NEWS
author immler
Wed Jan 16 18:14:02 2019 -0500 (6 months ago)
changeset 69675 880ab0f27ddf
parent 69672 f97fbb2330aa
child 69690 1fb204399d8d
permissions -rw-r--r--
Reorg, in particular Determinants as well as some linear algebra from Starlike and Change_Of_Vars
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    13 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    14 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    15 
    16 * The font family "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from the
    17 existing "DejaVu" collection, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    18 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    19 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    20 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    21 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    22 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    24 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    25 
    26 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    27 
    28 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    29 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )".
    33 
    34 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    35 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    36 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    37 automatically.
    38 
    39 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    40 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    45 
    46 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    47 exports of the current buffer. The directory view needs to be reloaded
    48 manually to follow ongoing document processing.
    49 
    50 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    51 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    52 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    53 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    54 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    55 defaults to 0.
    56 
    57 * Improved sub-pixel font rendering (especially on Linux), thanks to
    58 OpenJDK 11.
    59 
    60 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    61 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    62 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    63 Isabelle component).
    64 
    65 
    66 *** Isar ***
    67 
    68 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
    69 precedence over goal/proof.
    70 
    71 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
    72 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
    73 
    74 
    75 *** HOL ***
    76 
    77 * Code generation: command 'export_code' without file keyword exports
    78 code as regular theory export, which can be materialized using the
    79 command-line tool "isabelle export" or 'export_files' in the session
    80 ROOT, or browsed in Isabelle/jEdit via the "isabelle-export:"
    81 file-system. To get generated code dumped into output, use "file \<open>\<close>".
    82 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    83 
    84 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
    85 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
    86 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
    87 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
    88 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
    89 
    90 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
    91 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
    92 
    93 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the <Union># operator now has the same
    94 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
    95 
    96 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint instead.
    97 
    98 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute renamed to sum_mset.swap
    99 and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   101 
   102 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   103 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   104 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Sledgehammer: The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote
   107 provers, has been updated.
   108 
   109 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   110 
   111 * HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: case_of_simps now supports overlapping 
   112 and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested patterns.
   113 It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which assumes
   114 sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   115 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   117 
   118 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   119 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   120 retrieved with the "isabelle export" command-line tool like this:
   121 
   122   isabelle export -x "*:**.prv" HOL-SPARK-Examples
   123 
   124 
   125 *** ML ***
   126 
   127 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   128 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   129 
   130 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   131 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   132 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   133 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   134 ">" as separator. For example:
   135 
   136   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   137   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   138 
   139   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   140   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   141 
   142   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   143   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   144 
   145 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   146 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   147 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   148 observes the official standard).
   149 
   150 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   151 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   152 
   153 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   154 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   155 useful.
   156 
   157 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   158 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   159 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   160 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   161 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   162 
   163   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   164   module Isabelle.Pure where
   165     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   166     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   167     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   168     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   169   \<close>
   170 
   171 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   172 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   173 external compiler is applied.
   174 
   175 
   176 *** System ***
   177 
   178 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   179 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   180 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   181 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   182 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   183 dump".
   184 
   185 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   186 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   187 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   188 
   189 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   190 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   191 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   192 component).
   193 
   194 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   195 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   196 Isabelle/PIDE.
   197 
   198 * Isabelle server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   199 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   200 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   201 
   202 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   203 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   204 is no longer required.
   205 
   206 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   207 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   208 
   209   isabelle ghc_setup
   210   isabelle ghc_stack
   211 
   212   isabelle ocaml_setup
   213   isabelle ocaml_opam
   214 
   215 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   216 (and corresponding directory contents):
   217 
   218   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   219   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   220   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   221 
   222   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   223   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   224 
   225 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   226 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   227 
   228   ISABELLE_GHC
   229 
   230   ISABELLE_OCAML
   231   ISABELLE_OCAMLC
   232 
   233 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   234 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   235 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT.
   236 
   237 * Update to Java 11: the latest long-term support version of OpenJDK.
   238 
   239 
   240 
   241 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   242 ---------------------------------
   243 
   244 *** General ***
   245 
   246 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   247 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   248 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   249 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   250 
   251 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   252 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   253 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   254 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   255 
   256 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   257 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   260 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   261 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   262 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   263 avoid this.
   264 
   265 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   266 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   267 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   268 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   269 
   270 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   271 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   272 instead.
   273 
   274 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   275 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   276 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   277 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   278 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   279 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   280 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   281 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   282 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   283 syntax), use option "-m".
   284 
   285 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287 
   288 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   289 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   290 without specific Prover IDE management.
   291 
   292 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   293 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   294 context.
   295 
   296 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   297 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   298 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   299 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   300 
   301   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   302 
   303 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   304 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   305 
   306 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   307 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   308 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   309 output.
   310 
   311 
   312 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   313 
   314 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   315 for session management:
   316 
   317   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   318     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   319 
   320   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   321     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   322 
   323   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   324     and -S
   325 
   326   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   327     theories
   328 
   329   Examples:
   330     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   331     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   332     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   333     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   334     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   335 
   336 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   337 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   338 
   339 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   340 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   341 
   342 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   343 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   344 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   345 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   346 arguments into this format.
   347 
   348 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   349 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   350 
   351 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   352 functions (e.g. State output).
   353 
   354 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   355 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   356 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   357 
   358 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   359 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   360 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   363 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   364 
   365 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   366 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   367 Isabelle".
   368 
   369 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   370 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   371 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   372 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   373 Unicode content when saving the file.
   374 
   375 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   376 
   377 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   378 
   379 
   380 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   381 
   382 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   383 Isabelle/jEdit.
   384 
   385 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   386 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   387 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   388 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   389 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   390 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   391 
   392 
   393 *** Document preparation ***
   394 
   395 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   396 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   397 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   398 are supported:
   399 
   400   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   401   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   402   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   403 
   404 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   405 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   406 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   407 
   408 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   409 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   410 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   411 
   412 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   413 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   414 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   415 
   416 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   417 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   418 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   419 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   420 
   421 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   422 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   423 
   424 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   425 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   426 normally need to import.
   427 
   428 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   429 session name verbatim.
   430 
   431 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   432 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   433 
   434 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   435 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   436 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   437 
   438 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   439 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   440 anymore.
   441 
   442 
   443 *** Isar ***
   444 
   445 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   446 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   447 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   448 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   449 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   450 
   451 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   452 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   453 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   454 
   455 
   456 *** Pure ***
   457 
   458 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   459 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   460 
   461 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   462 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   463 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   464 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   465 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   466 
   467 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   468 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   469 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   470 duplicate constant declarations.
   471 
   472 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   473 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   474 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   475 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   476 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   477 
   478 
   479 *** HOL ***
   480 
   481 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   482 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   483 
   484 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   485 
   486   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   487 
   488   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   489     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   490     constraints instead.
   491 
   492   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   493 
   494   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   495     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   496     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   497     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   498 
   499   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   500     standard target languages.
   501 
   502   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   503     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   504     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   505     HOL string values and vice versa.
   506 
   507   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   508     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   509 
   510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   513 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   514 
   515 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   516 
   517 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   518 former axioms:
   519 
   520   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   521 
   522 are replaced by:
   523 
   524   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   525 
   526 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   527 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   528 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   529 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   530 
   531 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   532 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   533 
   534 * Clarifed theorem names:
   535 
   536   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   537   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   538 
   539 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   540 
   541 * SMT module:
   542 
   543   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   544     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   547     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   548     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   549 
   550 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   551 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   552 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   553 
   554 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   561 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   563 
   564 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   565 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   566 Renamed:
   567 
   568   span_inc ~> span_superset
   569   span_superset ~> span_base
   570   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   571 
   572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   575 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   576 
   577 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   578 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   579 
   580 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   581 
   582   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   583     input syntax
   584 
   585   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   586 
   587 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   588 
   589 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   590 
   591 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   592 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   594 
   595 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   596   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   597   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   598   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   599 
   600 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   601 
   602 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   603 
   604   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   605   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   606   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   607   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   608   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   609 
   610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   613 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   614 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   615 broken proofs.
   616 
   617 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   618 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   619 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   620 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   621 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   622 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   623 
   624 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   625 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   626 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   627 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   628 examples.
   629 
   630 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   631 
   632 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   633 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   636 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   637 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   639 
   640 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   641 infix/prefix notation.
   642 
   643 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   644 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   648 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   652 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   654 
   655 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   656 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   657 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   658 
   659 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   660 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   661 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   662 
   663 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   664 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   665 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   666 
   667 
   668 *** ML ***
   669 
   670 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   671 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   672 
   673 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   674 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   675 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   676 "isabelle process".
   677 
   678 
   679 *** System ***
   680 
   681 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   682 longer supported.
   683 
   684 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   685 support has been discontinued.
   686 
   687 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   688 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   689 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   690 
   691 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   692 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   693 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   694 quotes):
   695 
   696   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   697   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   698 
   699   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   700   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   701 
   702   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   703   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   704 
   705 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   706   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   707   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   708   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   709 
   710 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   711 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   712 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   713 only.
   714 
   715 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   716 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   717 up-to-date status of a session.
   718 
   719 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   720 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   721 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   722 directory.
   723 
   724 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   725 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   726 
   727 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   728 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   729 
   730 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   731 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   732 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   733 See also the "system" manual.
   734 
   735 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   736 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   737 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   738 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   739 been discontinued.
   740 
   741 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   742 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   745 repository for the generated session files.
   746 
   747 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   748 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   749 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   750 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   751 ISABELLE_HOME).
   752 
   753 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   754 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   755 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   756 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   757 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   758 
   759 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   760 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   761 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   762 
   763 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   764 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   765 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   766 32/64 bit.
   767 
   768 
   769 
   770 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   771 ----------------------------------
   772 
   773 *** General ***
   774 
   775 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   776 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   777 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   778 
   779 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   780 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   781 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   782 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   783 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   784 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   785 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   786 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   787 
   788 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   789 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   790 just the theory base name as before).
   791 
   792 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   793 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   794 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   795 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   796 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   797 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   798 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   799 
   800 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   801 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   802 leads to the follow renamings:
   803 
   804   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   805   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   806   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   807   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   808   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   809 
   810 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   811 
   812 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   813 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   814 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   815 
   816 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   817 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   818 
   819 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   820 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   821 antiquotations:
   822 
   823   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   824     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   825   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   826     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   827   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   828 
   829 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   830 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   831 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   832 tutorial on code generation.
   833 
   834 
   835 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   836 
   837 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   838 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   839 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   840 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   841 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   842 
   843 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   844 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   845 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   846 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   847 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   848 effectively always enabled.
   849 
   850 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   851 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   852 buffers.
   853 
   854 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   855 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   856 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   857 represented by a different border color.
   858 
   859 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
   860 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
   861 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
   862 
   863 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
   864 document in the default web browser.
   865 
   866 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
   867 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
   868 used for formal checking.
   869 
   870 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
   871 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
   872 enabled at all times.
   873 
   874 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
   875 
   876 
   877 *** Pure ***
   878 
   879 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
   880 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
   881 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
   882 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   883 
   884 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
   885   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
   886     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
   887   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
   888     malformed.
   889   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
   890     malformed.
   891 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   892 
   893 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
   894 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
   895 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 
   898 *** HOL ***
   899 
   900 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
   901 
   902 * SMT module:
   903   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
   904     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
   905     disabled by default.
   906   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
   907   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
   908 
   909 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
   910 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
   911 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
   912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
   915 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
   916 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
   917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
   920 of "Complex_Main").
   921 
   922 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
   923 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
   926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   927 
   928 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
   929 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   930 
   931 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
   932 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
   935 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
   936 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
   937 
   938 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
   939 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
   942 
   943 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
   944 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
   947 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
   948 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
   949 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950 
   951 * Generalized some facts:
   952     measure_induct_rule
   953     measure_induct
   954     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
   955     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
   956     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
   957     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
   958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
   961 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
   962 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
   963 euclidean size.
   964 
   965 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
   966   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
   967   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
   968     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
   969     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
   970   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
   971     available as "bezout_coefficients".
   972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   973 
   974 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
   975 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
   976 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
   977 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
   980   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
   981   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
   982 
   983 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
   984 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
   987 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
   988 
   989 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
   990 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
   991 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
   994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   995 
   996 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
   997 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
   998 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
   999 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1000 
  1001 syntax (ASCII)
  1002   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1003   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1004   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1005 
  1006 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1007 multisets have been renamed:
  1008 
  1009   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1010   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1011 
  1012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1013 
  1014 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1015 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1016 
  1017 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1018 
  1019 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1020 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1021 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1022 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1023 
  1024 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1025 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1026 
  1027 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1028 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1029 
  1030 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1031 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1032 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1033 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1035 
  1036 
  1037 *** System ***
  1038 
  1039 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1040 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1041 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1042 
  1043 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1044 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1045 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1046 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1047 
  1048 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1049 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1050 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1051 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1052 
  1053 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1054 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1055 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1056 unchanged.
  1057 
  1058 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1059 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1062 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1063 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1064 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1065 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1066 
  1067 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1068 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1069 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1070 
  1071 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1072 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1073 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1074 
  1075 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1076 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1077 
  1078   isabelle imports -I -a
  1079   isabelle imports -U -a
  1080   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1081   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1082 
  1083 
  1084 
  1085 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1086 -------------------------------------
  1087 
  1088 *** General ***
  1089 
  1090 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1091   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1092     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1094     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1095     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1096     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1097     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1098 
  1099 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1100 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1101 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1102 
  1103 bundle foo
  1104 begin
  1105   declare a [simp]
  1106   declare b [intro]
  1107 end
  1108 
  1109 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1110 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1111 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1112 
  1113 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1114 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1115 discontinued.
  1116 
  1117 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1118 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1119 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1120 
  1121 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1122 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1123 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1124 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1125 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1128 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1129 
  1130 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1131 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1132 
  1133 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1134 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1135 examples.
  1136 
  1137 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1138 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1139 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1140 
  1141 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1142 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1143 
  1144 
  1145 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1146 
  1147 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1148 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1149 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1150 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1151 
  1152 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1153 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1154 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1155 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1156 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1157 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1158 
  1159 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1160 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1161 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1162 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1163 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1164 
  1165 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1166 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1167 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1168 
  1169 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1170 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1171 
  1172 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1173 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1174 
  1175 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1176 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1177 
  1178 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1179 
  1180 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1181 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1182 systematic renaming.
  1183 
  1184 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1185 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1186 theorem statement.
  1187 
  1188 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1189 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1190 
  1191 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1192 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1193 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1194 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1195 
  1196 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1197 following independent stages:
  1198 
  1199   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1200   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1201   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1202   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1203 
  1204 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1205 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1206 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1207 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1208 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1209 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1210 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1211 
  1212 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1213 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1214 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1215 
  1216 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1217 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1218 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1219 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1220 
  1221 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1222 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1223 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1224 
  1225 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1226 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1227 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1228 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1229 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1230 old keymaps.
  1231 
  1232 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1233 and diverse:
  1234 
  1235   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1236   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1237   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1238 
  1239 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1240 have to be changed.
  1241 
  1242 
  1243 *** Document preparation ***
  1244 
  1245 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1246 
  1247 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1248 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1249 
  1250 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1251 this allows special forms of document output.
  1252 
  1253 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1254 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1255 derivatives.
  1256 
  1257 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1258 
  1259 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1260 Isabelle2015).
  1261 
  1262 
  1263 *** Isar ***
  1264 
  1265 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1266 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1267 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1268 
  1269 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1270 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1271 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1272 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1273 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1276 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1277 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1278 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1279 
  1280 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1281 context.
  1282 
  1283 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1284 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1285 
  1286 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1287 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1288 
  1289 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1290 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1291 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1292 
  1293 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1294 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1296 
  1297 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1298 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1299 definitions.
  1300 
  1301 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1302 expression, e.g.
  1303 
  1304   (use facts in simp)
  1305   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1306 
  1307 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1308 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1309 
  1310 
  1311 *** Pure ***
  1312 
  1313 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1314 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1315 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1316 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1317 
  1318 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1319 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1320 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1321 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1322 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1323 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1324 
  1325 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1326 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1327 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1328 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1329 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1330 types where this is really intended.
  1331 
  1332 
  1333 *** HOL ***
  1334 
  1335 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1336 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1337 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1338 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1339 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1340 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1341 
  1342 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1343 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1344 
  1345 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1346 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * Sledgehammer:
  1349   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1350   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1351 
  1352 * (Co)datatype package:
  1353   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1354     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1355     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1356     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1357   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1358     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1359   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1360     to the map function.
  1361   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1362   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1363        terms of map and set
  1364        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1365   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1366        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1367     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1368   - Renamed lemmas:
  1369       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1370       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1371     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1372   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1373   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1374     equivalent) form.
  1375     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1376 
  1377 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1378 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1379 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1380 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1383 
  1384   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1385   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1386 
  1387 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1388 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1389 eliminated altogether.
  1390 
  1391 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1392 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1393 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1394 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1395 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1396 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1397 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1398 
  1399 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1403 
  1404     setsum ~> sum
  1405     setprod ~> prod
  1406     listsum ~> sum_list
  1407     listprod ~> prod_list
  1408 
  1409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1410 
  1411 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1412     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1413     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1414     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1415     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1416     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1417     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1418     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1419     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1420     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1421     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1422     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1423     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1424     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1425     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1426     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1427     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1428     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1429     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1430     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1431     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1432     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1433     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1434     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1435     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1436     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1437     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1438     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1439     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1440     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1444 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1445 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1446 
  1447 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1448 
  1449 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1450 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1451 
  1452   - Logical representation:
  1453     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1454     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1455       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1456     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1457       are non-canonical.
  1458   - Printing and parsing:
  1459     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1460       (as before).
  1461     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1462     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1463       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1464       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1465     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1466       printed as their logical representation.
  1467   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1468     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1469   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1470 
  1471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1472 
  1473 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1474 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1475 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1476 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1477 
  1478 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1479 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1480 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1481 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1482 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1485 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1488 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1489 
  1490 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1491 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1492 interface for the generated code.
  1493 
  1494 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1495 spelt out explicitly.
  1496 
  1497 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1498 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1499 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1500 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1501 
  1502 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1503 products.
  1504 
  1505 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1506 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1507 
  1508 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1509 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1510 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1511 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1512 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1513 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1514 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1518 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1519 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1525   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1526   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1527 
  1528 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1529   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1530     le_add_same_cancel1
  1531     le_add_same_cancel2
  1532     less_add_same_cancel1
  1533     less_add_same_cancel2
  1534     add_le_same_cancel1
  1535     add_le_same_cancel2
  1536     add_less_same_cancel1
  1537     add_less_same_cancel2
  1538 
  1539 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1540   superseeded by a more general version:
  1541     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1542     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1543     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1544     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1545     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1546     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1547     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1548     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1550 
  1551 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1552 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1553 
  1554 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1555 
  1556 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1557 
  1558   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1559   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1560 
  1561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1565 
  1566 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1567 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1568 A)".
  1569 
  1570 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571 
  1572 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1573 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1574 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1575 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1578 dioid.
  1579 
  1580 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1581 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1582 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1583 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1586 of a more general type also:
  1587   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1588   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1589   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1590   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1591   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1592   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1593   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1594   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1595   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1596   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1597   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1598   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1599   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1600   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1601   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1602   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1603   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1604   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1605   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1606   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1607   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1608   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1609   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1610   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1611   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1612   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1613   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1614   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1615   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1616   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1617   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1618   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1619   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1620   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1621   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1622   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1623   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1624   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1625   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1626   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1627   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1628   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1629   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1630   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1631   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1632   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1633   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1634   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1635   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1636   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1637   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1638   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1639   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1640   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1641   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1642   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1643   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1644   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1645   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1646   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1647   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1648   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1649   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1650   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1651   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1652   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1653   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1654   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1655   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1656   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1657   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1658   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1659   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1660   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1661   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1662   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1663   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1664   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1665   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1666   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1667   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1668   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1669   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1670   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1671   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1672   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1673   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1674   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1678 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1679 
  1680 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1681 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1682 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1683 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1684 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1685 
  1686 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1687 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1688 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1689 once.
  1690 
  1691 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1692 set_mset rather than count.
  1693 
  1694   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1695     by default.
  1696 
  1697   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1698     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1699 
  1700   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1701     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1702 
  1703   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1704     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1705 
  1706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1709 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1710 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1711 underscores.
  1712 
  1713 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1714 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1715 relation.
  1716 
  1717 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1718 everywhere fix bijections.
  1719 
  1720 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1721 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1722 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1723 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1724 
  1725 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1726 
  1727 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1728 
  1729 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1730 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1731 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1734 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1735 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1736 
  1737 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1738 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1739 
  1740 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1741 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1742 domain.
  1743 
  1744 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1745 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1748   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1749 
  1750 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1751 Probability Mass Functions.
  1752 
  1753 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1754 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1755 folding over a list in random order.
  1756 
  1757 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1758 subprobability distributions.
  1759 
  1760 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1761 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1762 
  1763     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1764     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1765     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1766     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1767     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1768     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1769     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1770     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1771     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1772     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1773     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1774     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1775     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1776     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1777     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1778     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1779     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1780     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1781     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1782     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1783     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1784     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1785 
  1786 Some functions have been renamed:
  1787     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1788 
  1789 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1790     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1791     #\<subset># ~> <
  1792     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1793     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1795 
  1796 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1797 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1798 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1799 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1800 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1801 
  1802 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1803 been renamed:
  1804 
  1805     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1806     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1807     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1808     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1809     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1810     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1811     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1812     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1813     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1814 
  1815     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1816     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1817     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1818     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1819     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1820     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1821     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1822     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1823     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1824     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1825     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1827 
  1828 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1832 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1833 
  1834     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1835     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1836     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1837     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1838     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1839     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1840     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1841     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1842     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1843     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1844     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1845     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1846     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1847     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1848     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1849     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1850     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1851 
  1852 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1853 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1854 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1855 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1856 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1857 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  1860 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  1861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1862 
  1863 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  1864 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  1865 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  1868 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  1869 removed or changed:
  1870 
  1871   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  1872   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  1873   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  1874   union_single_eq_diff
  1875   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1876   diff_single_eq_union
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  1880 to use add_mset instead of single:
  1881 
  1882   mset_add
  1883   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  1884   diff_single_eq_union
  1885   union_single_eq_diff
  1886   union_single_eq_member
  1887   add_eq_conv_diff
  1888   insert_noteq_member
  1889   add_eq_conv_ex
  1890   multi_member_split
  1891   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  1892   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1893   mset_subset_insertD
  1894   insert_subset_eq_iff
  1895   insert_union_subset_iff
  1896   multi_psub_of_add_self
  1897   inter_add_left1
  1898   inter_add_left2
  1899   inter_add_right1
  1900   inter_add_right2
  1901   sup_union_left1
  1902   sup_union_left2
  1903   sup_union_right1
  1904   sup_union_right2
  1905   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  1906   multi_nonempty_split
  1907   mset_insort
  1908   mset_update
  1909   mult1I
  1910   less_add
  1911   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  1912   rel_mset_Zero
  1913   msed_map_invL
  1914   msed_map_invR
  1915   msed_rel_invL
  1916   msed_rel_invR
  1917   le_multiset_right_total
  1918   multiset_induct
  1919   multiset_induct2_size
  1920   multiset_induct2
  1921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  1924 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  1925 element:
  1926 
  1927   image_mset
  1928   mset
  1929   replicate_mset
  1930   mult1
  1931   pred_mset
  1932   rel_mset'
  1933   mset_insort
  1934 
  1935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1936 
  1937 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  1938 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  1939 
  1940   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  1941   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  1942   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  1943   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  1944   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  1945   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1946   count_single [simp] ~> []
  1947   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1948   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  1949   size_single [simp] ~> []
  1950   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1951   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1952   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  1953   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  1954   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  1955   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  1956   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  1957   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  1958   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  1959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1960 
  1961 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  1962 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  1963 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  1964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1965 
  1966 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  1967 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  1968 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969 
  1970 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  1971 multisets:
  1972 
  1973   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  1974   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  1975 
  1976 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  1977 and union of multisets have been changed:
  1978 
  1979   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  1980   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  1981 
  1982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1983 
  1984 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  1985 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  1986 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  1989 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  1990 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  1991 
  1992 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  1993 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  1994 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  1995 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  1996 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  1997 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2000 the following renaming
  2001 
  2002   prefixeq -> prefix
  2003   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2004   suffixeq -> suffix
  2005   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2006 
  2007 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2008 
  2009 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2010 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2011 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2012 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2013 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2014 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2015 
  2016 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2017 theories.
  2018 
  2019 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2020 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2021 
  2022 
  2023 *** ML ***
  2024 
  2025 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2026 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2027 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2028 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2030 
  2031 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2032 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2033 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2034 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2035 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2036 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2037 superseded by General.Div.
  2038 
  2039 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2040 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2043 with approximative output quality.
  2044 
  2045 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2046 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2047 
  2048 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2049 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2050 requiring separate files.
  2051 
  2052 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2053 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2054 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2055 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2056 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2057 
  2058 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2059 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2060 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2061 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2062 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2063 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2064 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2067 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2069 
  2070 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2071 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2072 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2073 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2074 
  2075 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2076 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 
  2079 *** System ***
  2080 
  2081 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2082 
  2083 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2084 much less disk space.
  2085 
  2086 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2087 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2088 particular:
  2089 
  2090   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2091     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2092   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2093   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2094 
  2095 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2096 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2097 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2100 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2101 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2102 return code 1.
  2103 
  2104 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2105 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2106 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2107 
  2108 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2109 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2110 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2111 
  2112 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2113 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2114 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2115 by default).
  2116 
  2117 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2118 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2119 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2120 resulting log files.
  2121 
  2122 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2123 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2124 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2125 implicit default via option -p.
  2126 
  2127 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2128 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2129 
  2130 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2131 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2132 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2133 
  2134 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2135 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2136 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2137 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2138 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2139 
  2140 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2141 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2142 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2143 
  2144 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2145 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2146 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2147 
  2148 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2149 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2150 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2151 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2152 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2153 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2154 been discontinued.
  2155 
  2156 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2157 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2158 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2159 
  2160 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2161 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2162 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2163 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2164 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2165 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2166 
  2167 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2168 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2169 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2170 connection).
  2171 
  2172 
  2173 
  2174 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2175 -----------------------------------
  2176 
  2177 *** General ***
  2178 
  2179 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2180 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2181 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2182 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2183 examples that do require HOL.
  2184 
  2185 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2186 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2187 
  2188 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2189 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2190 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2191 has been removed (see below).
  2192 
  2193 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2194 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2195 
  2196 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2197 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2198 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2199 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2200 
  2201 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2202 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2203 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2204 meaning.
  2205 
  2206 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2207 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2208 to update old sources.
  2209 
  2210 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2211 
  2212   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2213   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2214   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2215   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2216 
  2217 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2218 accordingly.
  2219 
  2220 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2221 'theorem'.
  2222 
  2223 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2224 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2225 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2226 
  2227 
  2228 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2229 
  2230 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2231 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2232 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2233 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2234 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2235 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2236 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2237 any effect on the running ML program.
  2238 
  2239 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2240 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2241 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2242 update.
  2243 
  2244 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2245 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2246 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2247 
  2248 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2249 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2250 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2251 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2252 visibility.
  2253 
  2254 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2255 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2256 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2257 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2258 panel.
  2259 
  2260 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2261 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2262 
  2263 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2264 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2265 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2266 
  2267 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2268 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2269 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2270 
  2271 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2272 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2273 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2274 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2275 
  2276 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2277 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2278 the editor.
  2279 
  2280 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2281 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2282 
  2283 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2284 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2285 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2286 instead.
  2287 
  2288 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2289 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2290 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2291 
  2292 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2293 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2294 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2295 
  2296 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2297 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2298 
  2299 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2300 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2301 
  2302 
  2303 *** Document preparation ***
  2304 
  2305 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2306 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2307 
  2308 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2309 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2310 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2311 
  2312 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2313 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2314 follows:
  2315 
  2316   \<^item>  itemize
  2317   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2318   \<^descr>  description
  2319 
  2320 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2321 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2322 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2323 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2324 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2325 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2326 
  2327 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2328 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2329 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2330 
  2331 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2332 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2333 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2334 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2335 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2336 
  2337 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2338 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2339 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2340 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2341 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2342 
  2343 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2344 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2345 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2346 
  2347 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2348 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2349 
  2350 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2351 
  2352 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2353 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2354 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2355 
  2356 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2357 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2358 
  2359 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2360 entities of the Isar language.
  2361 
  2362 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2363 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2364 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2365 
  2366 
  2367 *** Isar ***
  2368 
  2369 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2370 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2371 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2372 example:
  2373 
  2374   have result: "C x y"
  2375     if "A x" and "B y"
  2376     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2377     <proof>
  2378 
  2379 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2380 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2381 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2382 
  2383   {
  2384     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2385     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2386     have "C x y" <proof>
  2387   }
  2388   note result = this
  2389 
  2390 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2391 instead of 'assume' above.
  2392 
  2393 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2394 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2395 
  2396   assume result: "C x y"
  2397     if "A x" and "B y"
  2398     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2399 
  2400 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2401 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2402 
  2403 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2404 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2405 example:
  2406 
  2407   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2408 
  2409 is equivalent to:
  2410 
  2411   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2412 
  2413 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2414 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2415 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2416 follows:
  2417 
  2418   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2419 
  2420 or:
  2421 
  2422   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2423 
  2424 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2425 
  2426   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2427 
  2428 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2429 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2430 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2431 of the local context elements yet.
  2432 
  2433 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2434 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2435 
  2436   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2437   then have something
  2438   proof cases
  2439     case a
  2440     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2441   next
  2442     case b
  2443     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2444   next
  2445     case c
  2446     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2447   qed
  2448 
  2449 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2450 
  2451   case a: (c xs)
  2452   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2453 
  2454 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2455 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2456 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2457 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2458 and always put attributes in front.
  2459 
  2460 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2461 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2462 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2463 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2464 
  2465 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2466 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2467 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2468 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2469 
  2470   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2471     supply [simp] = a
  2472   proof
  2473     show A by simp
  2474   next
  2475     show A by simp
  2476   qed
  2477 
  2478 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2479 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2480 
  2481 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2482 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2483 
  2484 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2485 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2486 
  2487 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2488 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2489 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2490 manual.
  2491 
  2492 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2493 ('apply' scripts).
  2494 
  2495 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2496 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2497 example:
  2498 
  2499 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2500   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2501 proof goal_cases
  2502   case (1 x)
  2503   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2504 next
  2505   case (2 y z)
  2506   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2507 qed
  2508 
  2509 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2510   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2511 proof goal_cases
  2512   case prems: 1
  2513   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2514 next
  2515   case prems: 2
  2516   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2517 qed
  2518 
  2519 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2520 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2521 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2522 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2523 
  2524 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2525 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2526 
  2527 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2528 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2529 
  2530 
  2531 *** Pure ***
  2532 
  2533 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2534 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2535 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2536 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2537 
  2538 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2539 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2542 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2543 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2544 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2545 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2546 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2547 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2548 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2549 
  2550   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2551   begin
  2552     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2553   end
  2554 
  2555   locale morphism =
  2556     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2557     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2558   begin
  2559     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2560   end
  2561 
  2562 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2563 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2564 
  2565 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2566 'defines'.
  2567 
  2568 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2569 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2572 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2573 
  2574 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2575 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2578 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2579 exploited.
  2580 
  2581 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2582 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2583 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2584 
  2585 
  2586 *** HOL ***
  2587 
  2588 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2589 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2590 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2591 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2592 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2593 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2596 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2597 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2598 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2599 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2600 
  2601 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2602 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2603 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2604 simplify porting old theories:
  2605 
  2606   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2607 
  2608   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2609 
  2610   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2611   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2612 
  2613   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2614 
  2615   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2616   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2617 
  2618   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2619 
  2620   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2621     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2622 
  2623   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2624   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2625   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2626 
  2627   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2628   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2629   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2630 
  2631 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2632 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2633 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2634 
  2635 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2636 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2637 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2638 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2639 
  2640 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2641 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2642 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2643 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2646 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2647 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2648 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2651 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2652 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2656 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2657 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2658 
  2659 Consolidated facts:
  2660   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2661   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2662   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2663   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2664   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2665   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2666   split_split ~> prod.split
  2667   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2668   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2669   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2670   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2671   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2672   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2673   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2674   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2675   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2676   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2677   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2678   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2679   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2680   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2681   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2682   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2683   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2684   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2685   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2686   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2687   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2688   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2689   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2690   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2691   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2692   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2693   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2694   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2695 
  2696 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2697   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2698   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2699   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2700   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2701 
  2702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2705 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2706 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2707 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2708 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2709 
  2710 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2711   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2712   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2713   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2714   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2715   real_of_one of_int_1
  2716   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2717   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2718   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2719   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2720   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2721   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2722   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2723   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2724   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2725   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2726   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2727   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2728   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2729   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2730   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2731   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2732   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2733 
  2734 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2737 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2740 
  2741 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742 
  2743 * Sledgehammer:
  2744   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2745   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2746     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2747   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2748   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2749   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2750     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2752 
  2753 * Nitpick:
  2754   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2755   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2756   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2757   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2758   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2759 
  2760 * (Co)datatype package:
  2761   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2762     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2763   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2764   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2765     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2766   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2767     being defined.
  2768   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2769 
  2770 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2771 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2772 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2773 
  2774 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2775 
  2776 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2777 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2778 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2779 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2780 
  2781 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2783 
  2784 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2785 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2786 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2787 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2788 
  2789 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2790 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2791 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2792 
  2793 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2794 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2795 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2796 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2797 
  2798 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2799 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2800 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2801 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2802 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2803 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2804 during instantiation.
  2805 
  2806 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2807 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2808 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2811 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2812 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2813 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2814 
  2815   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2816   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2817 
  2818 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2819 
  2820 * Library/Multiset:
  2821   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2822       < ~> <#
  2823       > ~> >#
  2824       <= ~> <=#
  2825       >= ~> >=#
  2826       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2827       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2828     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2829   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2830       \<subset>#
  2831       \<subseteq>#
  2832       \<supset>#
  2833       \<supseteq>#
  2834   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2835     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2836     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2837     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2838     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2839     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2840     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2841   - Renamed conversions:
  2842       multiset_of ~> mset
  2843       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2844       set_of ~> set_mset
  2845     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2846   - Renamed lemmas:
  2847       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2848       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2849       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2850     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2851   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2852     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2853     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2854     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2855 
  2856 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2857 
  2858 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  2859 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  2860 chain-complete partial orders.
  2861 
  2862 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  2863 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  2864 
  2865 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  2866 periodic functions.
  2867 
  2868 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  2869 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  2870 GCD.
  2871 
  2872 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  2873 
  2874 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  2875 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2876 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2877 
  2878 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  2879 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  2880 
  2881 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  2882 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  2883 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  2884 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  2885 
  2886 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  2887 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  2888 
  2889 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  2890 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  2891 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  2892 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  2893 properties.
  2894 
  2895 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  2896 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  2897 
  2898 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  2899 structures.
  2900 
  2901 
  2902 *** ML ***
  2903 
  2904 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  2905 system are available:
  2906 
  2907   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  2908   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  2909   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  2910 
  2911 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  2912 
  2913 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  2914 Isar proof method.
  2915 
  2916 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  2917 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  2918 breaks.
  2919 
  2920 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  2921 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  2922 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  2925 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  2926 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  2927 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  2928 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  2931 
  2932   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  2933   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  2934 
  2935   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  2936   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  2937 
  2938 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  2939 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  2940 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  2941 
  2942 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  2943 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  2944 instead (with proper context).
  2945 
  2946 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  2947 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  2948 
  2949 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  2950 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  2951 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  2952 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  2953 the proof context discipline.
  2954 
  2955 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  2956 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  2957 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  2958 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  2959 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2960 
  2961 
  2962 *** System ***
  2963 
  2964 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  2965 
  2966 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  2967 conflations:
  2968 
  2969     hence  ~>  then have
  2970     thus   ~>  then show
  2971 
  2972 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  2973 maintainability of proofs.
  2974 
  2975 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  2976 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  2977 performance.
  2978 
  2979 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  2980 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  2981 
  2982     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  2983 
  2984 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  2985 space.
  2986 
  2987 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  2988 platforms as follows.
  2989 
  2990   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  2991     associated with the main app bundle
  2992 
  2993   - isabelle jedit: settings
  2994     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  2995     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2996 
  2997   - isabelle build: settings
  2998     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  2999 
  3000 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3001 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3002 
  3003 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3004 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3005 required after change.
  3006 
  3007 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3008 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3009 
  3010 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3011 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3012 
  3013 
  3014 
  3015 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3016 ------------------------------
  3017 
  3018 *** General ***
  3019 
  3020 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3021 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3022 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3023 
  3024   context
  3025   begin
  3026 
  3027   private definition ...
  3028   private lemma ...
  3029 
  3030   qualified definition ...
  3031   qualified lemma ...
  3032 
  3033   lemma ...
  3034   theorem ...
  3035 
  3036   end
  3037 
  3038 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3039 naming policy.
  3040 
  3041 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3042 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3043 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3044 
  3045 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3046 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3047 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3048 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3049 
  3050 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3051 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3052 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3054 
  3055 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3056 theory context.
  3057 
  3058 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3059 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3060 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3061 
  3062 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3063 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3064 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3065 sources.
  3066 
  3067 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3068 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3069 
  3070 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3071 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3072 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3073 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3074 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3075 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3076 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3077 
  3078 
  3079 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3080 
  3081 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3082 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3083 
  3084 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3085 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3086 in the buffer.
  3087 
  3088 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3089 marker, SideKick parser.
  3090 
  3091 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3092 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3093 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3094 
  3095 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3096 Options / Text Area).
  3097 
  3098 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3099 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3100 
  3101 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3102 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3103 
  3104 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3105 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3106 
  3107 
  3108 *** Document preparation ***
  3109 
  3110 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3111 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3112 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3113 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3114 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3115 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3116 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3117 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3120 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3121 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3122 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3123 
  3124 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3125 style.
  3126 
  3127 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3128 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3129 
  3130 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3131 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3132 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3133 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3134 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3135 
  3136 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3137 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3138 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3139 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3140 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3141 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3142 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3145 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3146 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 
  3150 *** Pure ***
  3151 
  3152 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3153 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3154 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3155 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3156 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3157 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3158 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3159 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3160 
  3161 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3162 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3163 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3164 
  3165 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3166 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3167 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3168 different index.
  3169 
  3170 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3171 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3172 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3173 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3174 
  3175 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3176 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3177 token category instead.
  3178 
  3179 
  3180 *** HOL ***
  3181 
  3182 * New (co)datatype package:
  3183   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3184     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3185     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3186     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3187     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188   - Renamed theorems:
  3189       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3190       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3191       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3192       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3193       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3194       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3195       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3196       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3197       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3198       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3199       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3200       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3201       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3202     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3203   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3204     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3205     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3207     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3208     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3210     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3211     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3212     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3213     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3214     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3215     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216   - Renamed theories:
  3217       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3218       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3219       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3220       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3221       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3222       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3223     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3225     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3226     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3227     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3228     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3229     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3230     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3231     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3232     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3233   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3234     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3235     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3236     rules.
  3237 
  3238 * Old datatype package:
  3239   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3240     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3241     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3242     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3243     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244   - Renamed theorems:
  3245       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3246     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247   - Renamed theory:
  3248       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 * Nitpick:
  3252   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3253     operations.
  3254 
  3255 * Sledgehammer:
  3256   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3257     default.
  3258   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3259     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3260   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3261     Removed sub-command:
  3262       min
  3263   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3264     dramatically improved.
  3265   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3266 
  3267 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3268   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3269     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3270     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3271     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3272     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3273     point to it.
  3274     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3276     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3278     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3279   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3280     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3281 
  3282 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3283 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3284 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3285 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3286 
  3287 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3288 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3289 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3292 
  3293 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3294 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3295 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3296 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3299 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3305 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3306 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3309 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3312 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3313 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3314 
  3315 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3316 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3317 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3318 needed.
  3319 
  3320 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3321 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3322 
  3323 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3324 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3325 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3326 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3327 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3328 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3329 
  3330 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3331 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3332 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3333 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3334 
  3335 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3336 type class hierarchy:
  3337   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3338   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3339   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3340   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3341 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3344   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3345   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3346 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3347 
  3348 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3349 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3350 
  3351 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3352   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3353   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3354   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3355 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3356 
  3357 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3358 and part of theory Main.
  3359   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3361 
  3362 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3364 
  3365 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3366 Fact rename:
  3367     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3371 
  3372 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3373 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3374 
  3375 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3376 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3377 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3378 
  3379 * Library/Multiset:
  3380   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3381   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3382     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3383   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3384       <# ~> #<#
  3385       <=# ~> #<=#
  3386       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3387       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3390       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3391       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393   - Renamed
  3394       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3395       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3396       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3397     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3399   - Added attributes:
  3400       image_mset.id [simp]
  3401       image_mset_id [simp]
  3402       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3403       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3404       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3405       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3406       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3407       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3408     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3411 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3412 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3413 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3416 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3417 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3418 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3419 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3420 examples.
  3421 
  3422 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3423   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3424   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3425   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3426     projection
  3427 
  3428 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3429 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3430 
  3431 
  3432 *** ML ***
  3433 
  3434 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3435 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3436 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3437 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3438 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3439 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3440 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3441 
  3442 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3443 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3444 
  3445 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3446 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3447 
  3448 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3452 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3453 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3454 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3456 nested.
  3457 
  3458 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3459 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3462 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3463 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3467 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3468 Thm.term_of etc.
  3469 
  3470 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3471 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3472 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473 
  3474 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3475 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3476 
  3477 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3478 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3479 
  3480 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3481 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3482 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3485 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3486 
  3487 
  3488 *** System ***
  3489 
  3490 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3491 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3492 
  3493 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3494 
  3495 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3496 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3497 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3498 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3502 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3503 
  3504 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3505 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3506 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3507 
  3508 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3509 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3510 
  3511 
  3512 
  3513 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3514 ---------------------------------
  3515 
  3516 *** General ***
  3517 
  3518 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3519 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3520 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3521 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3522 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3523 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3524 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3525 some examples.
  3526 
  3527 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3528 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3529 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3530 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3531 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3532 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3533 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3534 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3535 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3536 
  3537 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3538 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3539 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3540 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3541 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3542 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3543 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3544 proof tools.
  3545 
  3546 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3547 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3548 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3549 
  3550 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3551 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3552 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3553 
  3554 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3555 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3556 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3557 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3560 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3561 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3565 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3566 
  3567 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3568 not check existence within the file-system.
  3569 
  3570 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3571 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3572 
  3573 
  3574 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3575 
  3576 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3577 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3578 buffer.
  3579 
  3580 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3581 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3582 
  3583 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3584 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3585 
  3586 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3587 auxiliary ML files.
  3588 
  3589 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3590 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3591 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3592 
  3593 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3594 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3595 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3596 
  3597 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3598 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3599 
  3600 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3601 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3602 caret".
  3603 
  3604 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3605 completion popup and context-menu.
  3606 
  3607 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3608 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3609 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3610 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3611 
  3612 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3613 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3614 
  3615 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3616 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3617 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3618 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3619 
  3620 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3621 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3622 
  3623 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3624 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3625 
  3626 * Improved monitor panel.
  3627 
  3628 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3629 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3630 
  3631 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3632 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3633 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3634 
  3635 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3636 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3637 within the context.
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 *** Pure ***
  3641 
  3642 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3643 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3644 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3645 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3646 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3647 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3648 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3649 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3650 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3651 
  3652 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3653 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3654 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3655 renaming needs to be applied:
  3656 
  3657   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3658   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3659   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3660   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3661   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3662 
  3663 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3664 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3665 old constants:
  3666 
  3667 setup {*
  3668   fn thy => thy
  3669     |> Sign.root_path
  3670     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3671     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3672     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3673     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3674 *}
  3675 
  3676 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3677 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3678 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3679 
  3680 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3681 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3682 instantiated theorem.
  3683 
  3684 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3685 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3686 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3687 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3688 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3689 
  3690   attribute_setup standard =
  3691     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3692 
  3693 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3694 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3695 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3696 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3697 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3698 
  3699 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3700 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3701 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3702 
  3703 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3704 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3705 
  3706 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3707 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3708 
  3709 
  3710 *** HOL ***
  3711 
  3712 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3713 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3722 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726 
  3727 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3728 with the given constants.
  3729 
  3730 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3731 operations on records.
  3732 
  3733 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3734 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3735 
  3736 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3737 
  3738 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3739 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3740 
  3741 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3742 
  3743 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3744 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3745 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3746 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3747 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3750 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3753   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3754   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3755   part of theory "Main".
  3756 
  3757   Theory renamings:
  3758     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3759     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3760     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3761     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3762     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3763     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3764     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3765     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3766     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3767     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3768     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3769     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3770     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3771     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3772     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3773     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3774     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3775     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3776     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3777     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3778     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3779     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3780 
  3781   New theories:
  3782     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3783     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3784     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3785     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3786     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3787 
  3788   Discontinued theories:
  3789     BNF/BNF.thy
  3790     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3791 
  3792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 * New (co)datatype package:
  3795   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3796   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3797     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3798   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3799     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3800   - Renamed commands:
  3801       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3802       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3803       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3804     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3805   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3806     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3807     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3809     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3810     using "prim(co)rec".
  3811     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3813     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3814     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3816     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3817     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3818     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820 * Old datatype package:
  3821   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3822     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3823     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3825     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3826     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3829   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3830   BNF-based datatype package.
  3831 
  3832   Renamed constants:
  3833     Option.set ~> set_option
  3834     Option.map ~> map_option
  3835     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3836 
  3837   Renamed theorems:
  3838     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3839     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3840     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3841     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3842     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3843     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3844     map.simps ~> list.map
  3845     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3846     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3847     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3848 
  3849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3850 
  3851 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3852     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3853     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3854     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3855     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3856     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3857     set_rel ~> rel_set
  3858     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  3859     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  3860     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  3861     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  3862 
  3863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Lifting and Transfer:
  3866   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  3867   - stronger reflexivity prover
  3868   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  3869   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  3870     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  3871     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  3872       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  3873       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  3874       automatically
  3875     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  3876     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  3877       automatically for datatypes
  3878   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  3879     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  3880       more
  3881       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  3883       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  3884       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  3886       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  3887       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888   - registration of code equations is more robust
  3889     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  3891     form
  3892     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  3894     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  3896     Code_Numeral.natural
  3897     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  3899     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900 
  3901 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  3902 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  3903 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  3904 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  3905 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  3906 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  3907 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  3910 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  3911 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  3912 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  3913 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  3914 
  3915 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  3916 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  3917 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  3918 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  3919 
  3920 * Sledgehammer:
  3921   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  3922   - MaSh overhaul:
  3923     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  3924       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  3925     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  3926       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  3927       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  3928       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  3929   - New option:
  3930       smt_proofs
  3931   - Renamed options:
  3932       isar_compress ~> compress
  3933       isar_try0 ~> try0
  3934 
  3935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  3938 
  3939 * Nitpick:
  3940   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  3941     take infinite values.
  3942   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  3943     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  3944   - Removed "std" option.
  3945   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  3946     "hide_types".
  3947 
  3948 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  3949 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  3952 
  3953 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  3954   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  3955   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  3956     SUP instead uniformly.
  3957   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  3958     or SUP and Sup.
  3959   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  3960   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  3961   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  3962     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  3963     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  3964 
  3965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  3968 
  3969 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  3970 
  3971   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3972   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  3973   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3974   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  3975 
  3976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977 
  3978 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  3979 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  3980 
  3981 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  3982 
  3983     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  3984     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  3985     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  3986     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  3987     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  3988     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  3989     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  3990     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  3991     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  3992     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  3993     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  3994     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  3995     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  3996     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  3997     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3998     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3999     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4000     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4001     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4002     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4003     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4004     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4005     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4006     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4007     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4008     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4009     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4010     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4011     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4012     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4013     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4014     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4015     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4016     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4017     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4018     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4019     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4020     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4021     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4022     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4023     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4024     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4025     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4026     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4027     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4028     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4029     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4030     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4031     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4032     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4033     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4034     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4035     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4036     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4037     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4038     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4039     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4040     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4041     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4042 
  4043   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4044   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4045   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4046     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4047 
  4048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4051 
  4052   Fact consolidations:
  4053     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4054     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4055     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4056     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4057     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4058     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4059     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4060     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4061     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4062     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4063     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4064     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4065     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4066     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4067     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4068     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4069     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4070     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4071     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4072     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4073     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4074     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4075     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4076     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4077     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4078     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4079     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4080     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4081     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4082     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4083     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4084     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4085     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4086     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4087     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4088     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4089     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4090     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4091     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4092     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4093 
  4094 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4095 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4096 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4097 
  4098 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4099 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4100 
  4101 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4102 
  4103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4106 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4112     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4113 
  4114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4115 
  4116 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4117   consolidation:
  4118     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4119     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4120 
  4121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4124   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4125   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4126   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4127     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4128   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4129     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4130   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4131 
  4132 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4135 
  4136     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4137     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4138     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4139     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4140     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4141     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4142     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4143     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4144     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4145     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4146     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4147     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4148     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4149 
  4150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4151 
  4152 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4153 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4154 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4155 
  4156 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4157     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4158     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4159     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4160     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4161 
  4162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4163 
  4164 * Fact name consolidation:
  4165     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4166     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4167     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4168     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4169     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4170 
  4171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4174 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4175 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4176 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4177 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4178 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4179 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4181 
  4182 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4183 
  4184 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4185 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4186 
  4187 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4188 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4189 
  4190 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4191 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4192 or the brute way with
  4193 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4194 
  4195 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4196 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4197 stating boundedness of sets.
  4198 
  4199 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4200 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4201 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4202 
  4203 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4204   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4205   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4206   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4207   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4208   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4209   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4210   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4211   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4212   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4213   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4214   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4215 
  4216   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4217 
  4218   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4219 
  4220     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4221     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4222     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4223     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4224     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4225 
  4226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4229   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4230 
  4231   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4232 
  4233   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4234 
  4235   - removed constant isDiff
  4236 
  4237   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4238     input syntax.
  4239 
  4240   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4241 
  4242   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4243 
  4244   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4245 
  4246   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4247 
  4248   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4249     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4250     has_vector_derivative.
  4251 
  4252   - Other renamings:
  4253     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4254     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4255     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4256     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4257     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4258     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4259     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4260 
  4261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4262 
  4263 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4264 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4265 in continuous_intros.
  4266 
  4267 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4268 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4269 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4270 
  4271 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4272 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4273 especially removes
  4274 
  4275     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4276 
  4277 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4278     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4279 
  4280 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4281 
  4282   Renamings:
  4283     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4284     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4285     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4286     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4287     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4288     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4289     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4290     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4291     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4292     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4293     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4294     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4295 
  4296     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4297     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4298     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4299 
  4300   Removed theorems:
  4301     complex_zero_def
  4302     complex_add_def
  4303     complex_minus_def
  4304     complex_diff_def
  4305     complex_one_def
  4306     complex_mult_def
  4307     complex_inverse_def
  4308     complex_scaleR_def
  4309 
  4310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4311 
  4312 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4313 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4316 
  4317 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4318 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4319 
  4320 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4321 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4322 
  4323 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4324 
  4325 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328 * HOL-Word:
  4329   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4330     of "word_arith_wis".
  4331   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4332     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4333     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4334 
  4335 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4336   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4337   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4338   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4339     (except the AFP)
  4340 
  4341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4342 
  4343 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4344   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4345   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4346     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4347   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4348     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4349     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4350     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4351     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4352     intervals.
  4353   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4354     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4355     - renamed theorems:
  4356         interval ~> box
  4357         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4358         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4359         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4360         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4361         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4362         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4363         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4364         open_interval ~> open_box
  4365         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4366         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4367         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4368         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4369         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4370         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4371         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4372         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4373         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4374         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4375         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4376         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4377         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4378         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4379         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4380         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4381         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4382         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4383         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4384         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4385         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4386         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4387         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4388         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4389 
  4390     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4391         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4392         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4393         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4394         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4395         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4396         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4397         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4398         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4399         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4400         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4401         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4402         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4403         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4404         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4405         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4406         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4407         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4408 
  4409   - renamed theorems:
  4410     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4411     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4412     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4413 
  4414 * HOL-Probability:
  4415   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4416 
  4417     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4418       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4419 
  4420     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4421 
  4422   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4423     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4424 
  4425     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4426     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4427     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4428     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4429     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4430     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4431     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4432     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4433     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4434     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4435     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4436     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4437     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4438     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4439     integral_indicator          ~>
  4440          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4441     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4442     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4443     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4444 
  4445     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4446          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4447 
  4448     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4449          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4450 
  4451     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4452          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4453 
  4454     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4455          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4456          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4457 
  4458     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4459          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4460 
  4461     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4462          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4463 
  4464     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4465          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4466          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4467 
  4468     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4469          nn_integral_real_affine
  4470 
  4471     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4472          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4473 
  4474     The following theorems where removed:
  4475 
  4476     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4477     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4478     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4479     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4480     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4481     integral_cmul_indicator
  4482     integral_real
  4483 
  4484   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4485     distributed random variables.
  4486 
  4487 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4488 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 
  4492 *** Scala ***
  4493 
  4494 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4495 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4496 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4497 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4498 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4501 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 
  4504 *** ML ***
  4505 
  4506 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4507 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4508 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4509 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4510 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4511 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4512 
  4513 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4514 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4515 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4516 actually belongs to it).
  4517 
  4518 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4519 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4520 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4521 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4522 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4523 of schematic variables.
  4524 
  4525 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4526 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4527 
  4528 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4529 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4530 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4531 
  4532 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4534 
  4535 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4536 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4537 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4539 
  4540 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4541 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4542 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4543 formal context.
  4544 
  4545 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4546 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4549 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4550 
  4551 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4552 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4553 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4554 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4555 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4556 
  4557 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4558 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4559 purposes.
  4560 
  4561 
  4562 *** System ***
  4563 
  4564 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4565 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4566 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4567 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4568 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4569 
  4570 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4571 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4572 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4573 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4574 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4575 settings variable.
  4576 
  4577 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4578 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4579 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4580 
  4581 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4582 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4583 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4584 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4585 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4586 
  4587 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4588 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4589 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4590 
  4591 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4592 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4593 
  4594 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4595 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4596 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4597 
  4598 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4599 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4600 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4601 processing is started.
  4602 
  4603 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4604 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4605 
  4606 
  4607 
  4608 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4609 -------------------------------------
  4610 
  4611 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4612 
  4613 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4614 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4615 
  4616 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4617 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4618 
  4619 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4620 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4621 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4622 
  4623 
  4624 *** System ***
  4625 
  4626 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4627 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4628 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4629 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4630 
  4631 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4632 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4633 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4634 
  4635 
  4636 
  4637 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4638 -------------------------------------
  4639 
  4640 *** General ***
  4641 
  4642 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4643 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4644 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4645 
  4646 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4647 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4650 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4651 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4652 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4653 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4654 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4655 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4656 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4657 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4658 syntax.
  4659 
  4660 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4661 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4662 
  4663 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4664 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4665 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4666 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4667 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4668 
  4669 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4671 
  4672 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4673 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4674 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4675 
  4676 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4677 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4678 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4679 
  4680 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4681 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4682 
  4683 
  4684 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4685 
  4686 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4687 Documentation panel.
  4688 
  4689 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4690 documentation.
  4691 
  4692 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4693 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4694 
  4695 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4696 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4697 normal editing and checking process.
  4698 
  4699 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4700 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4701 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4702 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4703 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4704 
  4705 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4706 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4707 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4708 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4709 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4710 
  4711 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4712 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4713 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4714 
  4715 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4716 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4717 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4718 to resolve conflict.
  4719 
  4720 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4721 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4722 
  4723 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4724 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4725 such command executions while editing.
  4726 
  4727 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4728 document content.
  4729 
  4730 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4731 toplevel theorem statements.
  4732 
  4733 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4734 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4735 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4736 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4737 
  4738 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4739 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4740 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4741 
  4742 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4743 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4744 
  4745 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4746 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4747 
  4748 
  4749 *** Pure ***
  4750 
  4751 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4752 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4753 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4754 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4755 details.
  4756 
  4757 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4758 
  4759 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4760 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4761 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4762 
  4763 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4767 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4768 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4769 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4772 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4773 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4774 
  4775 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4776 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4777 
  4778 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4779 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4780 situations.
  4781 
  4782 
  4783 *** HOL ***
  4784 
  4785 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4786 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4788 
  4789 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4790 
  4791 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4792 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4793 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4794 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4795 
  4796   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4797 
  4798 * Code generator:
  4799   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4800     'code_instance'.
  4801   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4802     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4803 
  4804 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4805 examples.
  4806 
  4807 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4808 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4809 to distinguish both when desired.
  4810 
  4811 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4812 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4813 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4814 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4815 
  4816 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4817 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4818 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4819 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4820 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4821 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4824 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4825 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4826 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4827 
  4828 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4829 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4830 
  4831 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4832 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4833 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4834 
  4835 * Lifting:
  4836   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4837     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4838       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4839       transfer rules
  4840     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4841       correspondence relation can be generated
  4842     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4843       parametricity
  4844     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4845   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4846   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4847     copies
  4848   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4849     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4850     anonymous context)
  4851   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4852     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4853   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4854     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4855   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4856     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4857 
  4858 * Transfer:
  4859   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  4860     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  4861   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  4862   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  4863     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  4864   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  4865 
  4866 * Reification and reflection:
  4867   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  4868     "Reification".
  4869   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  4870   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  4871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4872 
  4873 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  4874   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  4875     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4876     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  4877   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  4878     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  4879   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  4880     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  4881     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  4882     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  4883     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  4884     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  4885     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  4886     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  4887   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  4888     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  4889   - Fact renames:
  4890       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  4891       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  4892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4893 
  4894 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  4895 
  4896 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  4897 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  4898 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  4902 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  4903 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  4904 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  4905 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  4906 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  4907 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  4908 lemmas.
  4909 
  4910 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  4911 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  4912 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4913 
  4914 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  4915 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4916 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  4917 
  4918 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  4919 top and bottom elements.
  4920 
  4921 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  4922 
  4923 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  4924 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  4925 
  4926  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  4927    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  4928    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  4929 
  4930  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  4931    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  4932    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  4933 
  4934    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  4935    arbitrary filter.
  4936 
  4937  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  4938    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  4939    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  4940    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  4941    on a compact set.
  4942 
  4943  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  4944    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  4945    linear_continuum_topology).
  4946 
  4947  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  4948    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  4949    on all sequences converging to x.
  4950 
  4951  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  4952    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  4953    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  4954    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  4955    left or right.
  4956 
  4957  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  4958 
  4959      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  4960 
  4961  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  4962    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  4963 
  4964  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  4965    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  4966    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  4967    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  4968    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  4969    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  4970 
  4971  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  4972 
  4973    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  4974 
  4975    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  4976      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  4977 
  4978    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  4979 
  4980    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  4981      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  4982 
  4983    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  4984 
  4985    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  4986 
  4987  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  4988 
  4989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990 
  4991 * Nitpick:
  4992   - Added option "spy".
  4993   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  4994 
  4995 * Sledgehammer:
  4996   - Renamed option:
  4997       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  4998     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4999   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5000   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5001   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5002 
  5003 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5004 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5005 
  5006 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5007   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5008   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5009     generated code.
  5010   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5011   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5012   - Fact renames:
  5013     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5014     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5015     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5016 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 
  5018 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5019 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5020 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5021 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5022 
  5023 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5024 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5025 
  5026 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5029 
  5030     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5031     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5032 
  5033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5034 
  5035 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5036 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5037 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5038 
  5039 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5040 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5041 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5042 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5043 
  5044 * HOL-BNF:
  5045   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5046     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5047     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5048     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5049   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5050     coinduct).
  5051   - Renamed keywords:
  5052     data ~> datatype_new
  5053     codata ~> codatatype
  5054     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5055   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5056     discs ~> disc
  5057     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5058     map_id' ~> map_id
  5059     sels ~> sel
  5060     set_map' ~> set_map
  5061     sets ~> set
  5062 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5063 
  5064 
  5065 *** ML ***
  5066 
  5067 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5068 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5069 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5070 Examples.thy in particular.
  5071 
  5072 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5073 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5074 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5075 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5076 
  5077 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5078 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5079 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5080 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5084 
  5085     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5086     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5087 
  5088 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5089 
  5090 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5091 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5092 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5093 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5094 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5095 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5096 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5097 
  5098 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5099 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5100 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5101 clasets separately from the context.
  5102 
  5103 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5104 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5105 
  5106 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5107 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5108 
  5109 
  5110 *** System ***
  5111 
  5112 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5113 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5114 
  5115 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5116 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5117 
  5118 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5119 settings variable.
  5120 
  5121 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5122 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5123 always pdf.
  5124 
  5125 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5126 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5127 
  5128 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5129 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5130 
  5131 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5132 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5133 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5134 
  5135 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5136 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5137 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5138 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5139 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5140 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5141 
  5142 
  5143 
  5144 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5145 -----------------------------------
  5146 
  5147 *** General ***
  5148 
  5149 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5150 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5151 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5152 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5153 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5154 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5155 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5156 
  5157 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5158 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5159 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5160 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5161 
  5162 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5163 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5164 
  5165 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5166 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5167 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5168 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5169 dependencies properly.
  5170 
  5171 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5172 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5173 
  5174 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5175 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5176 
  5177 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5178 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5179 and "class ... context ...".
  5180 
  5181 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5182 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5183 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5184 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5185 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5186 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5187 
  5188 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5189 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5190 
  5191 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5192 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5193 
  5194 
  5195 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5196 
  5197 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5198 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5199 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5200 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5201 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5202 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5203 
  5204 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5205 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5206 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5207 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5208 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5209 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5210 
  5211 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5212 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5213 browser on demand.
  5214 
  5215 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5216 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5217 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5218 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5219 
  5220 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5221 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5222 
  5223 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5224 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5225 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5226 potentially infinite message streams.
  5227 
  5228 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5229 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5230 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5231 schemes.
  5232 
  5233 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5234 symbols.
  5235 
  5236 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5237 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5238 
  5239 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5240 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5241 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5242 
  5243 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5244 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5245 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5246 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5247 
  5248 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5249 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5250 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5251 
  5252 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5253 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5254 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5255 Isabelle distribution.
  5256 
  5257 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5258 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5259 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5260 
  5261 
  5262 *** Pure ***
  5263 
  5264 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5265 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5266 
  5267 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5268 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5269 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5270 
  5271 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5272 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5273 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5274 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5275 with some care where this is really required.
  5276 
  5277 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5278 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5279 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5280 
  5281   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5282 
  5283 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5284 a Hasse diagram.
  5285 
  5286 
  5287 *** HOL ***
  5288 
  5289 * Sledgehammer:
  5290 
  5291   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5292     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5293   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5294   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5295   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5296   - Renamed options:
  5297       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5298       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5299       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5300       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5301 
  5302 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5303 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5304 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5305 
  5306 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5308 
  5309 * Lifting:
  5310   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5311   - quot_del attribute
  5312   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5313 
  5314 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5315 expressions.
  5316 
  5317 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5318 pointfree expressions.
  5319 
  5320 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5321 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5322 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5323 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5325 
  5326 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5327 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5328 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5329 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5330 accordingly.
  5331 
  5332 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5333 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5334 
  5335 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5336 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5337 
  5338 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5339 
  5340 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5341 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5342 
  5343 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5344 
  5345 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5346 
  5347   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5348   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5349 
  5350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5351 
  5352 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5353 
  5354   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5355   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5356 
  5357 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5358 
  5359 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5360 
  5361   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5362     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5363     output f x converges to G.
  5364 
  5365   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5366     infinity (at_bot).
  5367 
  5368   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5369     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5370 
  5371   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5372     at_top".
  5373 
  5374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5375 
  5376 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5377 lattice type classes.
  5378 
  5379 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5380 
  5381     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5382     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5383 
  5384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5387 changes as follows.
  5388 
  5389   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5390 
  5391       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5392       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5393 
  5394   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5395     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5396     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5397     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5398 
  5399   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5400     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5401     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5402 
  5403   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5404     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5405     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5406     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5407 
  5408   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5409     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5410 
  5411       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5412       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5413       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5414       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5415       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5416       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5417       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5418       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5419       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5420       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5421       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5422       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5423       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5424       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5425       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5426       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5427 
  5428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5429 
  5430 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5431 
  5432 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5433 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5434 
  5435 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5436 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5437 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5438 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5439 
  5440   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5441   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5442   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5443   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5444   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5445   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5446   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5447   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5448   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5449   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5450 
  5451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5454 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5455 Data").
  5456 
  5457 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5458 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5459 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5460 code.
  5461 
  5462 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5463 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5464 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5466 
  5467 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5468 
  5469 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5470 
  5471 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5472 
  5473   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5474   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5475 
  5476 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5477 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5478 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5479 
  5480   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5481 
  5482     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5483     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5484     cart_base i  removed
  5485     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5486 
  5487   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5488 
  5489   Renamed lemmas:
  5490 
  5491     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5492     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5493     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5494     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5495     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5496     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5497     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5498     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5499     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5500     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5501 
  5502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5503 
  5504 * HOL/Probability:
  5505 
  5506   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5507 
  5508   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5509     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5510     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5511 
  5512   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5513     projective family).
  5514 
  5515 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5516 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5517 
  5518 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5519 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5520 datatypes.
  5521 
  5522 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5523 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5524 
  5525 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5526 trees for the code generator.
  5527 
  5528 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5529 Lifting/Transfer.
  5530 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5531 
  5532 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535 
  5536 *** Document preparation ***
  5537 
  5538 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5539 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5540 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5541 
  5542 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5543 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5544 
  5545 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5546 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5547 document/root.tex.
  5548 
  5549 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5550 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 
  5553 *** ML ***
  5554 
  5555 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5556 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5557 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5558 
  5559 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5560 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5561 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5562 
  5563 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5564 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5565 necessarily printing visible text.
  5566 
  5567 
  5568 *** System ***
  5569 
  5570 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5571 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5572 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5573 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5574 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5575 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5576 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5577 
  5578 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5579 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5580 
  5581   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5582 
  5583 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5584 
  5585 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5586 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5587 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5588 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5589 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5590 
  5591 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5592 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5593 
  5594 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5595 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5596 
  5597 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5599 
  5600 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5601 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5602 version of Isabelle.
  5603 
  5604 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5605 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5606 
  5607 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5608 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5609 for home-made settings.
  5610 
  5611 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5612 
  5613 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5614 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5615 configuration.
  5616 
  5617 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5618 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5619 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5620 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5621 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5622 
  5623 
  5624 
  5625 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5626 ------------------------------
  5627 
  5628 *** General ***
  5629 
  5630 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5631 
  5632   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5633     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5634   - markup for bound variables
  5635   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5636   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5637   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5638     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5639 
  5640 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5641 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5642 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5643 
  5644 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5645 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5646 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5647 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5648 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5649 
  5650   context
  5651     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5652     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5653   begin
  5654 
  5655   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5656 
  5657   end
  5658 
  5659   thm my_trans
  5660 
  5661 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5662 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5663 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5664 
  5665 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5666 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5667 
  5668 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5669 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5670 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5671 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5672 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5673 
  5674 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5675 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5676 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5677 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5678 indices of schematic variables.
  5679 
  5680 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5681 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5682 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5683 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5684 etc. was exploited.
  5685 
  5686 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5687 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5688 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5689 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5690 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5691 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5692 
  5693 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5694 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5695 manual.
  5696 
  5697 
  5698 *** Pure ***
  5699 
  5700 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5701 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5702 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5703 
  5704 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5705 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5706 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5707 undocumented feature.)
  5708 
  5709 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5710 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5711 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5712 
  5713   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5714 
  5715   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5716     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5717 
  5718 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5719 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5720 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5721 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5722 
  5723 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5724 
  5725     num ~> num_token
  5726     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5727     xstr ~> str_token
  5728 
  5729 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5730 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5731 position information via constraints).
  5732 
  5733 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5734 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5735 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5736 
  5737 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5738 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5739 
  5740 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5741 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5742 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5743 
  5744 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5745 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5746 
  5747 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5748 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5749 
  5750   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5751 
  5752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5753 
  5754 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5755 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5756 
  5757 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5758 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5759 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5760 
  5761 
  5762 *** HOL ***
  5763 
  5764 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5765 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5766 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5767 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5768 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5769 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5770 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5771 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5772 possible.
  5773 
  5774 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5775 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5776 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5777 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5778 
  5779 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5780 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5781 
  5782 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5783 
  5784 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5785 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5786 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5787 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5788 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5789 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5790 
  5791   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5792     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5793 
  5794   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5795     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5796     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5797 
  5798   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5799     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5800 
  5801   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5802     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5803     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5804 
  5805   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5806     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5807 
  5808 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5809 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5810 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5811 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5812 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5813 
  5814   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5815     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5816     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5817     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5818     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5819 
  5820     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5821     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5822 
  5823   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5824     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5825     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5826     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5827     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5828     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5829     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5830     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5831 
  5832   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5833     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5834     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5835     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5836 
  5837   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5838     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5839     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5840     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5841 
  5842   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5843     from type nat to type int.
  5844 
  5845 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5846 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5847 
  5848   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5849     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5850     type.  Example syntax:
  5851 
  5852     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5853       is List.insert
  5854 
  5855     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5856     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5857     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  5858     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  5859     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  5860     by the package.
  5861 
  5862   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  5863     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  5864     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  5865     code generation for each constant.
  5866 
  5867   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  5868     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  5869     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  5870     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  5871     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  5872 
  5873   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  5874     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  5875     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  5876 
  5877 * Quotient package:
  5878 
  5879   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  5880     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  5881 
  5882   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  5883     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  5884 
  5885   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  5886     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  5887     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5888 
  5889   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  5890     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5891 
  5892 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  5893 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  5894 
  5895 * Quickcheck:
  5896 
  5897   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  5898     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  5899     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  5900     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  5901     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  5902 
  5903     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  5904     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  5905     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  5906 
  5907     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  5908     continues searching for genuine ones.
  5909 
  5910     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  5911     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  5912     show genuine counterexamples.
  5913 
  5914   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  5915     value generators for a given type and operations.
  5916 
  5917     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  5918     constructors of that type.
  5919 
  5920   - Support for multisets.
  5921 
  5922   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  5923 
  5924   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  5925     conjectures in a locale context.
  5926 
  5927 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  5928 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  5929 
  5930 * Sledgehammer:
  5931   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  5932     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  5933   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  5934   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  5935     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  5936   - Sped up the minimizer.
  5937   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  5938   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  5939   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  5940 
  5941 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  5942 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  5943 
  5944 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  5945 
  5946 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5947 
  5948 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  5949 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  5950 
  5951   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  5952 
  5953 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  5954 a list and a nat.
  5955 
  5956 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  5957 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  5958 
  5959 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  5960 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  5961 default.
  5962 
  5963 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  5964 
  5965   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  5966 
  5967 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  5968 
  5969 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  5970 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  5971 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  5972 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  5973 one_case.
  5974 
  5975 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  5976 the result of the fact expression.
  5977 
  5978 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  5979 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  5980 of some relation theorems:
  5981 
  5982   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  5983   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5984   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  5985   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  5986   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  5987   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  5988 
  5989 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  5990 
  5991 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  5992 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  5993 
  5994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5995 
  5996 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  5997 to match the constant's name:
  5998 
  5999   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6000   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6001   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6002   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6003   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6004   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6005   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6006   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6007   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6008   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6009   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6010   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6011   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6012   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6013   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6014   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6015   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6016   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6017   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6018   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6019   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6020   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6021   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6022   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6023 
  6024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6025 
  6026 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6027 and corresponding theorem names:
  6028 
  6029   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6030 
  6031   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6032 
  6033   - Renamed theorems:
  6034 
  6035     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6036     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6037     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6038     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6039     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6040     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6041     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6042     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6043     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6044     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6045     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6046     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6047     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6048     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6049     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6050     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6051     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6052     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6053     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6054     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6055     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6056     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6057     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6058 
  6059     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6060 
  6061     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6062 
  6063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6064 
  6065 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6066 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6067 
  6068   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6069   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6070   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6071   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6072   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6073   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6074   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6075   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6076   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6077   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6078   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6079   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6080   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6081   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6082   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6083   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6084   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6085   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6086   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6087   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6088   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6089 
  6090 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6091 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6092 
  6093 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6094 
  6095 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6096 
  6097   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6098   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6099   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6100   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6101   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6102   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6103   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6104   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6105   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6106   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6107   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6108   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6109   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6110   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6111   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6112   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6113   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6114   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6115 
  6116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6117 
  6118 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6119 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6120 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6121 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6122 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  6123 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  6124 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  6125 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  6126 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  6127 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  6128 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  6129 
  6130 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  6131 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  6132 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  6133 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  6134 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  6135 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  6136 
  6137 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  6138 through option types.
  6139 
  6140 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  6141 relations.
  6142 
  6143 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6144 
  6145 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6147 
  6148   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  6149   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  6150   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  6151   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  6152   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  6153   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  6154   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  6155   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  6156   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  6157   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  6158   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  6159   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  6160   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  6161   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  6162   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  6163   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  6164   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  6165   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  6166   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  6167   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  6168   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  6169   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  6170   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  6171   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  6172   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  6173   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  6174   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  6175   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  6176   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  6177   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  6178   zless_le ~> less_le
  6179   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  6180   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  6181   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  6182 
  6183 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  6184 
  6185   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  6186 
  6187 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  6188 
  6189 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  6190 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  6191 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  6192 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6194 
  6195 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6196 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  6197 
  6198 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  6199 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  6200 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  6201 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  6202 follows:
  6203 
  6204   Operations:
  6205   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  6206   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  6207   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  6208   del -> rbt_del
  6209   delete -> rbt_delete
  6210   ins -> rbt_ins
  6211   insert -> rbt_insert
  6212   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  6213   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  6214   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  6215   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  6216   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  6217   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  6218   tree_less -> rbt_less
  6219   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  6220   union -> rbt_union
  6221   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  6222   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  6223 
  6224   Lemmas:
  6225   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  6226   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  6227   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  6228   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  6229   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  6230   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  6231   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  6232   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  6233   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  6234   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  6235   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  6236   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  6237   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  6238   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  6239   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  6240   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  6241   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  6242   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  6243   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  6244   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  6245   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  6246   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  6247   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  6248   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  6249   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  6250   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  6251   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  6252   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  6253   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  6254   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  6255   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  6256   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  6257   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  6258   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  6259   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  6260   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  6261   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  6262   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  6263   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  6264   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  6265   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  6266   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  6267   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  6268   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  6269   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  6270   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  6271   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  6272   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map