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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Fri May 13 22:55:00 2011 +0200 (2011-05-13) | |

changeset 42793 | 88bee9f6eec7 |

parent 42740 | 31334a7b109d |

child 42809 | 5b45125b15ba |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

proper Proof.context for classical tactics;

reduced claset to snapshot of classical context;

discontinued clasimpset;

reduced claset to snapshot of classical context;

discontinued clasimpset;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

10 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

11 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

13 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

14 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

15 usedir option -Q.

17 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

18 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

20 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

21 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

23 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

24 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

25 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) is has been

26 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

28 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

29 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

31 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

32 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

33 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

34 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

35 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

37 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

38 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

40 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

41 configuration options, with more conventional names:

43 long_names ~> names_long

44 short_names ~> names_short

45 unique_names ~> names_unique

47 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

49 declare [[names_unique = false]]

51 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

52 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

53 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

55 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in

56 syntax diagrams.

59 *** HOL ***

61 * Nitpick:

62 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

63 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

64 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

65 INCOMPATIBILITY.

67 * Sledgehammer:

68 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers

69 INCOMPATIBILITY.

70 - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed

71 TPTP problems (TFF).

72 - Added "type_sys", "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

74 * "try":

75 - Added "simp:", "intro:", and "elim:" options.

77 * Quickcheck:

78 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

79 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

80 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

81 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)

83 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".

84 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use partial_function instead.

86 * HOL-Probability:

87 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

88 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

89 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended reals.

90 INCOMPATIBILITY.

93 *** Document preparation ***

95 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

96 isar-ref manual.

98 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

99 like this:

101 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

102 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

104 * New term style "isub" as ad-hoc conversion of variables x1, y23 into

105 subscripted form x\<^isub>1, y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

107 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

108 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

111 *** ML ***

113 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

114 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

116 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

117 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

119 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

120 (including quotes etc.).

122 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

123 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

124 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

125 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

126 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

127 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

128 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

129 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

130 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

132 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

133 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

134 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

135 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

136 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

138 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

139 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

141 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

142 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

144 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

145 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

147 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

148 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

149 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

150 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

151 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

152 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

153 proper Proof.context.

157 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

158 ----------------------------------

160 *** General ***

162 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

163 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

164 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

165 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

166 like this:

168 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

170 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

172 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

173 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

174 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

175 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

176 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

177 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

179 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

180 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

181 the following package declarations:

183 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

184 \usepackage{textcomp}

186 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

187 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

188 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

189 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

190 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

191 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

192 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

194 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

195 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

196 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

197 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

198 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

200 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

201 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

202 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

203 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

205 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

206 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

207 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

208 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

210 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

212 eta_contract eta_contract

213 show_brackets show_brackets

214 show_sorts show_sorts

215 show_types show_types

216 show_question_marks show_question_marks

217 show_consts show_consts

218 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

220 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

221 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

222 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

224 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

225 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

227 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

229 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

230 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

231 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

232 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

233 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

235 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

236 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

237 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

238 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

240 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

241 INCOMPATIBILITY.

243 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

244 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

246 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

247 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

248 float_token.

250 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

251 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

252 INCOMPATIBILITY.

254 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

255 DejaVu Sans.

257 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

260 *** Pure ***

262 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

263 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

264 time.

266 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

267 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

269 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

270 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

272 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

273 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

274 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

275 command already provided this functionality.

277 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

278 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

279 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

280 without interpretations.

282 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

283 in addition to interpretations in theories.

285 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

286 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

287 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

288 feature is still required for historical reasons.

290 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

291 'definition' instead.

293 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

294 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

295 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

296 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

298 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

299 constructors.

301 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

302 the local file system.

305 *** HOL ***

307 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

308 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

309 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

310 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

312 declare [[coercion f]]

314 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

315 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

317 declare [[coercion_map map]]

319 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

320 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

321 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

322 other theories like this:

324 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

326 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

327 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

328 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

329 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

330 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

331 for examples.

333 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

334 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

336 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

337 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

339 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

340 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

341 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

343 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

344 functorial structure of types.

346 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

347 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

349 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

350 languages.

352 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

353 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

354 INCOMPATIBILITY.

356 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

357 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

359 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

360 combinators any longer.

362 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

363 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

365 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

366 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

367 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

368 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

370 record 'a foo = ...

371 ...

372 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

374 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

375 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

376 INCOMPATIBILITY.

378 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

379 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

380 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

382 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

383 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

384 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

386 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

387 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

389 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

390 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

391 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

392 independently.

394 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

395 counter example search.

397 * Sledgehammer:

398 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

399 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

400 sledgehammer").

401 - Renamed commands:

402 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

403 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

404 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

405 INCOMPATIBILITY.

406 - Renamed options:

407 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

408 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

409 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

410 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

411 INCOMPATIBILITY.

413 * Nitpick:

414 - Renamed options:

415 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

416 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

417 INCOMPATIBILITY.

418 - Added support for partial quotient types.

419 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

420 - Added "whack" option.

421 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

422 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

423 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

424 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

425 higher cardinalities.

426 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

428 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

429 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

430 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

432 using [[metis_trace = true]]

434 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

435 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

437 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

438 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

439 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

440 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

441 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

442 "smt_solver".

444 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

445 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

447 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

448 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

449 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

450 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

452 * Changed SMT configuration options:

453 - Renamed:

454 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

455 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

456 INCOMPATIBILITY.

457 - Added:

458 smt_verbose

459 smt_random_seed

460 smt_datatypes

461 smt_infer_triggers

462 smt_monomorph_limit

463 cvc3_options

464 remote_cvc3_options

465 remote_z3_options

466 yices_options

468 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

469 header.

471 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

472 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

473 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

475 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

477 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

479 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

480 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

482 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

484 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

485 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

487 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

488 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

490 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

491 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

493 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

494 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

495 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

497 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

499 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

500 INCOMPATIBILITY.

502 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

503 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

505 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

506 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

507 for congruent(2)).

509 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

511 types

512 bool ~> HOL.bool

513 nat ~> Nat.nat

515 constants

516 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

517 True ~> HOL.True

518 False ~> HOL.False

519 op & ~> HOL.conj

520 op | ~> HOL.disj

521 op --> ~> HOL.implies

522 op = ~> HOL.eq

523 Not ~> HOL.Not

524 The ~> HOL.The

525 All ~> HOL.All

526 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

527 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

528 Let ~> HOL.Let

529 If ~> HOL.If

530 Ball ~> Set.Ball

531 Bex ~> Set.Bex

532 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

533 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

534 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

535 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

536 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

537 op : ~> Set.member

538 Collect ~> Set.Collect

540 INCOMPATIBILITY.

542 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

544 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

545 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

546 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

547 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

548 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

549 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

550 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

551 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

553 INCOMPATIBILITY.

555 * More stylized fact names:

557 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

558 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

559 set_ext ~> set_eqI

560 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

562 INCOMPATIBILITY.

564 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

566 constants

567 null ~> List.null

569 facts

570 mem_iff ~> member_def

571 null_empty ~> null_def

573 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

574 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

575 generation.

577 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

578 Haskell code.

580 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

581 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

582 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

584 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

585 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

587 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

588 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

590 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

591 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

592 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

594 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

595 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

597 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

598 INCOMPATIBILITY.

600 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

601 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

602 referred to by its qualified name.

604 enum ~> Enum.enum

605 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

606 product ~> Enum.product

608 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

609 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

610 INCOMPATIBILITY.

612 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

613 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

614 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

615 INCOMPATIBILITY.

617 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

618 sort_key.

620 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

621 INCOMPATIBILITY.

623 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

624 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

625 instead of finite cartesian products.

627 types

628 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

629 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

630 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

631 (depends on your needs)

633 constants

634 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

635 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

636 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

638 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

639 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

640 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

641 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

643 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

644 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

645 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

646 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

647 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

649 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

650 INCOMPATIBILITY.

652 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

653 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

654 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

657 *** HOL-Algebra ***

659 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

660 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

661 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

662 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

663 compatibility.

665 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

666 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

669 *** HOLCF ***

671 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

672 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

673 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

674 INCOMPATIBILITY.

676 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

677 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

678 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

680 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

681 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

682 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

684 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

685 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

686 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

688 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

689 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

690 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

691 domain definition now works:

693 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

695 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

696 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

697 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

698 domain package to work with these types. For example:

700 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

701 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

703 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

705 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

706 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

707 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

709 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

710 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

712 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

713 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

714 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

715 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

717 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

719 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

721 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

723 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

724 INCOMPATIBILITY.

726 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

727 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

728 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

730 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

731 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

732 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

734 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

735 still supported as an input translation.

737 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

739 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

740 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

741 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

742 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

743 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

744 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

745 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

747 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

748 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

750 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

751 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

752 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

753 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

754 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

755 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

757 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

758 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

760 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

762 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

763 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

764 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

765 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

767 INCOMPATIBILITY.

769 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

770 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

772 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

773 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

775 thelub_const ~> lub_const

776 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

777 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

778 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

779 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

780 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

781 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

782 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

783 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

784 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

785 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

786 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

787 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

788 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

789 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

790 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

791 UU_I ~> bottomI

792 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

793 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

794 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

796 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

798 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

799 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

800 refl_less ~> below_refl

801 trans_less ~> below_trans

802 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

803 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

804 box_less ~> box_below

805 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

806 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

807 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

808 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

809 adm_less ~> adm_below

810 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

811 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

812 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

813 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

814 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

815 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

816 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

817 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

818 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

819 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

820 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

821 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

822 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

823 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

824 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

825 injection_less ~> injection_below

826 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

827 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

828 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

829 up_less ~> up_below

830 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

831 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

832 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

833 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

834 spair_less ~> spair_below

835 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

836 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

837 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

838 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

839 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

840 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

841 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

842 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

845 *** FOL and ZF ***

847 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

848 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

851 *** ML ***

853 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

854 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

855 failed assertions is included in the error output.

857 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

858 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

859 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

861 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

862 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

863 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

865 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

866 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

868 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

869 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

871 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

872 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

874 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

875 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

877 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

878 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

879 almost all situations.

881 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

882 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

883 Isabelle/ML.

885 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

886 meaning.

888 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

889 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

890 rarely-used global-only stuff.

892 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

893 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

895 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

896 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

898 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

899 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

900 @{thms} for most purposes.

902 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

903 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

904 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

905 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

906 configuration options.

908 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

909 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

910 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

911 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

912 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

913 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

914 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

918 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

919 ---------------------------------

921 *** General ***

923 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

924 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

925 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

926 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

927 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

928 their full internal name.

930 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

931 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

932 Some hints on upgrading:

934 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

935 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

936 which are independent of this issue.

938 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

939 provides the following special forms:

941 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

942 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

943 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

945 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

946 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

947 extra variables".

949 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

950 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

951 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

952 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

953 "logic".

955 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

956 antiquotations:

958 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

959 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

960 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

961 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

963 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

964 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

965 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

966 antiquotations.

968 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

969 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

970 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

971 diagnose syntax problems.

973 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

975 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

976 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

977 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

978 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

980 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

981 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

982 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

983 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

985 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

986 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

987 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

988 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

989 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

991 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

992 discontinued (old legacy feature).

994 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

995 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

996 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

998 using [[trace_simp = true]]

1000 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

1001 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

1002 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

1004 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

1005 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

1006 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1008 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

1009 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

1012 *** Pure ***

1014 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

1015 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

1016 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

1017 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

1018 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

1019 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

1020 inspect proof terms.

1022 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

1023 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

1024 are added internally. For example:

1026 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

1028 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

1029 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1031 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1033 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1034 'class' instead.

1036 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

1037 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

1038 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1040 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

1041 invariants.

1043 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

1044 user space functionality any longer.

1046 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

1047 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

1048 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1050 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

1051 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

1053 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

1054 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

1055 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

1057 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

1058 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

1059 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

1061 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

1062 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1065 *** HOL ***

1067 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

1068 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

1069 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

1070 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

1071 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

1073 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

1074 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

1075 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

1076 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

1078 fun

1079 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

1080 where

1081 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

1083 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

1084 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

1086 quotient_definition

1087 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

1089 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

1090 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

1091 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

1092 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

1094 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

1095 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

1097 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

1098 separate HOL-SMT session.

1100 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

1101 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1103 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

1104 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

1105 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

1107 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

1108 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1110 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

1111 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1113 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

1114 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1116 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

1117 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1119 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

1120 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

1121 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1123 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

1124 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

1125 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

1126 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

1127 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

1128 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

1129 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

1130 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

1131 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

1132 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

1133 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

1134 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

1135 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

1136 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

1137 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

1138 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

1139 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

1140 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

1141 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

1142 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

1143 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

1144 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

1145 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

1146 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

1147 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

1148 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

1149 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

1150 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

1151 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

1152 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

1154 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

1155 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

1157 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

1158 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

1159 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

1161 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

1162 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

1164 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

1165 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1167 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

1169 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

1170 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1172 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

1173 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1175 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1177 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

1178 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

1180 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

1181 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

1182 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

1183 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1185 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

1186 - less_eq, less: Orderings

1187 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

1188 - inverse, divide: Rings

1189 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1191 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

1192 lattices):

1194 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

1195 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

1197 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

1199 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

1200 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

1201 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

1202 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

1203 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1204 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

1205 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

1206 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

1207 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

1208 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

1209 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

1210 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

1211 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

1213 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

1214 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

1215 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

1216 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

1217 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

1218 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

1219 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

1220 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

1221 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

1222 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

1223 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

1224 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

1225 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

1226 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

1227 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

1228 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

1229 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

1230 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

1232 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

1233 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

1235 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

1236 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

1237 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

1238 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

1239 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

1241 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1243 * Refined field classes:

1244 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

1245 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

1246 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

1247 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

1248 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1250 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

1251 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

1252 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

1253 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

1254 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

1255 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

1256 equal_neg_zero.

1257 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1259 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

1260 sets to lattices:

1262 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

1263 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

1264 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

1265 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

1266 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

1267 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

1268 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

1269 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

1270 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

1271 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

1273 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

1274 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

1275 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

1276 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

1277 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

1278 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1280 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

1281 multiset order:

1283 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

1284 <= and <;

1285 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

1286 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

1287 multiset_order;

1288 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

1289 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

1290 generation;

1291 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

1292 if needed.

1294 Renamed:

1296 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

1297 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

1298 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

1300 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1302 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

1304 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

1306 * Theory List: added transpose.

1308 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

1309 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

1310 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1312 Constants:

1313 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

1314 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

1315 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

1316 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

1317 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

1318 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

1319 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

1320 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

1321 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

1322 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

1323 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

1324 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

1325 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

1327 Lemmas:

1328 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1329 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

1330 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

1331 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

1332 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

1333 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

1334 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

1335 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

1336 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

1337 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

1338 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

1339 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

1340 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1342 * Sledgehammer:

1343 - Renamed ATP commands:

1344 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

1345 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

1346 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

1347 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

1348 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

1349 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1350 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

1351 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

1352 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

1353 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

1354 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

1355 is still experimental.)

1356 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

1357 full-typed mode.

1358 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

1360 * Nitpick:

1361 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

1362 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

1363 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

1364 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

1365 - Added support for quotient types.

1366 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

1367 constructs.

1368 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

1369 "termination" proofs).

1370 - Added support for term postprocessors.

1371 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

1372 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

1373 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

1374 record getters.

1375 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

1376 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

1377 - Improved precision of set constructs.

1378 - Added "atoms" option.

1379 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

1380 problems.

1381 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

1382 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

1383 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1384 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

1385 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1386 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1388 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

1389 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

1390 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

1391 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

1392 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

1393 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

1394 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

1395 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

1396 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

1397 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1400 *** HOLCF ***

1402 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

1403 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

1404 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1406 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

1407 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

1408 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

1409 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

1411 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

1412 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

1413 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

1414 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

1415 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1417 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

1418 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

1419 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1421 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

1422 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1424 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

1425 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

1427 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

1428 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1430 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

1431 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

1432 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

1433 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

1434 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

1436 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

1437 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1439 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

1440 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

1441 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

1443 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

1444 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

1445 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1447 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

1448 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1450 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1452 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

1453 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1456 *** ML ***

1458 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

1460 @{class NAME} -- type class

1461 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

1463 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

1464 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

1465 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

1466 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1468 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

1469 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

1470 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1472 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

1473 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

1475 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

1476 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

1477 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

1479 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

1480 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

1481 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

1482 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

1484 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

1485 the context or even global references.

1487 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

1488 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

1490 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

1491 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

1493 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

1494 OuterLex ~> Token

1495 OuterParse ~> Parse

1496 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

1497 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

1498 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

1499 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

1500 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

1501 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

1502 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

1504 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

1505 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

1507 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

1508 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

1509 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

1510 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

1511 pass the proper local context through the code!

1513 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

1514 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

1515 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

1516 Theory_Data version.

1518 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

1519 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

1520 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

1521 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

1522 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

1523 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

1524 explicitly in rare situations.

1526 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

1527 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

1528 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1530 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

1531 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

1533 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

1534 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

1535 quite rare).

1537 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

1538 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

1540 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

1541 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

1542 terms.

1544 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

1545 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

1546 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

1549 *** System ***

1551 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

1552 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

1553 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

1555 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

1556 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

1557 respectively.

1559 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

1560 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

1561 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

1562 prefers 64 bit if available:

1564 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

1566 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

1567 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

1568 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

1569 component.

1571 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

1572 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

1573 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

1574 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

1575 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

1576 the user for manual installation.

1580 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

1581 -------------------------------------

1583 *** General ***

1585 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

1586 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

1589 *** Pure ***

1591 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

1592 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

1593 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

1595 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

1596 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

1597 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

1599 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

1600 interpretation.

1602 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

1603 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1606 *** Document preparation ***

1608 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

1609 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

1610 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

1611 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

1614 *** HOL ***

1616 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

1617 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

1618 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

1619 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

1620 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

1621 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

1622 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

1623 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

1624 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

1626 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

1627 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

1628 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

1630 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

1631 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

1632 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

1634 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

1635 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

1637 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

1639 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

1640 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

1641 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

1642 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

1644 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

1645 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

1646 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

1647 "mirabelle" utility.

1649 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

1650 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

1651 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

1652 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

1653 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

1654 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

1655 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

1656 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

1657 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

1658 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

1660 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

1661 procedure only.

1663 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

1665 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

1666 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

1667 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

1668 that fail later.

1670 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

1671 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

1673 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

1674 the same method as the approximation method.

1676 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

1677 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

1678 series expansion.

1680 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

1681 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

1683 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

1684 reals.

1686 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

1687 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

1689 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

1690 fixpoint theorem.

1692 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1693 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

1694 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

1695 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

1696 accordingly

1697 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

1698 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

1699 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

1700 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

1702 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

1703 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

1704 lattice.

1706 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

1707 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

1708 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

1709 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

1710 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

1711 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

1712 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1714 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

1715 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

1716 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

1717 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

1718 le_inf_iff

1719 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

1720 sup_aci)

1721 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

1722 - new class "boolean_algebra"

1723 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

1724 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

1725 renamed and with authentic syntax:

1726 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

1727 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

1728 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

1729 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

1730 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

1731 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

1732 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

1733 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

1734 - authentic syntax for

1735 Set.Pow

1736 Set.image

1737 - mere abbreviations:

1738 Set.empty (for bot)

1739 Set.UNIV (for top)

1740 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

1741 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

1742 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

1743 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

1744 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

1745 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

1746 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

1748 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

1749 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

1750 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

1751 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

1753 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

1754 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

1755 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1757 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

1758 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1760 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

1761 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

1762 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

1763 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1765 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

1766 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

1767 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

1768 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

1769 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

1771 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

1772 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

1773 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1775 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

1776 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1778 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

1779 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

1780 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

1781 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

1782 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

1783 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

1784 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

1785 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1787 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

1788 code_unfold replaces code unfold

1789 code_post replaces code post

1790 etc.

1791 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1793 * Renamed methods:

1794 sizechange -> size_change

1795 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

1796 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1798 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

1799 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

1801 * Renamed theorems:

1802 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1803 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

1804 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1805 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

1806 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

1807 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1809 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

1810 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1812 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

1813 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1816 *** HOLCF ***

1818 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

1819 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

1820 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

1822 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

1823 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

1824 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

1825 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

1826 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

1828 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

1829 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

1830 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

1831 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

1832 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

1834 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

1835 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

1836 constructor are pre-configured.

1838 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

1839 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

1840 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

1842 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

1843 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

1844 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

1845 as well.)

1847 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

1848 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

1849 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

1850 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1851 examples.

1854 *** ML ***

1856 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

1857 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

1859 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

1860 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

1861 position, logical grouping etc.

1863 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

1864 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

1865 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

1866 copy operation) is still available for some time.

1868 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

1869 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

1870 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

1871 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

1872 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

1873 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

1875 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

1876 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

1877 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

1878 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

1879 experiments with references.

1881 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

1882 parallel tactical reasoning.

1884 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

1885 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

1886 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

1887 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

1889 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

1890 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

1891 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

1893 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

1894 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

1895 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1897 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1899 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

1900 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1902 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

1903 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

1905 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

1906 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

1907 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

1909 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

1910 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

1911 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1913 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

1914 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

1915 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

1916 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1918 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1919 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

1920 instead of global theory.

1923 *** System ***

1925 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

1926 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

1927 usedir option -q.

1929 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

1930 also the system manual.

1932 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

1933 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

1935 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

1936 this is always enabled.

1938 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

1940 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

1941 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

1942 currently supported on Linux only.

1946 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

1947 --------------------------------

1949 *** General ***

1951 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

1952 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

1954 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

1955 "isatool."

1957 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

1958 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

1960 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

1961 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

1963 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

1964 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

1965 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

1967 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

1968 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

1969 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

1970 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

1971 via "isabelle emacs".

1973 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

1974 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

1975 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

1977 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

1978 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

1979 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

1981 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

1982 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

1983 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

1984 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

1985 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

1987 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

1988 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

1989 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

1990 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

1992 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

1993 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

1994 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

1997 *** Pure ***

1999 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

2000 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

2001 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

2003 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

2004 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

2005 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

2006 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

2007 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

2009 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

2010 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

2011 useful in locale declarations.

2013 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

2014 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

2015 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

2016 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

2017 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

2018 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

2019 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

2020 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

2021 no longer generated.

2023 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

2024 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

2025 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

2027 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

2028 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

2029 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

2030 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

2031 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

2033 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

2034 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

2035 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

2036 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

2037 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

2038 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

2039 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

2040 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

2042 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

2043 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

2044 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

2045 the parameters (context element "constrains").

2047 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2049 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

2050 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

2051 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

2053 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

2054 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2056 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

2057 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

2058 in HOL, write

2060 class foo = ...

2062 instead of

2064 class foo = type + ...

2066 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

2067 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2069 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

2070 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

2072 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

2073 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

2074 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

2076 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

2077 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

2078 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

2079 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

2080 directly in regular applications.

2082 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

2083 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

2085 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

2086 interface with 'setup' command instead.

2088 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

2089 theory context.

2091 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

2092 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2094 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

2095 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

2096 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

2097 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

2098 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

2099 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

2101 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

2103 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

2104 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

2105 normalization.

2107 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

2108 addressing etc.

2110 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

2112 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

2113 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

2115 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2117 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

2118 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

2119 parts of the code generator framework).

2121 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

2122 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

2123 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

2125 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2127 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

2128 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2130 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

2131 patterns, e.g.

2133 find_consts "_ => bool"

2135 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

2136 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

2137 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

2138 hyphen:

2140 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

2142 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

2143 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

2145 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

2146 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

2147 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

2148 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

2149 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

2150 higher-order unification.

2153 *** Document preparation ***

2155 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

2156 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

2157 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

2160 *** HOL ***

2162 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

2163 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

2165 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

2166 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

2167 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

2168 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

2169 Main, as before.

2171 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

2172 experimentation due to shorter build times.

2174 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

2175 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

2176 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

2177 new entry point Hypercomplex.

2179 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

2180 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

2181 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

2182 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

2183 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

2184 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

2186 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

2187 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

2188 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

2189 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

2191 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

2192 menu.

2194 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

2195 (contains the empty clause).

2197 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

2198 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

2200 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

2201 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

2203 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

2204 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

2205 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2207 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

2208 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

2209 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

2210 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

2211 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

2213 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

2214 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

2216 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

2217 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

2218 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

2219 are now presented as a list of individual projections

2220 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

2221 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

2222 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

2223 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

2224 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

2226 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

2228 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

2230 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

2231 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2233 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

2234 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

2235 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

2236 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

2238 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

2239 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2241 op Int ~> Set.Int

2242 op Un ~> Set.Un

2243 INTER ~> Set.INTER

2244 UNION ~> Set.UNION

2245 Inter ~> Set.Inter

2246 Union ~> Set.Union

2247 {} ~> Set.empty

2248 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

2250 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

2251 theory Set.

2253 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

2254 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

2256 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

2258 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

2259 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

2261 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

2262 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

2263 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

2264 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

2265 allowed. For examples see

2266 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

2268 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

2270 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

2271 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2273 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

2274 structure:

2276 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

2277 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

2278 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

2279 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

2280 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

2281 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

2282 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2283 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

2284 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

2285 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

2286 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

2287 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

2288 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

2289 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

2290 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

2291 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

2292 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2293 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2294 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

2295 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

2296 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

2297 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

2298 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

2299 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

2300 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

2301 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

2302 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

2303 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

2304 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

2305 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

2306 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

2307 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

2308 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

2310 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2311 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2312 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2313 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

2314 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2315 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2316 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2317 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2318 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2319 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2321 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2322 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2323 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2324 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2325 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2326 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2328 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

2329 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

2330 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

2332 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

2333 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

2334 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

2336 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

2337 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2339 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

2340 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

2342 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

2343 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

2344 proofs, e.g.

2346 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

2348 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

2350 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

2351 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

2352 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2354 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

2355 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

2356 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2358 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

2359 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

2360 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

2361 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2363 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

2364 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

2365 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

2366 preorder_class.*.

2368 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

2369 "diag" to "Id_on".

2371 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

2373 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

2375 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

2376 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

2377 fold_image.

2379 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

2380 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

2381 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

2382 the former will disappear at some point.

2384 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

2385 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

2386 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

2388 rat_power_0 -> power_0

2389 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

2390 realpow_0 -> power_0

2391 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2392 complexpow_0 -> power_0

2393 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2394 power_poly_0 -> power_0

2395 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

2397 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

2398 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

2399 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

2400 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

2401 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

2402 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

2404 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

2405 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

2406 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

2407 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

2408 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

2409 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

2410 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2412 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

2413 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

2414 rename old lemmas as follows:

2416 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

2417 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2418 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2419 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

2420 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

2421 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

2422 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2423 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2424 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

2425 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

2426 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

2427 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

2428 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

2429 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

2430 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

2431 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

2432 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

2433 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

2434 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2435 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2436 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

2437 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

2438 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2439 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

2440 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

2441 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

2442 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2443 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

2444 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

2445 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

2446 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

2447 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

2448 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

2449 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

2450 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

2451 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

2452 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2453 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2454 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

2455 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

2456 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

2457 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

2458 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

2459 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

2460 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2462 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2464 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

2465 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

2467 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

2468 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

2469 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

2470 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

2472 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

2473 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

2474 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

2475 theory RealVector.

2477 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

2478 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

2479 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

2480 and inner products are included.

2482 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

2483 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

2484 supported.

2486 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

2487 first diagonalization argument.

2489 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

2490 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

2491 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

2492 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2493 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

2495 hide (open) const gcd

2496 abbreviation gcd where

2497 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

2498 notation (output)

2499 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

2501 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

2503 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

2504 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

2505 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2507 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

2508 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

2509 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

2510 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

2511 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

2512 instrumentalizing code generation. See

2513 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

2514 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

2515 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

2516 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

2517 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

2518 cases.

2520 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

2521 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

2522 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

2523 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

2524 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

2526 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

2527 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

2528 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

2529 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

2530 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

2533 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2535 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

2536 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

2537 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

2539 * New theory of factorial domains.

2541 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

2542 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

2543 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

2545 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2547 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

2548 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

2549 least_carrier ~> least_closed

2550 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

2551 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

2552 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

2553 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

2556 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2558 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

2560 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

2561 theory targets.

2563 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

2564 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

2565 'inductive' etc.

2567 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

2568 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

2570 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

2571 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

2573 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

2574 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

2575 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

2576 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

2577 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

2578 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

2579 the algorithm W:

2581 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

2582 -----------------------------------------------------------------

2583 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

2585 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

2586 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

2587 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

2590 *** HOLCF ***

2592 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

2593 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

2594 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

2596 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

2597 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

2598 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

2599 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

2600 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2602 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

2603 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2604 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2607 *** ZF ***

2609 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

2612 *** ML ***

2614 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

2615 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

2616 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

2617 5.2.1!

2619 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

2620 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

2621 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

2622 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

2623 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

2624 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

2625 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2627 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

2628 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

2629 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

2630 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

2631 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

2632 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

2633 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2635 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

2636 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

2637 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

2638 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

2639 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2641 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

2642 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

2643 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

2644 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

2645 Method.add_method.

2647 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

2648 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

2649 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

2650 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

2651 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

2652 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

2654 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

2655 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

2656 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

2657 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

2658 examples.

2660 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

2661 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

2662 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

2663 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

2664 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

2665 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

2666 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

2667 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

2668 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

2669 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

2671 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

2672 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

2673 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

2675 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

2676 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

2677 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

2678 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

2679 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

2680 resort for legacy applications.

2682 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

2683 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

2684 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

2685 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

2686 explicit runtime argument.

2688 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

2689 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

2690 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

2691 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

2692 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2694 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

2695 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

2696 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

2697 theory state.

2699 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

2700 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

2702 @{binding name} - basic name binding

2703 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

2704 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

2705 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

2706 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

2707 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

2708 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

2709 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

2710 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

2711 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

2714 *** System ***

2716 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

2717 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

2718 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

2719 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

2720 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

2722 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

2723 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

2724 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

2725 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

2727 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

2729 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

2730 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

2731 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

2732 prover operations.

2736 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

2737 -------------------------------

2739 *** General ***

2741 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

2742 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

2744 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

2745 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

2746 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

2747 provides a proper context already.

2749 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2750 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

2751 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

2753 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

2754 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

2755 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

2756 swap theory imports.

2758 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

2759 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

2761 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

2762 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2763 white space without escapes.

2765 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

2766 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

2767 "foo_bar".

2770 *** Pure ***

2772 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

2773 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

2775 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

2776 There are three ways of invoking it:

2778 (1) unused_thms

2779 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

2781 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

2782 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

2783 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

2785 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

2786 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

2787 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

2788 their ancestors.

2790 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

2791 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

2792 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

2793 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

2794 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

2795 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

2796 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

2798 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

2799 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

2800 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

2802 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

2803 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

2804 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

2805 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

2806 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

2808 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

2810 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

2811 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

2812 update of theories within ML code.

2814 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

2815 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

2816 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

2817 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

2819 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

2820 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

2821 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

2822 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2824 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

2826 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

2827 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

2828 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

2829 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

2830 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

2832 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

2833 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

2834 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

2835 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

2836 situations.

2838 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

2839 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

2840 proof text.

2842 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

2843 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

2845 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

2846 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

2847 predicates.

2850 *** Document preparation ***

2852 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

2853 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

2854 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

2855 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

2856 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

2857 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

2859 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

2860 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

2861 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

2864 *** HOL ***

2866 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

2867 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

2868 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

2869 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

2870 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

2871 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

2873 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

2874 with multithreading.

2876 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

2877 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

2878 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

2880 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

2881 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

2882 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

2883 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2885 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

2886 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

2887 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

2888 and makes them available separately. See

2889 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

2891 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

2892 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

2893 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

2894 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

2895 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

2896 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

2897 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

2898 the declared rules.

2900 This setup also deals with rules like

2902 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

2904 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

2905 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

2907 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

2909 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2911 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

2912 definitions on => and bool.

2914 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

2915 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

2916 the following theorems have been renamed:

2918 subset_def -> subset_eq

2919 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

2920 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

2921 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

2922 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

2923 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

2924 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

2925 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

2927 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

2928 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

2929 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

2931 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

2932 The proof pattern

2934 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2935 then have "EX S. P S" ..

2937 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

2938 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

2940 have "EX S. P S"

2941 proof

2942 show "P S" <...>

2943 qed

2945 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

2946 The proof pattern

2948 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2949 also have "S = T" <...>

2950 finally have "P T" .

2952 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

2953 must be replaced by something like

2955 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2956 moreover have "S = T" <...>

2957 ultimately have "P T" by simp

2959 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

2960 Code performing pattern matching on types via

2962 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

2964 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

2965 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

2966 type of the form

2968 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

2970 rather than

2972 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

2974 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

2975 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

2977 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2979 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

2980 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

2981 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2983 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

2984 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2986 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

2987 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2989 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

2990 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

2991 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2993 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

2994 the same name in theory Orderings:

2996 less_trans

2997 less_linear

2998 le_imp_less_or_eq

2999 le_less_trans

3000 less_le_trans

3001 less_not_sym

3002 less_asym

3004 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

3005 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

3006 and different variable names.

3008 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

3010 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

3011 finite maps.

3013 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

3015 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

3016 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

3017 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

3018 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

3019 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

3020 accordingly.

3022 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

3023 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

3024 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

3025 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

3027 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

3028 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

3029 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

3030 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

3031 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

3032 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3034 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

3035 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3037 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

3038 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

3039 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

3041 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

3042 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3044 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

3045 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

3047 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

3048 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3050 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

3051 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3053 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

3054 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

3055 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3057 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

3058 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3060 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

3061 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

3062 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

3063 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

3064 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

3065 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3067 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

3068 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

3069 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

3071 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

3073 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

3075 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

3076 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

3077 well-orders on sets and on types.

3080 *** ZF ***

3082 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

3083 same session:

3085 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

3086 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

3087 Int -> Int_ZF

3088 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

3089 Nat -> Nat_ZF

3090 List -> List_ZF

3091 Main -> Main_ZF

3093 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

3094 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

3095 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

3098 *** ML ***

3100 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

3101 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

3103 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

3104 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

3106 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

3108 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

3109 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

3110 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

3111 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

3112 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3114 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

3115 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

3116 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

3119 *** System ***

3121 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

3122 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

3124 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

3125 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

3126 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

3128 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

3129 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

3131 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

3132 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

3133 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

3135 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

3136 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

3137 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

3139 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

3140 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

3142 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

3143 way of changing the user's settings is via

3144 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

3145 script.

3147 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

3148 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

3149 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

3150 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

3151 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

3153 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

3154 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

3155 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

3159 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

3160 -----------------------------------

3162 *** General ***

3164 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

3165 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

3166 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

3167 legacy features will disappear eventually.

3169 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

3170 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

3171 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3173 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

3174 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

3175 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

3176 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3178 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

3179 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

3180 quotes.

3182 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

3183 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

3184 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

3185 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

3186 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

3187 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

3188 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

3189 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

3190 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

3192 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

3193 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

3194 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

3195 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

3196 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

3197 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

3199 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3200 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

3201 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

3202 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

3204 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

3205 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

3206 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

3207 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

3208 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

3209 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

3211 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

3212 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

3213 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

3214 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

3215 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

3216 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

3217 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

3218 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

3220 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

3221 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

3222 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

3223 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

3224 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

3225 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

3226 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

3228 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

3229 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

3230 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

3232 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

3233 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

3234 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

3235 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

3236 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

3237 limit is imposed.

3239 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

3240 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

3241 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

3242 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

3243 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

3244 and scalability.

3246 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

3247 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

3250 *** Document preparation ***

3252 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

3253 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

3254 current context.

3256 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

3257 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

3259 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

3260 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

3261 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

3264 *** Pure ***

3266 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

3267 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

3268 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

3269 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

3270 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

3271 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

3272 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

3273 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

3274 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

3275 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

3277 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

3278 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

3279 sketch:

3281 internal compilation:

3282 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

3283 writing SML code to a file:

3284 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

3285 writing OCaml code to a file:

3286 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

3287 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

3288 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

3290 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

3291 method ``eval''

3293 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

3295 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

3297 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3298 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3299 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3300 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3302 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

3304 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

3305 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

3307 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

3308 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

3310 code_instance <and-list of instances>

3311 {(target)}+

3312 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

3314 code_class <and_list of classes>

3315 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

3316 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

3318 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

3320 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

3321 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

3322 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

3323 codegen".

3325 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

3326 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

3327 annotations).

3329 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

3330 syntax.

3332 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

3333 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

3334 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

3335 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

3336 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

3337 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

3339 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

3340 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

3341 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

3342 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

3343 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

3344 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

3345 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

3346 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

3347 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

3348 equations, see section "definitions".

3350 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

3351 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

3352 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

3353 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

3354 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

3355 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

3356 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

3357 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

3358 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

3359 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

3361 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

3362 configuration options:

3364 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

3365 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

3366 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

3367 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

3368 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

3369 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

3370 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

3371 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

3372 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

3374 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

3375 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

3376 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

3377 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

3378 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

3379 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

3380 order.

3382 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

3383 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

3384 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

3385 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

3386 context encountered later on.

3388 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

3389 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

3390 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

3391 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

3393 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

3394 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

3395 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

3396 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

3397 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

3398 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

3400 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

3401 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

3402 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

3403 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

3404 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

3405 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

3406 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

3407 more permissive.

3409 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

3410 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

3411 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

3412 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

3413 maintainability of proof texts.

3415 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

3416 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

3418 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

3419 then guess x and y by clarify

3421 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

3422 proof tools being involved here.

3424 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

3425 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

3426 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

3427 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

3428 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

3429 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

3430 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

3431 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

3433 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

3434 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

3435 certain special cases of literal facts:

3437 have "A" by fact == note `A`

3438 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

3439 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

3440 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

3442 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

3443 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

3444 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

3446 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

3447 both named and unnamed ones.

3449 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

3451 def x == "t" and y == "u"

3453 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

3454 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

3455 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

3456 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

3458 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

3459 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

3460 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

3461 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

3462 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

3464 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

3465 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

3467 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

3468 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

3469 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

3470 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

3471 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

3472 originally first one.

3474 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

3475 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

3476 expected.

3478 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

3479 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

3480 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

3481 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

3482 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

3484 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3485 assumes "EX x. P x"

3486 obtains x where "P x"

3488 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3489 assumes "A & B"

3490 obtains A and B

3492 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3493 assumes "A | B"

3494 obtains

3495 A

3496 | B

3498 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

3499 explicitly:

3501 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3502 obtains "~ thesis"

3504 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3505 obtains "thesis ==> something"

3507 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

3508 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

3509 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

3510 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

3511 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

3512 case_names).

3514 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

3515 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

3516 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

3517 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

3519 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

3520 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

3521 top-level lemma.

3523 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

3524 introduction rule (default "that").

3526 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3527 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

3528 to occur.

3530 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

3531 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

3532 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

3533 representations independently of name spaces.

3535 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

3536 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

3537 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3539 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

3540 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

3541 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

3542 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

3543 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

3544 current context.

3546 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

3547 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

3548 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

3549 isar-ref manual. Examples:

3551 axiomatization

3552 eq (infix "===" 50) where

3553 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

3555 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

3556 definition g where "g x = f x x"

3558 abbreviation

3559 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

3560 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

3562 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

3563 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

3564 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

3565 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

3566 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

3567 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

3568 entities from a monomorphic theory.

3570 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

3571 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

3572 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

3573 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

3574 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

3576 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

3577 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

3578 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

3579 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

3581 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

3582 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

3583 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

3585 definition "K x _ = x"

3587 inductive conj for A B

3588 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

3590 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

3591 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

3592 abbreviations on output.

3594 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

3595 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

3596 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

3597 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

3599 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

3600 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

3601 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

3602 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

3603 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

3604 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

3605 `unfold_locales'; see below.

3607 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

3608 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

3609 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

3610 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

3611 unfold predicates to assumptions.

3613 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

3614 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

3615 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

3617 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

3618 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

3619 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

3620 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

3621 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

3623 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

3624 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

3626 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

3627 definition specification element in the context of locale

3628 partial_order.

3630 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

3631 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

3632 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

3633 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

3634 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

3635 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

3636 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

3637 examples.

3639 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

3640 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

3641 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

3642 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

3643 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

3645 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

3646 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

3647 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

3648 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

3649 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

3651 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

3652 (induct set: foo bar)

3653 (induct pred: foo bar)

3654 (induct type: foo bar)

3656 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

3657 new format.

3659 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

3660 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

3662 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

3663 considered a legacy feature.

3665 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

3666 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3668 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

3669 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

3670 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

3671 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

3673 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

3674 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

3675 manipulating the claset.

3677 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

3678 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

3679 least one premise.

3681 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

3682 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

3683 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

3684 rule steps.

3686 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

3687 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

3688 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

3689 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

3690 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

3691 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

3693 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

3694 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

3695 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

3697 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

3698 the graph browser tool.

3700 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

3701 default; use '!' option for full details.

3704 *** HOL ***

3706 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

3707 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

3708 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

3709 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

3710 multi-threading.

3712 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

3713 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

3714 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

3715 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

3716 work with multi-threading.

3718 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

3719 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

3720 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

3721 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

3722 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

3724 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

3726 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

3727 equality.

3729 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

3730 the new 'class' package:

3732 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

3733 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

3734 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

3735 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

3736 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

3737 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

3738 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

3739 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

3740 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

3741 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

3742 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

3743 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

3744 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

3745 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

3746 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

3747 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

3748 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

3749 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

3750 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

3751 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

3753 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

3755 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

3756 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

3757 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

3758 names.

3760 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

3761 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

3763 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

3764 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

3765 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

3766 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

3767 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

3769 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

3770 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

3771 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

3772 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

3774 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

3776 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

3777 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

3778 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

3779 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

3780 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3782 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

3783 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3785 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

3786 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

3787 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3789 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

3790 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

3792 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

3793 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

3794 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

3795 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

3796 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

3797 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

3798 in the current context.

3800 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

3801 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

3802 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3804 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

3805 with new class dense_linear_order.

3807 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

3809 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

3810 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

3812 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

3813 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

3814 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

3815 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

3817 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

3818 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

3820 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

3822 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

3823 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

3824 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

3825 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

3826 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

3827 le_meetI ~> le_infI

3828 join_leI ~> le_supI

3829 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

3830 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

3831 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

3832 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

3833 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

3834 join_comm ~> sup_commute

3835 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

3836 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

3837 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

3838 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

3839 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

3840 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

3841 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

3842 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

3843 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

3844 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

3845 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

3846 join_aci ~> sup_aci

3847 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

3848 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

3849 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

3850 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

3851 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

3852 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

3853 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

3854 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

3855 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

3856 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

3858 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

3859 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

3860 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

3861 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

3862 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

3863 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

3864 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

3865 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

3866 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

3867 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

3868 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

3869 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

3870 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

3871 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

3872 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

3873 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

3874 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

3876 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

3877 mono_join ~> mono_sup

3878 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

3879 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

3880 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

3881 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

3882 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

3883 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

3884 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

3885 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

3886 meet1I ~> inf1I

3887 meet2I ~> inf2I

3888 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

3889 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

3890 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

3891 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

3892 meet1E ~> inf1E

3893 meet2E ~> inf2E

3894 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

3895 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

3896 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3897 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

3898 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3899 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

3900 join1CI ~> sup1CI

3901 join2CI ~> sup2CI

3902 join1E ~> sup1E

3903 join2E ~> sup2E

3905 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

3906 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

3907 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

3908 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

3909 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

3910 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

3912 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

3913 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

3914 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

3915 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

3917 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

3918 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

3920 meet_min ~> inf_min

3921 join_max ~> sup_max

3923 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

3924 type "'a::size ==> bool"

3926 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

3927 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

3928 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

3929 "*.size".

3931 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

3932 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3934 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

3935 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

3936 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3938 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3940 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

3941 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

3942 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

3943 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

3944 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

3945 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

3946 numerals on all operations.

3948 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

3950 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

3952 * Code generator library theories:

3953 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

3954 languages.

3955 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

3956 languages.

3957 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

3958 codes; includes Code_Integer.

3959 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

3960 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

3961 denominator).

3962 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

3963 representable by rational numbers.

3964 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

3965 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

3966 includes Code_Integer.

3967 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

3968 target-language built-in integers.

3969 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

3970 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

3972 * New package for inductive predicates

3974 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

3976 inductive

3977 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3978 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3979 where

3980 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

3981 | ...

3983 with full support for type-inference, rather than

3985 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3987 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3988 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3990 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

3991 intros

3992 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3993 ...

3995 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

3996 sets to be defined with the new package via

3998 inductive_set

3999 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4000 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4001 where

4002 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4003 | ...

4005 or

4007 inductive_set

4008 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4009 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4010 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4011 where

4012 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4013 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4014 | ...

4016 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

4018 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

4019 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

4021 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4023 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

4024 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

4025 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

4026 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

4027 than before the actual inductive definition.

4029 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

4030 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

4031 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

4032 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

4033 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

4034 statements of the form

4036 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

4038 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

4039 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

4041 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

4043 - The format of the elimination rules is now

4045 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

4046 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4047 ==> ... ==> P

4049 for predicates and

4051 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4052 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4053 ==> ... ==> P

4055 for sets rather than

4057 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4058 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

4059 ==> ... ==> P

4061 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

4062 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

4063 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

4065 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

4066 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

4067 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

4069 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

4070 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

4071 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

4072 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

4073 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

4074 users are encouraged to use the new package.

4076 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

4077 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

4079 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

4080 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

4081 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

4082 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

4083 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

4084 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

4085 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

4086 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

4087 variable.

4089 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

4090 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

4091 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

4092 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

4093 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

4094 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

4096 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

4097 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

4098 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

4099 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

4100 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

4101 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

4102 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

4103 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

4104 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

4106 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

4107 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

4108 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

4109 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

4110 rat, etc.

4112 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

4113 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

4114 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

4116 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

4118 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

4119 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

4121 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

4122 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

4124 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

4125 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

4126 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4128 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

4129 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

4130 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4132 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

4134 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

4136 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

4137 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

4138 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

4139 positive/negative (in inequations).

4141 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

4142 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

4143 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

4144 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4146 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

4147 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

4148 algebraic operations.

4150 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

4151 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4153 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

4154 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4156 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

4157 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

4158 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

4159 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

4160 adapted.

4162 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

4163 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

4164 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

4165 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

4166 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

4168 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

4169 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

4170 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

4172 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

4173 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

4174 better use 'abbreviation'.

4176 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4178 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

4179 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

4180 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

4181 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

4182 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

4183 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

4184 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

4185 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

4187 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

4189 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

4190 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

4191 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

4192 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

4193 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

4194 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

4196 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

4197 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

4198 "A = B" (with priority 50).

4200 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

4201 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

4202 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

4203 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4205 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

4207 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

4208 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4210 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

4211 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

4213 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

4214 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

4215 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

4217 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

4218 True/False.

4220 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

4222 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

4224 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

4225 ``rule'' method.

4227 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

4228 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

4229 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

4230 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

4232 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

4233 zChaff is still supported as well.

4235 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

4236 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

4238 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

4239 Library.

4241 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

4243 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

4244 as greatest fixed-point.

4246 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

4247 association lists.

4249 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

4250 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

4251 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

4253 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

4254 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

4255 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4256 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

4257 behavior.

4259 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

4261 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

4262 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

4263 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

4264 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

4265 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

4266 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

4268 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

4269 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

4270 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

4271 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

4272 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

4273 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

4274 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

4276 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

4277 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

4279 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

4280 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

4281 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

4282 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

4283 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

4286 *** HOL-Complex ***

4288 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

4289 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

4290 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

4291 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

4292 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4294 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

4295 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

4296 and norm :: 'a => real.

4298 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

4299 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

4300 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4302 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

4303 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

4305 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

4306 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

4307 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4310 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4311 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4312 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4313 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

4314 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4315 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4316 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4317 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4318 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4319 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4320 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

4321 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4322 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

4323 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

4324 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

4326 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

4327 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

4328 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

4329 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4331 approx <-- capprox

4332 HFinite <-- CFinite

4333 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

4334 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

4335 monad <-- cmonad

4336 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

4337 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

4338 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

4339 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

4342 *** HOL-Algebra ***

4344 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

4346 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

4347 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4349 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

4350 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4352 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

4353 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

4354 of algebraic structures.

4356 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

4359 *** HOL-Nominal ***

4361 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

4362 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

4363 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

4364 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

4367 *** ML ***

4369 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

4370 (even on SML/NJ).

4372 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

4373 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

4374 compile-time. For example:

4376 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

4377 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

4378 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

4379 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

4380 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

4381 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

4382 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

4383 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

4384 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

4385 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

4386 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

4387 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

4388 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

4389 ML {* @{context} *}

4390 ML {* @{theory} *}

4391 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

4392 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

4393 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

4394 ML {* @{simpset} *}

4395 ML {* @{claset} *}

4396 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

4398 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

4400 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

4401 ML_Context.trace enabled.

4403 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

4404 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

4405 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

4407 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

4408 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

4410 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

4411 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

4412 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

4414 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

4415 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

4416 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

4417 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

4418 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

4419 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

4420 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

4421 declarations and definitions.

4423 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

4424 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

4425 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

4426 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

4428 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

4429 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

4430 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

4431 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4433 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

4434 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

4435 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

4436 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

4437 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

4438 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

4440 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

4441 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

4442 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

4443 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

4444 attributes, methods, etc.

4446 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

4447 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

4448 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

4449 fold_map combinators.

4451 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

4452 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

4453 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

4454 derivation.

4456 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

4457 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

4458 achieve the old behaviour.

4460 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

4461 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

4462 statements.

4464 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

4465 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

4466 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

4468 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

4469 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

4470 some popular functions from term.ML:

4472 Term.variant -> Name.variant

4473 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

4474 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

4476 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

4477 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

4479 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

4480 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

4481 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

4482 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

4483 various freeze_thaw operations.

4485 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

4486 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

4487 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

4488 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

4489 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

4490 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

4491 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

4492 in a locale context).

4494 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

4495 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

4496 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

4497 which are considered legacy and await removal.

4499 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

4500 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

4501 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

4502 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

4503 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

4504 a mere theory instead of a full context.

4506 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

4507 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

4508 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

4509 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

4510 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

4512 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

4514 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

4515 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

4516 this:

4518 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

4520 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

4521 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

4522 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

4523 -- use plain ERROR instead.

4525 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

4526 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

4528 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

4529 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

4531 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

4532 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

4533 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

4534 batch mode.

4536 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

4537 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

4538 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

4539 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4541 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

4542 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

4543 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

4544 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

4545 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

4547 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

4548 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

4549 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

4550 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

4551 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

4552 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

4554 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

4555 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

4556 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

4557 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4559 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

4560 "Trueprop" etc.

4563 *** System ***

4565 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

4566 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

4567 Isabelle installations.

4569 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

4570 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

4571 code.

4573 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

4575 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

4576 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

4577 independent theories, according to the given theory header

4578 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

4579 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

4580 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

4581 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

4582 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

4583 Implementation manual.

4587 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

4588 ----------------------------------

4590 *** General ***

4592 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

4594 theory <name>

4595 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

4596 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

4597 begin

4599 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

4601 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

4603 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

4604 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

4605 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

4607 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

4608 relative and absolute paths.

4610 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

4611 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

4612 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

4613 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

4614 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

4615 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

4616 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

4617 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

4618 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

4620 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

4622 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

4623 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

4624 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

4626 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

4627 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

4629 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

4630 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

4631 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

4632 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

4634 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

4635 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

4637 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

4638 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

4639 faster.

4642 *** Document preparation ***

4644 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

4645 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

4646 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

4647 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

4648 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

4649 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

4651 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

4652 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

4653 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

4654 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

4655 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

4656 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

4657 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

4658 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

4659 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

4660 \isadroptag.

4662 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

4663 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

4664 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

4665 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

4666 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

4667 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

4668 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

4669 specified above.

4671 * Several new antiquotations:

4673 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

4675 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

4677 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

4678 argument is a known logical constant;

4680 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

4681 theorem applying a "style" to it

4683 @{ML text}

4685 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

4686 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

4687 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

4688 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

4689 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

4690 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

4691 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

4693 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

4694 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

4695 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

4696 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

4698 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

4699 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

4700 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

4702 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

4703 a proof context.

4705 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

4706 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

4708 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

4709 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

4711 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

4712 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

4713 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

4716 *** Pure ***

4718 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

4719 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

4720 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

4721 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

4722 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

4723 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

4724 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

4726 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

4727 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

4728 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

4729 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

4730 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

4731 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

4732 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

4733 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

4735 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

4736 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

4737 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

4739 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

4740 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

4741 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

4743 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

4744 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

4745 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

4746 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

4747 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4749 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

4750 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

4751 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

4752 axclasses vs. locales.

4754 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

4755 instead of base 26 numbers.

4757 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

4758 marks in schematic variable names.

4760 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

4761 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

4762 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

4764 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

4765 by simp

4767 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

4769 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

4770 annotations as "(00...)".

4772 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

4773 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

4774 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

4775 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

4776 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

4777 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

4778 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

4780 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

4781 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

4782 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

4783 specifications.

4785 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

4786 locally fixed variables as well.

4788 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

4789 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

4790 Limit.

4792 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

4793 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

4794 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

4795 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

4796 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

4797 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

4798 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

4800 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

4801 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

4802 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

4804 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4806 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

4807 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

4808 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

4809 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

4810 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

4811 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

4813 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

4814 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

4816 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

4817 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

4818 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

4820 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

4822 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

4823 theory development.

4825 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

4826 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

4827 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

4828 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

4830 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

4831 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

4832 quoted when used as identifier.

4835 *** Locales ***

4837 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

4838 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

4839 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

4840 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

4841 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

4842 commands is a follows:

4844 (1) interpretation expr inst

4845 (2) interpretation target < expr

4846 (3) interpret expr inst

4848 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

4849 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

4850 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

4851 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

4852 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

4853 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

4854 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

4855 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

4856 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

4857 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

4859 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

4860 'interpret' instead.

4862 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

4863 parameters.

4865 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

4866 redeclaration.

4868 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

4870 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

4871 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

4872 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

4873 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

4874 to attribute arguments as expected.

4876 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

4877 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

4878 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

4879 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

4880 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

4881 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

4882 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

4883 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

4884 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

4885 values to argument tokens explicitly.

4887 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

4888 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

4889 theorem statement in rare situations.

4891 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

4892 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

4895 *** Provers ***

4897 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

4898 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

4899 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

4900 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

4901 still available as 'simplesubst'.

4903 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

4904 and quasi orders.

4906 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

4907 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

4909 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

4910 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

4912 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

4913 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

4914 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4917 *** HOL ***

4919 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

4921 syntax (epsilon)

4922 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

4924 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

4925 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

4926 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

4927 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

4929 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

4930 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

4931 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

4932 support corresponding Isar calculations.

4934 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

4935 instead of ":".

4937 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

4939 Old New

4940 {..n(} {..<n}

4941 {)n..} {n<..}

4942 {m..n(} {m..<n}

4943 {)m..n} {m<..n}

4944 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

4946 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

4947 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

4948 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

4950 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

4951 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

4953 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

4954 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

4955 interface.

4957 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

4958 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

4959 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

4960 be a tuple pattern.

4962 Some new syntax forms are available:

4964 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

4965 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

4966 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

4967 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

4969 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

4970 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

4972 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

4973 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

4974 (insert F x)'.

4976 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

4977 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

4978 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

4980 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

4981 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

4982 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

4984 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

4985 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

4986 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

4987 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4988 in unstructured proof scripts.

4990 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

4991 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

4992 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

4993 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

4994 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

4995 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

4996 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

4997 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

4998 <record_name>_ext_type.

5000 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

5001 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

5002 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

5003 quite long.

5005 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

5006 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

5007 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

5008 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

5010 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

5011 type-variables in the term.

5013 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

5014 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

5015 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

5016 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

5017 goals than previously.

5019 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

5020 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

5021 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

5022 just like y <= x.

5024 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

5025 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

5026 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

5027 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

5028 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

5029 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

5030 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

5032 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

5034 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

5035 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

5037 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

5038 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

5039 inequalities.

5041 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5042 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5044 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

5045 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

5046 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

5047 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

5048 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

5049 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

5050 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

5051 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

5052 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

5053 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

5054 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

5056 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

5058 zero_le_square

5059 not_square_less_zero

5061 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

5063 realpow_zero_zero

5064 realpow_two

5065 realpow_less

5066 zero_le_power

5067 realpow_two_le

5068 abs_realpow_two

5069 realpow_two_abs

5071 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

5073 * Theory List:

5075 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5076 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5078 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

5079 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

5080 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

5081 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

5083 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

5084 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

5087 *** HOL-Complex ***

5089 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

5090 integers in the reals.

5092 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5093 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5095 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

5096 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5097 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5098 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5099 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

5101 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

5103 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

5105 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

5106 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

5108 hypreal = real star

5109 hypnat = nat star

5110 hcomplex = complex star

5112 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

5113 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5115 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

5117 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

5118 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

5119 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

5120 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

5121 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

5123 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5124 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

5125 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

5126 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

5127 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

5129 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

5130 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5132 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

5133 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

5134 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

5135 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

5136 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

5137 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

5138 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

5139 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

5140 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

5141 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

5142 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

5143 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

5144 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

5145 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

5146 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

5147 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

5148 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

5149 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

5150 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

5151 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

5152 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

5153 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

5154 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

5155 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

5157 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

5158 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

5159 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5161 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

5162 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

5163 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

5164 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

5165 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

5166 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

5167 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

5168 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

5169 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

5170 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

5171 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

5172 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

5173 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

5174 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

5175 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

5176 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

5177 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

5178 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

5179 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

5180 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

5181 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

5182 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

5183 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

5184 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5185 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

5186 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

5187 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

5188 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

5189 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

5190 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

5191 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

5192 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

5193 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

5194 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

5195 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

5196 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

5197 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

5198 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

5199 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

5200 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

5201 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

5202 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

5203 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

5204 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

5205 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

5206 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

5207 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

5208 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

5209 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

5210 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

5211 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

5212 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

5213 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

5214 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

5216 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

5217 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

5218 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

5219 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

5220 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

5221 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

5222 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

5223 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

5224 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

5225 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

5226 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

5228 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

5229 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

5230 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

5231 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

5232 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

5233 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

5234 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

5235 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

5236 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

5237 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

5238 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

5239 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

5240 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

5241 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

5242 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

5243 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

5244 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

5245 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

5246 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

5247 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

5248 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

5250 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

5251 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

5252 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

5253 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

5254 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

5255 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

5257 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

5260 *** HOLCF ***

5262 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

5263 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

5264 type-inference.

5266 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

5267 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

5268 instead of exponential time).

5270 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

5271 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

5273 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

5275 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

5276 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

5277 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

5278 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

5279 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

5280 syntax and examples.

5282 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

5283 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

5284 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

5285 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

5286 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

5288 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

5289 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5291 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

5292 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

5293 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

5294 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

5295 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

5296 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

5299 *** ZF ***

5301 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

5302 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

5303 of a homomorphism).

5305 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

5306 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

5307 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

5310 *** Cube ***

5312 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

5313 theories.

5316 *** ML ***

5318 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

5319 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

5321 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

5322 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

5323 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

5324 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

5325 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

5327 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

5328 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

5329 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

5330 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

5332 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

5333 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

5334 suggests how one can translate existing code:

5336 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

5337 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

5338 last_elem xs = List.last xs

5339 flat xss = List.concat xss

5340 seq fs = List.app fs

5341 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

5342 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

5344 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

5345 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

5347 x |> f f #> g

5348 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

5350 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

5352 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

5353 infix 2 ?;

5354 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

5355 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

5357 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

5358 infix operators.

5360 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

5361 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

5362 example:

5364 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

5365 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

5367 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

5368 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

5370 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

5371 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

5373 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

5374 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

5376 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

5377 available:

5379 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

5380 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

5381 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

5382 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

5384 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5385 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

5386 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

5387 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

5388 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

5390 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

5391 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

5392 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

5394 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5396 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

5397 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

5399 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

5400 Naive rewrites:

5402 make_keylist = AList.make

5403 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

5405 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

5406 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

5408 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

5409 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

5411 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

5412 Naive rewrites:

5414 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

5415 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

5417 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

5418 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

5419 lists.

5421 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

5422 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

5423 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

5424 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

5426 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

5427 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

5428 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

5429 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

5430 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

5431 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

5432 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

5433 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

5434 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

5435 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

5436 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

5437 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

5438 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

5439 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

5440 Output.raw have no effect.

5442 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

5443 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

5444 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

5446 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

5447 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

5448 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

5449 internal and external process view of file names are different.

5451 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

5452 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

5453 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

5454 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

5455 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

5456 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

5457 Library.sort_strings on result).

5459 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

5460 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

5461 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

5462 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

5464 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

5465 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

5466 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

5467 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

5468 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

5469 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

5470 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

5471 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

5472 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

5473 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

5474 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

5476 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

5477 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

5478 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

5479 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

5480 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

5481 with earlier declarations.

5483 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

5484 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

5485 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

5487 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

5488 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

5489 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

5490 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

5491 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

5492 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

5494 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

5495 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

5497 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

5498 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

5500 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

5501 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

5502 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

5503 Theory.merge, etc.)

5505 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

5506 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

5507 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

5509 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

5511 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

5512 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

5513 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

5514 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

5516 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

5517 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

5518 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

5519 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

5520 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

5521 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

5522 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

5523 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

5525 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

5526 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

5527 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5529 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

5530 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

5531 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

5533 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

5534 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

5536 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5537 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5538 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5539 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5541 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

5543 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

5544 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

5545 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

5546 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

5547 (both increase the runtime).

5549 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

5550 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

5551 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

5553 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

5554 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

5555 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

5556 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

5557 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

5558 for further details.

5560 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

5561 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

5562 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

5563 scripts for the time being.

5565 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

5566 generated HTML files. For example:

5568 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

5569 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

5572 *** System ***

5574 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

5575 isabelle, isatool etc.).

5577 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

5578 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

5580 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

5581 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

5583 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

5584 distribution being used.

5586 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

5587 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

5588 theories.

5592 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

5593 --------------------------------

5595 *** General ***

5597 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

5598 Replaces linorder.ML.

5600 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

5601 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

5602 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

5603 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

5604 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

5605 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

5606 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

5607 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

5608 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

5609 existing theory and ML files.

5611 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

5613 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

5614 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

5615 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

5616 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

5618 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

5619 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

5620 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

5621 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

5623 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

5624 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

5625 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

5627 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

5628 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

5629 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

5630 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

5631 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

5633 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

5634 (i.e. intersections of classes),

5636 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

5637 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

5638 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

5641 *** Isar ***

5643 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

5644 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

5645 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

5646 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

5647 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

5648 emulations.

5649 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

5650 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

5651 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

5653 * Attributes "where" and "of":

5654 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

5655 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

5656 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

5657 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

5659 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

5660 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

5661 and derived forms.

5663 * Locales:

5664 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

5665 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

5666 "_axioms") in the premise.

5667 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

5668 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

5669 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

5670 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

5671 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

5672 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

5673 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

5674 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

5675 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

5676 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

5677 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

5678 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

5679 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

5680 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

5681 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

5682 with "locale (open)".

5683 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

5685 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

5686 (Isar) contexts.

5689 *** HOL ***

5691 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

5692 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

5693 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

5694 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

5695 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

5697 * Simplifier:

5698 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

5699 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

5700 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

5701 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

5702 to solve goals from the assumptions.

5703 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

5704 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

5705 is solved by simplification already.

5707 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

5708 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

5710 * Numerics:

5711 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

5712 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

5713 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

5714 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

5715 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

5716 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

5717 exponentiation).

5719 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

5721 * Records:

5722 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

5723 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

5724 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

5725 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

5726 (not enabled by default).

5727 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

5728 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

5729 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

5731 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

5732 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

5733 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

5735 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

5737 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

5739 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

5740 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

5742 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

5743 matrix theory to linear programming.

5745 * Unions and Intersections:

5746 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

5747 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

5748 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

5749 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

5751 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

5752 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

5753 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

5754 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

5756 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

5757 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

5759 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

5760 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

5762 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

5763 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

5764 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

5766 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

5767 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

5768 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

5769 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

5770 for examples.

5773 *** HOLCF ***

5775 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

5779 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

5780 ------------------------------

5782 *** General ***

5784 * Provers/simplifier:

5786 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

5787 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

5788 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

5789 the order of assumptions.

5791 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5793 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

5794 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

5796 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

5798 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

5800 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

5802 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

5803 kind of problem.

5805 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

5806 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

5807 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

5808 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

5809 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

5810 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

5811 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

5813 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

5815 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

5816 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

5817 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

5818 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

5819 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

5820 the simplifier would diverge.

5822 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

5824 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

5825 congruence is ignored.

5827 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

5828 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

5829 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

5831 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

5832 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

5833 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

5834 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

5836 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

5837 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

5838 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

5839 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

5840 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

5841 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

5842 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

5844 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

5845 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

5846 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

5847 assumption failed.

5849 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

5850 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

5851 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

5852 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

5853 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

5854 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

5855 on the old view without predicates;

5857 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

5858 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

5859 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

5861 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

5862 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

5863 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

5864 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

5865 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

5866 be given (the default is 40);

5868 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

5869 (batch-mode only);

5871 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

5872 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

5873 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

5875 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

5876 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

5877 for slight decrease in efficiency;

5879 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

5880 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

5882 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

5883 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

5886 *** HOL ***

5888 * arith(_tac)

5890 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

5891 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

5892 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

5893 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

5895 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

5897 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

5898 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

5899 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

5901 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

5902 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

5904 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

5905 are distributed over a sum of terms;

5907 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

5908 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

5909 "<=", "<" and "=").

5911 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

5912 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

5914 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

5915 definition;

5917 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

5918 Finite_Set);

5920 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

5921 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

5923 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

5924 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

5926 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

5927 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

5928 of the empty set.

5930 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

5931 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

5932 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

5933 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

5935 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

5937 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

5938 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

5939 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

5941 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

5943 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

5944 Fleuriot);

5946 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

5948 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

5949 Gray and Kramer);

5951 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

5953 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

5954 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

5956 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

5957 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

5958 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

5959 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

5960 assignment, exceptions.

5963 *** ZF ***

5965 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

5966 universe, etc.);

5968 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

5971 *** ML ***

5973 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

5974 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

5975 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

5977 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

5979 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

5980 up simprocs;

5983 *** Document preparation ***

5985 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

5986 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

5987 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

5989 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

5990 other packages

5992 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

5993 broke \Rightarrow)

5995 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

5996 textcomp package)

6000 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

6001 --------------------------------

6003 *** Document preparation ***

6005 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

6006 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

6007 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

6008 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

6009 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

6010 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

6012 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

6013 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

6014 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

6016 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

6017 blocks after section headings;

6019 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

6020 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

6022 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

6023 better in printed text;

6025 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

6026 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

6027 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

6029 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

6030 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

6031 location;

6034 *** Isar ***

6036 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

6037 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

6038 "case (Suc n)");

6039 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

6040 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

6041 instantiation of cases;

6042 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

6043 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

6044 rules without further ado;

6045 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

6046 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

6047 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

6048 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

6049 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

6050 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

6051 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

6052 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

6053 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

6054 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

6055 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

6056 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

6057 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

6058 below);

6059 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

6060 success (no backtracking);

6061 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

6062 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

6063 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

6064 General versions);

6065 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

6066 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

6068 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

6069 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

6070 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

6071 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

6072 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

6073 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

6074 fails:

6076 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

6078 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

6079 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

6081 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

6082 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

6083 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

6084 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

6085 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

6086 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

6087 some examples;

6089 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

6090 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

6091 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

6092 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

6093 qualified by the locale name);

6095 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

6096 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

6097 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

6098 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

6099 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

6101 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

6102 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

6103 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

6104 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

6105 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

6107 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

6109 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

6110 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

6111 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

6113 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

6115 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

6117 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

6119 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

6120 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

6121 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

6123 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

6124 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

6125 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

6126 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

6127 proof *scripts*;

6129 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

6130 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

6131 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

6132 especially important for locales);

6134 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

6135 mode;

6137 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

6138 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

6139 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

6140 situations;

6142 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

6143 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

6145 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

6146 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

6147 discontinued;

6149 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

6150 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

6151 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

6153 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

6154 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

6155 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

6156 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

6157 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

6158 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

6159 INCOMPATIBILITY;

6161 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

6162 of introduction rules;

6164 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

6165 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

6166 conditional rules;

6168 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

6170 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

6171 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

6173 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

6174 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

6176 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

6177 wf_induct_rule;

6180 *** HOL ***

6182 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

6183 follows:

6185 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

6186 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

6188 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

6189 binary representation internally;

6191 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

6192 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

6194 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

6195 are some hints on converting existing sources:

6197 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

6198 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

6199 to be spaced properly;

6201 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

6202 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

6204 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

6206 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

6208 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

6209 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

6211 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

6213 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

6214 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

6215 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

6216 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

6217 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

6219 * HOL/record package improvements:

6220 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

6221 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

6222 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

6223 declared as simp by default;

6224 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

6225 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

6226 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

6227 INCOMPATIBILITY;

6228 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

6229 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

6230 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

6231 parts, and sc