NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Jan 04 21:16:08 2013 +0100 (2013-01-04)
changeset 50730 883963f45ac9
parent 50717 30bcdd5c8e78
child 50731 72624ff45676
permissions -rw-r--r--
more reactive completion popup by default;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    65 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    66 browser on demand.
    67 
    68 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    69 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    70 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    71 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    72 
    73 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    74 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    75 
    76 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    77 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    78 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    79 potentially infinite message streams.
    80 
    81 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    82 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    83 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    84 schemes.
    85 
    86 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    87 symbols.
    88 
    89 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
    90 
    91 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    92 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    93 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    94 
    95 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    96 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    97 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    98 
    99 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   100 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   101 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   102 
   103 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   104 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   105 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   106 Isabelle distribution.
   107 
   108 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   109 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   110 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   111 
   112 
   113 *** Pure ***
   114 
   115 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   116 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   117 
   118 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   119 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   120 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   123 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   124 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   125 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   126 with some care where this is really required.
   127 
   128 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   129 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   130 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   131 
   132   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   133 
   134 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   135 a Hasse diagram.
   136 
   137 
   138 *** HOL ***
   139 
   140 * Sledgehammer:
   141 
   142   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   143     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   144   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   145   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   146   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   147   - Renamed options:
   148       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   149       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   150       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   151       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   152 
   153 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   154 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   155 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   156 
   157 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   158 expressions.
   159 
   160 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   161 pointfree expressions.
   162 
   163 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   164 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   165 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   166 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   168 
   169 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   170 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   171 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   172 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   173 accordingly.
   174 
   175 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   176 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   179 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   184 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   185 
   186 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   187 
   188 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   189 
   190   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   191   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   192 
   193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   194 
   195 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   196 
   197   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   198   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   199 
   200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201 
   202 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   203 
   204   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   205     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   206     output f x converges to G.
   207 
   208   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   209     infinity (at_bot).
   210 
   211   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   212     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   213 
   214   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   215     at_top".
   216 
   217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   220 lattice type classes.
   221 
   222 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   223 
   224     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   225     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   226 
   227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   230 changes as follows.
   231 
   232   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   233 
   234       prefix ~> prefixeq
   235       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   236 
   237   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   238     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   239     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   240     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   241 
   242   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   243     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   244     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   245 
   246   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   247     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   248     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   249     Library/Prefix_Order.
   250 
   251   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   252     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   253 
   254       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   255       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   256       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   257       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   258       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   259       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   260       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   261       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   262       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   263       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   264       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   265       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   266       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   267       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   268       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   269       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   270 
   271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 
   274 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   275 
   276 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   277 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   278 
   279 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   280 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   281 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   282 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   283 
   284   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   285   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   286   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   287   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   288   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   289   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   290   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   291   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   292   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   293   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   294 
   295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   298 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   299 Data").
   300 
   301 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   302 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   303 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   304 code.
   305 
   306 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   307 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   308 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   312 
   313 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   314 
   315 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   316 
   317   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   318   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   319 
   320 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   321 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   322 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   323 
   324   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   325 
   326     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   327     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   328     cart_base i  removed
   329     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   330 
   331   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   332 
   333   Renamed lemmas:
   334 
   335     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   336     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   337     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   338     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   339     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   340     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   341     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   342     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   343     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   344     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   345 
   346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 * HOL/Probability:
   349 
   350   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   351 
   352   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   353     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   354     (borel_measurable_induct).
   355 
   356   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   357     projective family).
   358 
   359 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   360 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   361 
   362 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   363 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   364 datatypes.
   365 
   366 
   367 *** Document preparation ***
   368 
   369 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   370 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   371 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   372 
   373 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   374 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   375 
   376 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   377 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   378 document/root.tex.
   379 
   380 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   381 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 
   384 *** ML ***
   385 
   386 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   387 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   388 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   389 
   390 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   391 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   392 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   393 
   394 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   395 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   396 necessarily printing visible text.
   397 
   398 
   399 *** System ***
   400 
   401 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   402 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   403 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   404 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   405 
   406 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   407 
   408 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   409 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   410 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   411 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   412 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   413 
   414 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   415 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   416 
   417   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   418 
   419 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   420 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   421 
   422 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   423 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   424 "isabelle usedir".
   425 
   426 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   427 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   428 
   429 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   431 
   432 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   433 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   434 version of Isabelle.
   435 
   436 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   437 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   438 
   439 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   440 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   441 for home-made settings.
   442 
   443 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   444 
   445 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   446 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   447 configuration.
   448 
   449 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   450 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   451 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   452 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   453 bundled as Isabelle component.
   454 
   455 
   456 
   457 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   458 ------------------------------
   459 
   460 *** General ***
   461 
   462 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   463 
   464   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   465     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   466   - markup for bound variables
   467   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   468   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   469   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   470     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   471 
   472 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   473 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   474 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   475 
   476 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   477 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   478 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   479 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   480 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   481 
   482   context
   483     fixes x y z :: 'a
   484     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   485   begin
   486 
   487   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   488 
   489   end
   490 
   491   thm my_trans
   492 
   493 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   494 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   495 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   496 
   497 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   498 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   499 
   500 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   501 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   502 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   503 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   504 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   505 
   506 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   507 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   508 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   509 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   510 indices of schematic variables.
   511 
   512 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   513 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   514 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   515 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   516 etc. was exploited.
   517 
   518 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   519 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   520 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   521 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   522 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   523 of the material of that old tutorial.
   524 
   525 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   526 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   527 manual.
   528 
   529 
   530 *** Pure ***
   531 
   532 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   533 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   534 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   535 
   536 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   537 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   538 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   539 undocumented feature.)
   540 
   541 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   542 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   543 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   544 
   545   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   546 
   547   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   548     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   549 
   550 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   551 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   552 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   553 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   554 
   555 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   556 
   557     num ~> num_token
   558     xnum ~> xnum_token
   559     xstr ~> str_token
   560 
   561 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   562 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   563 position information via constraints).
   564 
   565 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   566 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   567 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   568 
   569 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   570 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   571 
   572 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   573 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   574 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   575 
   576 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   577 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   580 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   581 
   582   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   583 
   584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   587 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   590 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   591 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   592 
   593 
   594 *** HOL ***
   595 
   596 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   597 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   598 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   599 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   600 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   601 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   602 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   603 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   604 possible.
   605 
   606 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   607 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   608 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   609 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   610 
   611 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   612 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   615 
   616 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   617 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   618 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   619 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   620 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   621 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   622 
   623   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   624     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   625 
   626   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   627     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   628     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   629 
   630   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   631     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   632 
   633   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   634     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   635     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   636 
   637   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   638     Redefine using other integer operations.
   639 
   640 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   641 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   642 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   643 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   644 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   645 
   646   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   647     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   648     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   649     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   650     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   651 
   652     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   653     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   654 
   655   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   656     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   657     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   658     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   659     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   660     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   661     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   662     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   663 
   664   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   665     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   666     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   667     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   668 
   669   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   670     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   671     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   672     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   673 
   674   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   675     from type nat to type int.
   676 
   677 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   678 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   679 
   680   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   681     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   682     type.  Example syntax:
   683 
   684     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   685       is List.insert
   686 
   687     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   688     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   689     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   690     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   691     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   692     by the package.
   693 
   694   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   695     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   696     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   697     code generation for each constant.
   698 
   699   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   700     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   701     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   702     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   703     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   704 
   705   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   706     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   707     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   708 
   709 * Quotient package:
   710 
   711   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   712     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   713 
   714   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   715     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   716 
   717   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   718     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   719     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   720 
   721   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   722     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   725 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   726 
   727 * Quickcheck:
   728 
   729   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   730     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   731     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   732     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   733     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   734 
   735     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   736     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   737     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   738 
   739     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   740     continues searching for genuine ones.
   741 
   742     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   743     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   744     show genuine counterexamples.
   745 
   746   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   747     value generators for a given type and operations.
   748 
   749     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   750     constructors of that type.
   751 
   752   - Support for multisets.
   753 
   754   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   755 
   756   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   757     conjectures in a locale context.
   758 
   759 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   760 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   761 
   762 * Sledgehammer:
   763   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   764     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   765   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   766   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   767     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   768   - Sped up the minimizer.
   769   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   770   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   771   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   772 
   773 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   774 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   775 
   776 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   777 
   778 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   781 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   782 
   783   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   784 
   785 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   786 a list and a nat.
   787 
   788 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   789 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   790 
   791 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   792 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   793 default.
   794 
   795 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   796 
   797   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   798 
   799 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   800 
   801 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   802 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   803 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   804 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   805 one_case.
   806 
   807 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   808 the result of the fact expression.
   809 
   810 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   811 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   812 of some relation theorems:
   813 
   814   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   815   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   816   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   817   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   818   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   819   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   820 
   821 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   822 
   823 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   824 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   825 
   826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   827 
   828 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   829 to match the constant's name:
   830 
   831   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   832   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   833   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   834   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   835   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   836   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   837   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   838   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   839   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   840   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   841   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   842   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   843   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   844   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   845   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   846   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   847   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   848   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   849   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   850   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   851   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   852   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   853   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   854   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   855 
   856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   857 
   858 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   859 and corresponding theorem names:
   860 
   861   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   862 
   863   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   864 
   865   - Renamed theorems:
   866 
   867     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   868     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   869     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   870     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   871     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   872     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   873     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   874     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   875     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   876     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   877     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   878     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   879     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   880     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   881     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   882     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   883     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   884     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   885     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   886     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   887     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   888     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   889     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   890 
   891     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   892 
   893     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   894 
   895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   898 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   899 
   900   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   901   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   902   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   903   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   904   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   905   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   906   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   907   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   908   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   909   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   910   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   911   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   912   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   913   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   914   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   915   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   916   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   917   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   918   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   919   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   920   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   921 
   922 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   923 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   926 
   927 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   928 
   929   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   930   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   931   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   932   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   933   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   934   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   935   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   936   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   937   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   938   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   939   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   940   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   941   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   942   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   943   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   944   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   945   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   946   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   947 
   948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   951 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   952 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   953 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   954 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   955 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   956 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   957 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   958 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   959 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   960 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   961 
   962 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   963 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   964 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   965 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   966 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   967 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   968 
   969 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   970 through option types.
   971 
   972 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   973 relations.
   974 
   975 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   978 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   979 
   980   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   981   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   982   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   983   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   984   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   985   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   986   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   987   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   988   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   989   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   990   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   991   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   992   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   993   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   994   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   995   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   996   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   997   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   998   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   999   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1000   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1001   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1002   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1003   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1004   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1005   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1006   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1007   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1008   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1009   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1010   zless_le ~> less_le
  1011   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1012   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1013   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1014 
  1015 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1016 
  1017   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1018 
  1019 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1020 
  1021 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1022 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1023 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1024 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1028 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1029 
  1030 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1031 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1032 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1033 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1034 follows:
  1035 
  1036   Operations:
  1037   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1038   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1039   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1040   del -> rbt_del
  1041   delete -> rbt_delete
  1042   ins -> rbt_ins
  1043   insert -> rbt_insert
  1044   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1045   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1046   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1047   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1048   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1049   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1050   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1051   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1052   union -> rbt_union
  1053   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1054   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1055 
  1056   Lemmas:
  1057   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1058   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1059   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1060   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1061   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1062   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1063   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1064   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1065   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1066   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1067   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1068   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1069   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1070   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1071   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1072   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1073   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1074   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1075   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1076   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1077   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1078   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1079   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1080   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1081   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1082   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1083   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1084   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1085   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1086   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1087   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1088   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1089   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1090   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1091   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1092   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1093   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1094   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1095   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1096   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1097   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1098   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1099   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1100   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1101   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1102   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1103   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1104   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1105   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1106   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1107   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1108   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1109   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1110   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1111   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1112   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1113   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1114   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1115   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1116   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1117   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1118   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1119   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1120   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1121   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1122   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1123   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1124   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1125   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1126   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1127   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1128   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1129   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1130   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1131   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1132   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1133   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1134   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1135   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1136   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1137   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1138   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1139   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1140 
  1141 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1142 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1143 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1144 
  1145   Changed Operations:
  1146   float_abs -> abs
  1147   float_nprt -> nprt
  1148   float_pprt -> pprt
  1149   pow2 -> use powr
  1150   round_down -> float_round_down
  1151   round_up -> float_round_up
  1152   scale -> exponent
  1153 
  1154   Removed Operations:
  1155   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1156 
  1157   Renamed Lemmas:
  1158   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1159   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1160   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1161   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1162   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1163   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1164   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1165   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1166   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1167   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1168   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1169   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1170   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1171   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1172   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1173   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1174   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1175   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1176   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1177   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1178   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1179   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1180   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1181   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1182   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1183   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1184   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1185   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1186   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1187   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1188   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1189   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1190   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1191   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1192   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1193   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1194 
  1195   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1196   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1197   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1198   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1199   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1200   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1201   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1202   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1203   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1204   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1205 
  1206 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1207 association lists with distinct keys.
  1208 
  1209 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1210 annotated commands.
  1211 
  1212 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1213 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1214 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1215 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1218 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1219 instead.
  1220 
  1221   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1222   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1223   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1224   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1225   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1226   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1227   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1228   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1229   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1230   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1231   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1232   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1233   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1234   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1235   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1236   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1237   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1238   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1239   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1240   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1241   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1242   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1243   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1244   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1245   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1246   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1247   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1248   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1249   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1250   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1251   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1252   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1253   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1254   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1255   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1256   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1257   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1258   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1259   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1260   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1261   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1262 
  1263 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1264 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1265 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1266 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1267 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1268 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1269 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1270 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1271 
  1272 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1273 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1274 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1275 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1276 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1277 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1278 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1279 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1280 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1281 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1282 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1283 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1284 
  1285   Renamed constants:
  1286   measure -> emeasure
  1287   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1288   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1289   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1290   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1291 
  1292   Removed locales:
  1293   completeable_measure_space
  1294   finite_measure_space
  1295   finite_prob_space
  1296   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1297   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1298   finite_sigma_algebra
  1299   measure_space
  1300   pair_finite_prob_space
  1301   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1302   pair_finite_space
  1303   pair_sigma_algebra
  1304   product_sigma_algebra
  1305 
  1306   Removed constants:
  1307   conditional_space
  1308   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1309   image_space
  1310   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1311   pair_measure_generator
  1312   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1313   subvimage
  1314 
  1315   Replacement theorems:
  1316   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1317   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1318   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1319   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1320   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1321   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1322   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1323   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1324   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1325   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1326   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1327   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1328   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1329   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1330   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1331   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1332   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1333   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1334   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1335   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1336   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1337   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1338   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1339   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1340   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1341   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1342   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1343   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1344   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1345   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1346   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1347   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1348   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1349   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1350   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1351   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1352   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1353   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1354   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1355   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1356   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1357   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1358   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1359   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1360   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1361   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1362   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1363   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1364   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1365   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1366   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1367   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1368   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1369   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1370   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1371   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1372   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1373   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1374   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1375   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1376   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1377   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1378   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1379   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1380   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1381   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1382   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1383   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1384   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1385   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1386   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1387   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1388   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1389   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1390   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1391   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1392   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1393   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1394   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1395   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1396   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1397   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1398   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1399   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1400   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1401   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1402   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1403   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1404   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1405   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1406   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1407   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1408   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1409   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1410   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1411   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1412   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1413   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1414   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1415   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1416   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1417   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1418   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1419   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1420   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1421   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1422   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1423   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1424   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1425   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1426   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1427   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1428   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1429   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1430   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1431   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1432   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1433   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1434   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1435   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1436   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1437   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1438   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1439   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1440   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1441   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1442   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1443   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1444 
  1445 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1446 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1447 
  1448 
  1449 *** FOL ***
  1450 
  1451 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1452 
  1453 
  1454 *** ZF ***
  1455 
  1456 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1457 analysis.
  1458 
  1459 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1460 
  1461 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 
  1464 *** ML ***
  1465 
  1466 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1467 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1468 
  1469 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1470 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1471 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1472 
  1473 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1474 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1475 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1476 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1477 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1478 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1479 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1480 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1481 
  1482 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1483 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1484 
  1485 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1486 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1487 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1488 
  1489 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1490 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491 
  1492 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1493 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1494 context as well.
  1495 
  1496 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1497 
  1498   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1499   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1500   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1501   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1502   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1503   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1504   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1505   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1506   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1507   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1508   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1509   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1510 
  1511 
  1512 *** System ***
  1513 
  1514 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1515 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1516 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1517 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1518 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1519 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1520 the generic user home was intended.
  1521 
  1522 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1523 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1524 
  1525 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1526 (not just JRE).
  1527 
  1528 
  1529 
  1530 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1531 ------------------------------------
  1532 
  1533 *** General ***
  1534 
  1535 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1536 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1537 
  1538   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1539     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1540     files for checking).
  1541 
  1542   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1543     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1544     positions.
  1545 
  1546   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1547     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1548     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1549 
  1550   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1551     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1552     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1553 
  1554   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1555     cores.
  1556 
  1557   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1558     versions (garbage collection).
  1559 
  1560 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1561 including some remaining limitations.
  1562 
  1563 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1564 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1565 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1566 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1567 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1571 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1572 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1573 
  1574 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1575 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1576 usedir option -Q.
  1577 
  1578 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1579 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1580 
  1581   long_names   ~> names_long
  1582   short_names  ~> names_short
  1583   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1584 
  1585 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1586 
  1587   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1588 
  1589 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1590 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1591 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1592 
  1593 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1594 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1595 
  1596 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1597   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1598   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1599   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1600     "Classical Reasoner".
  1601 
  1602 
  1603 *** HOL ***
  1604 
  1605 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1606 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1609 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1610 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1611 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1612 class complete_linorder.
  1613 
  1614 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1615 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1616 
  1617 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1618 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1619 
  1620   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1621   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1622   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1623   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1624   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1625   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1626   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1627   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1628   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1629   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1630   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1631 
  1632 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1633 
  1634   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1635   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1636   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1637   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1638   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1639   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1640   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1641   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1642   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1643   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1644   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1645   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1646   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1647   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1648   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1649   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1650 
  1651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1655 
  1656 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1657 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1658 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1659 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1660 
  1661 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1662 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1663 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1667 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1668 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1669 
  1670 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1671 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1672 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1675 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1676 
  1677 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1678 
  1679     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1680     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1681 
  1682 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1683 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1686 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1687 
  1688 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1689 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1690 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1691 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1694   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1695   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1696   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1697   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1698   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1699   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1700 
  1701 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1702 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1705   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1706   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1707   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1708   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1709   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1710   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1711   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1712   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1713   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1714   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1715   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1716   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1717   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1718   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1719   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1720   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1721   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1722   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1723   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1724   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1725   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1726   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1727   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1728   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1729   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1730   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1731   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1732   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1733   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1734   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1735   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1736   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1737   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1738   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1739   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1740   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1741   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1742   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1743   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1744   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1745   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1746   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1747   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1748   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1749   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1750   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1751   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1752   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1753   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1754   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1755   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1756   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1757   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1758   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1759   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1760   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1761   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1762   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1763   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1764   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1765   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1766   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1767   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1768   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1769   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1770   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1771   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1772   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1773   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1774   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1775   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1776   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1777   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1778   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1779   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1780   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1781   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1782   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1783   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1784   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1785   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1786 
  1787 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1788 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1789 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1790 
  1791 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1792 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1793 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1794 
  1795 * Code generation:
  1796 
  1797   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1798     characters in the target language.
  1799 
  1800   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1801     instead.
  1802 
  1803   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1804 
  1805   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1806     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1807 
  1808       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1809 
  1810 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1813 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1814 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1815 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1816 syntax.
  1817 
  1818 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1819 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1820 
  1821 * Nitpick:
  1822   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1823   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1824   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1825     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1826 
  1827 * Sledgehammer:
  1828   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1829   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1830     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1831   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1832     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1833   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1834     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1835   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1836     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1837   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1838     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1839 
  1840 * Metis:
  1841   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1842   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1843     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1844 
  1845 * Command 'try':
  1846   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1847     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1848   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1849     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1850 
  1851 * Quickcheck:
  1852   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1853     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1854   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1855     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1856   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1857     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1858     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1859     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1860   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1861     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1862 
  1863 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1864 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1865 
  1866 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1867 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1868 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1869 
  1870 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1871 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1875 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1876 
  1877 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1878 arithmetic.
  1879 
  1880 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1881 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1882 and lattice type classes.
  1883 
  1884 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1885 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1886 
  1887 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1888 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1889 
  1890 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1891 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1892 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1895   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1896   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1897   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1898 
  1899 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1900 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1901 constants:
  1902 
  1903   type inat   ~> type enat
  1904   Fin         ~> enat
  1905   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1906   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1907   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1908 
  1909 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1910 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1911 
  1912 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1913 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1914 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1915 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1916 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1917 
  1918 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1919 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1920 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1921 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1922 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1923 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1924 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1925 
  1926   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1927   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1928   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1929   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1930 
  1931 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1932 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1933 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1934 
  1935   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1936   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1937   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1938   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1939   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1940   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1941   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1942   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1943   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1944   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1945   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1946   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1947   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1948   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1949   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1950   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1951   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1952   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1953   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1954   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1955   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1956   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1957   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1958   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1959   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1960   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1961   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1962   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1963   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1964   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1965   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1966   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1967   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1968   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1969   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1970   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1971   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1972   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1973   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1974   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1975   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1976   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1977   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1978   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1979   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1980   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1981   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1982   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1983   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1984   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1985   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1986 
  1987 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1988   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1989   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1990   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1991   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1992     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1997   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1998   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1999   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2000   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2001   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2002   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2003   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2004   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2005   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2006   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2007   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2008   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2009   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2010   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2011   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2012   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2013   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2014   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2015   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2016   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2017   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2018   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2019   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2020   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2021 
  2022 
  2023 *** Document preparation ***
  2024 
  2025 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2026 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2027 same.
  2028 
  2029 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2030 result.
  2031 
  2032 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2033 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2034 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2035 
  2036 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2037 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2038 
  2039 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2040 like this:
  2041 
  2042   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2043   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2044 
  2045 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2046 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2047 layouts.
  2048 
  2049 
  2050 *** ML ***
  2051 
  2052 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2053 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2054 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2055 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2056 under external program control.
  2057 
  2058 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2059 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2060 
  2061 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2062 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2063 (better known as Proof General).
  2064 
  2065 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2066 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2067 
  2068 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2069 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2070 
  2071 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2072 (including quotes etc.).
  2073 
  2074 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2075 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2076 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2077 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2078 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2079 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2080 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2081 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2082 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2083 
  2084 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2085 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2086 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2087 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2088 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2089 
  2090 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2091 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2092 
  2093 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2094 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2095 
  2096 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2097 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2098 
  2099 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2100 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2101 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2102 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2103 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2104 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2105 proper Proof.context.
  2106 
  2107 
  2108 *** System ***
  2109 
  2110 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2111 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2112 
  2113 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2114 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2115 
  2116 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2117 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2118 
  2119   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2120   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2121   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2122   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2123   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2124 
  2125 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2126 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2129 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2130 example:
  2131 
  2132   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2133 
  2134 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2135 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2136 
  2137 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2138 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2139 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2140 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2141 
  2142 
  2143 
  2144 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2145 ----------------------------------
  2146 
  2147 *** General ***
  2148 
  2149 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2150 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2151 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2152 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2153 like this:
  2154 
  2155   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2156 
  2157 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2158 
  2159 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2160 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2161 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2162 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2163 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2164 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2165 
  2166 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2167 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2168 the following package declarations:
  2169 
  2170   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2171   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2172 
  2173 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2174 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2175 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2176 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2177 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2178 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2179 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2180 
  2181 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2182 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2183 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2184 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2185 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2186 
  2187 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2188 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2189 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2190 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2191 
  2192 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2193 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2194 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2195 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2196 
  2197   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2198 
  2199   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2200   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2201   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2202   show_types                    show_types
  2203   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2204   show_consts                   show_consts
  2205   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2206 
  2207   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2208   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2209   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2210 
  2211   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2212   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2213 
  2214   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2215 
  2216   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2217   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2218   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2219   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2220   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2221 
  2222 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2223 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2224 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2225 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2226 
  2227 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2231   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2232 
  2233 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2234 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2235 float_token.
  2236 
  2237 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2238 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2242 DejaVu Sans.
  2243 
  2244 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2245 
  2246 
  2247 *** Pure ***
  2248 
  2249 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2250 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2251 time.
  2252 
  2253 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2254 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255 
  2256 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2257 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2260 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2261 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2262 command already provided this functionality.
  2263 
  2264 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2265 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2266 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2267 without interpretations.
  2268 
  2269 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2270 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2271 
  2272 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2273 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2274 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2275 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2276 
  2277 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2278 'definition' instead.
  2279 
  2280 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2281 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2282 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2283 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2284 
  2285 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2286 constructors.
  2287 
  2288 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2289 the local file system.
  2290 
  2291 
  2292 *** HOL ***
  2293 
  2294 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2295 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2296 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2297 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2298 
  2299   declare [[coercion f]]
  2300 
  2301 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2302 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2303 
  2304   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2305 
  2306 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2307 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2308 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2309 other theories like this:
  2310 
  2311   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2312 
  2313 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2314 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2315 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2316 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2317 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2318 for examples.
  2319 
  2320 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2321 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2324 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2325 
  2326 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2327 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2328 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2329 
  2330 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2331 functorial structure of types.
  2332 
  2333 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2334 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2335 
  2336 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2337 languages.
  2338 
  2339 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2340 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2344 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2347 combinators any longer.
  2348 
  2349 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2350 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2351 
  2352 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2353 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2354 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2355 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2356 
  2357   record 'a foo = ...
  2358   ...
  2359   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2360 
  2361 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2362 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2366 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2367 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2368 
  2369 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2370 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2371 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2372 
  2373 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2374 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2377 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2378 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2379 independently.
  2380 
  2381 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2382 counter example search.
  2383 
  2384 * Sledgehammer:
  2385   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2386     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2387     sledgehammer").
  2388   - Renamed commands:
  2389     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2390     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2391     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2392     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393   - Renamed options:
  2394     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2395     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2396     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2397     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2398     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400 * Nitpick:
  2401   - Renamed options:
  2402     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2403     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2404     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2405   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2406   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2407   - Added "whack" option.
  2408   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2409   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2410   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2411   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2412     higher cardinalities.
  2413   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2414 
  2415 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2416 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2417 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2418 
  2419     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2420 
  2421 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2422 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2423 
  2424 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2425 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2426 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2427 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2428 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2429 "smt_solver".
  2430 
  2431 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2432 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2433 
  2434 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2435 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2436 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2437 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2440   - Renamed:
  2441     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2442     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2443     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444   - Added:
  2445     smt_verbose
  2446     smt_random_seed
  2447     smt_datatypes
  2448     smt_infer_triggers
  2449     smt_monomorph_limit
  2450     cvc3_options
  2451     remote_cvc3_options
  2452     remote_z3_options
  2453     yices_options
  2454 
  2455 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2456 header.
  2457 
  2458 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2459 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2460 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2461 
  2462   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2463 
  2464 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2465 
  2466 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2467 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2472 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2475 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2476 
  2477 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2478 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2481 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2482 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2483 
  2484 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2485 
  2486 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2488 
  2489 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2490 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2491 
  2492 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2493 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2494 for congruent(2)).
  2495 
  2496 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2497 
  2498   types
  2499     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2500     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2501 
  2502   constants
  2503     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2504     True ~> HOL.True
  2505     False ~> HOL.False
  2506     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2507     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2508     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2509     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2510     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2511     The ~> HOL.The
  2512     All ~> HOL.All
  2513     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2514     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2515     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2516     If ~> HOL.If
  2517     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2518     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2519     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2520     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2521     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2522     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2523     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2524     op : ~> Set.member
  2525     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2526 
  2527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2530 
  2531     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2532     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2533     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2534     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2535     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2536     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2537     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2538     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2539 
  2540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * More stylized fact names:
  2543 
  2544   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2545   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2546   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2547   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2548 
  2549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2552 
  2553   constants
  2554     null ~> List.null
  2555 
  2556   facts
  2557     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2558     null_empty ~> null_def
  2559 
  2560 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2561 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2562 generation.
  2563 
  2564 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2565 Haskell code.
  2566 
  2567 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2568 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2569 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2572 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2573 
  2574 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2575 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2576 
  2577 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2578 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2579 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2580 
  2581 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2582 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2583 
  2584 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2588 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2589 referred to by its qualified name.
  2590 
  2591   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2592   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2593   product ~>  Enum.product
  2594 
  2595 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2596 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2600 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2601 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2605 sort_key.
  2606 
  2607 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2611 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2612 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2613 
  2614   types
  2615     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2616               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2617               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2618         (depends on your needs)
  2619 
  2620   constants
  2621      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2622      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2623      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2624 
  2625 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2626 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2627 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2628 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2629 
  2630 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2631 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2632 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2633 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2634 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2640 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2641 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2642 
  2643 
  2644 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2645 
  2646 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2647 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2648 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2649 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2650 compatibility.
  2651 
  2652 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2653 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2654 
  2655 
  2656 *** HOLCF ***
  2657 
  2658 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2659 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2660 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2664 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2665 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2666 
  2667   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2668   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2669   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2670 
  2671 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2672 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2673 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2676 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2677 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2678 domain definition now works:
  2679 
  2680   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2681 
  2682 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2683 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2684 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2685 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2686 
  2687   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2688     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2689 
  2690   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2691 
  2692 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2693 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2694 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2697 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2700 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2701 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2702 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2703 
  2704 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2705 
  2706 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2709 
  2710 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2711 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2714 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2715 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2716 
  2717 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2718 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2719 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2720 
  2721 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2722 still supported as an input translation.
  2723 
  2724 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2725 
  2726   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2727   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2728   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2729   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2730   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2731   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2732   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2733 
  2734 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2735 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2738   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2739   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2740   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2741   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2742   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2743 
  2744 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2745 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2748 
  2749   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2750   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2751   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2752   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2753 
  2754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2755 
  2756 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2757 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2758 
  2759 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2760 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2763   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2764   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2765   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2766   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2767   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2768   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2769   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2770   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2771   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2772   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2773   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2774   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2775   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2776   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2777   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2778   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2779   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2780   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2781   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2782 
  2783 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2786   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2787   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2788   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2789   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2790   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2791   box_less             ~> box_below
  2792   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2793   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2794   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2795   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2796   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2797   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2798   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2799   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2800   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2801   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2802   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2803   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2804   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2805   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2806   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2807   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2808   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2809   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2810   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2811   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2812   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2813   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2814   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2815   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2816   up_less              ~> up_below
  2817   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2818   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2819   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2820   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2821   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2822   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2823   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2824   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2825   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2826   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2827   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2828   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2829   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2830 
  2831 
  2832 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2833 
  2834 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2835 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 
  2838 *** ML ***
  2839 
  2840 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2841 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2842 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2843 
  2844 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2845 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2846 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2847 
  2848 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2849 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2850 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2851 
  2852 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2853 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2854 
  2855 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2856 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2857 
  2858 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2859 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2860 
  2861 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2862 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2863 
  2864 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2865 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2866 almost all situations.
  2867 
  2868 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2869 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2870 Isabelle/ML.
  2871 
  2872 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2873 meaning.
  2874 
  2875 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2876 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2877 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2878 
  2879 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2880 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2881 
  2882 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2883 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2884 
  2885 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2886 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2887 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2888 
  2889 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2890 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2891 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2892 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2893 configuration options.
  2894 
  2895 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2896 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2897 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2898 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2899 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2900 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2901 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2902 
  2903 
  2904 
  2905 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2906 ---------------------------------
  2907 
  2908 *** General ***
  2909 
  2910 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2911 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2912 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2913 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2914 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2915 their full internal name.
  2916 
  2917 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2918 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2919 Some hints on upgrading:
  2920 
  2921   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2922     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2923     which are independent of this issue.
  2924 
  2925   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2926     provides the following special forms:
  2927 
  2928       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2929       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2930       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2931 
  2932     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2933     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2934     extra variables".
  2935 
  2936     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2937     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2938     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2939     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2940     "logic".
  2941 
  2942   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2943     antiquotations:
  2944 
  2945       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2946       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2947       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2948       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2949 
  2950   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2951     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2952     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2953     antiquotations.
  2954 
  2955 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2956 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2957 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2958 diagnose syntax problems.
  2959 
  2960 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2961 
  2962 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2963 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2964 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2965 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2966 
  2967 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2968 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2969 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2970 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2973 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2974 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2975 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2976 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2979 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2980 
  2981 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2982 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2983 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2984 
  2985   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2986 
  2987 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2988 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2989 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2990 
  2991 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2992 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2994 
  2995 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2996 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2997 
  2998 
  2999 *** Pure ***
  3000 
  3001 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3002 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3003 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3004 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3005 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3006 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3007 inspect proof terms.
  3008 
  3009 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3010 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3011 are added internally.  For example:
  3012 
  3013   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3014 
  3015 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3016 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3021 'class' instead.
  3022 
  3023 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3024 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3028 invariants.
  3029 
  3030 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3031 user space functionality any longer.
  3032 
  3033 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3034 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3038 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3039 
  3040 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3041 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3042 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3043 
  3044 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3045 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3046 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3047 
  3048 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3049 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 
  3052 *** HOL ***
  3053 
  3054 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3055 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3056 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3057 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3058 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3059 
  3060 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3061 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3062 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3063 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3064 
  3065   fun
  3066     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3067   where
  3068     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3069 
  3070   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3071     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3072 
  3073   quotient_definition
  3074     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3075 
  3076 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3077 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3078 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3079 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3080 
  3081 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3082 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3083 
  3084 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3085 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3086 
  3087 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3091 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3092 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3093 
  3094 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3095 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3104 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3105 
  3106 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3107 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3108 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3111   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3112   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3113   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3114   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3115   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3116   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3117   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3118   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3119   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3120   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3121   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3122   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3123   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3124   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3125   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3126   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3127   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3128   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3129   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3130   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3131   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3132   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3133   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3134   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3135   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3136   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3137   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3138   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3139   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3140 
  3141 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3142 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3143 
  3144 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3145 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3146 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3147 
  3148 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3149 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3150 
  3151 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3152 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3155 
  3156 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3157 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3158 
  3159 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3160 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3165 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3166 
  3167 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3168 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3169 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3170 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3173   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3174   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3175   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3179 lattices):
  3180 
  3181     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3182     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3183 
  3184     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3185 
  3186     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3187     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3188     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3189     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3190     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3191     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3192     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3193     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3194     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3195     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3196     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3197     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3198     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3199 
  3200     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3201     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3202     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3203     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3204     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3205     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3206     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3207     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3208     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3209     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3210     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3211     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3212     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3213     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3214     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3215     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3216     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3217     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3218 
  3219   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3220   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3221 
  3222     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3223     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3224     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3225     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3226     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3227 
  3228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * Refined field classes:
  3231   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3232     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3233     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3234   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3238   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3239   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3240   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3241     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3242   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3243     equal_neg_zero.
  3244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3247 sets to lattices:
  3248 
  3249   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3250   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3251   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3252   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3253   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3254   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3255   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3256   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3257   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3258   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3259 
  3260 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3261 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3262 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3263 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3264 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3265 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3268 multiset order:
  3269 
  3270   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3271     <= and <;
  3272   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3273     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3274     multiset_order;
  3275   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3276     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3277     generation;
  3278   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3279     if needed.
  3280 
  3281 Renamed:
  3282 
  3283   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3284   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3285   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3286 
  3287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3288 
  3289 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3290 
  3291 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3292 
  3293 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3294 
  3295 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3296 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3297 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299   Constants:
  3300   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3301   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3302   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3303   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3304   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3305   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3306   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3307   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3308   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3309   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3310   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3311   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3312   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3313 
  3314   Lemmas:
  3315   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3316   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3317   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3318   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3319   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3320   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3321   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3322   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3323   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3324   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3325   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3326   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3327   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3328 
  3329 * Sledgehammer:
  3330   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3331     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3332     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3333     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3334     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3335     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3336     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3338   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3339     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3340   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3341     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3342     is still experimental.)
  3343   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3344     full-typed mode.
  3345   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3346 
  3347 * Nitpick:
  3348   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3349   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3350   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3351     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3352   - Added support for quotient types.
  3353   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3354     constructs.
  3355   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3356     "termination" proofs).
  3357   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3358   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3359   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3360   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3361     record getters.
  3362   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3363   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3364   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3365   - Added "atoms" option.
  3366   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3367     problems.
  3368   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3369     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3370     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3371   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3372     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3373   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3374 
  3375 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3376   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3377   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3378   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3379   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3380   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3381   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3382   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3383   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3384   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 
  3387 *** HOLCF ***
  3388 
  3389 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3390 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3391 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3394 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3395 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3396 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397 
  3398 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3399 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3400 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3401 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3402 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3405 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3406 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3409 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3412   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3413 
  3414 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3415 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3418   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3419   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3420   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3421   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3422 
  3423 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3424 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3427   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3428   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3429 
  3430 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3431 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3435 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3440 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 
  3443 *** ML ***
  3444 
  3445 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3446 
  3447     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3448     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3449 
  3450     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3451     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3452     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3453     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3454 
  3455     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3456     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3457     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3458 
  3459 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3460 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3461 
  3462 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3463 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3464 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3465 
  3466 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3467 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3468 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3469 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3470 
  3471 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3472 the context or even global references.
  3473 
  3474 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3475 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3476 
  3477 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3478 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3479 
  3480   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3481   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3482   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3483   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3484   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3485   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3486   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3487   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3488   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3489   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3490 
  3491 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3492 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3493 
  3494 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3495 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3496 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3497 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3498 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3499 
  3500 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3501 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3502 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3503 Theory_Data version.
  3504 
  3505 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3506 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3507 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3508 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3509 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3510 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3511 explicitly in rare situations.
  3512 
  3513 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3514 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3518 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3521 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3522 quite rare).
  3523 
  3524 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3525 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3528 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3529 terms.
  3530 
  3531 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3532 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3533 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3534 
  3535 
  3536 *** System ***
  3537 
  3538 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3539 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3540 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3541 
  3542 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3543 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3544 respectively.
  3545 
  3546 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3547 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3548 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3549 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3550 
  3551   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3552 
  3553 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3554 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3555 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3556 component.
  3557 
  3558 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3559 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3560 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3561 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3562 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3563 the user for manual installation.
  3564 
  3565 
  3566 
  3567 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3568 -------------------------------------
  3569 
  3570 *** General ***
  3571 
  3572 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3573 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3574 
  3575 
  3576 *** Pure ***
  3577 
  3578 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3579 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3580 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3581 
  3582 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3583 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3584 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3585 
  3586 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3587 interpretation.
  3588 
  3589 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3590 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591 
  3592 
  3593 *** Document preparation ***
  3594 
  3595 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3596 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3597 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3598 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3599 
  3600 
  3601 *** HOL ***
  3602 
  3603 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3604 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3605 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3606 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3607 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3608 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3609 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3610 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3611 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3612 
  3613 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3614 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3615 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3616 
  3617 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3618 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3619 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3620 
  3621 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3622 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3623 
  3624 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3625 
  3626 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3627 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3628 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3629 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3630 
  3631 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3632 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3633 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3634 "mirabelle" utility.
  3635 
  3636 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3637 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3638 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3639 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3640 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3641 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3642 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3643 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3644 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3645 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3646 
  3647 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3648 procedure only.
  3649 
  3650 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3651 
  3652 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3653 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3654 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3655 that fail later.
  3656 
  3657 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3658 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3659 
  3660 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3661 the same method as the approximation method.
  3662 
  3663 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3664 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3665 series expansion.
  3666 
  3667 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3668 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3669 
  3670 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3671 reals.
  3672 
  3673 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3674 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3675 
  3676 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3677 fixpoint theorem.
  3678 
  3679 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3680   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3681     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3682   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3683     accordingly
  3684   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3685     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3686   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3687     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3688 
  3689 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3690 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3691 lattice.
  3692 
  3693 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3694 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3695 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3696 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3697 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3698 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3702   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3703     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3704   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3705     le_inf_iff
  3706   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3707     sup_aci)
  3708   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3709   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3710   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3711     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3712     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3713     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3714     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3715     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3716     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3717     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3718     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3719     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3720     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3721   - authentic syntax for
  3722     Set.Pow
  3723     Set.image
  3724   - mere abbreviations:
  3725     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3726     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3727     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3728     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3729     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3730     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3731     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3732     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3733   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3734 
  3735 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3736 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3737 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3738 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3739 
  3740 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3741 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3742 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3745 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3748 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3749 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3750 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3753 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3754 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3755 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3756 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3757 
  3758 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3759 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3763 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3766 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3767 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3768 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3769 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3770 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3771 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3775     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3776     code_post       replaces    code post
  3777     etc.
  3778   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Renamed methods:
  3781     sizechange -> size_change
  3782     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3783   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3786 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3787 
  3788 * Renamed theorems:
  3789     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3790     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3791     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3792     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3793     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3794   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 
  3803 *** HOLCF ***
  3804 
  3805 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3806 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3807 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3808 
  3809 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3810 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3811 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3812 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3813 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3814 
  3815 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3816 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3817 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3818 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3819 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3820 
  3821 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3822 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3823 constructor are pre-configured.
  3824 
  3825 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3826 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3827 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3828 
  3829 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3830 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3831 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3832 as well.)
  3833 
  3834 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3835 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3836 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3837 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3838 examples.
  3839 
  3840 
  3841 *** ML ***
  3842 
  3843 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3844 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3845 
  3846 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3847 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3848 position, logical grouping etc.
  3849 
  3850 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3851 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3852 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3853 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3854 
  3855 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3856 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3857 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3858 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3859 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3860 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3861 
  3862 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3863 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3864 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3865 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3866 experiments with references.
  3867 
  3868 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3869 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3870 
  3871 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3872 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3873 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3874 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3875 
  3876 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3877 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3878 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3879 
  3880 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3881 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3882 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3887 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3890 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3891 
  3892 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3893 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3894 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3895 
  3896 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3897 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3898 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3901 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3902 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3906 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3907 instead of global theory.
  3908 
  3909 
  3910 *** System ***
  3911 
  3912 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3913 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3914 usedir option -q.
  3915 
  3916 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3917 also the system manual.
  3918 
  3919 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3920 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3921 
  3922 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3923 this is always enabled.
  3924 
  3925 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3926 
  3927 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3928 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3929 currently supported on Linux only.
  3930 
  3931 
  3932 
  3933 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3934 --------------------------------
  3935 
  3936 *** General ***
  3937 
  3938 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3939 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3940 
  3941   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3942     "isatool."
  3943 
  3944   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3945     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3946 
  3947   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3948     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3949 
  3950 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3951 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3952 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3953 
  3954 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3955 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3956 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3957 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3958 via "isabelle emacs".
  3959 
  3960 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3961 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3962 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3963 
  3964 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3965 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3966 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3967 
  3968 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3969 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3970 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3971 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3972 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3973 
  3974 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3975 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3976 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3977 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3978 
  3979 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3980 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3981 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3982 
  3983 
  3984 *** Pure ***
  3985 
  3986 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3987 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3988 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3989 
  3990 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3991 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3992 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3993 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3994 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3995 
  3996 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3997 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3998 useful in locale declarations.
  3999 
  4000 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4001 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4002 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4003 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4004 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4005 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4006 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4007 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4008 no longer generated.
  4009 
  4010 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4011 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4012 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4013 
  4014 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4015 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4016 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4017 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4018 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4019 
  4020 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4022 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4023 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4024 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4025 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4026 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4027 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4028 
  4029 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4030 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4031 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4032 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4033 
  4034 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4037 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4038 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4039 
  4040 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4041 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4044 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4045 in HOL, write
  4046 
  4047     class foo = ...
  4048 
  4049 instead of
  4050 
  4051     class foo = type + ...
  4052 
  4053 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4054 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4057 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4058 
  4059 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4060 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4061 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4062 
  4063 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4064 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4065 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4066 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4067 directly in regular applications.
  4068 
  4069 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4070 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4071 
  4072 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4073 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4074 
  4075 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4076 theory context.
  4077 
  4078 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4079 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4082 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4083 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4084 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4085 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4086 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4087 
  4088   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4089 
  4090 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4091 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4092 normalization.
  4093 
  4094 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4095 addressing etc.
  4096 
  4097 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4098 
  4099   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4100   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4101 
  4102 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4103 
  4104   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4105      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4106      parts of the code generator framework).
  4107 
  4108   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4109      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4110      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4111 
  4112 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4115 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4118 patterns, e.g.
  4119 
  4120     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4121 
  4122 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4123 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4124 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4125 hyphen:
  4126 
  4127     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4128 
  4129 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4130 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4131 
  4132 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4133 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4134 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4135 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4136 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4137 higher-order unification.
  4138 
  4139 
  4140 *** Document preparation ***
  4141 
  4142 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4143 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4144 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4145 
  4146 
  4147 *** HOL ***
  4148 
  4149 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4150 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4151 
  4152 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4153 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4154 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4155 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4156 Main, as before.
  4157 
  4158 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4159 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4160 
  4161 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4162 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4163 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4164 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4165 
  4166 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4167 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4168 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4169 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4170 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4171 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4172 
  4173 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4174 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4175 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4176 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4177 
  4178 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4179 menu.
  4180 
  4181 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4182 (contains the empty clause).
  4183 
  4184 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4185 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4186 
  4187 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4188 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4189 
  4190 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4191 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4192 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4195 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4196 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4197 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4198 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4199 
  4200 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4201 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4202 
  4203 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4204 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4205 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4206 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4207 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4208 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4209 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4210 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4211 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4212 
  4213 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4214 
  4215 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4216 
  4217 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4218 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4221 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4222 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4223 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4224 
  4225 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4226 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4227 
  4228     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4229     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4230     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4231     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4232     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4233     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4234     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4235     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4236 
  4237 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4238 theory Set.
  4239 
  4240 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4241 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4242 
  4243 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4244 
  4245 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4246 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4247 
  4248 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4249 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4250 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4251 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4252 allowed. For examples see
  4253 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4254 
  4255 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4256 
  4257 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4259 
  4260 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4261 structure:
  4262 
  4263     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4264     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4265     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4266     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4267     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4268     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4269     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4270     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4271     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4272     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4273     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4274     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4275     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4276     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4277     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4278     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4279     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4280     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4281     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4282     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4283     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4284     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4285     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4286     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4287     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4288     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4289     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4290     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4291     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4292     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4293     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4294     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4295     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4296 
  4297     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4298     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4299     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4300     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4301     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4302     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4303     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4304     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4305     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4306     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4307 
  4308     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4309     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4310     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4311     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4312     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4313     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4314 
  4315 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4316 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4317 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4318 
  4319 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4320 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4321 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4322 
  4323 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4324 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4325 
  4326 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4327 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4328 
  4329 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4330 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4331 proofs, e.g.
  4332 
  4333   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4334 
  4335 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4336 
  4337 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4338 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4339 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4340 
  4341 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4342 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4346 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4347 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4349 
  4350 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4351 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4352 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4353 preorder_class.*.
  4354 
  4355 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4356 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4357 
  4358 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4359 
  4360   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4361 
  4362 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4363 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4364 fold_image.
  4365 
  4366 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4367 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4368 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4369 the former will disappear at some point.
  4370 
  4371 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4372 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4373 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4374 
  4375 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4376 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4377 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4378 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4379 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4380 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4381 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4382 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4383 
  4384 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4385 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4386 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4387 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4388 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4389 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4390 
  4391     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4392     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4393     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4394     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4395     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4396     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4397     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4398 
  4399 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4400 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4401 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4402 
  4403 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4404 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4405 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4406 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4407 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4408 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4409 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4410 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4411 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4412 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4413 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4414 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4415 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4416 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4417 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4418 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4419 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4420 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4421 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4422 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4423 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4424 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4425 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4426 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4427 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4428 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4429 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4430 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4431 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4432 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4433 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4434 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4435 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4436 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4437 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4438 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4439 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4440 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4441 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4442 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4443 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4444 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4445 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4446 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4447 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4448 
  4449 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4452 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4453 
  4454 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4455 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4456 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4457 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4458 
  4459 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4460 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4461 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4462 theory RealVector.
  4463 
  4464 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4465 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4466 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4467 and inner products are included.
  4468 
  4469 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4470 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4471 supported.
  4472 
  4473 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4474 first diagonalization argument.
  4475 
  4476 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4477 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4478 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4479 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4480 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4481 
  4482     hide (open) const gcd
  4483     abbreviation gcd where
  4484       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4485     notation (output)
  4486       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4487 
  4488 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4489 
  4490 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4491 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4492 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4493 
  4494 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4495 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4496 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4497 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4498 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4499 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4500 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4501 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4502 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4503 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4504 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4505 cases.
  4506 
  4507 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4508 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4509 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4510 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4511 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4512 
  4513     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4514     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4515     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4516     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4517     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4518 
  4519 
  4520 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4521 
  4522 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4523 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4524 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4525 
  4526 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4527 
  4528 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4529 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4530 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4531 
  4532 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4533 
  4534 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4535 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4536 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4537 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4538 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4539 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4540 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4541 
  4542 
  4543 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4544 
  4545 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4546 
  4547 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4548 theory targets.
  4549 
  4550 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4551 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4552 'inductive' etc.
  4553 
  4554 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4555 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4556 
  4557 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4558 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4559 
  4560 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4561 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4562 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4563 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4564 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4565 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4566 the algorithm W:
  4567 
  4568  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4569  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4570          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4571 
  4572 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4573 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4574 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4575 
  4576 
  4577 *** HOLCF ***
  4578 
  4579 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4580 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4581 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4582 
  4583 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4584 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4585 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4586 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4587 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4590 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4591 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4592 
  4593 
  4594 *** ZF ***
  4595 
  4596 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4597 
  4598 
  4599 *** ML ***
  4600 
  4601 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4602 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4603 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4604 5.2.1!
  4605 
  4606 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4607 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4608 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4609 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4610 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4611 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4612 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4613 
  4614 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4615 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4616 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4617 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4618 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4619 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4620 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4621 
  4622 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4623 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4624 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4625 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4626 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4627 
  4628 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4629 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4630 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4631 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4632 Method.add_method.
  4633 
  4634 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4635 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4636 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4637 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4638 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4639 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4640 
  4641 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4642 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4643 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4644 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4645 examples.
  4646 
  4647 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4648 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4649 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4650 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4651 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4652 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4653 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4654 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4655 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4656 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4657 
  4658 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4659 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4660 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4661 
  4662 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4663 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4664 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4665 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4666 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4667 resort for legacy applications.
  4668 
  4669 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4670 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4671 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4672 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4673 explicit runtime argument.
  4674 
  4675 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4676 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4677 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4678 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4679 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4682 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4683 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4684 theory state.
  4685 
  4686 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4687 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4688 
  4689   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4690   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4691   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4692   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4693   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4694   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4695   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4696   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4697   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4698   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4699 
  4700 
  4701 *** System ***
  4702 
  4703 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4704 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4705 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4706 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4707 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4708 
  4709 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4710 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4711 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4712 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4713 
  4714 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4715 
  4716 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4717 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4718 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4719 prover operations.
  4720 
  4721 
  4722 
  4723 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4724 -------------------------------
  4725 
  4726 *** General ***
  4727 
  4728 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4729 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4730 
  4731 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4732 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4733 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4734 provides a proper context already.
  4735 
  4736 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4737 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4738 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4739 
  4740 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4741 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4742 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4743 swap theory imports.
  4744 
  4745 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4746 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4747 
  4748 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4749 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4750 white space without escapes.
  4751 
  4752 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4753 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4754 "foo_bar".
  4755 
  4756 
  4757 *** Pure ***
  4758 
  4759 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4760 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4761 
  4762 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4763 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4764 
  4765 (1) unused_thms
  4766      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4767 
  4768 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4769      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4770      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4771 
  4772 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4773      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4774      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4775      their ancestors.
  4776 
  4777 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4778 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4779 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4780 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4781 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4782 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4783 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4784 
  4785 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4786 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4787 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4788 
  4789 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4790 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4791 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4792 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4793 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4794 
  4795 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4796 
  4797 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4798 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4799 update of theories within ML code.
  4800 
  4801 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4802 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4803 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4804 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4805 
  4806 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4807 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4808 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4810 
  4811 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4812 
  4813 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4814 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4815 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4816 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4817 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4818 
  4819 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4820 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4821 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4822 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4823 situations.
  4824 
  4825 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4826 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4827 proof text.
  4828 
  4829 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4830 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4831 
  4832 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4833 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4834 predicates.
  4835 
  4836 
  4837 *** Document preparation ***
  4838 
  4839 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4840 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4841 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4842 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4843 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4844 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4845 
  4846 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4847 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4848 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4849 
  4850 
  4851 *** HOL ***
  4852 
  4853 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4854 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4855 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4856 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4857 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4858 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4859 
  4860 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4861 with multithreading.
  4862 
  4863 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4864 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4865 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4866 
  4867 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4868 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4869 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4870 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4873 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4874 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4875 and makes them available separately.  See
  4876 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4877 
  4878 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4879 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4880 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4881 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4882 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4883 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4884 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4885 the declared rules.
  4886 
  4887 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4888 
  4889   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4890 
  4891 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4892 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4893 
  4894 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4895 
  4896   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4897 
  4898   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4899     definitions on => and bool.
  4900 
  4901   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4902     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4903     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4904 
  4905       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4906       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4907       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4908       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4909       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4910       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4911       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4912       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4913 
  4914   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4915     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4916     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4917 
  4918   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4919     The proof pattern
  4920 
  4921       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4922       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4923 
  4924     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4925     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4926 
  4927       have "EX S. P S"
  4928       proof
  4929         show "P S" <...>
  4930       qed
  4931 
  4932   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4933     The proof pattern
  4934 
  4935       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4936       also have "S = T" <...>
  4937       finally have "P T" .
  4938 
  4939     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4940     must be replaced by something like
  4941 
  4942       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4943       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4944       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4945 
  4946   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4947     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4948 
  4949       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4950 
  4951     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4952     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4953     type of the form
  4954 
  4955       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4956 
  4957     rather than
  4958 
  4959       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4960 
  4961 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4962 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4963 
  4964 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4967 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4969 
  4970 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4971 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4974 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4975 
  4976 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4977 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4978 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4979 
  4980 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4981 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4982 
  4983   less_trans
  4984   less_linear
  4985   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4986   le_less_trans
  4987   less_le_trans
  4988   less_not_sym
  4989   less_asym
  4990 
  4991 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4992 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4993 and different variable names.
  4994 
  4995 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4996 
  4997 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4998 finite maps.
  4999 
  5000 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5001 
  5002 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5003 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5004 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5005 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5006 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5007 accordingly.
  5008 
  5009 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5010 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5011 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5012 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5013 
  5014 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5015 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5016 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5017 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5018 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5020 
  5021 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5022 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5025 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5026 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5027 
  5028 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5030 
  5031 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5032 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5033 
  5034 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5035 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5036 
  5037 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5038 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5039 
  5040 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5041 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5043 
  5044 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5045 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5046 
  5047 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5048 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5049 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5050 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5051 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5052 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5053 
  5054 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5055 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5056 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5057 
  5058 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5059 
  5060 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5061 
  5062 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5063 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5064 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5065 
  5066 
  5067 *** ZF ***
  5068 
  5069 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5070 same session:
  5071 
  5072   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5073   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5074   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5075   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5076   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5077   List      -> List_ZF
  5078   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5079 
  5080 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5081 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5082 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5083 
  5084 
  5085 *** ML ***
  5086 
  5087 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5088 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5089 
  5090 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5091 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5092 
  5093 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5094 
  5095 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5096 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5097 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5098 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5099 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5100 
  5101 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5102 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5103 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5104 
  5105 
  5106 *** System ***
  5107 
  5108 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5109 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5110 
  5111 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5112 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5113 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5114 
  5115 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5116 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5117 
  5118 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5119 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5120 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5121 
  5122 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5123 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5124 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5125 
  5126 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5127 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5128 
  5129 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5130 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5131 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5132 script.
  5133 
  5134 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5135 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5136 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5137 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5138 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5139 
  5140 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5141 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5142 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5143 
  5144 
  5145 
  5146 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5147 -----------------------------------
  5148 
  5149 *** General ***
  5150 
  5151 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5152 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5153 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5154 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5155 
  5156 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5157 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5158 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5159 
  5160 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5161 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5162 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5163 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5164 
  5165 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5166 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5167 quotes.
  5168 
  5169 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5170 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5171 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5172 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5173 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5174 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5175 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5176 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5177 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5178 
  5179 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5180 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5181 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5182 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5183 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5184 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5185 
  5186 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5187 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5188 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5189 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5190 
  5191 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5192 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5193 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5194 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5195 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5196 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5197 
  5198 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5199 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5200 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5201 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5202 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5203 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5204 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5205 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5206 
  5207 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5208 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5209 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5210 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5211 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5212 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5213 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5214 
  5215 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5216 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5217 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5218 
  5219 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5220 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5221 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5222 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5223 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5224 limit is imposed.
  5225 
  5226 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5227 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5228 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5229 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5230 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5231 and scalability.
  5232 
  5233 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5234 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5235 
  5236 
  5237 *** Document preparation ***
  5238 
  5239 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5240 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5241 current context.
  5242 
  5243 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5244 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5245 
  5246 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5247 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5248 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5249 
  5250 
  5251 *** Pure ***
  5252 
  5253 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5254 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5255 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5256 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5257 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5258 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5259 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5260 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5261 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5262 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5263 
  5264 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5265 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5266 sketch:
  5267 
  5268     internal compilation:
  5269         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5270     writing SML code to a file:
  5271         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5272     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5273         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5274     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5275         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5276 
  5277     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5278         method ``eval''
  5279 
  5280 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5281 
  5282 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5283 
  5284     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5285     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5286     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5287     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5288 
  5289 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5290 
  5291     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5292       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5293 
  5294     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5295       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5296 
  5297     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5298       {(target)}+
  5299         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5300 
  5301     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5302       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5303         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5304 
  5305 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5306 
  5307 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5308 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5309 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5310 codegen".
  5311 
  5312 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5313 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5314 annotations).
  5315 
  5316 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5317 syntax.
  5318 
  5319 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5320 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5321 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5322 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5323 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5324 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5325 
  5326 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5327 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5328 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5329 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5330 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5331 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5332 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5333 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5334 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5335 equations, see section "definitions".
  5336 
  5337 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5338 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5339 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5340 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5341 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5342 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5343 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5344 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5345 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5346 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5347 
  5348 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5349 configuration options:
  5350 
  5351   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5352   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5353   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5354   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5355   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5356   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5357   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5358   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5359   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5360 
  5361 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5362 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5363 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5364 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5365 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5366 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5367 order.
  5368 
  5369 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5370 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5371 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5372 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5373 context encountered later on.
  5374 
  5375 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5376 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5377 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5378 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5379 
  5380 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5381 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5382 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5383 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5384 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5385 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5386 
  5387 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5388 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5389 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5390 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5391 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5392 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5393 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5394 more permissive.
  5395 
  5396 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5397 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5398 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5399 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5400 maintainability of proof texts.
  5401 
  5402 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5403 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5404 
  5405   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5406   then guess x and y by clarify
  5407 
  5408 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5409 proof tools being involved here.
  5410 
  5411 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5412 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5413 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5414 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5415 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5416 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5417 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5418 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5419 
  5420 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5421 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5422 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5423 
  5424   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5425   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5426   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5427   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5428 
  5429 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5430 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5431 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5432 
  5433 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5434 both named and unnamed ones.
  5435 
  5436 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5437 
  5438   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5439 
  5440 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5441 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5442 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5443 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5444 
  5445 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5446 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5447 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5448 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5449 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5450 
  5451 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5452 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5453 
  5454 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5455 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5456 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5457 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5458 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5459 originally first one.
  5460 
  5461 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5462 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5463 expected.
  5464 
  5465 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5466 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5467 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5468 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5469 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5470 
  5471   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5472     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5473     obtains x where "P x"
  5474 
  5475   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5476     assumes "A & B"
  5477     obtains A and B
  5478 
  5479   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5480     assumes "A | B"
  5481     obtains
  5482       A
  5483     | B
  5484 
  5485 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5486 explicitly:
  5487 
  5488   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5489     obtains "~ thesis"
  5490 
  5491   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5492     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5493 
  5494 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5495 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5496 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5497 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5498 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5499 case_names).
  5500 
  5501 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5502 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5503 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5504 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5505 
  5506 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5507 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5508 top-level lemma.
  5509 
  5510 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5511 introduction rule (default "that").
  5512 
  5513 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5514 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5515 to occur.
  5516 
  5517 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5518 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5519 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5520 representations independently of name spaces.
  5521 
  5522 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5523 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5524 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525 
  5526 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5527 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5528 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5529 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5530 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5531 current context.
  5532 
  5533 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5534 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5535 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5536 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5537 
  5538   axiomatization
  5539     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5540     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5541 
  5542   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5543   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5544 
  5545   abbreviation
  5546     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5547     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5548 
  5549 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5550 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5551 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5552 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5553 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5554 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5555 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5556 
  5557 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5558 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5559 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5560 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5561 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5562 
  5563 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5564 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5565 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5566 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5567 
  5568 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5569 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5570 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5571 
  5572   definition "K x _ = x"
  5573 
  5574   inductive conj for A B
  5575   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5576 
  5577 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5578 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5579 abbreviations on output.
  5580 
  5581 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5582 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5583 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5584 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5585 
  5586 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5587 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5588 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5589 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5590 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5591 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5592 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5593 
  5594 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5595 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5596 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5597 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5598 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5599 
  5600 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5601 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5602 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5603 
  5604 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5605 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5606 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5607 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5608 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5609 
  5610   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5611     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5612 
  5613 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5614 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5615 partial_order.
  5616 
  5617 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5618 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5619 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5620 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5621 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5622 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5623 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5624 examples.
  5625 
  5626 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5627 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5628 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5629 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5630 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5631 
  5632 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5633 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5634 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5635 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5636 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5637 
  5638   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5639   (induct set: foo bar)
  5640   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5641   (induct type: foo bar)
  5642 
  5643 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5644 new format.
  5645 
  5646 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5647 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5648 
  5649 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5650 considered a legacy feature.
  5651 
  5652 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5653 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5654 
  5655 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5656 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5657 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5658 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5659   
  5660 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5661 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5662 manipulating the claset.
  5663 
  5664 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5665 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5666 least one premise.
  5667 
  5668 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5669 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5670 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5671 rule steps.
  5672 
  5673 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5674 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5675 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5676 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5677 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5678 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5679 
  5680 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5681 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5682 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5683 
  5684 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5685 the graph browser tool.
  5686 
  5687 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5688 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5689 
  5690 
  5691 *** HOL ***
  5692 
  5693 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5694 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5695 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5696 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5697 multi-threading.
  5698   
  5699 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5700 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5701 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5702 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5703 work with multi-threading.
  5704 
  5705 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5706 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5707 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5708 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5709 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5710 
  5711 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5712 
  5713 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5714 equality.
  5715 
  5716 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5717 the new 'class' package:
  5718 
  5719     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5720     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5721     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5722     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5723     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5724     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5725     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5726     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5727     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5728     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5729     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5730     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5731     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5732     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5733     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5734     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5735     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5736     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5737     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5738     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5739 
  5740 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5741 
  5742 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5743 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5744 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5745 names.
  5746 
  5747 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5748 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5749 
  5750 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5751 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5752 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5753 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5754 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5755 
  5756 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5757 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5758 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5759 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5760 
  5761 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5762 
  5763 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5764 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5765 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5766 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5768 
  5769 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5770 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5771 
  5772 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5773 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5774 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5775 
  5776 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5777 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5778 
  5779 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5780 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5781 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5782 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5783 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5784 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5785 in the current context.
  5786 
  5787 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5788 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5790 
  5791 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5792 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5793 
  5794 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5795 
  5796     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5797     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5798 
  5799     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5800       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5801     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5802     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5803 
  5804     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5805     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5806 
  5807   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5808 
  5809     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5810     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5811     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5812     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5813     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5814     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5815     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5816     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5817     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5818     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5819     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5820     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5821     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5822     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5823     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5824     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5825     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5826     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5827     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5828     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5829     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5830     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5831     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5832     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5833     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5834     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5835     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5836     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5837     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5838     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5839     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5840     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5841     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5842     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5843     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5844 
  5845     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5846     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5847     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5848     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5849     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5850     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5851     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5852     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5853     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5854     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5855     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5856     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5857     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5858     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5859     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5860     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5861     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5862 
  5863     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5864     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5865     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5866     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5867     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5868     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5869     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5870     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5871     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5872     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5873     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5874     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5875     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5876     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5877     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5878     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5879     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5880     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5881     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5882     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5883     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5884     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5885     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5886     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5887     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5888     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5889     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5890     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5891 
  5892     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5893     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5894     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5895     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5896     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5897     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5898 
  5899     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5900     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5901     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5902     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5903 
  5904     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5905     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5906 
  5907     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5908     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5909 
  5910 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5911 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5912 
  5913 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5914 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5915 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5916 "*.size".
  5917 
  5918 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5920 
  5921 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5922 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5923 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5924 
  5925 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5928 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5929 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5930 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5931 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5932 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5933 numerals on all operations.
  5934 
  5935 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5936 
  5937 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5938 
  5939 * Code generator library theories:
  5940   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5941     languages.
  5942   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5943     languages.
  5944   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5945     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5946   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5947   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5948     denominator).
  5949   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5950     representable by rational numbers.
  5951   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5952     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5953     includes Code_Integer.
  5954   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5955     target-language built-in integers.
  5956   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5957     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5958 
  5959 * New package for inductive predicates
  5960 
  5961   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5962 
  5963     inductive
  5964       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5965       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5966     where
  5967       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5968     | ...
  5969 
  5970   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5971 
  5972     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5973 
  5974     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5975     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5976 
  5977     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5978     intros
  5979       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5980       ...
  5981 
  5982   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5983   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5984 
  5985     inductive_set
  5986       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5987       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5988     where
  5989       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5990     | ...
  5991 
  5992   or
  5993 
  5994     inductive_set
  5995       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5996       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5997       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5998     where
  5999       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6000     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6001     | ...
  6002 
  6003   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6004 
  6005   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6006   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6007 
  6008   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6009 
  6010   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6011     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6012     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6013     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6014     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6015 
  6016   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6017     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6018     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6019     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6020     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6021     statements of the form
  6022 
  6023       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6024 
  6025     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6026     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6027 
  6028       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6029 
  6030   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6031 
  6032       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6033         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6034         ==> ... ==> P
  6035 
  6036     for predicates and
  6037 
  6038       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6039         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6040         ==> ... ==> P
  6041 
  6042     for sets rather than
  6043 
  6044       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6045         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6046         ==> ... ==> P
  6047 
  6048     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6049     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6050     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6051 
  6052   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6053     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6054     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6055 
  6056 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6057 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6058 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6059 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6060 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6061 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6062 
  6063 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6064 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6065 
  6066 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6067 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6068 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6069 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6070 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6071 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6072 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6073 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6074 variable.
  6075 
  6076 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6077 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6078 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6079 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6080   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6081   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6082 
  6083 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6084 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6085 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6086 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6087 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6088 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6089 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6090 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6091 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6092 
  6093 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6094 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6095 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6096 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6097 rat, etc.
  6098 
  6099 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6100 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6101 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6102 
  6103 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6104 
  6105 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6106 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6107 
  6108 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6109 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6110 
  6111 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6112 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6113 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6114 
  6115 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6116 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6118 
  6119 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6120 
  6121 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6122 
  6123 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6124 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6125 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6126 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6127 
  6128 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6129 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6130 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6131 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6132 
  6133 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6134 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6135 algebraic operations.
  6136 
  6137 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6139 
  6140 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6142 
  6143 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6144 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6145 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6147 adapted.
  6148  
  6149 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6150 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6151 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6152 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6153 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6154 
  6155 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6156 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6157 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6158 
  6159 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6160 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6161 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6162 
  6163 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6164 
  6165 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6166 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6167 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6168   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6169       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6170   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6171   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6172   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6173 
  6174 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6175 
  6176 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6177 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6178 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6179 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6180 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6181 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6182 
  6183 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6184 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6185 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6186 
  6187 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6188 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6189 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6191 
  6192 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6193 
  6194 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6195 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6196 
  6197 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6198 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6199 
  6200 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6201 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6202 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6203 
  6204 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6205 True/False.
  6206 
  6207 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6208 
  6209 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6210 
  6211 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6212 ``rule'' method.
  6213 
  6214 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6215 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6216 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6217 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6218 
  6219 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6220 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6221 
  6222 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6223 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6224 
  6225 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6226 Library.
  6227 
  6228 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6229 
  6230 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6231 as greatest fixed-point.
  6232 
  6233 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6234 association lists.
  6235 
  6236 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6237 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6238 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6239 
  6240 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6241 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6242 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6243 Co