NEWS
author hoelzl
Fri Dec 14 15:46:01 2012 +0100 (2012-12-14)
changeset 50526 899c9c4e4a4c
parent 50525 46be26e02456
child 50592 a39250169636
permissions -rw-r--r--
Remove the indexed basis from the definition of euclidean spaces and only use the set of Basis vectors
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    45 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    46 
    47 
    48 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    49 
    50 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    51 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    52 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    53 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    54 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    55 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    56 
    57 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    58 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    59 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    60 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    61 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    62 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    63 
    64 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    65 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    66 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    67 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    68 
    69 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    70 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    71 
    72 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    73 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    74 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    75 potentially infinite message streams.
    76 
    77 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    78 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    79 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    80 schemes.
    81 
    82 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    83 symbols.
    84 
    85 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    86 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
    87 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
    88 
    89 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
    90 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
    91 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS.
    92 
    93 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
    94 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
    95 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
    96 Isabelle distribution.
    97 
    98 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    99 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   100 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   101 
   102 
   103 *** Pure ***
   104 
   105 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   106 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   107 
   108 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
   109 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
   110 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
   111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   114 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   115 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   116 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   117 with some care where this is really required.
   118 
   119 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   120 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   121 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   122 
   123   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   124 
   125 
   126 *** HOL ***
   127 
   128 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   129 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   130 
   131 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   132 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   135 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   136 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   137 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   138 accordingly.
   139 
   140 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   141 
   142   - Renamed constants
   143       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   144 
   145   - Renamed facts
   146       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   147 
   148 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   153 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   154 
   155 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   156 to lattice type classes.
   157 
   158 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   159 
   160 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   161 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   162 
   163   - Renamed constants:
   164 
   165       prefix ~> prefixeq
   166       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   167 
   168     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   171     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   172     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   173     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   174 
   175   - New constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   176     abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case "list_hembeq (op =)".
   177 
   178   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   179     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   180     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   181     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   184     "Sublist.sublisteq". Replaced lemmas:
   185 
   186       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   187       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   188       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   189       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   190       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   191       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   192       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   193       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   194       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   195       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   196       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   197       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   198       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   199       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   200       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   201       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   202 
   203     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * Further generalized the definition of limits:
   206 
   207   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which expresses that
   208     when the input values x converge to F then the output f x converges to G.
   209 
   210   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative infinity (at_bot).
   211     Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   212 
   213   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :> at_top".
   214     INCOMPATIBILITY
   215 
   216 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   217 
   218 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   219 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   220 
   221 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   222 
   223 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   224 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   225 non-free datatypes.
   226 
   227 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   228 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   229 
   230 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis:
   231   Replaced "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real" and
   232   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space" on euclidean spaces by
   233   using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with vectors from the Basis set.
   234   "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is replaced by "SUM i : Basis. f i *r i".
   235 
   236   With this change the following constants are also chanegd or removed:
   237 
   238     DIM('a) :: nat   ~>   card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   239     a $$ i    ~>    inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   240     cart_base i     removed
   241     \<pi>, \<pi>'   removed
   242 
   243   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   244 
   245   Renamed lemmas:
   246 
   247     component_le_norm   ~>   Basis_le_norm
   248     euclidean_eq   ~>   euclidean_eq_iff
   249     differential_zero_maxmin_component   ~>   differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   250     euclidean_simps   ~>   inner_simps
   251     independent_basis   ~>   independent_Basis
   252     span_basis   ~>   span_Basis
   253     in_span_basis   ~>   in_span_Basis
   254     norm_bound_component_le   ~>   norm_boound_Basis_le
   255     norm_bound_component_lt   ~>   norm_boound_Basis_lt
   256     component_le_infnorm   ~>   Basis_le_infnorm
   257 
   258   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * HOL/Probability:
   261   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   262 
   263   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   264     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   265 
   266   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   267 
   268 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   269 
   270 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   271 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   272 
   273 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   274 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   275 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   276 
   277       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   278       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   279       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   280       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   281       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   282       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   283       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   284       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   285       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   286       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   287 
   288   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289 
   290 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   291 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   292 
   293 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   294 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   295 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   296 
   297 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   298 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   299 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   302 
   303 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   304 expressions.
   305 
   306 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   307 pointfree expressions.
   308 
   309 * Quickcheck:
   310 
   311   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   312     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   313     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   314 
   315 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   316 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   317 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   318 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   319 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320 
   321 * Sledgehammer:
   322 
   323   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   324     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   325   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   326   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   327   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill".
   328   - Renamed options:
   329       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   330       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   331       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   332       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   333 
   334 
   335 *** Document preparation ***
   336 
   337 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   338 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   339 
   340 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   341 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   342 document/root.tex.
   343 
   344 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   345 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   346 
   347 
   348 *** ML ***
   349 
   350 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   351 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   352 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   353 
   354 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   355 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   356 necessarily printing visible text.
   357 
   358 
   359 *** System ***
   360 
   361 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   362 instead of 4.
   363 
   364 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   365 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   366 for home-made configurations.
   367 
   368 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   369 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   370 
   371 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   372 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   373 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   374 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   375 
   376 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   377 
   378 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   379 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   380 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   381 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   382 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   383 
   384 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   385 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   386 
   387   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   388 
   389 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   390 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   391 
   392 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   393 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   394 "isabelle usedir".
   395 
   396 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   397 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   398 version of Isabelle.
   399 
   400 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   404 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   405 configuration.
   406 
   407 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   408 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   409 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   410 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   411 bundled as Isabelle component.
   412 
   413 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   414 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   415 
   416 
   417 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   418 ------------------------------
   419 
   420 *** General ***
   421 
   422 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   423 
   424   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   425     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   426   - markup for bound variables
   427   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   428   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   429   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   430     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   431 
   432 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   433 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   434 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   435 
   436 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   437 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   438 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   439 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   440 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   441 
   442   context
   443     fixes x y z :: 'a
   444     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   445   begin
   446 
   447   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   448 
   449   end
   450 
   451   thm my_trans
   452 
   453 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   454 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   455 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   456 
   457 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   458 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   459 
   460 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   461 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   462 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   463 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   464 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   465 
   466 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   467 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   468 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   469 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   470 indices of schematic variables.
   471 
   472 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   473 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   474 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   475 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   476 etc. was exploited.
   477 
   478 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   479 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   480 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   481 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   482 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   483 of the material of that old tutorial.
   484 
   485 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   486 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   487 manual.
   488 
   489 
   490 *** Pure ***
   491 
   492 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   493 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   494 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   495 
   496 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   497 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   498 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   499 undocumented feature.)
   500 
   501 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   502 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   503 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   504 
   505   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   506 
   507   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   508     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   509 
   510 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   511 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   512 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   513 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   514 
   515 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   516 
   517     num ~> num_token
   518     xnum ~> xnum_token
   519     xstr ~> str_token
   520 
   521 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   522 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   523 position information via constraints).
   524 
   525 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   526 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   527 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   530 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   531 
   532 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   533 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   534 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   537 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   540 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   541 
   542   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   543 
   544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   547 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   548 
   549 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   550 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   551 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   552 
   553 
   554 *** HOL ***
   555 
   556 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   557 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   558 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   559 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   560 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   561 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   562 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   563 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   564 possible.
   565 
   566 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   567 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   568 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   569 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   570 
   571 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   572 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   573 
   574 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   575 
   576 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   577 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   578 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   579 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   580 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   581 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   582 
   583   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   584     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   585 
   586   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   587     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   588     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   589 
   590   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   591     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   592 
   593   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   594     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   595     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   596 
   597   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   598     Redefine using other integer operations.
   599 
   600 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   601 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   602 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   603 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   604 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   605 
   606   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   607     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   608     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   609     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   610     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   611 
   612     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   613     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   614 
   615   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   616     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   617     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   618     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   619     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   620     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   621     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   622     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   623 
   624   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   625     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   626     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   627     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   628 
   629   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   630     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   631     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   632     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   633 
   634   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   635     from type nat to type int.
   636 
   637 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   638 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   639 
   640   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   641     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   642     type.  Example syntax:
   643 
   644     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   645       is List.insert
   646 
   647     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   648     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   649     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   650     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   651     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   652     by the package.
   653 
   654   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   655     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   656     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   657     code generation for each constant.
   658 
   659   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   660     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   661     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   662     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   663     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   664 
   665   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   666     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   667     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   668 
   669 * Quotient package:
   670 
   671   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   672     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   673 
   674   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   675     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   676 
   677   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   678     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   679     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   680 
   681   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   682     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   683 
   684 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   685 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   686 
   687 * Quickcheck:
   688 
   689   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   690     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   691     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   692     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   693     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   694 
   695     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   696     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   697     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   698 
   699     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   700     continues searching for genuine ones.
   701 
   702     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   703     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   704     show genuine counterexamples.
   705 
   706   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   707     value generators for a given type and operations.
   708 
   709     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   710     constructors of that type.
   711 
   712   - Support for multisets.
   713 
   714   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   715 
   716   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   717     conjectures in a locale context.
   718 
   719 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   720 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   721 
   722 * Sledgehammer:
   723   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   724     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   725   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   726   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   727     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   728   - Sped up the minimizer.
   729   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   730   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   731   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   732 
   733 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   734 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   735 
   736 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   737 
   738 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   741 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   742 
   743   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   744 
   745 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   746 a list and a nat.
   747 
   748 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   749 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   750 
   751 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   752 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   753 default.
   754 
   755 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   756 
   757   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   758 
   759 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   760 
   761 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   762 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   763 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   764 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   765 one_case.
   766 
   767 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   768 the result of the fact expression.
   769 
   770 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   771 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   772 of some relation theorems:
   773 
   774   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   775   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   776   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   777   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   778   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   779   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   780 
   781 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   782 
   783 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   784 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   785 
   786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   787 
   788 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   789 to match the constant's name:
   790 
   791   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   792   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   793   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   794   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   795   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   796   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   797   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   798   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   799   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   800   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   801   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   802   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   803   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   804   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   805   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   806   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   807   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   808   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   809   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   810   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   811   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   812   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   813   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   814   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   815 
   816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   819 and corresponding theorem names:
   820 
   821   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   822 
   823   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   824 
   825   - Renamed theorems:
   826 
   827     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   828     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   829     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   830     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   831     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   832     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   833     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   834     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   835     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   836     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   837     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   838     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   839     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   840     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   841     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   842     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   843     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   844     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   845     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   846     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   847     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   848     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   849     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   850 
   851     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   852 
   853     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   854 
   855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   858 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   859 
   860   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   861   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   862   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   863   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   864   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   865   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   866   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   867   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   868   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   869   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   870   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   871   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   872   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   873   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   874   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   875   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   876   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   877   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   878   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   879   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   880   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   881 
   882 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   883 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886 
   887 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   888 
   889   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   890   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   891   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   892   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   893   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   894   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   895   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   896   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   897   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   898   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   899   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   900   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   901   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   902   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   903   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   904   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   905   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   906   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   907 
   908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   909 
   910 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   911 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   912 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   913 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   914 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   915 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   916 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   917 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   918 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   919 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   920 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   921 
   922 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   923 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   924 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   925 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   926 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   927 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   928 
   929 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   930 through option types.
   931 
   932 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   933 relations.
   934 
   935 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   938 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   939 
   940   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   941   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   942   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   943   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   944   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   945   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   946   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   947   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   948   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   949   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   950   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   951   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   952   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   953   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   954   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   955   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   956   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   957   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   958   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   959   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   960   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   961   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   962   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   963   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   964   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   965   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   966   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   967   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   968   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   969   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   970   zless_le ~> less_le
   971   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   972   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   973   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   974 
   975 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   976 
   977   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   978 
   979 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   980 
   981 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   982 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   983 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   984 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   988 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   989 
   990 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   991 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   992 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   993 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   994 follows:
   995 
   996   Operations:
   997   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   998   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   999   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1000   del -> rbt_del
  1001   delete -> rbt_delete
  1002   ins -> rbt_ins
  1003   insert -> rbt_insert
  1004   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1005   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1006   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1007   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1008   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1009   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1010   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1011   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1012   union -> rbt_union
  1013   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1014   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1015 
  1016   Lemmas:
  1017   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1018   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1019   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1020   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1021   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1022   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1023   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1024   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1025   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1026   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1027   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1028   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1029   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1030   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1031   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1032   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1033   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1034   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1035   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1036   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1037   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1038   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1039   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1040   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1041   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1042   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1043   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1044   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1045   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1046   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1047   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1048   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1049   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1050   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1051   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1052   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1053   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1054   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1055   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1056   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1057   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1058   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1059   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1060   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1061   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1062   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1063   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1064   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1065   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1066   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1067   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1068   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1069   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1070   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1071   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1072   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1073   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1074   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1075   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1076   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1077   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1078   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1079   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1080   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1081   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1082   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1083   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1084   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1085   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1086   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1087   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1088   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1089   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1090   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1091   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1092   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1093   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1094   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1095   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1096   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1097   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1098   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1099   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1100 
  1101 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1102 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1103 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1104 
  1105   Changed Operations:
  1106   float_abs -> abs
  1107   float_nprt -> nprt
  1108   float_pprt -> pprt
  1109   pow2 -> use powr
  1110   round_down -> float_round_down
  1111   round_up -> float_round_up
  1112   scale -> exponent
  1113 
  1114   Removed Operations:
  1115   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1116 
  1117   Renamed Lemmas:
  1118   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1119   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1120   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1121   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1122   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1123   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1124   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1125   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1126   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1127   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1128   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1129   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1130   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1131   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1132   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1133   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1134   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1135   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1136   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1137   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1138   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1139   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1140   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1141   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1142   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1143   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1144   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1145   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1146   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1147   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1148   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1149   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1150   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1151   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1152   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1153   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1154 
  1155   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1156   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1157   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1158   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1159   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1160   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1161   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1162   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1163   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1164   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1165 
  1166 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1167 association lists with distinct keys.
  1168 
  1169 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1170 annotated commands.
  1171 
  1172 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1173 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1174 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1175 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1176 
  1177 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1178 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1179 instead.
  1180 
  1181   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1182   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1183   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1184   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1185   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1186   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1187   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1188   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1189   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1190   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1191   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1192   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1193   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1194   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1195   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1196   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1197   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1198   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1199   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1200   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1201   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1202   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1203   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1204   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1205   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1206   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1207   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1208   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1209   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1210   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1211   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1212   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1213   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1214   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1215   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1216   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1217   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1218   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1219   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1220   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1221   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1222 
  1223 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1224 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1225 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1226 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1227 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1228 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1229 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1230 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1231 
  1232 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1233 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1234 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1235 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1236 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1237 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1238 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1239 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1240 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1241 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1242 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1243 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1244 
  1245   Renamed constants:
  1246   measure -> emeasure
  1247   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1248   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1249   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1250   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1251 
  1252   Removed locales:
  1253   completeable_measure_space
  1254   finite_measure_space
  1255   finite_prob_space
  1256   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1257   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1258   finite_sigma_algebra
  1259   measure_space
  1260   pair_finite_prob_space
  1261   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1262   pair_finite_space
  1263   pair_sigma_algebra
  1264   product_sigma_algebra
  1265 
  1266   Removed constants:
  1267   conditional_space
  1268   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1269   image_space
  1270   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1271   pair_measure_generator
  1272   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1273   subvimage
  1274 
  1275   Replacement theorems:
  1276   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1277   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1278   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1279   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1280   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1281   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1282   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1283   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1284   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1285   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1286   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1287   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1288   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1289   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1290   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1291   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1292   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1293   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1294   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1295   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1296   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1297   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1298   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1299   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1300   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1301   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1302   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1303   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1304   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1305   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1306   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1307   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1308   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1309   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1310   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1311   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1312   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1313   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1314   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1315   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1316   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1317   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1318   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1319   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1320   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1321   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1322   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1323   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1324   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1325   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1326   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1327   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1328   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1329   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1330   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1331   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1332   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1333   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1334   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1335   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1336   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1337   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1338   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1339   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1340   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1341   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1342   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1343   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1344   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1345   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1346   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1347   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1348   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1349   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1350   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1351   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1352   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1353   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1354   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1355   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1356   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1357   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1358   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1359   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1360   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1361   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1362   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1363   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1364   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1365   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1366   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1367   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1368   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1369   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1370   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1371   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1372   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1373   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1374   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1375   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1376   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1377   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1378   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1379   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1380   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1381   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1382   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1383   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1384   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1385   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1386   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1387   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1388   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1389   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1390   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1391   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1392   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1393   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1394   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1395   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1396   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1397   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1398   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1399   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1400   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1401   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1402   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1403   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1404 
  1405 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1406 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1407 
  1408 
  1409 *** FOL ***
  1410 
  1411 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1412 
  1413 
  1414 *** ZF ***
  1415 
  1416 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1417 analysis.
  1418 
  1419 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1420 
  1421 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422 
  1423 
  1424 *** ML ***
  1425 
  1426 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1427 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1428 
  1429 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1430 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1431 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1432 
  1433 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1434 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1435 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1436 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1437 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1438 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1439 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1440 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1441 
  1442 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1443 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1444 
  1445 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1446 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1447 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1448 
  1449 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1450 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1451 
  1452 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1453 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1454 context as well.
  1455 
  1456 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1457 
  1458   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1459   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1460   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1461   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1462   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1463   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1464   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1465   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1466   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1467   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1468   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1469   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1470 
  1471 
  1472 *** System ***
  1473 
  1474 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1475 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1476 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1477 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1478 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1479 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1480 the generic user home was intended.
  1481 
  1482 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1483 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1484 
  1485 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1486 (not just JRE).
  1487 
  1488 
  1489 
  1490 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1491 ------------------------------------
  1492 
  1493 *** General ***
  1494 
  1495 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1496 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1497 
  1498   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1499     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1500     files for checking).
  1501 
  1502   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1503     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1504     positions.
  1505 
  1506   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1507     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1508     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1509 
  1510   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1511     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1512     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1513 
  1514   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1515     cores.
  1516 
  1517   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1518     versions (garbage collection).
  1519 
  1520 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1521 including some remaining limitations.
  1522 
  1523 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1524 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1525 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1526 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1527 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1531 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1532 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1533 
  1534 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1535 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1536 usedir option -Q.
  1537 
  1538 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1539 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1540 
  1541   long_names   ~> names_long
  1542   short_names  ~> names_short
  1543   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1544 
  1545 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1546 
  1547   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1548 
  1549 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1550 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1551 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1552 
  1553 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1554 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1555 
  1556 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1557   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1558   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1559   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1560     "Classical Reasoner".
  1561 
  1562 
  1563 *** HOL ***
  1564 
  1565 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1566 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567 
  1568 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1569 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1570 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1571 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1572 class complete_linorder.
  1573 
  1574 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1575 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1576 
  1577 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1578 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1579 
  1580   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1581   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1582   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1583   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1584   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1585   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1586   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1587   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1588   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1589   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1590   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1591 
  1592 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1593 
  1594   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1595   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1596   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1597   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1598   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1599   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1600   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1601   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1602   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1603   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1604   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1605   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1606   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1607   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1608   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1609   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1610 
  1611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1612 
  1613 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1615 
  1616 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1617 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1618 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1619 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1620 
  1621 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1622 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1623 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625 
  1626 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1627 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1628 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1629 
  1630 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1631 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1632 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1635 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1636 
  1637 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1638 
  1639     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1640     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1641 
  1642 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1643 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1646 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1647 
  1648 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1649 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1650 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1651 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652 
  1653   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1654   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1655   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1656   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1657   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1658   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1659   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1660 
  1661 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1662 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1663 
  1664   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1665   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1666   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1667   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1668   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1669   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1670   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1671   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1672   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1673   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1674   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1675   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1676   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1677   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1678   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1679   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1680   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1681   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1682   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1683   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1684   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1685   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1686   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1687   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1688   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1689   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1690   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1691   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1692   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1693   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1694   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1695   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1696   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1697   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1698   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1699   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1700   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1701   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1702   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1703   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1704   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1705   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1706   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1707   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1708   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1709   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1710   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1711   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1712   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1713   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1714   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1715   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1716   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1717   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1718   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1719   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1720   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1721   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1722   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1723   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1724   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1725   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1726   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1727   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1728   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1729   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1730   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1731   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1732   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1733   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1734   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1735   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1736   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1737   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1738   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1739   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1740   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1741   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1742   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1743   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1744   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1745   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1746 
  1747 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1748 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1749 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1750 
  1751 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1752 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1753 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1754 
  1755 * Code generation:
  1756 
  1757   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1758     characters in the target language.
  1759 
  1760   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1761     instead.
  1762 
  1763   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1764 
  1765   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1766     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1767 
  1768       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1769 
  1770 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1771 
  1772 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1773 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1774 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1775 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1776 syntax.
  1777 
  1778 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1779 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1780 
  1781 * Nitpick:
  1782   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1783   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1784   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1785     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1786 
  1787 * Sledgehammer:
  1788   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1789   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1790     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1791   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1792     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1793   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1794     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1795   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1796     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1797   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1798     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Metis:
  1801   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1802   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1803     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1804 
  1805 * Command 'try':
  1806   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1807     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1808   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1809     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1810 
  1811 * Quickcheck:
  1812   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1813     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1814   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1815     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1816   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1817     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1818     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1819     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1820   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1821     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1822 
  1823 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1824 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1825 
  1826 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1827 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1828 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1829 
  1830 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1831 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1832 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1835 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1838 arithmetic.
  1839 
  1840 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1841 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1842 and lattice type classes.
  1843 
  1844 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1845 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1846 
  1847 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1848 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1849 
  1850 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1851 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1852 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1853 
  1854   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1855   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1856   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1857   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1858 
  1859 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1860 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1861 constants:
  1862 
  1863   type inat   ~> type enat
  1864   Fin         ~> enat
  1865   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1866   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1867   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1868 
  1869 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1870 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871 
  1872 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1873 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1874 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1875 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1876 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1877 
  1878 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1879 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1880 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1881 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1882 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1883 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1884 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1885 
  1886   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1887   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1888   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1889   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1890 
  1891 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1892 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1893 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1896   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1897   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1898   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1899   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1900   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1901   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1902   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1903   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1904   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1905   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1906   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1907   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1908   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1909   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1910   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1911   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1912   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1913   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1914   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1915   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1916   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1917   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1918   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1919   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1920   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1921   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1922   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1923   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1924   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1925   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1926   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1927   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1928   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1929   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1930   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1931   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1932   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1933   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1934   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1935   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1936   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1937   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1938   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1939   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1940   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1941   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1942   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1943   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1944   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1945   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1946 
  1947 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1948   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1949   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1950   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1951   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1952     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1953 
  1954 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1955 
  1956   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1957   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1958   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1959   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1960   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1961   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1962   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1963   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1964   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1965   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1966   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1967   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1968   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1969   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1970   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1971   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1972   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1973   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1974   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1975   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1976   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1977   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1978   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1979   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1980   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1981 
  1982 
  1983 *** Document preparation ***
  1984 
  1985 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1986 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1987 same.
  1988 
  1989 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1990 result.
  1991 
  1992 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1993 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1994 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1995 
  1996 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1997 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1998 
  1999 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2000 like this:
  2001 
  2002   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2003   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2004 
  2005 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2006 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2007 layouts.
  2008 
  2009 
  2010 *** ML ***
  2011 
  2012 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2013 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2014 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2015 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2016 under external program control.
  2017 
  2018 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2019 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2020 
  2021 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2022 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2023 (better known as Proof General).
  2024 
  2025 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2026 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2027 
  2028 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2029 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2030 
  2031 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2032 (including quotes etc.).
  2033 
  2034 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2035 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2036 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2037 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2038 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2039 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2040 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2041 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2042 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2043 
  2044 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2045 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2046 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2047 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2048 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2049 
  2050 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2051 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2052 
  2053 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2054 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2055 
  2056 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2057 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2058 
  2059 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2060 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2061 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2062 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2063 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2064 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2065 proper Proof.context.
  2066 
  2067 
  2068 *** System ***
  2069 
  2070 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2071 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2072 
  2073 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2074 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2075 
  2076 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2077 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2078 
  2079   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2080   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2081   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2082   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2083   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2084 
  2085 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2086 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2087 
  2088 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2089 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2090 example:
  2091 
  2092   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2093 
  2094 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2095 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2096 
  2097 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2098 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2099 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2100 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2101 
  2102 
  2103 
  2104 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2105 ----------------------------------
  2106 
  2107 *** General ***
  2108 
  2109 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2110 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2111 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2112 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2113 like this:
  2114 
  2115   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2116 
  2117 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2118 
  2119 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2120 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2121 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2122 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2123 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2124 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2125 
  2126 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2127 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2128 the following package declarations:
  2129 
  2130   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2131   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2132 
  2133 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2134 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2135 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2136 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2137 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2138 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2139 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2140 
  2141 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2142 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2143 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2144 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2145 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2146 
  2147 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2148 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2149 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2150 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2151 
  2152 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2153 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2154 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2155 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2156 
  2157   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2158 
  2159   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2160   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2161   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2162   show_types                    show_types
  2163   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2164   show_consts                   show_consts
  2165   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2166 
  2167   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2168   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2169   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2170 
  2171   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2172   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2173 
  2174   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2175 
  2176   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2177   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2178   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2179   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2180   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2181 
  2182 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2183 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2184 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2185 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2186 
  2187 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2191   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2192 
  2193 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2194 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2195 float_token.
  2196 
  2197 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2198 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2202 DejaVu Sans.
  2203 
  2204 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2205 
  2206 
  2207 *** Pure ***
  2208 
  2209 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2210 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2211 time.
  2212 
  2213 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2214 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2215 
  2216 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2217 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2218 
  2219 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2220 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2221 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2222 command already provided this functionality.
  2223 
  2224 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2225 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2226 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2227 without interpretations.
  2228 
  2229 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2230 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2231 
  2232 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2233 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2234 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2235 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2236 
  2237 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2238 'definition' instead.
  2239 
  2240 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2241 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2242 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2243 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2244 
  2245 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2246 constructors.
  2247 
  2248 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2249 the local file system.
  2250 
  2251 
  2252 *** HOL ***
  2253 
  2254 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2255 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2256 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2257 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2258 
  2259   declare [[coercion f]]
  2260 
  2261 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2262 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2263 
  2264   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2265 
  2266 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2267 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2268 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2269 other theories like this:
  2270 
  2271   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2272 
  2273 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2274 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2275 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2276 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2277 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2278 for examples.
  2279 
  2280 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2281 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2282 
  2283 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2284 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2285 
  2286 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2287 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2288 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2289 
  2290 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2291 functorial structure of types.
  2292 
  2293 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2294 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2295 
  2296 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2297 languages.
  2298 
  2299 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2300 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2304 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2307 combinators any longer.
  2308 
  2309 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2310 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2311 
  2312 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2313 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2314 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2315 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2316 
  2317   record 'a foo = ...
  2318   ...
  2319   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2320 
  2321 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2322 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2324 
  2325 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2326 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2327 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2328 
  2329 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2330 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2331 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2332 
  2333 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2334 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2337 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2338 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2339 independently.
  2340 
  2341 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2342 counter example search.
  2343 
  2344 * Sledgehammer:
  2345   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2346     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2347     sledgehammer").
  2348   - Renamed commands:
  2349     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2350     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2351     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2352     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353   - Renamed options:
  2354     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2355     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2356     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2357     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2358     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Nitpick:
  2361   - Renamed options:
  2362     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2363     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2364     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2366   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2367   - Added "whack" option.
  2368   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2369   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2370   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2371   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2372     higher cardinalities.
  2373   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2374 
  2375 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2376 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2377 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2378 
  2379     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2380 
  2381 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2382 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2383 
  2384 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2385 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2386 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2387 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2388 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2389 "smt_solver".
  2390 
  2391 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2392 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2393 
  2394 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2395 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2396 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2397 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2398 
  2399 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2400   - Renamed:
  2401     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2402     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404   - Added:
  2405     smt_verbose
  2406     smt_random_seed
  2407     smt_datatypes
  2408     smt_infer_triggers
  2409     smt_monomorph_limit
  2410     cvc3_options
  2411     remote_cvc3_options
  2412     remote_z3_options
  2413     yices_options
  2414 
  2415 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2416 header.
  2417 
  2418 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2419 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2420 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2421 
  2422   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2423 
  2424 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2425 
  2426 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2427 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2432 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2433 
  2434 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2435 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2436 
  2437 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2438 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2441 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2442 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2443 
  2444 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2450 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451 
  2452 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2453 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2454 for congruent(2)).
  2455 
  2456 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2457 
  2458   types
  2459     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2460     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2461 
  2462   constants
  2463     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2464     True ~> HOL.True
  2465     False ~> HOL.False
  2466     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2467     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2468     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2469     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2470     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2471     The ~> HOL.The
  2472     All ~> HOL.All
  2473     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2474     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2475     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2476     If ~> HOL.If
  2477     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2478     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2479     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2480     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2481     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2482     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2483     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2484     op : ~> Set.member
  2485     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2486 
  2487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2488 
  2489 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2490 
  2491     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2492     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2493     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2494     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2495     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2496     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2497     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2498     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2499 
  2500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502 * More stylized fact names:
  2503 
  2504   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2505   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2506   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2507   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2508 
  2509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2512 
  2513   constants
  2514     null ~> List.null
  2515 
  2516   facts
  2517     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2518     null_empty ~> null_def
  2519 
  2520 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2521 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2522 generation.
  2523 
  2524 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2525 Haskell code.
  2526 
  2527 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2528 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2529 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2532 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2533 
  2534 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2535 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2536 
  2537 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2538 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2539 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2542 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546 
  2547 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2548 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2549 referred to by its qualified name.
  2550 
  2551   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2552   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2553   product ~>  Enum.product
  2554 
  2555 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2556 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558 
  2559 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2560 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2561 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2565 sort_key.
  2566 
  2567 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2569 
  2570 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2571 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2572 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2573 
  2574   types
  2575     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2576               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2577               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2578         (depends on your needs)
  2579 
  2580   constants
  2581      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2582      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2583      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2584 
  2585 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2586 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2587 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2588 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2589 
  2590 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2591 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2592 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2593 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2594 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2600 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2601 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2602 
  2603 
  2604 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2605 
  2606 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2607 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2608 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2609 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2610 compatibility.
  2611 
  2612 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2613 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2614 
  2615 
  2616 *** HOLCF ***
  2617 
  2618 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2619 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2620 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2624 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2625 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2628   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2629   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2630 
  2631 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2632 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2633 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2636 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2637 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2638 domain definition now works:
  2639 
  2640   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2641 
  2642 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2643 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2644 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2645 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2646 
  2647   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2648     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2649 
  2650   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2651 
  2652 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2653 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2654 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2657 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2660 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2661 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2662 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2663 
  2664 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2665 
  2666 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2667 
  2668 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2669 
  2670 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2671 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2674 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2675 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2676 
  2677 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2678 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2679 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2682 still supported as an input translation.
  2683 
  2684 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2685 
  2686   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2687   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2688   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2689   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2690   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2691   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2692   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2693 
  2694 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2695 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2698   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2699   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2700   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2701   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2702   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2703 
  2704 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2705 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2708 
  2709   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2710   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2711   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2712   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2713 
  2714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2717 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2718 
  2719 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2720 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2721 
  2722   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2723   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2724   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2725   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2726   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2727   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2728   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2729   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2730   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2731   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2732   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2733   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2734   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2735   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2736   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2737   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2738   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2739   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2740   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2741   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2742 
  2743 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2746   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2747   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2748   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2749   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2750   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2751   box_less             ~> box_below
  2752   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2753   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2754   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2755   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2756   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2757   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2758   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2759   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2760   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2761   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2762   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2763   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2764   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2765   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2766   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2767   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2768   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2769   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2770   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2771   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2772   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2773   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2774   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2775   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2776   up_less              ~> up_below
  2777   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2778   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2779   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2780   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2781   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2782   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2783   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2784   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2785   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2786   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2787   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2788   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2789   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2790 
  2791 
  2792 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2793 
  2794 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2795 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 
  2798 *** ML ***
  2799 
  2800 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2801 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2802 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2803 
  2804 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2805 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2806 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2807 
  2808 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2809 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2810 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2811 
  2812 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2813 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2814 
  2815 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2816 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2817 
  2818 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2819 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2820 
  2821 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2822 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2823 
  2824 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2825 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2826 almost all situations.
  2827 
  2828 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2829 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2830 Isabelle/ML.
  2831 
  2832 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2833 meaning.
  2834 
  2835 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2836 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2837 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2838 
  2839 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2840 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2841 
  2842 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2843 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2844 
  2845 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2846 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2847 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2848 
  2849 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2850 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2851 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2852 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2853 configuration options.
  2854 
  2855 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2856 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2857 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2858 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2859 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2860 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2861 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2862 
  2863 
  2864 
  2865 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2866 ---------------------------------
  2867 
  2868 *** General ***
  2869 
  2870 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2871 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2872 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2873 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2874 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2875 their full internal name.
  2876 
  2877 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2878 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2879 Some hints on upgrading:
  2880 
  2881   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2882     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2883     which are independent of this issue.
  2884 
  2885   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2886     provides the following special forms:
  2887 
  2888       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2889       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2890       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2891 
  2892     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2893     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2894     extra variables".
  2895 
  2896     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2897     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2898     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2899     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2900     "logic".
  2901 
  2902   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2903     antiquotations:
  2904 
  2905       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2906       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2907       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2908       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2909 
  2910   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2911     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2912     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2913     antiquotations.
  2914 
  2915 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2916 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2917 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2918 diagnose syntax problems.
  2919 
  2920 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2921 
  2922 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2923 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2924 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2925 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2926 
  2927 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2928 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2929 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2930 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2933 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2934 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2935 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2936 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2939 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2940 
  2941 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2942 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2943 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2944 
  2945   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2946 
  2947 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2948 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2949 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2950 
  2951 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2952 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954 
  2955 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2956 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2957 
  2958 
  2959 *** Pure ***
  2960 
  2961 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2962 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2963 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2964 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2965 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2966 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2967 inspect proof terms.
  2968 
  2969 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2970 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2971 are added internally.  For example:
  2972 
  2973   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2974 
  2975 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2976 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2981 'class' instead.
  2982 
  2983 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2984 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2986 
  2987 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2988 invariants.
  2989 
  2990 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2991 user space functionality any longer.
  2992 
  2993 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2994 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2998 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2999 
  3000 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3001 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3002 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3003 
  3004 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3005 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3006 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3007 
  3008 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3009 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 
  3012 *** HOL ***
  3013 
  3014 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3015 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3016 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3017 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3018 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3019 
  3020 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3021 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3022 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3023 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3024 
  3025   fun
  3026     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3027   where
  3028     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3029 
  3030   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3031     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3032 
  3033   quotient_definition
  3034     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3035 
  3036 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3037 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3038 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3039 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3040 
  3041 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3042 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3043 
  3044 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3045 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3046 
  3047 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3049 
  3050 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3051 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3052 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3053 
  3054 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3055 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3064 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3067 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3068 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3071   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3072   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3073   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3074   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3075   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3076   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3077   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3078   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3079   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3080   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3081   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3082   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3083   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3084   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3085   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3086   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3087   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3088   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3089   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3090   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3091   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3092   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3093   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3094   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3095   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3096   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3097   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3098   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3099   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3100 
  3101 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3102 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3103 
  3104 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3105 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3106 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3107 
  3108 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3109 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3110 
  3111 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3112 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3115 
  3116 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3117 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3120 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3123 
  3124 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3125 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3126 
  3127 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3128 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3129 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3130 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3133   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3134   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3135   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3137 
  3138 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3139 lattices):
  3140 
  3141     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3142     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3143 
  3144     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3145 
  3146     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3147     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3148     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3149     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3150     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3151     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3152     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3153     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3154     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3155     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3156     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3157     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3158     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3159 
  3160     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3161     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3162     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3163     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3164     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3165     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3166     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3167     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3168     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3169     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3170     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3171     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3172     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3173     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3174     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3175     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3176     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3177     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3178 
  3179   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3180   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3181 
  3182     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3183     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3184     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3185     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3186     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3187 
  3188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Refined field classes:
  3191   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3192     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3193     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3194   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3198   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3199   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3200   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3201     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3202   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3203     equal_neg_zero.
  3204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3207 sets to lattices:
  3208 
  3209   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3210   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3211   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3212   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3213   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3214   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3215   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3216   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3217   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3218   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3219 
  3220 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3221 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3222 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3223 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3224 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3225 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3228 multiset order:
  3229 
  3230   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3231     <= and <;
  3232   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3233     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3234     multiset_order;
  3235   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3236     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3237     generation;
  3238   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3239     if needed.
  3240 
  3241 Renamed:
  3242 
  3243   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3244   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3245   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3246 
  3247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3248 
  3249 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3250 
  3251 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3252 
  3253 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3254 
  3255 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3256 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3257 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259   Constants:
  3260   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3261   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3262   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3263   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3264   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3265   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3266   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3267   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3268   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3269   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3270   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3271   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3272   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3273 
  3274   Lemmas:
  3275   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3276   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3277   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3278   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3279   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3280   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3281   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3282   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3283   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3284   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3285   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3286   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3287   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3288 
  3289 * Sledgehammer:
  3290   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3291     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3292     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3293     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3294     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3295     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3296     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3298   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3299     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3300   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3301     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3302     is still experimental.)
  3303   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3304     full-typed mode.
  3305   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3306 
  3307 * Nitpick:
  3308   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3309   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3310   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3311     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3312   - Added support for quotient types.
  3313   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3314     constructs.
  3315   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3316     "termination" proofs).
  3317   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3318   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3319   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3320   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3321     record getters.
  3322   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3323   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3324   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3325   - Added "atoms" option.
  3326   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3327     problems.
  3328   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3329     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3330     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3332     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3334 
  3335 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3336   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3337   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3338   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3339   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3340   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3341   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3342   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3343   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3344   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 
  3347 *** HOLCF ***
  3348 
  3349 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3350 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3351 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3354 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3355 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3356 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3359 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3360 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3361 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3362 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3365 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3366 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3369 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3372   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3373 
  3374 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3375 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376 
  3377   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3378   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3379   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3380   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3381   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3382 
  3383 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3384 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3387   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3388   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3389 
  3390 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3391 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3393 
  3394 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3395 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3400 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 
  3403 *** ML ***
  3404 
  3405 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3406 
  3407     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3408     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3409 
  3410     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3411     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3412     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3413     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3414 
  3415     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3416     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3417     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3418 
  3419 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3420 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3421 
  3422 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3423 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3424 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3425 
  3426 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3427 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3428 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3429 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3430 
  3431 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3432 the context or even global references.
  3433 
  3434 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3435 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3436 
  3437 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3438 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3439 
  3440   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3441   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3442   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3443   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3444   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3445   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3446   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3447   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3448   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3449   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3450 
  3451 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3452 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3453 
  3454 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3455 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3456 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3457 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3458 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3459 
  3460 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3461 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3462 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3463 Theory_Data version.
  3464 
  3465 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3466 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3467 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3468 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3469 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3470 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3471 explicitly in rare situations.
  3472 
  3473 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3474 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3475 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476 
  3477 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3478 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3481 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3482 quite rare).
  3483 
  3484 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3485 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3488 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3489 terms.
  3490 
  3491 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3492 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3493 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3494 
  3495 
  3496 *** System ***
  3497 
  3498 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3499 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3500 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3501 
  3502 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3503 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3504 respectively.
  3505 
  3506 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3507 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3508 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3509 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3510 
  3511   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3512 
  3513 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3514 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3515 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3516 component.
  3517 
  3518 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3519 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3520 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3521 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3522 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3523 the user for manual installation.
  3524 
  3525 
  3526 
  3527 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3528 -------------------------------------
  3529 
  3530 *** General ***
  3531 
  3532 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3533 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3534 
  3535 
  3536 *** Pure ***
  3537 
  3538 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3539 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3540 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3541 
  3542 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3543 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3544 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3545 
  3546 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3547 interpretation.
  3548 
  3549 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3550 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 
  3553 *** Document preparation ***
  3554 
  3555 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3556 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3557 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3558 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3559 
  3560 
  3561 *** HOL ***
  3562 
  3563 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3564 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3565 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3566 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3567 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3568 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3569 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3570 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3571 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3572 
  3573 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3574 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3575 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3576 
  3577 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3578 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3579 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3580 
  3581 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3582 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3583 
  3584 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3585 
  3586 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3587 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3588 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3589 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3590 
  3591 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3592 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3593 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3594 "mirabelle" utility.
  3595 
  3596 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3597 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3598 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3599 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3600 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3601 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3602 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3603 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3604 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3605 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3606 
  3607 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3608 procedure only.
  3609 
  3610 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3611 
  3612 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3613 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3614 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3615 that fail later.
  3616 
  3617 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3618 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3619 
  3620 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3621 the same method as the approximation method.
  3622 
  3623 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3624 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3625 series expansion.
  3626 
  3627 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3628 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3629 
  3630 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3631 reals.
  3632 
  3633 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3634 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3635 
  3636 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3637 fixpoint theorem.
  3638 
  3639 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3640   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3641     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3642   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3643     accordingly
  3644   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3645     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3646   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3647     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3648 
  3649 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3650 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3651 lattice.
  3652 
  3653 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3654 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3655 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3656 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3657 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3658 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3662   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3663     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3664   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3665     le_inf_iff
  3666   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3667     sup_aci)
  3668   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3669   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3670   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3671     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3672     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3673     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3674     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3675     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3676     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3677     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3678     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3679     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3680     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3681   - authentic syntax for
  3682     Set.Pow
  3683     Set.image
  3684   - mere abbreviations:
  3685     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3686     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3687     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3688     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3689     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3690     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3691     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3692     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3693   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3694 
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3696 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3697 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3698 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3699 
  3700 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3701 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3702 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3705 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3708 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3709 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3710 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711 
  3712 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3713 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3714 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3715 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3716 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3717 
  3718 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3719 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3721 
  3722 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3723 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3726 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3727 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3728 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3729 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3730 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3731 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3735     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3736     code_post       replaces    code post
  3737     etc.
  3738   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Renamed methods:
  3741     sizechange -> size_change
  3742     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3743   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3744 
  3745 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3746 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3747 
  3748 * Renamed theorems:
  3749     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3750     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3751     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3752     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3753     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3754   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3758 
  3759 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 
  3763 *** HOLCF ***
  3764 
  3765 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3766 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3767 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3768 
  3769 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3770 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3771 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3772 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3773 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3774 
  3775 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3776 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3777 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3778 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3779 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3780 
  3781 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3782 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3783 constructor are pre-configured.
  3784 
  3785 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3786 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3787 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3788 
  3789 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3790 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3791 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3792 as well.)
  3793 
  3794 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3795 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3796 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3797 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3798 examples.
  3799 
  3800 
  3801 *** ML ***
  3802 
  3803 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3804 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3805 
  3806 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3807 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3808 position, logical grouping etc.
  3809 
  3810 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3811 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3812 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3813 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3814 
  3815 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3816 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3817 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3818 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3819 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3820 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3821 
  3822 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3823 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3824 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3825 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3826 experiments with references.
  3827 
  3828 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3829 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3830 
  3831 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3832 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3833 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3834 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3835 
  3836 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3837 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3838 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3839 
  3840 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3841 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3842 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3845 
  3846 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3850 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3851 
  3852 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3853 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3854 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3855 
  3856 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3857 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3858 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3861 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3862 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3863 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3866 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3867 instead of global theory.
  3868 
  3869 
  3870 *** System ***
  3871 
  3872 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3873 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3874 usedir option -q.
  3875 
  3876 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3877 also the system manual.
  3878 
  3879 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3880 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3881 
  3882 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3883 this is always enabled.
  3884 
  3885 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3886 
  3887 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3888 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3889 currently supported on Linux only.
  3890 
  3891 
  3892 
  3893 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3894 --------------------------------
  3895 
  3896 *** General ***
  3897 
  3898 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3899 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3900 
  3901   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3902     "isatool."
  3903 
  3904   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3905     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3906 
  3907   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3908     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3909 
  3910 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3911 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3912 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3913 
  3914 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3915 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3916 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3917 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3918 via "isabelle emacs".
  3919 
  3920 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3921 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3922 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3923 
  3924 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3925 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3926 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3927 
  3928 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3929 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3930 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3931 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3932 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3933 
  3934 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3935 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3936 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3937 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3938 
  3939 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3940 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3941 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3942 
  3943 
  3944 *** Pure ***
  3945 
  3946 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3947 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3948 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3949 
  3950 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3951 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3952 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3953 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3954 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3955 
  3956 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3957 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3958 useful in locale declarations.
  3959 
  3960 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3961 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3962 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3963 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3964 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3965 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3966 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3967 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3968 no longer generated.
  3969 
  3970 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3971 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3972 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3973 
  3974 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3975 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3976 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3977 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3978 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3979 
  3980 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3982 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3983 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3984 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3985 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3986 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3987 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3988 
  3989 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3990 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3991 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3992 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3993 
  3994 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3995 
  3996 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3997 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3998 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3999 
  4000 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4001 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4004 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4005 in HOL, write
  4006 
  4007     class foo = ...
  4008 
  4009 instead of
  4010 
  4011     class foo = type + ...
  4012 
  4013 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4014 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4017 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4018 
  4019 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4020 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4021 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4022 
  4023 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4024 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4025 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4026 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4027 directly in regular applications.
  4028 
  4029 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4030 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4031 
  4032 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4033 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4034 
  4035 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4036 theory context.
  4037 
  4038 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4039 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4042 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4043 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4044 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4045 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4046 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4047 
  4048   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4049 
  4050 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4051 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4052 normalization.
  4053 
  4054 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4055 addressing etc.
  4056 
  4057 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4058 
  4059   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4060   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4061 
  4062 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4063 
  4064   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4065      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4066      parts of the code generator framework).
  4067 
  4068   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4069      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4070      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4071 
  4072 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4075 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4078 patterns, e.g.
  4079 
  4080     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4081 
  4082 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4083 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4084 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4085 hyphen:
  4086 
  4087     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4088 
  4089 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4090 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4091 
  4092 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4093 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4094 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4095 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4096 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4097 higher-order unification.
  4098 
  4099 
  4100 *** Document preparation ***
  4101 
  4102 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4103 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4104 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4105 
  4106 
  4107 *** HOL ***
  4108 
  4109 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4110 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4111 
  4112 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4113 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4114 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4115 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4116 Main, as before.
  4117 
  4118 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4119 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4120 
  4121 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4122 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4123 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4124 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4125 
  4126 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4127 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4128 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4129 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4130 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4131 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4132 
  4133 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4134 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4135 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4136 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4137 
  4138 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4139 menu.
  4140 
  4141 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4142 (contains the empty clause).
  4143 
  4144 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4145 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4146 
  4147 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4148 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4149 
  4150 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4151 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4152 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4155 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4156 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4157 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4158 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4159 
  4160 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4161 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4162 
  4163 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4164 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4165 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4166 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4167 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4168 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4169 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4170 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4171 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4172 
  4173 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4174 
  4175 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4176 
  4177 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4178 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4179 
  4180 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4181 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4182 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4183 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4184 
  4185 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4186 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4187 
  4188     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4189     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4190     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4191     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4192     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4193     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4194     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4195     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4196 
  4197 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4198 theory Set.
  4199 
  4200 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4201 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4202 
  4203 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4204 
  4205 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4206 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4207 
  4208 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4209 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4210 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4211 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4212 allowed. For examples see
  4213 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4214 
  4215 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4216 
  4217 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4221 structure:
  4222 
  4223     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4224     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4225     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4226     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4227     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4228     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4229     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4230     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4231     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4232     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4233     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4234     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4235     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4236     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4237     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4238     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4239     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4240     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4241     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4242     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4243     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4244     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4245     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4246     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4247     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4248     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4249     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4250     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4251     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4252     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4253     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4254     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4255     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4256 
  4257     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4258     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4259     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4260     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4261     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4262     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4263     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4264     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4265     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4266     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4267 
  4268     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4269     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4270     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4271     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4272     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4273     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4274 
  4275 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4276 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4277 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4278 
  4279 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4280 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4281 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4282 
  4283 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4284 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4285 
  4286 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4287 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4288 
  4289 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4290 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4291 proofs, e.g.
  4292 
  4293   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4294 
  4295 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4296 
  4297 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4298 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4299 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 
  4301 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4302 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4304 
  4305 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4306 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4307 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4311 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4312 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4313 preorder_class.*.
  4314 
  4315 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4316 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4317 
  4318 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4319 
  4320   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4321 
  4322 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4323 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4324 fold_image.
  4325 
  4326 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4327 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4328 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4329 the former will disappear at some point.
  4330 
  4331 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4332 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4333 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4334 
  4335 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4336 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4337 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4338 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4339 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4340 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4341 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4342 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4343 
  4344 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4345 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4346 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4347 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4348 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4349 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4350 
  4351     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4352     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4353     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4354     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4355     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4356     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4357     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4358 
  4359 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4360 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4361 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4362 
  4363 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4364 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4365 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4366 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4367 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4368 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4369 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4370 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4371 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4372 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4373 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4374 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4375 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4376 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4377 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4378 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4379 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4380 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4381 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4382 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4383 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4384 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4385 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4386 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4387 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4388 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4389 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4390 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4391 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4392 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4393 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4394 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4395 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4396 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4397 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4398 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4399 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4400 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4401 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4402 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4403 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4404 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4405 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4406 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4407 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4408 
  4409 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4410 
  4411 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4412 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4413 
  4414 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4415 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4416 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4417 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4418 
  4419 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4420 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4421 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4422 theory RealVector.
  4423 
  4424 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4425 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4426 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4427 and inner products are included.
  4428 
  4429 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4430 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4431 supported.
  4432 
  4433 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4434 first diagonalization argument.
  4435 
  4436 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4437 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4438 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4439 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4440 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4441 
  4442     hide (open) const gcd
  4443     abbreviation gcd where
  4444       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4445     notation (output)
  4446       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4447 
  4448 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4449 
  4450 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4451 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4452 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4455 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4456 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4457 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4458 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4459 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4460 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4461 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4462 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4463 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4464 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4465 cases.
  4466 
  4467 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4468 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4469 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4470 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4471 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4472 
  4473     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4474     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4475     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4476     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4477     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4478 
  4479 
  4480 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4481 
  4482 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4483 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4484 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4485 
  4486 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4487 
  4488 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4489 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4490 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4491 
  4492 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4493 
  4494 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4495 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4496 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4497 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4498 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4499 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4500 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4501 
  4502 
  4503 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4504 
  4505 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4506 
  4507 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4508 theory targets.
  4509 
  4510 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4511 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4512 'inductive' etc.
  4513 
  4514 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4515 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4516 
  4517 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4518 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4519 
  4520 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4521 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4522 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4523 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4524 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4525 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4526 the algorithm W:
  4527 
  4528  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4529  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4530          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4531 
  4532 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4533 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4534 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4535 
  4536 
  4537 *** HOLCF ***
  4538 
  4539 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4540 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4541 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4542 
  4543 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4544 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4545 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4546 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4547 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4548 
  4549 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4550 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4551 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4552 
  4553 
  4554 *** ZF ***
  4555 
  4556 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4557 
  4558 
  4559 *** ML ***
  4560 
  4561 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4562 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4563 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4564 5.2.1!
  4565 
  4566 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4567 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4568 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4569 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4570 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4571 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4572 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4573 
  4574 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4575 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4576 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4577 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4578 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4579 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4580 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4581 
  4582 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4583 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4584 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4585 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4586 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4587 
  4588 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4589 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4590 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4591 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4592 Method.add_method.
  4593 
  4594 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4595 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4596 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4597 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4598 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4599 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4600 
  4601 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4602 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4603 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4604 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4605 examples.
  4606 
  4607 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4608 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4609 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4610 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4611 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4612 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4613 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4614 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4615 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4616 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4617 
  4618 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4619 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4620 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4621 
  4622 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4623 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4624 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4625 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4626 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4627 resort for legacy applications.
  4628 
  4629 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4630 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4631 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4632 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4633 explicit runtime argument.
  4634 
  4635 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4636 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4637 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4638 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4639 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4640 
  4641 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4642 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4643 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4644 theory state.
  4645 
  4646 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4647 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4648 
  4649   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4650   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4651   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4652   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4653   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4654   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4655   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4656   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4657   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4658   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4659 
  4660 
  4661 *** System ***
  4662 
  4663 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4664 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4665 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4666 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4667 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4668 
  4669 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4670 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4671 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4672 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4673 
  4674 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4675 
  4676 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4677 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4678 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4679 prover operations.
  4680 
  4681 
  4682 
  4683 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4684 -------------------------------
  4685 
  4686 *** General ***
  4687 
  4688 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4689 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4690 
  4691 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4692 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4693 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4694 provides a proper context already.
  4695 
  4696 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4697 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4698 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4699 
  4700 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4701 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4702 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4703 swap theory imports.
  4704 
  4705 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4706 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4707 
  4708 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4709 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4710 white space without escapes.
  4711 
  4712 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4713 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4714 "foo_bar".
  4715 
  4716 
  4717 *** Pure ***
  4718 
  4719 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4720 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4721 
  4722 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4723 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4724 
  4725 (1) unused_thms
  4726      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4727 
  4728 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4729      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4730      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4731 
  4732 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4733      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4734      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4735      their ancestors.
  4736 
  4737 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4738 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4739 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4740 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4741 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4742 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4743 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4744 
  4745 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4746 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4747 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4748 
  4749 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4750 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4751 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4752 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4753 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4754 
  4755 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4756 
  4757 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4758 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4759 update of theories within ML code.
  4760 
  4761 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4762 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4763 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4764 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4765 
  4766 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4767 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4768 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4772 
  4773 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4774 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4775 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4776 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4777 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4778 
  4779 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4780 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4781 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4782 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4783 situations.
  4784 
  4785 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4786 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4787 proof text.
  4788 
  4789 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4790 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4791 
  4792 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4793 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4794 predicates.
  4795 
  4796 
  4797 *** Document preparation ***
  4798 
  4799 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4800 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4801 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4802 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4803 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4804 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4805 
  4806 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4807 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4808 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4809 
  4810 
  4811 *** HOL ***
  4812 
  4813 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4814 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4815 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4816 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4817 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4818 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4819 
  4820 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4821 with multithreading.
  4822 
  4823 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4824 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4825 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4826 
  4827 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4828 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4829 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4830 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4833 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4834 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4835 and makes them available separately.  See
  4836 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4837 
  4838 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4839 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4840 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4841 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4842 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4843 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4844 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4845 the declared rules.
  4846 
  4847 This setup also deals with rules like
  4848 
  4849   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4850 
  4851 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4852 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4853 
  4854 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4855 
  4856   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4857 
  4858   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4859     definitions on => and bool.
  4860 
  4861   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4862     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4863     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4864 
  4865       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4866       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4867       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4868       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4869       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4870       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4871       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4872       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4873 
  4874   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4875     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4876     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4877 
  4878   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4879     The proof pattern
  4880 
  4881       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4882       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4883 
  4884     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4885     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4886 
  4887       have "EX S. P S"
  4888       proof
  4889         show "P S" <...>
  4890       qed
  4891 
  4892   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4893     The proof pattern
  4894 
  4895       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4896       also have "S = T" <...>
  4897       finally have "P T" .
  4898 
  4899     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4900     must be replaced by something like
  4901 
  4902       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4903       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4904       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4905 
  4906   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4907     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4908 
  4909       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4910 
  4911     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4912     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4913     type of the form
  4914 
  4915       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4916 
  4917     rather than
  4918 
  4919       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4920 
  4921 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4922 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4923 
  4924 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4925 
  4926 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4927 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4931 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4932 
  4933 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4934 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4935 
  4936 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4937 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4938 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4939 
  4940 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4941 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4942 
  4943   less_trans
  4944   less_linear
  4945   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4946   le_less_trans
  4947   less_le_trans
  4948   less_not_sym
  4949   less_asym
  4950 
  4951 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4952 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4953 and different variable names.
  4954 
  4955 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4956 
  4957 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4958 finite maps.
  4959 
  4960 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4961 
  4962 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4963 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4964 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4965 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4966 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4967 accordingly.
  4968 
  4969 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4970 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4971 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4972 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4973 
  4974 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4975 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4976 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4977 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4978 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4980 
  4981 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4982 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4983 
  4984 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4985 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4986 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4987 
  4988 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4990 
  4991 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4992 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4993 
  4994 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4995 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4996 
  4997 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4998 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4999 
  5000 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5001 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5003 
  5004 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5005 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5006 
  5007 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5008 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5009 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5010 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5011 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5012 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5013 
  5014 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5015 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5016 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5017 
  5018 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5019 
  5020 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5021 
  5022 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5023 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5024 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5025 
  5026 
  5027 *** ZF ***
  5028 
  5029 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5030 same session:
  5031 
  5032   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5033   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5034   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5035   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5036   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5037   List      -> List_ZF
  5038   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5039 
  5040 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5041 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5042 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5043 
  5044 
  5045 *** ML ***
  5046 
  5047 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5048 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5049 
  5050 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5051 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5052 
  5053 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5054 
  5055 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5056 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5057 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5058 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5059 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5060 
  5061 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5062 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5063 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5064 
  5065 
  5066 *** System ***
  5067 
  5068 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5069 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5070 
  5071 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5072 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5073 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5074 
  5075 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5076 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5077 
  5078 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5079 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5080 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5081 
  5082 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5083 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5084 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5085 
  5086 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5087 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5088 
  5089 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5090 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5091 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5092 script.
  5093 
  5094 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5095 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5096 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5097 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5098 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5099 
  5100 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5101 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5102 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5103 
  5104 
  5105 
  5106 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5107 -----------------------------------
  5108 
  5109 *** General ***
  5110 
  5111 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5112 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5113 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5114 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5115 
  5116 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5117 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5118 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5121 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5122 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5123 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5126 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5127 quotes.
  5128 
  5129 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5130 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5131 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5132 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5133 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5134 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5135 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5136 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5137 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5138 
  5139 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5140 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5141 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5142 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5143 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5144 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5145 
  5146 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5147 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5148 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5149 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5150 
  5151 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5152 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5153 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5154 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5155 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5156 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5157 
  5158 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5159 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5160 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5161 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5162 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5163 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5164 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5165 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5166 
  5167 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5168 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5169 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5170 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5171 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5172 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5173 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5174 
  5175 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5176 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5177 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5178 
  5179 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5180 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5181 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5182 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5183 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5184 limit is imposed.
  5185 
  5186 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5187 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5188 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5189 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5190 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5191 and scalability.
  5192 
  5193 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5194 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5195 
  5196 
  5197 *** Document preparation ***
  5198 
  5199 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5200 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5201 current context.
  5202 
  5203 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5204 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5205 
  5206 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5207 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5208 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5209 
  5210 
  5211 *** Pure ***
  5212 
  5213 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5214 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5215 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5216 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5217 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5218 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5219 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5220 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5221 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5222 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5223 
  5224 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5225 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5226 sketch:
  5227 
  5228     internal compilation:
  5229         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5230     writing SML code to a file:
  5231         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5232     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5233         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5234     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5235         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5236 
  5237     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5238         method ``eval''
  5239 
  5240 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5241 
  5242 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5243 
  5244     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5245     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5246     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5247     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5248 
  5249 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5250 
  5251     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5252       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5253 
  5254     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5255       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5256 
  5257     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5258       {(target)}+
  5259         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5260 
  5261     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5262       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5263         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5264 
  5265 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5266 
  5267 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5268 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5269 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5270 codegen".
  5271 
  5272 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5273 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5274 annotations).
  5275 
  5276 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5277 syntax.
  5278 
  5279 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5280 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5281 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5282 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5283 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5284 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5285 
  5286 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5287 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5288 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5289 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5290 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5291 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5292 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5293 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5294 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5295 equations, see section "definitions".
  5296 
  5297 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5298 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5299 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5300 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5301 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5302 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5303 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5304 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5305 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5306 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5307 
  5308 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5309 configuration options:
  5310 
  5311   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5312   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5313   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5314   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5315   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5316   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5317   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5318   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5319   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5320 
  5321 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5322 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5323 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5324 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5325 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5326 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5327 order.
  5328 
  5329 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5330 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5331 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5332 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5333 context encountered later on.
  5334 
  5335 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5336 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5337 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5338 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5339 
  5340 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5341 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5342 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5343 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5344 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5345 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5346 
  5347 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5348 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5349 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5350 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5351 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5352 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5353 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5354 more permissive.
  5355 
  5356 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5357 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5358 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5359 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5360 maintainability of proof texts.
  5361 
  5362 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5363 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5364 
  5365   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5366   then guess x and y by clarify
  5367 
  5368 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5369 proof tools being involved here.
  5370 
  5371 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5372 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5373 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5374 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5375 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5376 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5377 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5378 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5379 
  5380 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5381 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5382 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5383 
  5384   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5385   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5386   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5387   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5388 
  5389 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5390 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5391 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5392 
  5393 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5394 both named and unnamed ones.
  5395 
  5396 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5397 
  5398   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5399 
  5400 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5401 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5402 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5403 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5404 
  5405 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5406 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5407 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5408 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5409 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5410 
  5411 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5412 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5413 
  5414 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5415 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5416 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5417 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5418 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5419 originally first one.
  5420 
  5421 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5422 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5423 expected.
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5426 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5427 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5428 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5429 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5430 
  5431   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5432     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5433     obtains x where "P x"
  5434 
  5435   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5436     assumes "A & B"
  5437     obtains A and B
  5438 
  5439   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5440     assumes "A | B"
  5441     obtains
  5442       A
  5443     | B
  5444 
  5445 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5446 explicitly:
  5447 
  5448   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5449     obtains "~ thesis"
  5450 
  5451   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5452     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5453 
  5454 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5455 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5456 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5457 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5458 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5459 case_names).
  5460 
  5461 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5462 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5463 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5464 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5465 
  5466 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5467 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5468 top-level lemma.
  5469 
  5470 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5471 introduction rule (default "that").
  5472 
  5473 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5474 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5475 to occur.
  5476 
  5477 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5478 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5479 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5480 representations independently of name spaces.
  5481 
  5482 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5483 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5484 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5485 
  5486 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5487 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5488 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5489 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5490 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5491 current context.
  5492 
  5493 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5494 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5495 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5496 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5497 
  5498   axiomatization
  5499     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5500     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5501 
  5502   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5503   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5504 
  5505   abbreviation
  5506     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5507     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5508 
  5509 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5510 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5511 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5512 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5513 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5514 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5515 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5516 
  5517 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5518 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5519 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5520 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5521 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5522 
  5523 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5524 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5525 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5526 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5527 
  5528 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5529 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5530 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5531 
  5532   definition "K x _ = x"
  5533 
  5534   inductive conj for A B
  5535   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5536 
  5537 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5538 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5539 abbreviations on output.
  5540 
  5541 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5542 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5543 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5544 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5545 
  5546 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5547 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5548 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5549 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5550 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5551 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5552 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5553 
  5554 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5555 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5556 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5557 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5558 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5559 
  5560 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5561 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5562 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5563 
  5564 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5565 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5566 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5567 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5568 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5569 
  5570   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5571     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5572 
  5573 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5574 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5575 partial_order.
  5576 
  5577 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5578 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5579 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5580 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5581 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5582 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5583 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5584 examples.
  5585 
  5586 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5587 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5588 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5589 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5590 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5591 
  5592 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5593 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5594 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5595 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5596 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5597 
  5598   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5599   (induct set: foo bar)
  5600   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5601   (induct type: foo bar)
  5602 
  5603 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5604 new format.
  5605 
  5606 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5607 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5608 
  5609 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5610 considered a legacy feature.
  5611 
  5612 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5613 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5614 
  5615 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5616 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5617 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5618 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5619 
  5620 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5621 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5622 manipulating the claset.
  5623 
  5624 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5625 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5626 least one premise.
  5627 
  5628 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5629 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5630 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5631 rule steps.
  5632 
  5633 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5634 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5635 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5636 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5637 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5638 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5639 
  5640 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5641 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5642 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5643 
  5644 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5645 the graph browser tool.
  5646 
  5647 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5648 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5649 
  5650 
  5651 *** HOL ***
  5652 
  5653 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5654 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5655 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5656 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5657 multi-threading.
  5658 
  5659 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5660 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5661 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5662 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5663 work with multi-threading.
  5664 
  5665 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5666 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5667 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5668 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5669 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5670 
  5671 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5672 
  5673 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5674 equality.
  5675 
  5676 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5677 the new 'class' package:
  5678 
  5679     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5680     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5681     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5682     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5683     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5684     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5685     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5686     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5687     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5688     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5689     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5690     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5691     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5692     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5693     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5694     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5695     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5696     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5697     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5698     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5699 
  5700 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5701 
  5702 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5703 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5704 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5705 names.
  5706 
  5707 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5708 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5709 
  5710 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5711 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5712 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5713 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5714 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5715 
  5716 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5717 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5718 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5719 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5720 
  5721 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5722 
  5723 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5724 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5725 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5726 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5727 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5728 
  5729 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5730 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5731 
  5732 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5733 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5734 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5735 
  5736 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5737 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5738 
  5739 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5740 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5741 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5742 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5743 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5744 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5745 in the current context.
  5746 
  5747 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5748 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5750 
  5751 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5752 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5753 
  5754 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5755 
  5756     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5757     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5758 
  5759     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5760       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5761     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5762     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5763 
  5764     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5765     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5766 
  5767   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5768 
  5769     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5770     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5771     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5772     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5773     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5774     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5775     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5776     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5777     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5778     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5779     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5780     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5781     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5782     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5783     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5784     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5785     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5786     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5787     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5788     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5789     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5790     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5791     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5792     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5793     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5794     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5795     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5796     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5797     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5798     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5799     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5800     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5801     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5802     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5803     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5804 
  5805     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5806     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5807     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5808     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5809     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5810     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5811     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5812     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5813     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5814     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5815     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5816     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5817     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5818     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5819     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5820     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5821     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5822 
  5823     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5824     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5825     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5826     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5827     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5828     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5829     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5830     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5831     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5832     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5833     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5834     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5835     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5836     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5837     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5838     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5839     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5840     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5841     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5842     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5843     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5844     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5845     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5846     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5847     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5848     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5849     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5850     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5851 
  5852     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5853     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5854     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5855     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5856     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5857     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5858 
  5859     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5860     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5861     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5862     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5863 
  5864     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5865     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5866 
  5867     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5868     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5869 
  5870 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5871 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5872 
  5873 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5874 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5875 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5876 "*.size".
  5877 
  5878 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5880 
  5881 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5882 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5883 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5884 
  5885 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5886 
  5887 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5888 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5889 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5890 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5891 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5892 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5893 numerals on all operations.
  5894 
  5895 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5896 
  5897 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5898 
  5899 * Code generator library theories:
  5900   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5901     languages.
  5902   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5903     languages.
  5904   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5905     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5906   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5907   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5908     denominator).
  5909   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5910     representable by rational numbers.
  5911   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5912     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5913     includes Code_Integer.
  5914   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5915     target-language built-in integers.
  5916   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5917     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5918 
  5919 * New package for inductive predicates
  5920 
  5921   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5922 
  5923     inductive
  5924       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5925       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5926     where
  5927       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5928     | ...
  5929 
  5930   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5931 
  5932     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5933 
  5934     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5935     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5936 
  5937     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5938     intros
  5939       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5940       ...
  5941 
  5942   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5943   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5944 
  5945     inductive_set
  5946       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5947       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5948     where
  5949       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5950     | ...
  5951 
  5952   or
  5953 
  5954     inductive_set
  5955       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5956       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5957       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5958     where
  5959       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5960     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5961     | ...
  5962 
  5963   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5964 
  5965   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5966   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5967 
  5968   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5969 
  5970   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5971     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5972     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5973     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5974     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5975 
  5976   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5977     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5978     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5979     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5980     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5981     statements of the form
  5982 
  5983       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5984 
  5985     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5986     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5987 
  5988       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5989 
  5990   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5991 
  5992       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5993         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5994         ==> ... ==> P
  5995 
  5996     for predicates and
  5997 
  5998       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5999         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6000         ==> ... ==> P
  6001 
  6002     for sets rather than
  6003 
  6004       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6005         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6006         ==> ... ==> P
  6007 
  6008     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6009     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6010     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6011 
  6012   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6013     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6014     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6015 
  6016 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6017 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6018 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6019 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6020 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6021 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6022 
  6023 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6024 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  6025 
  6026 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6027 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6028 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6029 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6030 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6031 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6032 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6033 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6034 variable.
  6035 
  6036 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6037 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6038 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6039 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6040   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6041   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6042 
  6043 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6044 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6045 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6046 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6047 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6048 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6049 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6050 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6051 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6052 
  6053 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6054 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6055 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6056 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6057 rat, etc.
  6058 
  6059 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6060 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6061 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6062 
  6063 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6064 
  6065 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6066 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6067 
  6068 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6069 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6070 
  6071 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6072 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6073 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6074 
  6075 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6076 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078 
  6079 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6080 
  6081 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6082 
  6083 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6084 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6085 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6086 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6087 
  6088 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6089 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6090 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6091 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6092 
  6093 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6094 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6095 algebraic operations.
  6096 
  6097 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6099 
  6100 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6102 
  6103 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6104 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6105 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6106 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6107 adapted.
  6108 
  6109 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6110 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6111 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6112 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6113 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6114 
  6115 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6116 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6117 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6118 
  6119 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6120 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6121 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6122 
  6123 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6124 
  6125 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6126 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6127 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6128   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6129       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6130   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6131   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6132   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6133 
  6134 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6135 
  6136 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6137 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6138 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6139 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6140 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6141 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6142 
  6143 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6144 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6145 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6146 
  6147 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6148 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6149 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6151 
  6152 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6153 
  6154 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6155 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6156 
  6157 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6158 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6159 
  6160 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6161 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6162 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6163 
  6164 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6165 True/False.
  6166 
  6167 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6168 
  6169 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6170 
  6171 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6172 ``rule'' method.
  6173 
  6174 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6175 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6176 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6177 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6178 
  6179 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6180 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6181 
  6182 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6183 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6184 
  6185 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6186 Library.
  6187 
  6188 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6189 
  6190 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6191 as greatest fixed-point.
  6192 
  6193 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6194 association lists.
  6195 
  6196 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6197 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6198 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6199 
  6200 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6201 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6202 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6203 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6204 behavior.
  6205 
  6206 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6207 
  6208 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6209 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6210 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6211 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6212 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6213 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6214 
  6215 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6216 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6217 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6218 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6219 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6220 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6221 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6222 
  6223 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6224 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6225 
  6226 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6227 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6228 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6229 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6230 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6231 
  6232 
  6233 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6234 
  6235 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6236 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6237 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas,