NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Apr 19 17:23:05 2014 +0200 (2014-04-19)
changeset 56618 874bdedb2313
parent 56598 2cc2cb56cbdd
child 56652 b0126a5a256d
permissions -rw-r--r--
added command 'SML_export' and 'SML_import' for exchange of toplevel bindings;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    93     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    94     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    95 
    96   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
    97     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    98 
    99 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   100 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   101 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   102 
   103 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   104 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   105 
   106 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   107 auxiliary ML files.
   108 
   109 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   110 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   111 
   112 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   113 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   114 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   115 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   116 
   117 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   118 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   119 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   120 
   121 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   122 
   123 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   124 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   125 
   126 
   127 *** Pure ***
   128 
   129 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   130 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   131 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   132 renaming needs to be applied:
   133 
   134   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   135   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   136   all            ~>  Pure.all
   137   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   138   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   139 
   140 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   141 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   142 old constants:
   143 
   144 setup {*
   145   fn thy => thy
   146     |> Sign.root_path
   147     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   148     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   149     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   150     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   151 *}
   152 
   153 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   154 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   155 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   156 
   157 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   158 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   159 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   160 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   161 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   162 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   163 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   164 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   165 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   166 
   167 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   168 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   169 instantiated theorem.
   170 
   171 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   172 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   173 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   174 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   175 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   176 
   177   attribute_setup standard =
   178     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   179 
   180 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   181 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   182 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   183 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   184 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   185 
   186 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   187 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   188 differently).
   189 
   190 
   191 *** HOL ***
   192 
   193 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   197 with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalized and replace
   198 former INT_cong, SUP_cong.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   201 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   204 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   210   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   211   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   212   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   213   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   214   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   217   can now deal with conjunctions.
   218   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   219   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   220   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   221 
   222 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * HOL-Word:
   225   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   226   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   227   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   228   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   229   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   230 
   231 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   235 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   238 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   241 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   244   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   245   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   246   Theory renamings:
   247     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   248     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   249     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   250     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   251     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   252     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   253     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   254     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   255     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   256     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   257     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   258     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   259     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   260     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   261     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   262     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   263     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   264     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   265     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   266     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   267     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   268     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   269   New theories:
   270     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   271     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   272     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   273     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   274     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   275   Discontinued theories:
   276     BNF/BNF.thy
   277     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   278   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * New (co)datatype package:
   281   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   282   * Renamed commands:
   283       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   284       primrec_new ~> primrec
   285       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   286     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   288     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   289     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   290   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   291     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   292     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   293 
   294 * Old datatype package:
   295   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   296     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   299     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   303   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   304   datatype package.
   305   Renamed constants:
   306     Option.set ~> set_option
   307     Option.map ~> map_option
   308     option_rel ~> rel_option
   309     option_rec ~> case_option
   310   Renamed theorems:
   311     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   312     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   313     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   314     option.recs ~> option.case
   315     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   316     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   317     map.simps ~> list.map
   318     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   319     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   320     the.simps ~> option.sel
   321   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   324     sum_map ~> map_sum
   325     map_pair ~> map_prod
   326     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   327     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   328     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   329     set_rel ~> rel_set
   330     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   331     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   332     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   333     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   334 
   335 * New theory:
   336     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   337 
   338 * Theory reorganizations:
   339   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   340 
   341 * SMT module:
   342   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   343     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   344     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   345     elsewhere.
   346 
   347 * Sledgehammer:
   348   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   349   - New option:
   350       smt_proofs
   351   - Renamed options:
   352       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   353       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   354     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * Metis:
   357   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   358     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   359 
   360 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   361 
   362 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   365 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   366 
   367 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   368 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   369 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   370 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   371 
   372 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   376 with the given constants.
   377 
   378 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   379 
   380 Fact consolidations:
   381     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   382     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   383     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   384     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   385     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   386     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   387     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   388     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   389     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   390     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   391     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   392     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   393     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   394     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   395     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   396     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   397     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   398     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   399     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   400     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   401     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   402     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   403     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   404     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   405     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   406     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   407     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   408     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   409     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   410     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   411     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   412     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   413     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   414     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   415     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   416     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   417     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   418     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   419     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   420     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   421 
   422 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   423 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   424 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   425 
   426 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   427 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   428 
   429 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   430 
   431 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   432 
   433 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438 
   439 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   440 operations on records.
   441 
   442 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   444 
   445 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   446     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   450     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   451     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   453 
   454 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   455   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   456   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   457   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   458     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   459   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   460     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   461   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   462 INCOMPATBILITY.
   463 
   464 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   465     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   466     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   467     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   468     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * Fact name consolidation:
   472     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   473     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   474     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   475     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   476     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   480 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   481 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   482 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   483 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   484 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   485 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   486 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   487 
   488 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   489 
   490 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   491 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   492 
   493 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   494 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   495 
   496 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   497 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   498 or the brute way with
   499 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   500 
   501 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   502 
   503 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   504 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   507 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   508 
   509 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   510 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   511 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   512 INCOMPATIBILITY
   513 
   514 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   515   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   516   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   517   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   518   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   519   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   520   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   521   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   522   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   523   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   524   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   525   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   526 
   527   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   528 
   529   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   530     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   531     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   532     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   533     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   537   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   538 
   539   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   540 
   541   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   542 
   543   - removed constant isDiff
   544 
   545   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   546     syntax.
   547 
   548   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   549 
   550   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   551 
   552   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   553 
   554   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   555 
   556   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   557     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   558 
   559   - Other renamings:
   560     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   561     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   562     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   563     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   564     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   565     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   566     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   568 
   569 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   570   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   571 
   572 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   573 
   574 * Nitpick:
   575   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   576     infinite values.
   577   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   578     "Rep_Integ".
   579   - Removed "std" option.
   580   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   581     "hide_types".
   582 
   583 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   584   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   585   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   586     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   587     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   588     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   589     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   590     intervals.
   591 
   592   - renamed theorems:
   593     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   594     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   595     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   596 
   597 
   598 *** Scala ***
   599 
   600 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   601 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   602 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   603 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   604 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 
   607 *** ML ***
   608 
   609 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   610 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   613 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   614 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   618 
   619 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   620 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   621 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   625 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   626 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   627 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   628 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   629 of schematic variables.
   630 
   631 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   632 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   633 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   634 formal context.
   635 
   636 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   637 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   638 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   639 actually belongs to it).
   640 
   641 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   642 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   643 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   644 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   645 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   646 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   647 
   648 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   649 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   652 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   653 
   654 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   655 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   656 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   657 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   658 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   659 
   660 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   661 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   662 purposes.
   663 
   664 
   665 *** System ***
   666 
   667 * Session ROOT specifications support explicit 'document_files' for
   668 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   669 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   670 processing is started.
   671 
   672 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   673 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   674 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   675 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   676 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   677 
   678 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   679 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   680 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   681 
   682 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   683 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   684 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   685 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   686 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   687 settings variable yet.
   688 
   689 
   690 
   691 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   692 -------------------------------------
   693 
   694 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   695 
   696 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   697 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   698 
   699 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   700 after edits surrounding the command location.
   701 
   702 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   703 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   704 e.g. out-of-memory).
   705 
   706 
   707 *** System ***
   708 
   709 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   710 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   711 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   712 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   713 
   714 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   715 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   716 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   717 
   718 
   719 
   720 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   721 -------------------------------------
   722 
   723 *** General ***
   724 
   725 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   726 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   727 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   730 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   731 
   732 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   733 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   734 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   735 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   736 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   737 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   738 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   739 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   740 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   741 syntax.
   742 
   743 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   744 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   745 
   746 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   747 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   748 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   750 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   751 
   752 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   756 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   757 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   758 
   759 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   760 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   761 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   762 
   763 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   764 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   765 
   766 
   767 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   768 
   769 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   770 Documentation panel.
   771 
   772 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   773 documentation.
   774 
   775 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   776 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   777 
   778 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   779 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   780 normal editing and checking process.
   781 
   782 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   783 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   784 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   785 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   786 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   787 
   788 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   789 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   790 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   791 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   792 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   793 
   794 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   795 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   796 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   797 
   798 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   799 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   800 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   801 to resolve conflict.
   802 
   803 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   804 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   805 
   806 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   807 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   808 such command executions while editing.
   809 
   810 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   811 document content.
   812 
   813 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   814 toplevel theorem statements.
   815 
   816 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   817 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   818 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   819 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   820 
   821 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   822 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   823 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   824 
   825 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   826 / Global Options / Appearance".
   827 
   828 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   829 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   830 
   831 
   832 *** Pure ***
   833 
   834 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   835 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   836 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   837 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   838 details.
   839 
   840 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   841 
   842 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   843 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   844 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   845 
   846 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   850 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   851 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   852 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853 
   854 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   855 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   856 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   859 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   860 
   861 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   862 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   863 situations.
   864 
   865 
   866 *** HOL ***
   867 
   868 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   869 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   871 
   872 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   873 
   874 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   875 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   876 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   877 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   878 
   879   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   880 
   881 * Code generator:
   882   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   883     'code_instance'.
   884   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   885     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   886 
   887 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   888 examples.
   889 
   890 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   891 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   892 to distinguish both when desired.
   893 
   894 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   895 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   896 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   897 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   898 
   899 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   900 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   901 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   902 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   903 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   904 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   905 
   906 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   907 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   908 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   909 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   910 
   911 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   912 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   913 
   914 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   915 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   916 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   917 
   918 * Lifting:
   919   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   920     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   921       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   922       transfer rules
   923     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   924       correspondence relation can be generated
   925     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   926       parametricity
   927     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   928   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   929   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   930     copies
   931   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   932     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   933     anonymous context)
   934   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   935     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   936   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   937     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   938   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   939     INCOMPATIBILITY
   940 
   941 * Transfer:
   942   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   943     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   944   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   945   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   946     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   947   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   948 
   949 * Reification and reflection:
   950   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   951     "Reification".
   952   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   953   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   955 
   956 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   957   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   958     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   959     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   960   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   961     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   962   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   963     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   964     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   965     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   966     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   967     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   968     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   969     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   970   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   971     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   972   - Fact renames:
   973       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   974       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   978 
   979 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   980 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   981 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   985 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   986 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   987 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   988 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   989 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   990 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   991 lemmas.
   992 
   993 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   994 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   995 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   998 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   999 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1000 
  1001 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1002 top and bottom elements.
  1003 
  1004 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1005 
  1006 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1007 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1008 
  1009  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1010    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1011    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1012 
  1013  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1014    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1015    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1016 
  1017    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1018    arbitrary filter.
  1019 
  1020  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1021    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1022    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1023    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1024    on a compact set.
  1025 
  1026  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1027    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1028    linear_continuum_topology).
  1029 
  1030  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1031    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1032    on all sequences converging to x.
  1033 
  1034  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1035    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1036    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1037    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1038    left or right.
  1039 
  1040  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1041 
  1042      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1043 
  1044  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1045    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1046 
  1047  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1048    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1049    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1050    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1051    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1052    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1053 
  1054  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1055 
  1056    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1057 
  1058    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1059      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1060 
  1061    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1062 
  1063    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1064      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1065 
  1066    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1067 
  1068    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1069 
  1070  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1071 
  1072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1073 
  1074 * Nitpick:
  1075   - Added option "spy".
  1076   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1077 
  1078 * Sledgehammer:
  1079   - Renamed option:
  1080       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1081     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1083   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1084   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1085 
  1086 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1087 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1088 
  1089 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1090   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1091   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1092     generated code.
  1093   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1094   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1095   - Fact renames:
  1096     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1097     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1098     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1099 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1100 
  1101 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1102 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1103 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1104 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1105 
  1106 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1107 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1108 
  1109 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1112 
  1113     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1114     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1115 
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1119 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1120 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1121 
  1122 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1123 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1124 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1125 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * HOL-BNF:
  1128   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1129     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1130     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1131     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1132   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1133     coinduct).
  1134   - Renamed keywords:
  1135     data ~> datatype_new
  1136     codata ~> codatatype
  1137     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1138   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1139     discs ~> disc
  1140     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1141     map_id' ~> map_id
  1142     sels ~> sel
  1143     set_map' ~> set_map
  1144     sets ~> set
  1145 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 
  1148 *** ML ***
  1149 
  1150 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1151 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1152 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1153 Examples.thy in particular.
  1154 
  1155 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1156 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1157 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1158 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1159 
  1160 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1161 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1162 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1163 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1167 
  1168     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1169     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1170 
  1171 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1174 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1175 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1176 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1177 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1178 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1179 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1180 
  1181 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1182 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1183 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1184 clasets separately from the context.
  1185 
  1186 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1187 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1188 
  1189 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1190 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1191 
  1192 
  1193 *** System ***
  1194 
  1195 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1196 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1199 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1200 
  1201 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1202 settings variable.
  1203 
  1204 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1205 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1206 always pdf.
  1207 
  1208 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1209 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1210 
  1211 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1212 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1213 
  1214 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1215 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1216 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1217 
  1218 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1219 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1220 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1221 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1222 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1223 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1224 
  1225 
  1226 
  1227 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1228 -----------------------------------
  1229 
  1230 *** General ***
  1231 
  1232 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1233 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1234 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1235 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1236 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1237 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1238 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1239 
  1240 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1241 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1242 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1243 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1244 
  1245 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1246 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1247 
  1248 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1249 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1250 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1251 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1252 dependencies properly.
  1253 
  1254 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1255 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1256 
  1257 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1258 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1259 
  1260 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1261 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1262 and "class ... context ...".
  1263 
  1264 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1265 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1266 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1267 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1268 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1269 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1270 
  1271 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1272 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1273 
  1274 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1275 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1276 
  1277 
  1278 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1279 
  1280 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1281 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1282 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1283 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1284 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1285 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1286 
  1287 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1288 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1289 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1290 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1291 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1292 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1293 
  1294 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1295 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1296 browser on demand.
  1297 
  1298 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1299 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1300 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1301 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1302 
  1303 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1304 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1305 
  1306 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1307 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1308 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1309 potentially infinite message streams.
  1310 
  1311 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1312 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1313 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1314 schemes.
  1315 
  1316 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1317 symbols.
  1318 
  1319 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1320 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1321 
  1322 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1323 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1324 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1325 
  1326 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1327 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1328 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1329 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1330 
  1331 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1332 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1333 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1334 
  1335 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1336 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1337 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1338 Isabelle distribution.
  1339 
  1340 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1341 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1342 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1343 
  1344 
  1345 *** Pure ***
  1346 
  1347 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1348 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1349 
  1350 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1351 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1352 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1353 
  1354 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1355 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1356 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1357 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1358 with some care where this is really required.
  1359 
  1360 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1361 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1362 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1363 
  1364   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1365 
  1366 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1367 a Hasse diagram.
  1368 
  1369 
  1370 *** HOL ***
  1371 
  1372 * Sledgehammer:
  1373 
  1374   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1375     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1376   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1377   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1378   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1379   - Renamed options:
  1380       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1381       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1382       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1383       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1384 
  1385 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1386 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1387 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1388 
  1389 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1391 
  1392 * Lifting:
  1393   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1394   - quot_del attribute
  1395   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1396 
  1397 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1398 expressions.
  1399 
  1400 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1401 pointfree expressions.
  1402 
  1403 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1404 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1405 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1406 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1408 
  1409 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1410 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1411 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1412 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1413 accordingly.
  1414 
  1415 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1416 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417 
  1418 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1419 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422 
  1423 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1424 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1425 
  1426 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1427 
  1428 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1429 
  1430   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1431   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1432 
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1436 
  1437   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1438   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1439 
  1440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1443 
  1444   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1445     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1446     output f x converges to G.
  1447 
  1448   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1449     infinity (at_bot).
  1450 
  1451   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1452     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1453 
  1454   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1455     at_top".
  1456 
  1457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1460 lattice type classes.
  1461 
  1462 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1463 
  1464     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1465     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1466 
  1467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1470 changes as follows.
  1471 
  1472   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1473 
  1474       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1475       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1476 
  1477   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1478     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1479     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1480     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1481 
  1482   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1483     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1484     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1485 
  1486   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1487     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1488     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1489     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1490 
  1491   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1492     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1493 
  1494       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1495       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1496       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1497       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1498       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1499       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1500       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1501       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1502       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1503       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1504       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1505       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1506       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1507       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1508       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1509       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1510 
  1511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1514 
  1515 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1516 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1517 
  1518 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1519 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1520 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1521 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1522 
  1523   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1524   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1525   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1526   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1527   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1528   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1529   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1530   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1531   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1532   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1533 
  1534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1537 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1538 Data").
  1539 
  1540 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1541 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1542 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1543 code.
  1544 
  1545 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1546 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1547 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549 
  1550 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1551 
  1552 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1553 
  1554 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1555 
  1556   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1557   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1558 
  1559 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1560 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1561 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1562 
  1563   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1564 
  1565     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1566     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1567     cart_base i  removed
  1568     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1569 
  1570   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1571 
  1572   Renamed lemmas:
  1573 
  1574     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1575     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1576     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1577     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1578     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1579     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1580     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1581     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1582     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1583     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1584 
  1585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1586 
  1587 * HOL/Probability:
  1588 
  1589   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1590 
  1591   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1592     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1593     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1594 
  1595   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1596     projective family).
  1597 
  1598 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1599 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1600 
  1601 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1602 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1603 datatypes.
  1604 
  1605 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1606 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1607 
  1608 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1609 trees for the code generator.
  1610 
  1611 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1612 Lifting/Transfer.
  1613 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 
  1619 *** Document preparation ***
  1620 
  1621 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1622 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1623 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1624 
  1625 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1626 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1627 
  1628 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1629 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1630 document/root.tex.
  1631 
  1632 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1633 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 
  1636 *** ML ***
  1637 
  1638 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1639 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1640 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1641 
  1642 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1643 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1644 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1645 
  1646 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1647 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1648 necessarily printing visible text.
  1649 
  1650 
  1651 *** System ***
  1652 
  1653 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1654 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1655 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1656 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1657 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1658 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1659 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1660 
  1661 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1662 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1663 
  1664   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1665 
  1666 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1667 
  1668 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1669 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1670 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1671 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1672 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1673 
  1674 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1675 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1676 
  1677 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1678 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1679 
  1680 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1684 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1685 version of Isabelle.
  1686 
  1687 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1688 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1689 
  1690 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1691 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1692 for home-made settings.
  1693 
  1694 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1695 
  1696 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1697 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1698 configuration.
  1699 
  1700 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1701 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1702 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1703 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1704 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1705 
  1706 
  1707 
  1708 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1709 ------------------------------
  1710 
  1711 *** General ***
  1712 
  1713 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1714 
  1715   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1716     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1717   - markup for bound variables
  1718   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1719   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1720   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1721     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1722 
  1723 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1724 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1725 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1726 
  1727 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1728 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1729 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1730 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1731 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1732 
  1733   context
  1734     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1735     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1736   begin
  1737 
  1738   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1739 
  1740   end
  1741 
  1742   thm my_trans
  1743 
  1744 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1745 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1746 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1747 
  1748 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1749 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1750 
  1751 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1752 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1753 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1754 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1755 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1756 
  1757 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1758 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1759 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1760 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1761 indices of schematic variables.
  1762 
  1763 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1764 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1765 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1766 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1767 etc. was exploited.
  1768 
  1769 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1770 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1771 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1772 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1773 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1774 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1775 
  1776 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1777 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1778 manual.
  1779 
  1780 
  1781 *** Pure ***
  1782 
  1783 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1784 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1785 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1786 
  1787 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1788 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1789 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1790 undocumented feature.)
  1791 
  1792 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1793 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1794 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1795 
  1796   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1797 
  1798   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1799     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1800 
  1801 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1802 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1803 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1804 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1805 
  1806 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1807 
  1808     num ~> num_token
  1809     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1810     xstr ~> str_token
  1811 
  1812 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1813 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1814 position information via constraints).
  1815 
  1816 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1817 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1818 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1819 
  1820 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1821 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1822 
  1823 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1824 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1825 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1826 
  1827 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1828 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1831 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1832 
  1833   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1834 
  1835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1838 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1839 
  1840 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1841 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1842 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1843 
  1844 
  1845 *** HOL ***
  1846 
  1847 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1848 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1849 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1850 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1851 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1852 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1853 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1854 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1855 possible.
  1856 
  1857 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1858 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1859 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1860 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1861 
  1862 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1863 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1864 
  1865 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1866 
  1867 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1868 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1869 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1870 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1871 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1872 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1873 
  1874   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1875     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1876 
  1877   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1878     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1879     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1880 
  1881   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1882     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1883 
  1884   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1885     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1886     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1887 
  1888   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1889     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1890 
  1891 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1892 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1893 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1894 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1895 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1896 
  1897   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1898     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1899     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1900     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1901     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1902 
  1903     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1904     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1905 
  1906   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1907     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1908     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1909     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1910     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1911     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1912     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1913     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1914 
  1915   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1916     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1917     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1918     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1919 
  1920   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1921     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1922     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1923     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1924 
  1925   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1926     from type nat to type int.
  1927 
  1928 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1929 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1930 
  1931   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1932     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1933     type.  Example syntax:
  1934 
  1935     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1936       is List.insert
  1937 
  1938     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1939     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1940     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1941     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1942     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1943     by the package.
  1944 
  1945   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1946     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1947     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1948     code generation for each constant.
  1949 
  1950   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1951     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1952     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1953     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1954     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1955 
  1956   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1957     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1958     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1959 
  1960 * Quotient package:
  1961 
  1962   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1963     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1964 
  1965   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1966     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1967 
  1968   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1969     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1970     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1971 
  1972   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1973     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1976 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1977 
  1978 * Quickcheck:
  1979 
  1980   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1981     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1982     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1983     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1984     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1985 
  1986     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1987     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1988     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1989 
  1990     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1991     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1992 
  1993     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1994     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1995     show genuine counterexamples.
  1996 
  1997   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1998     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1999 
  2000     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2001     constructors of that type.
  2002 
  2003   - Support for multisets.
  2004 
  2005   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2006 
  2007   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2008     conjectures in a locale context.
  2009 
  2010 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2011 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2012 
  2013 * Sledgehammer:
  2014   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2015     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2016   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2017   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2018     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2019   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2020   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2021   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2022   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2023 
  2024 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2025 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2026 
  2027 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2028 
  2029 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2030 
  2031 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2032 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2033 
  2034   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2035 
  2036 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2037 a list and a nat.
  2038 
  2039 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2040 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2041 
  2042 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2043 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2044 default.
  2045 
  2046 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2047 
  2048   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2049 
  2050 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2051 
  2052 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2053 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2054 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2055 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2056 one_case.
  2057 
  2058 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2059 the result of the fact expression.
  2060 
  2061 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2062 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2063 of some relation theorems:
  2064 
  2065   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2066   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2067   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2068   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2069   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2070   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2071 
  2072 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2073 
  2074 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2075 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2076 
  2077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2080 to match the constant's name:
  2081 
  2082   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2083   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2084   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2085   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2086   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2087   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2088   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2089   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2090   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2091   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2092   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2093   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2094   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2095   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2096   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2097   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2098   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2099   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2100   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2101   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2102   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2103   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2104   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2105   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2106 
  2107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2108 
  2109 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2110 and corresponding theorem names:
  2111 
  2112   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2113 
  2114   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2115 
  2116   - Renamed theorems:
  2117 
  2118     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2119     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2120     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2121     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2122     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2123     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2124     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2125     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2126     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2127     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2128     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2129     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2130     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2131     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2132     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2133     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2134     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2135     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2136     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2137     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2138     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2139     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2140     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2141 
  2142     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2143 
  2144     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2145 
  2146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2147 
  2148 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2149 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2150 
  2151   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2152   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2153   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2154   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2155   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2156   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2157   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2158   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2159   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2160   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2161   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2162   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2163   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2164   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2165   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2166   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2167   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2168   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2169   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2170   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2171   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2172 
  2173 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2174 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2177 
  2178 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2179 
  2180   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2181   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2182   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2183   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2184   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2185   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2186   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2187   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2188   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2189   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2190   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2191   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2192   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2193   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2194   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2195   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2196   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2197   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2198 
  2199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2202 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2203 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2204 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2205 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2206 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2207 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2208 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2209 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2210 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2211 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2212 
  2213 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2214 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2215 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2216 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2217 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2218 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2219 
  2220 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2221 through option types.
  2222 
  2223 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2224 relations.
  2225 
  2226 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2227 
  2228 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2229 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2230 
  2231   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2232   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2233   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2234   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2235   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2236   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2237   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2238   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2239   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2240   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2241   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2242   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2243   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2244   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2245   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2246   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2247   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2248   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2249   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2250   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2251   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2252   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2253   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2254   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2255   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2256   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2257   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2258   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2259   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2260   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2261   zless_le ~> less_le
  2262   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2263   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2264   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2265 
  2266 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2267 
  2268   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2269 
  2270 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2271 
  2272 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2273 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2274 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2275 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2279 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2280 
  2281 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2282 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2283 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2284 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2285 follows:
  2286 
  2287   Operations:
  2288   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2289   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2290   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2291   del -> rbt_del
  2292   delete -> rbt_delete
  2293   ins -> rbt_ins
  2294   insert -> rbt_insert
  2295   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2296   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2297   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2298   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2299   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2300   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2301   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2302   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2303   union -> rbt_union
  2304   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2305   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2306 
  2307   Lemmas:
  2308   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2309   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2310   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2311   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2312   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2313   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2314   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2315   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2316   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2317   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2318   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2319   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2320   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2321   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2322   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2323   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2324   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2325   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2326   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2327   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2328   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2329   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2330   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2331   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2332   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2333   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2334   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2335   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2336   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2337   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2338   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2339   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2340   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2341   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2342   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2343   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2344   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2345   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2346   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2347   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2348   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2349   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2350   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2351   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2352   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2353   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2354   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2355   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2356   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2357   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2358   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2359   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2360   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2361   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2362   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2363   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2364   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2365   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2366   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2367   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2368   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2369   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2370   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2371   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2372   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2373   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2374   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2375   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2376   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2377   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2378   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2379   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2380   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2381   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2382   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2383   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2384   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2385   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2386   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2387   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2388   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2389   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2390   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2391 
  2392 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2393 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2394 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2395 
  2396   Changed Operations:
  2397   float_abs -> abs
  2398   float_nprt -> nprt
  2399   float_pprt -> pprt
  2400   pow2 -> use powr
  2401   round_down -> float_round_down
  2402   round_up -> float_round_up
  2403   scale -> exponent
  2404 
  2405   Removed Operations:
  2406   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2407 
  2408   Renamed Lemmas:
  2409   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2410   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2411   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2412   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2413   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2414   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2415   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2416   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2417   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2418   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2419   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2420   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2421   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2422   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2423   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2424   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2425   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2426   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2427   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2428   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2429   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2430   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2431   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2432   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2433   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2434   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2435   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2436   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2437   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2438   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2439   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2440   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2441   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2442   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2443   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2444   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2445 
  2446   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2447   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2448   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2449   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2450   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2451   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2452   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2453   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2454   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2455   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2456 
  2457 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2458 association lists with distinct keys.
  2459 
  2460 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2461 annotated commands.
  2462 
  2463 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2464 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2465 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2466 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2469 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2470 instead.
  2471 
  2472   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2473   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2474   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2475   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2476   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2477   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2478   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2479   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2480   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2481   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2482   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2483   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2484   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2485   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2486   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2487   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2488   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2489   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2490   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2491   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2492   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2493   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2494   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2495   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2496   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2497   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2498   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2499   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2500   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2501   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2502   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2503   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2504   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2505   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2506   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2507   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2508   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2509   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2510   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2511   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2512   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2513 
  2514 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2515 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2516 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2517 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2518 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2519 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2520 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2521 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2522 
  2523 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2524 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2525 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2526 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2527 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2528 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2529 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2530 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2531 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2532 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2533 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2534 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536   Renamed constants:
  2537   measure -> emeasure
  2538   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2539   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2540   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2541   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2542 
  2543   Removed locales:
  2544   completeable_measure_space
  2545   finite_measure_space
  2546   finite_prob_space
  2547   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2548   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2549   finite_sigma_algebra
  2550   measure_space
  2551   pair_finite_prob_space
  2552   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2553   pair_finite_space
  2554   pair_sigma_algebra
  2555   product_sigma_algebra
  2556 
  2557   Removed constants:
  2558   conditional_space
  2559   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2560   image_space
  2561   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2562   pair_measure_generator
  2563   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2564   subvimage
  2565 
  2566   Replacement theorems:
  2567   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2568   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2569   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2570   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2571   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2572   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2573   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2574   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2575   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2576   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2577   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2578   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2579   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2580   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2581   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2582   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2583   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2584   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2585   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2586   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2587   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2588   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2589   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2590   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2591   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2592   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2593   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2594   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2595   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2596   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2597   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2598   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2599   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2600   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2601   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2602   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2603   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2604   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2605   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2606   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2607   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2608   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2609   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2610   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2611   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2612   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2613   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2614   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2615   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2616   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2617   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2618   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2619   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2620   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2621   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2622   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2623   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2624   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2625   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2626   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2627   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2628   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2629   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2630   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2631   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2632   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2633   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2634   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2635   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2636   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2637   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2638   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2639   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2640   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2641   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2642   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2643   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2644   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2645   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2646   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2647   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2648   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2649   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2650   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2651   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2652   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2653   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2654   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2655   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2656   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2657   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2658   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2659   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2660   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2661   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2662   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2663   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2664   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2665   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2666   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2667   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2668   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2669   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2670   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2671   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2672   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2673   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2674   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2675   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2676   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2677   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2678   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2679   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2680   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2681   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2682   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2683   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2684   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2685   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2686   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2687   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2688   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2689   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2690   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2691   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2692   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2693   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2694   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2695 
  2696 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2697 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2698 
  2699 
  2700 *** FOL ***
  2701 
  2702 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2703 
  2704 
  2705 *** ZF ***
  2706 
  2707 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2708 analysis.
  2709 
  2710 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2711 
  2712 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 
  2715 *** ML ***
  2716 
  2717 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2718 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2719 
  2720 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2721 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2722 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2723 
  2724 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2725 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2726 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2727 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2728 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2729 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2730 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2731 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2732 
  2733 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2734 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2735 
  2736 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2737 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2738 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2739 
  2740 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2741 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742 
  2743 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2744 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2745 context as well.
  2746 
  2747 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2748 
  2749   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2750   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2751   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2752   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2753   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2754   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2755   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2756   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2757   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2758   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2759   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2760   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2761 
  2762 
  2763 *** System ***
  2764 
  2765 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2766 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2767 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2768 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2769 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2770 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2771 the generic user home was intended.
  2772 
  2773 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2774 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2775 
  2776 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2777 (not just JRE).
  2778 
  2779 
  2780 
  2781 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2782 ------------------------------------
  2783 
  2784 *** General ***
  2785 
  2786 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2787 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2788 
  2789   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2790     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2791     files for checking).
  2792 
  2793   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2794     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2795     positions.
  2796 
  2797   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2798     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2799     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2800 
  2801   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2802     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2803     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2804 
  2805   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2806     cores.
  2807 
  2808   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2809     versions (garbage collection).
  2810 
  2811 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2812 including some remaining limitations.
  2813 
  2814 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2815 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2816 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2817 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2818 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2820 
  2821 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2822 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2823 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2824 
  2825 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2826 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2827 usedir option -Q.
  2828 
  2829 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2830 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2831 
  2832   long_names   ~> names_long
  2833   short_names  ~> names_short
  2834   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2835 
  2836 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2837 
  2838   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2839 
  2840 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2841 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2842 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2843 
  2844 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2845 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2846 
  2847 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2848   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2849   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2850   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2851     "Classical Reasoner".
  2852 
  2853 
  2854 *** HOL ***
  2855 
  2856 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2857 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2858 
  2859 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2860 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2861 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2862 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2863 class complete_linorder.
  2864 
  2865 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2866 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2867 
  2868 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2869 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2870 
  2871   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2872   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2873   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2874   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2875   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2876   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2877   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2878   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2879   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2880   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2881   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2882 
  2883 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2884 
  2885   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2886   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2887   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2888   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2889   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2890   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2891   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2892   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2893   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2894   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2895   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2896   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2897   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2898   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2899   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2900   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2901 
  2902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2908 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2909 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2910 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2913 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2914 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2918 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2919 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2920 
  2921 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2922 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2923 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2926 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2927 
  2928 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2929 
  2930     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2931     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2932 
  2933 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2934 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2935 
  2936 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2937 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938 
  2939 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2940 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2941 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2942 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943 
  2944   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2945   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2946   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2947   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2948   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2949   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2950   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2951 
  2952 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2953 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954 
  2955   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2956   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2957   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2958   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2959   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2960   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2961   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2962   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2963   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2964   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2965   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2966   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2967   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2968   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2969   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2970   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2971   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2972   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2973   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2974   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2975   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2976   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2977   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2978   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2979   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2980   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2981   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2982   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2983   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2984   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2985   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2986   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2987   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2988   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2989   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2990   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2991   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2992   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2993   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2994   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2995   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2996   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2997   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2998   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2999   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3000   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3001   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3002   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3003   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3004   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3005   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3006   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3007   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3008   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3009   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3010   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3011   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3012   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3013   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3014   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3015   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3016   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3017   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3018   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3019   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3020   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3021   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3022   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3023   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3024   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3025   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3026   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3027   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3028   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3029   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3030   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3031   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3032   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3033   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3034   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3035   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3036   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3037 
  3038 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3039 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3040 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3041 
  3042 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3043 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3044 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3045 
  3046 * Code generation:
  3047 
  3048   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3049     characters in the target language.
  3050 
  3051   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3052     instead.
  3053 
  3054   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3055 
  3056   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3057     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3058 
  3059       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3060 
  3061 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3064 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3065 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3066 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3067 syntax.
  3068 
  3069 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3070 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3071 
  3072 * Nitpick:
  3073   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3074   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3075   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3076     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * Sledgehammer:
  3079   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3080   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3081     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3082   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3083     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3084   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3085     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3087     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3088   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3089     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Metis:
  3092   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3093   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3094     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Command 'try':
  3097   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3098     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3100     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3101 
  3102 * Quickcheck:
  3103   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3104     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3105   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3106     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3107   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3108     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3109     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3110     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3111   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3112     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3113 
  3114 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3115 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3116 
  3117 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3118 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3119 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3120 
  3121 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3122 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3126 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3129 arithmetic.
  3130 
  3131 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3132 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3133 and lattice type classes.
  3134 
  3135 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3136 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3137 
  3138 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3139 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3140 
  3141 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3142 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3143 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3146   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3147   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3148   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3149 
  3150 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3151 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3152 constants:
  3153 
  3154   type inat   ~> type enat
  3155   Fin         ~> enat
  3156   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3157   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3158   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3159 
  3160 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3161 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3164 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3165 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3166 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3167 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3168 
  3169 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3170 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3171 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3172 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3173 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3174 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3175 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3176 
  3177   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3178   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3179   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3180   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3181 
  3182 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3183 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3184 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3187   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3188   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3189   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3190   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3191   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3192   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3193   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3194   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3195   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3196   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3197   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3198   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3199   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3200   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3201   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3202   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3203   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3204   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3205   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3206   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3207   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3208   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3209   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3210   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3211   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3212   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3213   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3214   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3215   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3216   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3217   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3218   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3219   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3220   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3221   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3222   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3223   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3224   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3225   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3226   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3227   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3228   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3229   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3230   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3231   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3232   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3233   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3234   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3235   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3236   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3237 
  3238 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3239   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3240   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3241   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3242   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3243     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3248   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3249   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3250   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3251   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3252   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3253   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3254   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3255   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3256   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3257   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3258   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3259   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3260   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3261   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3262   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3263   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3264   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3265   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3266   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3267   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3268   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3269   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3270   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3271   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3272 
  3273 
  3274 *** Document preparation ***
  3275 
  3276 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3277 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3278 same.
  3279 
  3280 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3281 result.
  3282 
  3283 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3284 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3285 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3286 
  3287 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3288 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3289 
  3290 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3291 like this:
  3292 
  3293   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3294   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3295 
  3296 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3297 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3298 layouts.
  3299 
  3300 
  3301 *** ML ***
  3302 
  3303 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3304 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3305 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3306 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3307 under external program control.
  3308 
  3309 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3310 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3311 
  3312 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3313 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3314 (better known as Proof General).
  3315 
  3316 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3317 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3318 
  3319 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3320 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3321 
  3322 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3323 (including quotes etc.).
  3324 
  3325 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3326 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3327 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3328 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3329 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3330 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3331 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3332 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3333 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3334 
  3335 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3336 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3337 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3338 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3339 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3340 
  3341 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3342 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3343 
  3344 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3345 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3346 
  3347 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3348 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3349 
  3350 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3351 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3352 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3353 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3354 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3355 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3356 proper Proof.context.
  3357 
  3358 
  3359 *** System ***
  3360 
  3361 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3362 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3363 
  3364 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3365 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3366 
  3367 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3368 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3369 
  3370   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3371   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3372   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3373   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3374   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3375 
  3376 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3377 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3380 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3381 example:
  3382 
  3383   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3384 
  3385 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3386 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3387 
  3388 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3389 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3390 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3391 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3392 
  3393 
  3394 
  3395 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3396 ----------------------------------
  3397 
  3398 *** General ***
  3399 
  3400 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3401 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3402 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3403 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3404 like this:
  3405 
  3406   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3407 
  3408 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3409 
  3410 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3411 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3412 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3413 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3414 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3415 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3416 
  3417 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3418 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3419 the following package declarations:
  3420 
  3421   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3422   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3423 
  3424 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3425 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3426 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3427 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3428 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3429 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3430 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3431 
  3432 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3433 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3434 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3435 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3436 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3437 
  3438 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3439 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3440 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3441 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3442 
  3443 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3444 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3445 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3446 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3447 
  3448   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3449 
  3450   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3451   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3452   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3453   show_types                    show_types
  3454   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3455   show_consts                   show_consts
  3456   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3457 
  3458   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3459   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3460   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3461 
  3462   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3463   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3464 
  3465   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3466 
  3467   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3468   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3469   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3470   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3471   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3472 
  3473 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3474 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3475 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3476 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3477 
  3478 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3480 
  3481   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3482   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3483 
  3484 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3485 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3486 float_token.
  3487 
  3488 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3489 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3493 DejaVu Sans.
  3494 
  3495 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3496 
  3497 
  3498 *** Pure ***
  3499 
  3500 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3501 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3502 time.
  3503 
  3504 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3505 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3508 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3511 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3512 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3513 command already provided this functionality.
  3514 
  3515 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3516 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3517 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3518 without interpretations.
  3519 
  3520 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3521 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3522 
  3523 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3524 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3525 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3526 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3527 
  3528 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3529 'definition' instead.
  3530 
  3531 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3532 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3533 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3534 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3535 
  3536 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3537 constructors.
  3538 
  3539 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3540 the local file system.
  3541 
  3542 
  3543 *** HOL ***
  3544 
  3545 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3546 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3547 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3548 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3549 
  3550   declare [[coercion f]]
  3551 
  3552 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3553 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3554 
  3555   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3556 
  3557 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3558 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3559 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3560 other theories like this:
  3561 
  3562   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3563 
  3564 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3565 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3566 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3567 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3568 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3569 for examples.
  3570 
  3571 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3572 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3575 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3576 
  3577 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3578 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3579 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3580 
  3581 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3582 functorial structure of types.
  3583 
  3584 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3585 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3586 
  3587 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3588 languages.
  3589 
  3590 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3591 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3595 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3598 combinators any longer.
  3599 
  3600 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3601 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3602 
  3603 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3604 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3605 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3606 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3607 
  3608   record 'a foo = ...
  3609   ...
  3610   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3611 
  3612 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3613 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3617 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3618 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3619 
  3620 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3621 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3622 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3623 
  3624 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3625 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3628 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3629 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3630 independently.
  3631 
  3632 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3633 counter example search.
  3634 
  3635 * Sledgehammer:
  3636   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3637     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3638     sledgehammer").
  3639   - Renamed commands:
  3640     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3641     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3642     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3643     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644   - Renamed options:
  3645     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3646     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3647     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3648     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3649     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * Nitpick:
  3652   - Renamed options:
  3653     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3654     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3655     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3657   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3658   - Added "whack" option.
  3659   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3660   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3661   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3662   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3663     higher cardinalities.
  3664   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3665 
  3666 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3667 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3668 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3669 
  3670     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3671 
  3672 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3673 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3674 
  3675 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3676 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3677 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3678 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3679 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3680 "smt_solver".
  3681 
  3682 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3683 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3684 
  3685 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3686 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3687 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3688 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3689 
  3690 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3691   - Renamed:
  3692     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3693     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3694     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695   - Added:
  3696     smt_verbose
  3697     smt_random_seed
  3698     smt_datatypes
  3699     smt_infer_triggers
  3700     smt_monomorph_limit
  3701     cvc3_options
  3702     remote_cvc3_options
  3703     remote_z3_options
  3704     yices_options
  3705 
  3706 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3707 header.
  3708 
  3709 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3710 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3711 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3712 
  3713   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3714 
  3715 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3716 
  3717 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3718 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3723 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3726 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3727 
  3728 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3729 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3730 
  3731 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3732 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3733 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3734 
  3735 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3741 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3744 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3745 for congruent(2)).
  3746 
  3747 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3748 
  3749   types
  3750     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3751     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3752 
  3753   constants
  3754     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3755     True ~> HOL.True
  3756     False ~> HOL.False
  3757     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3758     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3759     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3760     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3761     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3762     The ~> HOL.The
  3763     All ~> HOL.All
  3764     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3765     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3766     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3767     If ~> HOL.If
  3768     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3769     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3770     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3771     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3772     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3773     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3774     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3775     op : ~> Set.member
  3776     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3777 
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3781 
  3782     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3783     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3784     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3785     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3786     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3787     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3788     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3789     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3790 
  3791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793 * More stylized fact names:
  3794 
  3795   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3796   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3797   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3798   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3799 
  3800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3803 
  3804   constants
  3805     null ~> List.null
  3806 
  3807   facts
  3808     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3809     null_empty ~> null_def
  3810 
  3811 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3812 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3813 generation.
  3814 
  3815 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3816 Haskell code.
  3817 
  3818 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3819 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3820 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3823 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3826 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3827 
  3828 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3829 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3830 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3833 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834 
  3835 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3839 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3840 referred to by its qualified name.
  3841 
  3842   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3843   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3844   product ~>  Enum.product
  3845 
  3846 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3847 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3851 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3852 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3856 sort_key.
  3857 
  3858 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3862 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3863 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3864 
  3865   types
  3866     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3867               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3868               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3869         (depends on your needs)
  3870 
  3871   constants
  3872      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3873      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3874      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3875 
  3876 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3877 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3878 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3879 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3882 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3883 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3884 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3885 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 
  3887 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3891 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3892 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3893 
  3894 
  3895 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3896 
  3897 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3898 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3899 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3900 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3901 compatibility.
  3902 
  3903 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3904 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3905 
  3906 
  3907 *** HOLCF ***
  3908 
  3909 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3910 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3911 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3915 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3916 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3919   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3920   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3921 
  3922 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3923 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3924 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3927 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3928 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3929 domain definition now works:
  3930 
  3931   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3932 
  3933 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3934 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3935 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3936 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3937 
  3938   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3939     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3940 
  3941   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3942 
  3943 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3944 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3945 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3948 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3951 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3952 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3953 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3954 
  3955 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3956 
  3957 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3958 
  3959 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3965 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3966 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3967 
  3968 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3969 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3970 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3973 still supported as an input translation.
  3974 
  3975 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3976 
  3977   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3978   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3979   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3980   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3981   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3982   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3983   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3984 
  3985 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3986 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3989   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3990   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3991   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3992   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3993   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3994 
  3995 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3996 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3999 
  4000   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4001   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4002   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4003   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4004 
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4008 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4009 
  4010 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4011 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4014   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4015   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4016   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4017   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4018   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4019   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4020   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4021   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4022   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4023   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4024   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4025   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4026   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4027   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4028   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4029   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4030   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4031   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4032   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4033 
  4034 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4037   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4038   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4039   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4040   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4041   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4042   box_less             ~> box_below
  4043   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4044   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4045   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4046   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4047   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4048   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4049   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4050   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4051   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4052   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4053   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4054   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4055   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4056   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4057   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4058   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4059   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4060   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4061   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4062   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4063   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4064   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4065   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4066   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4067   up_less              ~> up_below
  4068   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4069   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4070   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4071   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4072   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4073   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4074   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4075   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4076   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4077   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4078   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4079   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4080   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4081 
  4082 
  4083 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4084 
  4085 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4086 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088 
  4089 *** ML ***
  4090 
  4091 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4092 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4093 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4094 
  4095 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4096 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4097 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4098 
  4099 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4100 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4101 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4102 
  4103 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4104 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4105 
  4106 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4107 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4108 
  4109 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4110 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4111 
  4112 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4113 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4114 
  4115 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4116 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4117 almost all situations.
  4118 
  4119 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4120 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4121 Isabelle/ML.
  4122 
  4123 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4124 meaning.
  4125 
  4126 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4127 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4128 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4129 
  4130 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4131 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4132 
  4133 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4134 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4135 
  4136 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4137 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4138 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4139 
  4140 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4141 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4142 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4143 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4144 configuration options.
  4145 
  4146 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4147 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4148 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4149 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4150 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4151 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4152 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4153 
  4154 
  4155 
  4156 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4157 ---------------------------------
  4158 
  4159 *** General ***
  4160 
  4161 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4162 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4163 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4164 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4165 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4166 their full internal name.
  4167 
  4168 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4169 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4170 Some hints on upgrading:
  4171 
  4172   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4173     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4174     which are independent of this issue.
  4175 
  4176   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4177     provides the following special forms:
  4178 
  4179       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4180       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4181       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4182 
  4183     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4184     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4185     extra variables".
  4186 
  4187     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4188     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4189     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4190     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4191     "logic".
  4192 
  4193   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4194     antiquotations:
  4195 
  4196       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4197       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4198       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4199       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4200 
  4201   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4202     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4203     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4204     antiquotations.
  4205 
  4206 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4207 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4208 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4209 diagnose syntax problems.
  4210 
  4211 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4212 
  4213 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4214 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4215 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4216 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4217 
  4218 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4219 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4220 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4221 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4222 
  4223 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4224 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4225 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4226 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4227 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4230 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4231 
  4232 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4233 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4234 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4235 
  4236   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4237 
  4238 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4239 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4240 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4241 
  4242 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4243 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4247 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4248 
  4249 
  4250 *** Pure ***
  4251 
  4252 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4253 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4254 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4255 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4256 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4257 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4258 inspect proof terms.
  4259 
  4260 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4261 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4262 are added internally.  For example:
  4263 
  4264   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4265 
  4266 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4267 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270 
  4271 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4272 'class' instead.
  4273 
  4274 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4275 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4277 
  4278 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4279 invariants.
  4280 
  4281 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4282 user space functionality any longer.
  4283 
  4284 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4285 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4289 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4290 
  4291 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4292 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4293 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4294 
  4295 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4296 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4297 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4298 
  4299 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4300 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4301 
  4302 
  4303 *** HOL ***
  4304 
  4305 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4306 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4307 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4308 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4309 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4310 
  4311 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4312 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4313 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4314 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4315 
  4316   fun
  4317     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4318   where
  4319     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4320 
  4321   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4322     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4323 
  4324   quotient_definition
  4325     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4326 
  4327 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4328 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4329 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4330 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4331 
  4332 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4333 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4334 
  4335 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4336 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4337 
  4338 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4339 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340 
  4341 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4342 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4343 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4344 
  4345 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4346 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4347 
  4348 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4353 
  4354 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4355 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4358 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4359 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4360 
  4361   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4362   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4363   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4364   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4365   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4366   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4367   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4368   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4369   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4370   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4371   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4372   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4373   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4374   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4375   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4376   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4377   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4378   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4379   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4380   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4381   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4382   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4383   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4384   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4385   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4386   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4387   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4388   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4389   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4390   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4391 
  4392 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4393 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4394 
  4395 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4396 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4397 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4398 
  4399 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4400 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4401 
  4402 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4403 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4406 
  4407 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4408 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4411 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4412 
  4413 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4416 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4417 
  4418 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4419 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4420 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4421 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4422 
  4423 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4424   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4425   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4426   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4428 
  4429 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4430 lattices):
  4431 
  4432     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4433     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4434 
  4435     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4436 
  4437     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4438     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4439     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4440     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4441     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4442     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4443     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4444     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4445     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4446     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4447     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4448     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4449     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4450 
  4451     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4452     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4453     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4454     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4455     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4456     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4457     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4458     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4459     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4460     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4461     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4462     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4463     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4464     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4465     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4466     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4467     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4468     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4469 
  4470   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4471   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4472 
  4473     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4474     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4475     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4476     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4477     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4478 
  4479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4480 
  4481 * Refined field classes:
  4482   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4483     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4484     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4485   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4487 
  4488 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4489   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4490   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4491   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4492     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4493   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4494     equal_neg_zero.
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4498 sets to lattices:
  4499 
  4500   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4501   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4502   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4503   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4504   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4505   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4506   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4507   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4508   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4509   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4510 
  4511 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4512 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4513 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4514 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4515 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4516 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4517 
  4518 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4519 multiset order:
  4520 
  4521   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4522     <= and <;
  4523   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4524     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4525     multiset_order;
  4526   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4527     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4528     generation;
  4529   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4530     if needed.
  4531 
  4532 Renamed:
  4533 
  4534   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4535   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4536   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4537 
  4538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4541 
  4542 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4543 
  4544 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4545 
  4546 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4547 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4548 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4549 
  4550   Constants:
  4551   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4552   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4553   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4554   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4555   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4556   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4557   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4558   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4559   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4560   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4561   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4562   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4563   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4564 
  4565   Lemmas:
  4566   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4567   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4568   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4569   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4570   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4571   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4572   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4573   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4574   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4575   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4576   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4577   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4578   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4579 
  4580 * Sledgehammer:
  4581   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4582     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4583     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4584     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4585     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4586     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4587     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4589   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4590     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4591   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4592     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4593     is still experimental.)
  4594   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4595     full-typed mode.
  4596   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4597 
  4598 * Nitpick:
  4599   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4600   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4601   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4602     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4603   - Added support for quotient types.
  4604   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4605     constructs.
  4606   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4607     "termination" proofs).
  4608   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4609   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4610   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4611   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4612     record getters.
  4613   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4614   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4615   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4616   - Added "atoms" option.
  4617   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4618     problems.
  4619   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4620     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4621     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4622   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4623     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4624   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4625 
  4626 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4627   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4628   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4629   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4630   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4631   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4632   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4633   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4634   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4635   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 
  4638 *** HOLCF ***
  4639 
  4640 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4641 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4642 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4645 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4646 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4647 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4650 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4651 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4652 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4653 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4654 
  4655 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4656 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4657 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4660 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4661 
  4662   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4663   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4664 
  4665 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4666 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4667 
  4668   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4669   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4670   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4671   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4672   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4673 
  4674 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4675 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4678   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4679   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4680 
  4681 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4682 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 
  4685 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4686 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4691 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 
  4694 *** ML ***
  4695 
  4696 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4697 
  4698     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4699     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4700 
  4701     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4702     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4703     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4704     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4705 
  4706     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4707     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4708     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4709 
  4710 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4711 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4712 
  4713 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4714 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4715 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4716 
  4717 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4718 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4719 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4720 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4721 
  4722 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4723 the context or even global references.
  4724 
  4725 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4726 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4727 
  4728 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4729 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4730 
  4731   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4732   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4733   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4734   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4735   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4736   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4737   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4738   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4739   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4740   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4741 
  4742 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4743 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4744 
  4745 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4746 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4747 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4748 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4749 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4750 
  4751 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4752 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4753 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4754 Theory_Data version.
  4755 
  4756 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4757 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4758 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4759 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4760 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4761 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4762 explicitly in rare situations.
  4763 
  4764 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4765 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4766 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4767 
  4768 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4769 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4772 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4773 quite rare).
  4774 
  4775 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4776 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4777 
  4778 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4779 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4780 terms.
  4781 
  4782 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4783 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4784 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4785 
  4786 
  4787 *** System ***
  4788 
  4789 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4790 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4791 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4792 
  4793 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4794 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4795 respectively.
  4796 
  4797 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4798 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4799 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4800 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4801 
  4802   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4803 
  4804 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4805 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4806 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4807 component.
  4808 
  4809 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4810 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4811 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4812 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4813 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4814 the user for manual installation.
  4815 
  4816 
  4817 
  4818 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4819 -------------------------------------
  4820 
  4821 *** General ***
  4822 
  4823 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4824 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4825 
  4826 
  4827 *** Pure ***
  4828 
  4829 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4830 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4831 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4832 
  4833 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4834 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4835 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4836 
  4837 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4838 interpretation.
  4839 
  4840 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4841 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 
  4844 *** Document preparation ***
  4845 
  4846 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4847 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4848 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4849 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4850 
  4851 
  4852 *** HOL ***
  4853 
  4854 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4855 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4856 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4857 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4858 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4859 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4860 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4861 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4862 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4863 
  4864 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4865 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4866 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4867 
  4868 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4869 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4870 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4871 
  4872 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4873 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4874 
  4875 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4876 
  4877 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4878 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4879 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4880 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4881 
  4882 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4883 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4884 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4885 "mirabelle" utility.
  4886 
  4887 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4888 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4889 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4890 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4891 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4892 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4893 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4894 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4895 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4896 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4897 
  4898 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4899 procedure only.
  4900 
  4901 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4902 
  4903 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4904 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4905 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4906 that fail later.
  4907 
  4908 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4909 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4910 
  4911 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4912 the same method as the approximation method.
  4913 
  4914 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4915 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4916 series expansion.
  4917 
  4918 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4919 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4920 
  4921 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4922 reals.
  4923 
  4924 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4925 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4926 
  4927 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4928 fixpoint theorem.
  4929 
  4930 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4931   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4932     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4933   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4934     accordingly
  4935   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4936     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4937   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4938     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4939 
  4940 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4941 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4942 lattice.
  4943 
  4944 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4945 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4946 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4947 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4948 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4949 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4951 
  4952 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4953   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4954     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4955   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4956     le_inf_iff
  4957   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4958     sup_aci)
  4959   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4960   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4961   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4962     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4963     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4964     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4965     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4966     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4967     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4968     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4969     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4970     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4971     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4972   - authentic syntax for
  4973     Set.Pow
  4974     Set.image
  4975   - mere abbreviations:
  4976     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4977     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4978     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4979     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4980     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4981     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4982     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4983     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4984   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4985 
  4986 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4987 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4988 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4989 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4990 
  4991 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4992 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4993 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4994 
  4995 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4996 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4997 
  4998 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4999 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5000 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5001 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5004 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5005 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5006 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5007 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5008 
  5009 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5010 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5014 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5017 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5018 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5019 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5020 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5021 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5022 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5026     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5027     code_post       replaces    code post
  5028     etc.
  5029   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5030 
  5031 * Renamed methods:
  5032     sizechange -> size_change
  5033     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5034   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5037 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5038 
  5039 * Renamed theorems:
  5040     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5041     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5042     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5043     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5044     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5045   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 
  5054 *** HOLCF ***
  5055 
  5056 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5057 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5058 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5059 
  5060 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5061 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5062 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5063 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5064 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5065 
  5066 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5067 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5068 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5069 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5070 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5071 
  5072 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5073 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5074 constructor are pre-configured.
  5075 
  5076 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5077 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5078 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5079 
  5080 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5081 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5082 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5083 as well.)
  5084 
  5085 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5086 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5087 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5088 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5089 examples.
  5090 
  5091 
  5092 *** ML ***
  5093 
  5094 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5095 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5096 
  5097 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5098 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5099 position, logical grouping etc.
  5100 
  5101 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5102 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5103 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5104 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5105 
  5106 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5107 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5108 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5109 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5110 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5111 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5112 
  5113 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5114 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5115 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5116 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5117 experiments with references.
  5118 
  5119 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5120 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5121 
  5122 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5123 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5124 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5125 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5126 
  5127 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5128 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5129 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5130 
  5131 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5132 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5133 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5134 
  5135 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5136 
  5137 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5139 
  5140 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5141 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5142 
  5143 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5144 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5145 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5146 
  5147 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5148 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5149 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5150 
  5151 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5152 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5153 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5155 
  5156 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5157 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5158 instead of global theory.
  5159 
  5160 
  5161 *** System ***
  5162 
  5163 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5164 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5165 usedir option -q.
  5166 
  5167 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5168 also the system manual.
  5169 
  5170 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5171 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5172 
  5173 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5174 this is always enabled.
  5175 
  5176 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5177 
  5178 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5179 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5180 currently supported on Linux only.
  5181 
  5182 
  5183 
  5184 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5185 --------------------------------
  5186 
  5187 *** General ***
  5188 
  5189 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5190 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5191 
  5192   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5193     "isatool."
  5194 
  5195   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5196     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5197 
  5198   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5199     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5200 
  5201 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5202 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5203 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5204 
  5205 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5206 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5207 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5208 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5209 via "isabelle emacs".
  5210 
  5211 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5212 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5213 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5214 
  5215 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5216 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5217 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5218 
  5219 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5220 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5221 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5222 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5223 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5224 
  5225 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5226 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5227 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5228 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5229 
  5230 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5231 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5232 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5233 
  5234 
  5235 *** Pure ***
  5236 
  5237 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5238 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5239 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5240 
  5241 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5242 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5243 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5244 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5245 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5246 
  5247 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5248 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5249 useful in locale declarations.
  5250 
  5251 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5252 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5253 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5254 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5255 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5256 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5257 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5258 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5259 no longer generated.
  5260 
  5261 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5262 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5263 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5264 
  5265 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5266 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5267 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5268 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5269 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5270 
  5271 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5272 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5273 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5274 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5275 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5276 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5277 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5278 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5279 
  5280 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5281 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5282 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5283 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5284 
  5285 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5286 
  5287 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5288 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5289 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5290 
  5291 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5292 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5293 
  5294 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5295 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5296 in HOL, write
  5297 
  5298     class foo = ...
  5299 
  5300 instead of
  5301 
  5302     class foo = type + ...
  5303 
  5304 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5305 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5306 
  5307 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5308 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5309 
  5310 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5311 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5312 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5313 
  5314 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5315 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5316 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5317 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5318 directly in regular applications.
  5319 
  5320 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5321 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5322 
  5323 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5324 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5325 
  5326 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5327 theory context.
  5328 
  5329 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5330 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5331 
  5332 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5333 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5334 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5335 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5336 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5337 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5338 
  5339   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5340 
  5341 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5342 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5343 normalization.
  5344 
  5345 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5346 addressing etc.
  5347 
  5348 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5349 
  5350   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5351   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5352 
  5353 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5354 
  5355   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5356      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5357      parts of the code generator framework).
  5358 
  5359   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5360      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5361      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5362 
  5363 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5364 
  5365 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5366 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5367 
  5368 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5369 patterns, e.g.
  5370 
  5371     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5372 
  5373 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5374 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5375 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5376 hyphen:
  5377 
  5378     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5379 
  5380 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5381 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5382 
  5383 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5384 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5385 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5386 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5387 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5388 higher-order unification.
  5389 
  5390 
  5391 *** Document preparation ***
  5392 
  5393 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5394 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5395 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5396 
  5397 
  5398 *** HOL ***
  5399 
  5400 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5401 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5402 
  5403 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5404 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5405 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5406 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5407 Main, as before.
  5408 
  5409 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5410 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5411 
  5412 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5413 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5414 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5415 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5416 
  5417 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5418 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5419 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5420 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5421 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5422 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5423 
  5424 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5425 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5426 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5427 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5428 
  5429 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5430 menu.
  5431 
  5432 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5433 (contains the empty clause).
  5434 
  5435 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5436 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5437 
  5438 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5439 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5440 
  5441 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5442 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5443 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5444 
  5445 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5446 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5447 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5448 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5449 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5450 
  5451 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5452 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5453 
  5454 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5455 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5456 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5457 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5458 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5459 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5460 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5461 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5462 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5463 
  5464 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5465 
  5466 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5467 
  5468 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5469 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5470 
  5471 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5472 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5473 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5474 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5475 
  5476 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5477 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5478 
  5479     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5480     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5481     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5482     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5483     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5484     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5485     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5486     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5487 
  5488 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5489 theory Set.
  5490 
  5491 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5492 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5493 
  5494 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5495 
  5496 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5497 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5498 
  5499 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5500 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5501 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5502 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5503 allowed. For examples see
  5504 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5505 
  5506 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5507 
  5508 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5510 
  5511 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5512 structure:
  5513 
  5514     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5515     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5516     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5517     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5518     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5519     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5520     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5521     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5522     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5523     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5524     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5525     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5526     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5527     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5528     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5529     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5530     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5531     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5532     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5533     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5534     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5535     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5536     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5537     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5538     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5539     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5540     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5541     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5542     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5543     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5544     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5545     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5546     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5547 
  5548     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5549     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5550     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5551     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5552     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5553     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5554     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5555     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5556     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5557     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5558 
  5559     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5560     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5561     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5562     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5563     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5564     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5565 
  5566 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5567 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5568 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5569 
  5570 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5571 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5572 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5573 
  5574 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5575 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5576 
  5577 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5578 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5579 
  5580 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5581 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5582 proofs, e.g.
  5583 
  5584   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5585 
  5586 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5587 
  5588 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5589 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5590 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5591 
  5592 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5593 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5594 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5595 
  5596 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5597 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5598 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5600 
  5601 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5602 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5603 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5604 preorder_class.*.
  5605 
  5606 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5607 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5608 
  5609 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5610 
  5611   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5612 
  5613 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5614 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5615 fold_image.
  5616 
  5617 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5618 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5619 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5620 the former will disappear at some point.
  5621 
  5622 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5623 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5624 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5625 
  5626 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5627 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5628 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5629 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5630 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5631 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5632 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5633 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5634 
  5635 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5636 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5637 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5638 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5639 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5640 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5641 
  5642     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5643     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5644     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5645     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5646     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5647     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5648     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5649 
  5650 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5651 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5652 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5653 
  5654 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5655 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5656 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5657 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5658 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5659 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5660 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5661 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5662 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5663 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5664 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5665 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5666 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5667 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5668 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5669 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5670 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5671 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5672 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5673 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5674 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5675 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5676 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5677 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5678 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5679 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5680 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5681 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5682 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5683 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5684 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5685 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5686 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5687 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5688 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5689 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5690 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5691 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5692 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5693 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5694 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5695 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5696 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5697 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5698 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5699 
  5700 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5701 
  5702 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5703 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5704 
  5705 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5706 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5707 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5708 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5709 
  5710 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5711 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5712 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5713 theory RealVector.
  5714 
  5715 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5716 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5717 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5718 and inner products are included.
  5719 
  5720 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5721 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5722 supported.
  5723 
  5724 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5725 first diagonalization argument.
  5726 
  5727 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5728 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5729 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5730 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5731 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5732 
  5733     hide (open) const gcd
  5734     abbreviation gcd where
  5735       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5736     notation (output)
  5737       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5738 
  5739 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5740 
  5741 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5742 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5743 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5744 
  5745 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5746 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5747 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5748 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5749 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5750 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5751 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5752 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5753 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5754 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5755 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5756 cases.
  5757 
  5758 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5759 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5760 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5761 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5762 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5763 
  5764     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5765     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5766     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5767     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5768     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5769 
  5770 
  5771 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5772 
  5773 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5774 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5775 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5776 
  5777 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5778 
  5779 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5780 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5781 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5782 
  5783 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5784 
  5785 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5786 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5787 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5788 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5789 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5790 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5791 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5792 
  5793 
  5794 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5795 
  5796 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5797 
  5798 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5799 theory targets.
  5800 
  5801 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5802 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5803 'inductive' etc.
  5804 
  5805 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5806 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5807 
  5808 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5809 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5810 
  5811 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5812 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5813 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5814 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5815 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5816 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5817 the algorithm W:
  5818 
  5819  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5820  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5821          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5822 
  5823 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5824 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5825 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5826 
  5827 
  5828 *** HOLCF ***
  5829 
  5830 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5831 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5832 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5833 
  5834 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5835 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5836 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5837 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5838 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5839 
  5840 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5841 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5842 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5843 
  5844 
  5845 *** ZF ***
  5846 
  5847 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5848 
  5849 
  5850 *** ML ***
  5851 
  5852 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5853 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5854 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5855 5.2.1!
  5856 
  5857 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5858 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5859 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5860 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5861 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5862 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5863 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5864 
  5865 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5866 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5867 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5868 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5869 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5870 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5871 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5872 
  5873 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5874 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5875 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5876 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5877 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5878 
  5879 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5880 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5881 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5882 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5883 Method.add_method.
  5884 
  5885 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5886 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5887 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5888 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5889 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5890 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5891 
  5892 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5893 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5894 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5895 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5896 examples.
  5897 
  5898 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5899 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5900 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5901 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5902 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5903 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5904 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5905 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5906 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5907 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5908 
  5909 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5910 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5911 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5912 
  5913 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5914 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5915 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5916 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5917 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5918 resort for legacy applications.
  5919 
  5920 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5921 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5922 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5923 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5924 explicit runtime argument.
  5925 
  5926 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5927 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5928 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5929 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5930 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5933 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5934 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5935 theory state.
  5936 
  5937 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5938 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5939 
  5940   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5941   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5942   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5943   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5944   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5945   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5946   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5947   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5948   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5949   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5950 
  5951 
  5952 *** System ***
  5953 
  5954 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5955 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5956 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5957 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5958 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5959 
  5960 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5961 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5962 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5963 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5964 
  5965 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5966 
  5967 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5968 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5969 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5970 prover operations.
  5971 
  5972 
  5973 
  5974 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5975 -------------------------------
  5976 
  5977 *** General ***
  5978 
  5979 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5980 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5981 
  5982 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5983 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5984 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5985 provides a proper context already.
  5986 
  5987 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5988 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5989 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5990 
  5991 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5992 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5993 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5994 swap theory imports.
  5995 
  5996 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5997 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5998 
  5999 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6000 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6001 white space without escapes.
  6002 
  6003 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6004 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6005 "foo_bar".
  6006 
  6007 
  6008 *** Pure ***
  6009 
  6010 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6011 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6012 
  6013 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6014 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6015 
  6016 (1) unused_thms
  6017      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6018 
  6019 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6020      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6021      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6022 
  6023 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6024      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6025      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6026      their ancestors.
  6027 
  6028 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6029 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6030 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6031 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6032 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6033 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6034 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6035 
  6036 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6037 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6038 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6039 
  6040 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6041 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6042 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6043 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6044 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6045 
  6046 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6047 
  6048 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6049 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6050 update of theories within ML code.
  6051 
  6052 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6053 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6054 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6055 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6056 
  6057 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6058 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6059 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6063 
  6064 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6065 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6066 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6067 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6068 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6069 
  6070 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6071 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6072 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6073 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6074 situations.
  6075 
  6076 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6077 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6078 proof text.
  6079 
  6080 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6081 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6082 
  6083 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6084 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6085 predicates.
  6086 
  6087 
  6088 *** Document preparation ***
  6089 
  6090 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6091 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6092 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6093 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6094 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6095 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6096 
  6097 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6098 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6099 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6100 
  6101 
  6102 *** HOL ***
  6103 
  6104 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6105 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6106 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6107 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6108 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6109 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6110 
  6111 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6112 with multithreading.
  6113 
  6114 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6115 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6116 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6117 
  6118 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6119 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6120 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6121 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6122 
  6123 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6124 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6125 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6126 and makes them available separately.  See
  6127 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6128 
  6129 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6130 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6131 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6132 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6133 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6134 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6135 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6136 the declared rules.
  6137 
  6138 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6139 
  6140   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6141 
  6142 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6143 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6144 
  6145 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6146 
  6147   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6148 
  6149   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6150     definitions on => and bool.
  6151 
  6152   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6153     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6154     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6155 
  6156       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6157       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6158       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6159       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6160       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6161       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6162       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6163       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6164 
  6165   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6166     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6167     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6168 
  6169   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6170     The proof pattern
  6171 
  6172       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6173       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6174 
  6175     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6176     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6177 
  6178       have "EX S. P S"
  6179       proof
  6180         show "P S" <...>
  6181       qed
  6182 
  6183   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6184     The proof pattern
  6185 
  6186       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6187       also have "S = T" <...>
  6188       finally have "P T" .
  6189 
  6190     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6191     must be replaced by something like
  6192 
  6193       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6194       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6195       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6196 
  6197   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6198     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6199 
  6200       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6201 
  6202     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6203     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6204     type of the form
  6205 
  6206       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6207 
  6208     rather than
  6209 
  6210       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6211 
  6212 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6213 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6214 
  6215 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6216 
  6217 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6218 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6220 
  6221 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6222 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6223 
  6224 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6225 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6226 
  6227 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6228 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6229 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6230 
  6231 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6232 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6233 
  6234   less_trans
  6235   less_linear
  6236   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6237   le_less_trans
  6238   less_le_trans
  6239   less_not_sym
  6240   less_asym
  6241 
  6242 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6243 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6244 and different variable names.
  6245 
  6246 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6247 
  6248 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6249 finite maps.
  6250 
  6251 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6252 
  6253 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6254 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6255 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6256 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6257 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6258 accordingly.
  6259 
  6260 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6261 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6262 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6263 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6264 
  6265 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6266 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6267 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes