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3495 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3496 
  3497 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3498 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3499 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3500 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3501 
  3502   record 'a foo = ...
  3503   ...
  3504   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3505 
  3506 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3507 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3511 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3512 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3513 
  3514 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3515 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3516 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3517 
  3518 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3519 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3522 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3523 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3524 independently.
  3525 
  3526 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3527 counter example search.
  3528 
  3529 * Sledgehammer:
  3530   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3531     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3532     sledgehammer").
  3533   - Renamed commands:
  3534     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3535     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3536     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3537     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538   - Renamed options:
  3539     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3540     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3541     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3542     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3543     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3544 
  3545 * Nitpick:
  3546   - Renamed options:
  3547     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3548     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3549     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3551   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3552   - Added "whack" option.
  3553   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3554   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3555   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3556   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3557     higher cardinalities.
  3558   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3559 
  3560 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3561 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3562 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3563 
  3564     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3565 
  3566 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3567 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3568 
  3569 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3570 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3571 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3572 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3573 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3574 "smt_solver".
  3575 
  3576 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3577 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3578 
  3579 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3580 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3581 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3582 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3583 
  3584 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3585   - Renamed:
  3586     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3587     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3588     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3589   - Added:
  3590     smt_verbose
  3591     smt_random_seed
  3592     smt_datatypes
  3593     smt_infer_triggers
  3594     smt_monomorph_limit
  3595     cvc3_options
  3596     remote_cvc3_options
  3597     remote_z3_options
  3598     yices_options
  3599 
  3600 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3601 header.
  3602 
  3603 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3604 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3605 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3606 
  3607   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3608 
  3609 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3610 
  3611 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3612 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3617 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3620 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3621 
  3622 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3623 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3624 
  3625 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3626 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3627 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3628 
  3629 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3635 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3638 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3639 for congruent(2)).
  3640 
  3641 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3642 
  3643   types
  3644     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3645     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3646 
  3647   constants
  3648     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3649     True ~> HOL.True
  3650     False ~> HOL.False
  3651     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3652     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3653     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3654     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3655     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3656     The ~> HOL.The
  3657     All ~> HOL.All
  3658     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3659     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3660     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3661     If ~> HOL.If
  3662     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3663     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3664     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3665     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3666     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3667     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3668     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3669     op : ~> Set.member
  3670     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3671 
  3672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3675 
  3676     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3677     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3678     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3679     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3680     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3681     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3682     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3683     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3684 
  3685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3686 
  3687 * More stylized fact names:
  3688 
  3689   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3690   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3691   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3692   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3693 
  3694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3697 
  3698   constants
  3699     null ~> List.null
  3700 
  3701   facts
  3702     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3703     null_empty ~> null_def
  3704 
  3705 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3706 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3707 generation.
  3708 
  3709 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3710 Haskell code.
  3711 
  3712 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3713 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3714 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3717 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3720 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3721 
  3722 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3723 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3724 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3727 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3733 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3734 referred to by its qualified name.
  3735 
  3736   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3737   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3738   product ~>  Enum.product
  3739 
  3740 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3741 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3745 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3746 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3750 sort_key.
  3751 
  3752 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3756 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3757 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3758 
  3759   types
  3760     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3761               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3762               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3763         (depends on your needs)
  3764 
  3765   constants
  3766      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3767      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3768      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3769 
  3770 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3771 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3772 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3773 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3776 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3777 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3778 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3779 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3785 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3786 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3787 
  3788 
  3789 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3790 
  3791 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3792 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3793 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3794 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3795 compatibility.
  3796 
  3797 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3798 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3799 
  3800 
  3801 *** HOLCF ***
  3802 
  3803 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3804 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3805 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3807 
  3808 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3809 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3810 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3811 
  3812   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3813   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3814   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3815 
  3816 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3817 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3818 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3821 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3822 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3823 domain definition now works:
  3824 
  3825   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3826 
  3827 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3828 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3829 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3830 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3831 
  3832   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3833     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3834 
  3835   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3836 
  3837 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3838 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3839 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3840 
  3841 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3842 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3845 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3846 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3847 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3848 
  3849 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3850 
  3851 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3852 
  3853 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3859 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3860 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3861 
  3862 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3863 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3864 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3867 still supported as an input translation.
  3868 
  3869 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3870 
  3871   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3872   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3873   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3874   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3875   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3876   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3877   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3878 
  3879 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3880 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3883   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3884   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3885   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3886   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3887   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3888 
  3889 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3890 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3893 
  3894   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3895   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3896   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3897   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3898 
  3899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900 
  3901 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3902 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3903 
  3904 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3905 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3908   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3909   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3910   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3911   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3912   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3913   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3914   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3915   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3916   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3917   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3918   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3919   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3920   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3921   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3922   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3923   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3924   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3925   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3926   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3927 
  3928 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3931   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3932   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3933   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3934   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3935   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3936   box_less             ~> box_below
  3937   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3938   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3939   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3940   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3941   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3942   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3943   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3944   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3945   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3946   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3947   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3948   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3949   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3950   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3951   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3952   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3953   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3954   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3955   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3956   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3957   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3958   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3959   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3960   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3961   up_less              ~> up_below
  3962   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3963   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3964   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3965   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3966   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3967   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3968   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3969   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3970   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3971   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3972   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3973   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3974   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3975 
  3976 
  3977 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3978 
  3979 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3980 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 
  3983 *** ML ***
  3984 
  3985 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3986 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3987 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3988 
  3989 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3990 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3991 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3992 
  3993 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3994 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3995 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3996 
  3997 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3998 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3999 
  4000 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4001 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4002 
  4003 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4004 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4005 
  4006 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4007 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4008 
  4009 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4010 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4011 almost all situations.
  4012 
  4013 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4014 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4015 Isabelle/ML.
  4016 
  4017 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4018 meaning.
  4019 
  4020 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4021 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4022 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4023 
  4024 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4025 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4026 
  4027 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4028 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4029 
  4030 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4031 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4032 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4033 
  4034 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4035 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4036 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4037 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4038 configuration options.
  4039 
  4040 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4041 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4042 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4043 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4044 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4045 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4046 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4047 
  4048 
  4049 
  4050 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4051 ---------------------------------
  4052 
  4053 *** General ***
  4054 
  4055 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4056 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4057 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4058 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4059 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4060 their full internal name.
  4061 
  4062 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4063 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4064 Some hints on upgrading:
  4065 
  4066   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4067     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4068     which are independent of this issue.
  4069 
  4070   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4071     provides the following special forms:
  4072 
  4073       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4074       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4075       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4076 
  4077     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4078     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4079     extra variables".
  4080 
  4081     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4082     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4083     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4084     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4085     "logic".
  4086 
  4087   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4088     antiquotations:
  4089 
  4090       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4091       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4092       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4093       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4094 
  4095   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4096     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4097     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4098     antiquotations.
  4099 
  4100 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4101 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4102 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4103 diagnose syntax problems.
  4104 
  4105 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4106 
  4107 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4108 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4109 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4110 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4111 
  4112 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4113 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4114 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4115 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4118 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4119 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4120 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4121 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4124 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4125 
  4126 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4127 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4128 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4129 
  4130   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4131 
  4132 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4133 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4134 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4135 
  4136 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4137 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4141 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4142 
  4143 
  4144 *** Pure ***
  4145 
  4146 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4147 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4148 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4149 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4150 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4151 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4152 inspect proof terms.
  4153 
  4154 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4155 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4156 are added internally.  For example:
  4157 
  4158   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4159 
  4160 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4161 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4166 'class' instead.
  4167 
  4168 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4169 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4173 invariants.
  4174 
  4175 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4176 user space functionality any longer.
  4177 
  4178 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4179 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4183 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4184 
  4185 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4186 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4187 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4188 
  4189 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4190 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4191 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4192 
  4193 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4194 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 
  4197 *** HOL ***
  4198 
  4199 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4200 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4201 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4202 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4203 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4204 
  4205 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4206 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4207 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4208 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4209 
  4210   fun
  4211     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4212   where
  4213     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4214 
  4215   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4216     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4217 
  4218   quotient_definition
  4219     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4220 
  4221 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4222 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4223 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4224 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4225 
  4226 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4227 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4228 
  4229 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4230 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4231 
  4232 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4234 
  4235 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4236 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4237 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4238 
  4239 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4240 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247 
  4248 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4249 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4252 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4253 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4256   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4257   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4258   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4259   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4260   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4261   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4262   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4263   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4264   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4265   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4266   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4267   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4268   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4269   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4270   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4271   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4272   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4273   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4274   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4275   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4276   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4277   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4278   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4279   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4280   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4281   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4282   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4283   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4284   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4285 
  4286 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4287 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4288 
  4289 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4290 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4291 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4292 
  4293 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4294 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4295 
  4296 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4297 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4300 
  4301 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4302 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4305 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4308 
  4309 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4310 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4311 
  4312 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4313 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4314 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4315 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4316 
  4317 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4318   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4319   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4320   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4324 lattices):
  4325 
  4326     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4327     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4328 
  4329     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4330 
  4331     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4332     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4333     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4334     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4335     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4336     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4337     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4338     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4339     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4340     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4341     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4342     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4343     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4344 
  4345     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4346     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4347     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4348     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4349     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4350     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4351     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4352     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4353     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4354     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4355     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4356     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4357     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4358     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4359     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4360     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4361     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4362     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4363 
  4364   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4365   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4366 
  4367     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4368     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4369     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4370     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4371     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4372 
  4373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375 * Refined field classes:
  4376   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4377     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4378     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4379   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4383   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4384   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4385   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4386     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4387   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4388     equal_neg_zero.
  4389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4392 sets to lattices:
  4393 
  4394   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4395   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4396   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4397   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4398   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4399   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4400   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4401   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4402   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4403   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4404 
  4405 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4406 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4407 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4408 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4409 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4410 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4413 multiset order:
  4414 
  4415   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4416     <= and <;
  4417   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4418     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4419     multiset_order;
  4420   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4421     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4422     generation;
  4423   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4424     if needed.
  4425 
  4426 Renamed:
  4427 
  4428   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4429   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4430   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4431 
  4432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4433 
  4434 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4435 
  4436 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4437 
  4438 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4439 
  4440 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4441 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4442 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444   Constants:
  4445   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4446   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4447   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4448   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4449   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4450   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4451   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4452   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4453   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4454   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4455   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4456   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4457   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4458 
  4459   Lemmas:
  4460   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4461   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4462   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4463   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4464   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4465   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4466   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4467   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4468   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4469   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4470   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4471   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4472   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4473 
  4474 * Sledgehammer:
  4475   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4476     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4477     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4478     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4479     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4480     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4481     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4482   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4483   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4484     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4485   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4486     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4487     is still experimental.)
  4488   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4489     full-typed mode.
  4490   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4491 
  4492 * Nitpick:
  4493   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4494   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4495   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4496     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4497   - Added support for quotient types.
  4498   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4499     constructs.
  4500   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4501     "termination" proofs).
  4502   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4503   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4504   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4505   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4506     record getters.
  4507   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4508   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4509   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4510   - Added "atoms" option.
  4511   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4512     problems.
  4513   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4514     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4515     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4516   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4517     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4518   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4519 
  4520 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4521   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4522   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4523   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4524   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4525   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4526   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4527   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4528   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4529   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4530 
  4531 
  4532 *** HOLCF ***
  4533 
  4534 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4535 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4536 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4537 
  4538 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4539 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4540 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4541 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4542 
  4543 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4544 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4545 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4546 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4547 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4550 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4551 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4554 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 
  4556   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4557   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4558 
  4559 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4560 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4563   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4564   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4565   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4566   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4567 
  4568 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4569 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4570 
  4571   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4572   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4573   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4574 
  4575 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4576 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4578 
  4579 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4580 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4585 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 
  4588 *** ML ***
  4589 
  4590 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4591 
  4592     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4593     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4594 
  4595     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4596     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4597     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4598     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4599 
  4600     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4601     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4602     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4603 
  4604 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4605 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4606 
  4607 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4608 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4609 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4610 
  4611 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4612 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4613 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4614 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4615 
  4616 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4617 the context or even global references.
  4618 
  4619 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4620 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4621 
  4622 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4623 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4624 
  4625   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4626   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4627   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4628   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4629   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4630   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4631   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4632   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4633   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4634   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4635 
  4636 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4637 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4638 
  4639 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4640 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4641 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4642 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4643 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4644 
  4645 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4646 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4647 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4648 Theory_Data version.
  4649 
  4650 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4651 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4652 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4653 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4654 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4655 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4656 explicitly in rare situations.
  4657 
  4658 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4659 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4663 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4664 
  4665 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4666 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4667 quite rare).
  4668 
  4669 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4670 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4671 
  4672 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4673 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4674 terms.
  4675 
  4676 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4677 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4678 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4679 
  4680 
  4681 *** System ***
  4682 
  4683 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4684 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4685 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4686 
  4687 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4688 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4689 respectively.
  4690 
  4691 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4692 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4693 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4694 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4695 
  4696   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4697 
  4698 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4699 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4700 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4701 component.
  4702 
  4703 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4704 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4705 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4706 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4707 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4708 the user for manual installation.
  4709 
  4710 
  4711 
  4712 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4713 -------------------------------------
  4714 
  4715 *** General ***
  4716 
  4717 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4718 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4719 
  4720 
  4721 *** Pure ***
  4722 
  4723 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4724 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4725 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4726 
  4727 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4728 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4729 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4730 
  4731 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4732 interpretation.
  4733 
  4734 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4735 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4736 
  4737 
  4738 *** Document preparation ***
  4739 
  4740 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4741 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4742 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4743 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4744 
  4745 
  4746 *** HOL ***
  4747 
  4748 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4749 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4750 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4751 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4752 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4753 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4754 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4755 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4756 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4757 
  4758 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4759 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4760 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4761 
  4762 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4763 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4764 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4765 
  4766 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4767 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4768 
  4769 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4770 
  4771 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4772 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4773 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4774 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4775 
  4776 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4777 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4778 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4779 "mirabelle" utility.
  4780 
  4781 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4782 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4783 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4784 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4785 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4786 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4787 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4788 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4789 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4790 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4791 
  4792 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4793 procedure only.
  4794 
  4795 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4796 
  4797 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4798 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4799 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4800 that fail later.
  4801 
  4802 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4803 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4804 
  4805 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4806 the same method as the approximation method.
  4807 
  4808 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4809 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4810 series expansion.
  4811 
  4812 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4813 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4814 
  4815 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4816 reals.
  4817 
  4818 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4819 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4820 
  4821 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4822 fixpoint theorem.
  4823 
  4824 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4825   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4826     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4827   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4828     accordingly
  4829   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4830     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4831   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4832     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4833 
  4834 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4835 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4836 lattice.
  4837 
  4838 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4839 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4840 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4841 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4842 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4843 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4845 
  4846 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4847   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4848     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4849   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4850     le_inf_iff
  4851   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4852     sup_aci)
  4853   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4854   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4855   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4856     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4857     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4858     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4859     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4860     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4861     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4862     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4863     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4864     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4865     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4866   - authentic syntax for
  4867     Set.Pow
  4868     Set.image
  4869   - mere abbreviations:
  4870     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4871     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4872     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4873     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4874     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4875     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4876     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4877     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4878   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4879 
  4880 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4881 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4882 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4883 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4884 
  4885 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4886 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4887 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4890 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4891 
  4892 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4893 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4894 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4895 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4898 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4899 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4900 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4901 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4902 
  4903 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4904 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4908 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4911 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4912 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4913 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4914 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4915 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4916 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4918 
  4919 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4920     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4921     code_post       replaces    code post
  4922     etc.
  4923   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4924 
  4925 * Renamed methods:
  4926     sizechange -> size_change
  4927     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4928   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4931 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4932 
  4933 * Renamed theorems:
  4934     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4935     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4936     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4937     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4938     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4939   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4940 
  4941 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4946 
  4947 
  4948 *** HOLCF ***
  4949 
  4950 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4951 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4952 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4953 
  4954 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4955 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4956 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4957 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4958 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4959 
  4960 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4961 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4962 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4963 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4964 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4965 
  4966 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4967 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4968 constructor are pre-configured.
  4969 
  4970 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4971 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4972 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4973 
  4974 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4975 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4976 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4977 as well.)
  4978 
  4979 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4980 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4981 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4982 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4983 examples.
  4984 
  4985 
  4986 *** ML ***
  4987 
  4988 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4989 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4990 
  4991 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4992 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4993 position, logical grouping etc.
  4994 
  4995 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4996 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4997 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4998 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4999 
  5000 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5001 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5002 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5003 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5004 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5005 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5006 
  5007 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5008 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5009 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5010 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5011 experiments with references.
  5012 
  5013 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5014 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5015 
  5016 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5017 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5018 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5019 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5020 
  5021 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5022 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5023 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5024 
  5025 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5026 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5027 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5028 
  5029 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5030 
  5031 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5033 
  5034 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5035 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5036 
  5037 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5038 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5039 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5040 
  5041 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5042 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5043 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5046 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5047 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5051 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5052 instead of global theory.
  5053 
  5054 
  5055 *** System ***
  5056 
  5057 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5058 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5059 usedir option -q.
  5060 
  5061 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5062 also the system manual.
  5063 
  5064 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5065 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5066 
  5067 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5068 this is always enabled.
  5069 
  5070 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5071 
  5072 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5073 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5074 currently supported on Linux only.
  5075 
  5076 
  5077 
  5078 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5079 --------------------------------
  5080 
  5081 *** General ***
  5082 
  5083 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5084 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5085 
  5086   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5087     "isatool."
  5088 
  5089   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5090     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5091 
  5092   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5093     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5094 
  5095 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5096 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5097 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5098 
  5099 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5100 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5101 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5102 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5103 via "isabelle emacs".
  5104 
  5105 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5106 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5107 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5108 
  5109 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5110 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5111 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5112 
  5113 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5114 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5115 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5116 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5117 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5118 
  5119 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5120 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5121 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5122 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5123 
  5124 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5125 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5126 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5127 
  5128 
  5129 *** Pure ***
  5130 
  5131 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5132 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5133 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5134 
  5135 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5136 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5137 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5138 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5139 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5140 
  5141 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5142 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5143 useful in locale declarations.
  5144 
  5145 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5146 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5147 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5148 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5149 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5150 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5151 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5152 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5153 no longer generated.
  5154 
  5155 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5156 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5157 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5158 
  5159 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5160 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5161 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5162 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5163 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5164 
  5165 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5166 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5167 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5168 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5169 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5170 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5171 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5172 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5173 
  5174 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5175 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5176 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5177 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5178 
  5179 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5180 
  5181 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5182 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5183 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5184 
  5185 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5186 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5187 
  5188 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5189 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5190 in HOL, write
  5191 
  5192     class foo = ...
  5193 
  5194 instead of
  5195 
  5196     class foo = type + ...
  5197 
  5198 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5199 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5200 
  5201 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5202 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5203 
  5204 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5205 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5206 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5207 
  5208 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5209 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5210 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5211 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5212 directly in regular applications.
  5213 
  5214 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5215 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5216 
  5217 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5218 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5219 
  5220 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5221 theory context.
  5222 
  5223 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5224 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 
  5226 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5227 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5228 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5229 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5230 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5231 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5232 
  5233   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5234 
  5235 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5236 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5237 normalization.
  5238 
  5239 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5240 addressing etc.
  5241 
  5242 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5243 
  5244   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5245   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5246 
  5247 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5248 
  5249   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5250      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5251      parts of the code generator framework).
  5252 
  5253   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5254      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5255      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5256 
  5257 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5258 
  5259 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5260 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5261 
  5262 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5263 patterns, e.g.
  5264 
  5265     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5266 
  5267 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5268 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5269 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5270 hyphen:
  5271 
  5272     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5273 
  5274 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5275 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5276 
  5277 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5278 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5279 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5280 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5281 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5282 higher-order unification.
  5283 
  5284 
  5285 *** Document preparation ***
  5286 
  5287 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5288 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5289 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5290 
  5291 
  5292 *** HOL ***
  5293 
  5294 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5295 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5296 
  5297 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5298 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5299 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5300 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5301 Main, as before.
  5302 
  5303 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5304 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5305 
  5306 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5307 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5308 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5309 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5310 
  5311 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5312 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5313 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5314 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5315 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5316 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5317 
  5318 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5319 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5320 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5321 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5322 
  5323 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5324 menu.
  5325 
  5326 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5327 (contains the empty clause).
  5328 
  5329 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5330 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5331 
  5332 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5333 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5334 
  5335 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5336 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5337 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5338 
  5339 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5340 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5341 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5342 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5343 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5344 
  5345 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5346 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5347 
  5348 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5349 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5350 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5351 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5352 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5353 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5354 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5355 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5356 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5357 
  5358 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5359 
  5360 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5361 
  5362 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5363 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5364 
  5365 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5366 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5367 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5368 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5369 
  5370 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5371 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5372 
  5373     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5374     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5375     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5376     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5377     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5378     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5379     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5380     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5381 
  5382 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5383 theory Set.
  5384 
  5385 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5386 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5387 
  5388 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5389 
  5390 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5391 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5392 
  5393 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5394 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5395 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5396 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5397 allowed. For examples see
  5398 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5399 
  5400 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5401 
  5402 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5404 
  5405 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5406 structure:
  5407 
  5408     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5409     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5410     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5411     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5412     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5413     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5414     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5415     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5416     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5417     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5418     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5419     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5420     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5421     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5422     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5423     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5424     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5425     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5426     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5427     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5428     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5429     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5430     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5431     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5432     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5433     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5434     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5435     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5436     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5437     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5438     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5439     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5440     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5441 
  5442     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5443     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5444     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5445     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5446     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5447     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5448     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5449     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5450     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5451     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5452 
  5453     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5454     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5455     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5456     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5457     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5458     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5459 
  5460 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5461 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5462 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5463 
  5464 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5465 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5466 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5467 
  5468 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5469 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5470 
  5471 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5472 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5473 
  5474 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5475 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5476 proofs, e.g.
  5477 
  5478   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5479 
  5480 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5481 
  5482 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5483 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5484 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5487 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5489 
  5490 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5491 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5492 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5494 
  5495 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5496 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5497 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5498 preorder_class.*.
  5499 
  5500 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5501 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5502 
  5503 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5504 
  5505   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5506 
  5507 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5508 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5509 fold_image.
  5510 
  5511 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5512 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5513 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5514 the former will disappear at some point.
  5515 
  5516 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5517 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5518 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5519 
  5520 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5521 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5522 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5523 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5524 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5525 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5526 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5527 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5528 
  5529 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5530 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5531 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5532 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5533 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5534 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5535 
  5536     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5537     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5538     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5539     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5540     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5541     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5542     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5543 
  5544 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5545 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5546 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5547 
  5548 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5549 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5550 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5551 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5552 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5553 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5554 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5555 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5556 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5557 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5558 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5559 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5560 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5561 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5562 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5563 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5564 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5565 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5566 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5567 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5568 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5569 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5570 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5571 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5572 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5573 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5574 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5575 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5576 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5577 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5578 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5579 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5580 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5581 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5582 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5583 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5584 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5585 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5586 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5587 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5588 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5589 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5590 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5591 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5592 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5593 
  5594 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5595 
  5596 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5597 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5598 
  5599 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5600 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5601 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5602 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5603 
  5604 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5605 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5606 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5607 theory RealVector.
  5608 
  5609 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5610 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5611 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5612 and inner products are included.
  5613 
  5614 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5615 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5616 supported.
  5617 
  5618 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5619 first diagonalization argument.
  5620 
  5621 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5622 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5623 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5624 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5625 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5626 
  5627     hide (open) const gcd
  5628     abbreviation gcd where
  5629       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5630     notation (output)
  5631       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5632 
  5633 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5634 
  5635 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5636 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5637 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5638 
  5639 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5640 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5641 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5642 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5643 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5644 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5645 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5646 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5647 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5648 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5649 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5650 cases.
  5651 
  5652 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5653 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5654 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5655 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5656 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5657 
  5658     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5659     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5660     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5661     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5662     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5663 
  5664 
  5665 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5666 
  5667 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5668 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5669 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5670 
  5671 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5672 
  5673 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5674 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5675 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5676 
  5677 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5678 
  5679 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5680 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5681 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5682 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5683 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5684 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5685 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5686 
  5687 
  5688 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5689 
  5690 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5691 
  5692 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5693 theory targets.
  5694 
  5695 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5696 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5697 'inductive' etc.
  5698 
  5699 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5700 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5701 
  5702 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5703 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5704 
  5705 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5706 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5707 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5708 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5709 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5710 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5711 the algorithm W:
  5712 
  5713  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5714  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5715          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5716 
  5717 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5718 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5719 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5720 
  5721 
  5722 *** HOLCF ***
  5723 
  5724 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5725 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5726 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5727 
  5728 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5729 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5730 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5731 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5732 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5735 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5736 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 
  5739 *** ZF ***
  5740 
  5741 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5742 
  5743 
  5744 *** ML ***
  5745 
  5746 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5747 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5748 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5749 5.2.1!
  5750 
  5751 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5752 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5753 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5754 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5755 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5756 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5757 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5758 
  5759 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5760 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5761 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5762 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5763 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5764 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5765 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5766 
  5767 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5768 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5769 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5770 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5771 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5772 
  5773 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5774 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5775 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5776 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5777 Method.add_method.
  5778 
  5779 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5780 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5781 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5782 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5783 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5784 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5785 
  5786 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5787 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5788 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5789 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5790 examples.
  5791 
  5792 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5793 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5794 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5795 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5796 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5797 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5798 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5799 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5800 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5801 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5802 
  5803 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5804 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5805 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5806 
  5807 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5808 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5809 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5810 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5811 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5812 resort for legacy applications.
  5813 
  5814 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5815 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5816 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5817 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5818 explicit runtime argument.
  5819 
  5820 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5821 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5822 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5823 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5824 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5825 
  5826 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5827 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5828 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5829 theory state.
  5830 
  5831 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5832 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5833 
  5834   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5835   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5836   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5837   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5838   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5839   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5840   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5841   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5842   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5843   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5844 
  5845 
  5846 *** System ***
  5847 
  5848 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5849 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5850 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5851 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5852 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5853 
  5854 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5855 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5856 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5857 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5858 
  5859 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5860 
  5861 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5862 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5863 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5864 prover operations.
  5865 
  5866 
  5867 
  5868 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5869 -------------------------------
  5870 
  5871 *** General ***
  5872 
  5873 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5874 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5875 
  5876 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5877 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5878 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5879 provides a proper context already.
  5880 
  5881 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5882 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5883 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5884 
  5885 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5886 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5887 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5888 swap theory imports.
  5889 
  5890 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5891 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5892 
  5893 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5894 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5895 white space without escapes.
  5896 
  5897 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5898 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5899 "foo_bar".
  5900 
  5901 
  5902 *** Pure ***
  5903 
  5904 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5905 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5906 
  5907 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5908 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5909 
  5910 (1) unused_thms
  5911      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5912 
  5913 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5914      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5915      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5916 
  5917 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5918      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5919      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5920      their ancestors.
  5921 
  5922 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5923 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5924 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5925 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5926 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5927 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5928 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5929 
  5930 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5931 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5932 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5933 
  5934 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5935 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5936 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5937 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5938 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5939 
  5940 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5941 
  5942 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5943 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5944 update of theories within ML code.
  5945 
  5946 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5947 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5948 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5949 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5950 
  5951 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5952 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5953 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5957 
  5958 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5959 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5960 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5961 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5962 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5963 
  5964 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5965 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5966 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5967 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5968 situations.
  5969 
  5970 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5971 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5972 proof text.
  5973 
  5974 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5975 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5976 
  5977 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5978 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5979 predicates.
  5980 
  5981 
  5982 *** Document preparation ***
  5983 
  5984 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5985 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5986 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5987 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5988 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5989 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5990 
  5991 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5992 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5993 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5994 
  5995 
  5996 *** HOL ***
  5997 
  5998 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5999 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6000 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6001 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6002 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6003 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6004 
  6005 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6006 with multithreading.
  6007 
  6008 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6009 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6010 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6011 
  6012 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6013 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6014 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6015 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6018 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6019 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6020 and makes them available separately.  See
  6021 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6022 
  6023 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6024 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6025 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6026 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6027 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6028 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6029 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6030 the declared rules.
  6031 
  6032 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6033 
  6034   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6035 
  6036 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6037 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6038 
  6039 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6040 
  6041   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6042 
  6043   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6044     definitions on => and bool.
  6045 
  6046   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6047     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6048     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6049 
  6050       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6051       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6052       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6053       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6054       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6055       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6056       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6057       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6058 
  6059   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6060     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6061     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6062 
  6063   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6064     The proof pattern
  6065 
  6066       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6067       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6068 
  6069     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6070     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6071 
  6072       have "EX S. P S"
  6073       proof
  6074         show "P S" <...>
  6075       qed
  6076 
  6077   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6078     The proof pattern
  6079 
  6080       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6081       also have "S = T" <...>
  6082       finally have "P T" .
  6083 
  6084     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6085     must be replaced by something like
  6086 
  6087       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6088       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6089       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6090 
  6091   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6092     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6093 
  6094       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6095 
  6096     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6097     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6098     type of the form
  6099 
  6100       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6101 
  6102     rather than
  6103 
  6104       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6105 
  6106 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6107 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6108 
  6109 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6110 
  6111 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6112 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6114 
  6115 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6116 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6117 
  6118 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6119 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6120 
  6121 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6122 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6123 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6124 
  6125 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6126 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6127 
  6128   less_trans
  6129   less_linear
  6130   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6131   le_less_trans
  6132   less_le_trans
  6133   less_not_sym
  6134   less_asym
  6135 
  6136 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6137 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6138 and different variable names.
  6139 
  6140 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6141 
  6142 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6143 finite maps.
  6144 
  6145 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6146 
  6147 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6148 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6149 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6150 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6151 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6152 accordingly.
  6153 
  6154 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6155 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6156 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6157 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6158 
  6159 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6160 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6161 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6162 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6163 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6165 
  6166 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6167 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6168 
  6169 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6170 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6171 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6172 
  6173 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6175 
  6176 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6177 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6178 
  6179 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6180 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6181 
  6182 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6183 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6184 
  6185 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6186 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6188 
  6189 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6190 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6191 
  6192 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6193 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6194 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6195 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6196 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6197 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6198 
  6199 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6200 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6201 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6202 
  6203 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6204 
  6205 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6206 
  6207 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6208 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6209 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6210 
  6211 
  6212 *** ZF ***
  6213 
  6214 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6215 same session:
  6216 
  6217   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6218   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6219   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6220   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6221   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6222   List      -> List_ZF
  6223   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6224 
  6225 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6226 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6227 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6228 
  6229 
  6230 *** ML ***
  6231 
  6232 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6233 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6234 
  6235 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6236 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6237 
  6238 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6239 
  6240 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6241 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6242 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6243 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6244 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6245 
  6246 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6247 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6248 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6249 
  6250 
  6251 *** System ***
  6252 
  6253 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6254 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6255 
  6256 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6257 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6258 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6259 
  6260 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6261 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6262 
  6263 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6264 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6265 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6266 
  6267 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6268 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6269 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6270 
  6271 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6272 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).