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NEWS

author | huffman |

Tue Mar 27 15:34:04 2012 +0200 (2012-03-27) | |

changeset 47160 | 8ada79014cb2 |

parent 47159 | 978c00c20a59 |

child 47162 | 9d7d919b9fd8 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

generalize more div/mod lemmas

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:

11 - markup for bound variables

12 - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)

13 - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session

15 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and

16 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.

18 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)

19 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead

20 of the original expression. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where

21 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations

22 etc. was exploited.

24 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'

25 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored. Thus

26 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts

27 becomes obsolete. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of

28 indices of schematic variables.

30 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:

32 num ~> num_token

33 xnum ~> xnum_token

34 xstr ~> str_token

36 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that in practice "num_const" or

37 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include

38 position information via constraints).

40 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see

41 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref

42 manual. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

44 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory

45 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands. Allow new

46 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.

48 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar

49 (not just JRE), derived from JAVA_HOME from the shell environment or

50 java.home of the running JVM.

53 *** Pure ***

55 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"

56 into the user context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular

57 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.

59 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into

60 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always

61 expand it. This also works for object-logic equality. (Formerly

62 undocumented feature.)

64 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental

65 collection of foundational premises in the context (marked as legacy

66 since Isabelle2011).

68 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued. Use 'type_synonym'

69 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

71 * Ancient code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',

72 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.

73 Use commands of the generic code generator instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

75 * Redundant attribute 'code_inline' has been discontinued. Use

76 'code_unfold' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

78 * Dropped attribute 'code_unfold_post' in favor of the its dual

79 'code_abbrev', which yields a common pattern in definitions like

81 definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"

83 INCOMPATIBILITY.

85 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just

86 like type constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where

87 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally. For example:

89 lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)" -- "now illegal"

91 lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"

92 -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurence (!)"

95 *** HOL ***

97 * The representation of numerals has changed. We now have a datatype

98 "num" representing strictly positive binary numerals, along with

99 functions "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to

100 represent positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See

101 definitions in Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY; some user theories

102 may require adaptations:

104 - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These

105 classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.

107 - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,

108 and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until

109 after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.

111 - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"

112 pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.

114 - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes

115 automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and

116 simprocs may now apply within the proof.

118 - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:

119 Redefine using other integer operations.

121 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before

122 Isabelle2008). Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.

123 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY. For developments keeping predicates and

124 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally

125 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used

126 as sets by "{x. P x}". Corresponding proofs in a first step should be

127 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and

128 Collect_def as far as possible.

129 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and

130 sets, a planning step is necessary to determine what should become a

131 predicate and what a set. It can be helpful to carry out that step in

132 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.

134 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather

135 than predicates. INCOMPATIBILITY.

137 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set

139 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.

140 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.

142 DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0

143 zdiv_self ~> div_self

144 zmod_self ~> mod_self

145 zdiv_zero ~> div_0

146 zmod_zero ~> mod_0

147 zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial

148 zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus

149 zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus

150 zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right

151 zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right

152 zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right

153 zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right

154 mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left

155 mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right

157 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations

158 and predicates. Consolidation of some relation theorems:

160 converse_def ~> converse_unfold

161 rel_comp_def ~> rel_comp_unfold

162 symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)

163 transp_def ~> transp_trans

164 Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold

165 Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]

167 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.

169 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set conversions

170 by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".

172 INCOMPATIBILITY.

174 * Consolidated various theorem names relating to Finite_Set.fold

175 combinator:

177 inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf

178 sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup

179 INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf

180 SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup

181 union_set ~> union_set_fold

182 minus_set ~> minus_set_fold

184 INCOMPATIBILITY.

186 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:

188 INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold

189 SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold

190 INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr

191 SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr

192 foldr.simps ~> foldr_Nil foldr_Cons (in point-free formulation)

193 foldl.simps ~> foldl_Nil foldl_Cons

194 foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_def

195 foldl_fold ~> foldl_def

197 INCOMPATIBILITY.

199 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:

200 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,

201 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,

202 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,

203 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,

204 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

205 Prefer "List.fold" with canonical argument order, or boil down

206 "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by unfolding "foldr_def"

207 and "foldl_def". For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"

208 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".

210 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion

211 through option types.

213 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source

214 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.

215 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the

216 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of

217 one_case.

219 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms

220 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.

222 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

224 * Renamed some facts on canonical fold on lists, in order to avoid

225 problems with interpretation involving corresponding facts on foldl

226 with the same base names:

228 fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups

229 fold_set ~> fold_set_fold

230 fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold

232 INCOMPATIBILITY.

234 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow

235 to match the constant's name:

237 rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1

238 rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I

239 rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I

240 rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2

241 rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E

242 rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E

243 rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E

244 rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2

245 rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2

246 rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'

247 rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2

248 rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add

249 rel_pow_commute ~> relpow

250 rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:

251 rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow

252 rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl

253 rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow

254 rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow

255 rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv

256 rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1

257 rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded

258 rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow

259 trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow

260 single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow

262 INCOMPATIBILITY.

264 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for association

265 lists with distinct keys.

267 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.

269 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,

270 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.

272 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to

273 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems

274 instead.

276 word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi

277 word_add_alt ~> word_add_def

278 word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def

279 word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def

280 word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi

281 word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi

282 word_add_0 ~> add_0_left

283 word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right

284 word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

285 word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right

286 word_add_commute ~> add_commute

287 word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc

288 word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute

289 word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

290 word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

291 word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute

292 word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib

293 word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib

294 word_left_minus ~> left_minus

295 word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right

296 word_diff_self ~> diff_self

297 word_sub_def ~> diff_minus

298 word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus

299 word_add_ac ~> add_ac

300 word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac

301 word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac

302 word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac

303 word_order_trans ~> order_trans

304 word_order_refl ~> order_refl

305 word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym

306 word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear

307 lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one

308 word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq

309 word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add

310 word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub

311 word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult

312 word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg

313 word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ

314 word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred

315 word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi

316 word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi

318 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying

319 the result of the fact expression.

321 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on

322 relations.

324 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

326 * "sublists" moved to theory More_List. INCOMPATIBILITY.

328 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.

329 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.

331 zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus

332 zminus_0 ~> minus_zero

333 zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib

334 zadd_commute ~> add_commute

335 zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc

336 zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute

337 zadd_ac ~> add_ac

338 zmult_ac ~> mult_ac

339 zadd_0 ~> add_0_left

340 zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right

341 zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus

342 zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left

343 zmult_commute ~> mult_commute

344 zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

345 zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib

346 zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib

347 zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib

348 zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib

349 zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left

350 zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right

351 zle_refl ~> order_refl

352 zle_trans ~> order_trans

353 zle_antisym ~> order_antisym

354 zle_linear ~> linorder_linear

355 zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear

356 zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

357 zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono

358 zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono

359 int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one

360 int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one

361 zless_le ~> less_le

362 zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add

363 zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff

364 zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs

366 * Theory Deriv: Renamed

368 DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing

370 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple

371 case distinctions at the same time. E.g.

373 list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]

375 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both

376 a list and a nat.

378 * Improved code generation of multisets.

380 * New diagnostic command find_unused_assms to find potentially superfluous

381 assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.

383 * Quickcheck:

384 - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which

385 allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.

386 For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable

387 assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that

388 any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.

389 These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as

390 Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the

391 obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".

392 After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck

393 continues searching for genuine ones.

394 By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine

395 counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to

396 only show genuine counterexamples.

398 - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive

399 value generators for a given type and operations.

400 It generates values by using the operations as if they were

401 constructors of that type.

403 - Support for multisets.

405 - Added "use_subtype" options.

407 * Nitpick:

408 - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and

409 affecting 'rat' and 'real'.

411 * Sledgehammer:

412 - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.

413 - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").

414 - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".

416 * Metis:

417 - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a

418 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").

420 * Command 'try0':

421 - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

423 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the

424 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.

427 *** FOL ***

429 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).

432 *** ML ***

434 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax

435 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.

437 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the

438 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory

439 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.

441 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name

442 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given. If that is Binding.empty

443 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level

444 fact. The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a

445 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),

446 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context. Potential

447 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify

448 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.

450 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in

451 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.

453 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source

454 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with

455 declarations like Local_Theory.note.

457 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

458 ProofContext has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

460 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle

461 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory

462 context as well.

464 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:

466 addeqcongs ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong

467 deleqcongs ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong

468 addcongs ~> Simplifier.add_cong

469 delcongs ~> Simplifier.del_cong

470 setmksimps ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps

471 setmkcong ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong

472 setmksym ~> Simplifier.set_mksym

473 setmkeqTrue ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue

474 settermless ~> Simplifier.set_termless

475 setsubgoaler ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler

476 addsplits ~> Splitter.add_split

477 delsplits ~> Splitter.del_split

481 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)

482 ------------------------------------

484 *** General ***

486 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as

487 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.

489 - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor

490 buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save

491 files for checking).

493 - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic

494 highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source

495 positions.

497 - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source

498 buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML

499 theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).

501 - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,

502 based on interactive editor view. (Note: jEdit folding and

503 narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)

505 - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few

506 cores.

508 - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document

509 versions (garbage collection).

511 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,

512 including some remaining limitations.

514 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master

515 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

516 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.

517 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the

518 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".

519 INCOMPATIBILITY.

521 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1

522 digests. Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional

523 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.

525 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to

526 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100). See also isabelle

527 usedir option -Q.

529 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper

530 configuration options, with more conventional names:

532 long_names ~> names_long

533 short_names ~> names_short

534 unique_names ~> names_unique

536 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:

538 declare [[names_unique = false]]

540 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`. Note

541 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications

542 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.

544 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case

545 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].

547 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:

548 - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.

549 - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.

550 - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about

551 "Classical Reasoner".

554 *** HOL ***

556 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than

557 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

559 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;

560 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong. New type classes for

561 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders. Lemmas

562 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in

563 class complete_linorder.

565 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,

566 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.

568 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to

569 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):

571 Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]

572 Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]

573 Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

574 Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

575 Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right

576 Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right

577 Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def

578 Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def

579 INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def

580 UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def

581 INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]

583 More consistent and comprehensive names:

585 INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def

586 UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def

587 INFI_def ~> INF_def

588 SUPR_def ~> SUP_def

589 INF_leI ~> INF_lower

590 INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2

591 le_INFI ~> INF_greatest

592 le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper

593 le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2

594 SUP_leI ~> SUP_least

595 INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq

596 SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq

597 INFI_apply ~> INF_apply

598 SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply

599 INTER_def ~> INTER_eq

600 UNION_def ~> UNION_eq

602 INCOMPATIBILITY.

604 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.

605 INCOMPATIBILITY.

607 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,

608 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,

609 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,

610 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

612 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,

613 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,

614 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp]. Minor

615 INCOMPATIBILITY.

617 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective

618 constants. INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the

619 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.

621 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems

622 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection

623 UN_ball_bex_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.

625 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a

626 separate type class floor_ceiling.

628 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:

630 locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute

631 locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem

633 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need

634 adjustment. INCOMPATIBILITY.

636 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in

637 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.

639 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the

640 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in

641 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the

642 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

644 divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib

645 divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib

646 divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib

647 mult.add_right ~> right_distrib

648 mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib

649 mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib

650 mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib

652 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or

653 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

655 real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def

656 real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def

657 real_less_def ~> less_le

658 real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def

659 real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def

660 real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute

661 real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc

662 real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left

663 real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib

664 real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one

665 real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse

666 INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero

667 real_le_refl ~> order_refl

668 real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym

669 real_le_trans ~> order_trans

670 real_le_linear ~> linear

671 real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0

672 real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono

673 real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos

674 real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono

675 real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq

676 real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff

677 realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff

678 real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored

679 realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored

680 reals_complete2 ~> complete_real

681 real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum

682 exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique

683 expi_add ~> exp_add

684 expi_zero ~> exp_zero

685 lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong

686 LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff

687 LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const

688 LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm

689 LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add

690 LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus

691 LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel

692 LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff

693 bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

694 bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

695 LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult

696 LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

697 LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide

698 LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power

699 LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum

700 LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod

701 LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

702 LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

703 LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

704 LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]

705 LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]

706 LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]

707 LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex

708 LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at

709 LIM_const ~> tendsto_const

710 LIM_add ~> tendsto_add

711 LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero

712 LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus

713 LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff

714 LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm

715 LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero

716 LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel

717 LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff

718 LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs

719 LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero

720 LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel

721 LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff

722 LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose

723 LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult

724 LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR

725 LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real

726 LIM_power ~> tendsto_power

727 LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse

728 LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn

729 isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose

730 bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

731 bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero

732 bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto

733 bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero

734 bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero

735 bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero

736 LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]

738 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was

739 generalized. Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,

740 comm_monoid_add}. Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.

742 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now

743 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus

744 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".

746 * Code generation:

748 - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of

749 characters in the target language.

751 - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code

752 instead.

754 - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.

756 - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. May be

757 reactivated by the following theory command:

759 setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}

761 * Declare ext [intro] by default. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

763 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the

764 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come

765 from rule induction. The latter are still called "hyps". Method

766 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same

767 syntax.

769 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is

770 still available as a legacy feature for some time.

772 * Nitpick:

773 - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.

774 - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.

775 - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.

776 INCOMPATIBILITY.

778 * Sledgehammer:

779 - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.

780 - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,

781 Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.

782 - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if

783 this can be done within reasonable time.

784 - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.

785 INCOMPATIBILITY.

786 - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",

787 "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.

788 - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full

789 Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.

791 * Metis:

792 - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

793 - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.

794 INCOMPATIBILITY.

796 * Command 'try':

797 - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and

798 "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

799 - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also

800 'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.

802 * Quickcheck:

803 - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample

804 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

805 - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples

806 (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).

807 - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables

808 narrowing-based testing. Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler

809 with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings

810 environment as ISABELLE_GHC.

811 - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator

812 (formly in HOL/Library).

814 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec". INCOMPATIBILITY,

815 use 'partial_function' instead.

817 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended

818 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by

819 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.

821 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,

822 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.

823 INCOMPATIBILITY.

825 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has

826 been moved here. INCOMPATIBILITY.

828 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated

829 arithmetic.

831 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the

832 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order

833 and lattice type classes.

835 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof

836 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.

838 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets

839 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.

841 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories

842 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an

843 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.

845 - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.

846 - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.

847 - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.

848 - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.

850 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to

851 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and

852 constants:

854 type inat ~> type enat

855 Fin ~> enat

856 Infty ~> infinity (overloaded)

857 iSuc ~> eSuc

858 the_Fin ~> the_enat

860 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has

861 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

863 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now

864 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard

865 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of

866 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.

867 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".

869 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed

870 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants

871 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to

872 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have

873 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use

874 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have

875 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):

877 Cart_eq ~> vec_eq_iff

878 dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le

879 tendsto_vector ~> vec_tendstoI

880 Cauchy_vector ~> vec_CauchyI

882 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been

883 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more

884 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.

886 finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice

887 eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj

888 eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff

889 eventually_false ~> eventually_False

890 setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum

891 Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def

892 Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident

893 Lim_const ~> tendsto_const

894 Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]

895 Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus

896 Lim_add ~> tendsto_add

897 Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff

898 Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR

899 Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]

900 Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]

901 Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto

902 Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component

903 Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth

904 Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]

905 dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left

906 dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right

907 continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]

908 continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus

909 continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff

910 continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]

911 continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR

912 continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse

913 continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse

914 continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse

915 continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]

916 continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]

917 continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]

918 continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus

919 continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff

920 continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]

921 continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]

922 continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR

923 continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult

924 continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]

925 continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]

926 continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv

927 uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus

928 uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff

929 subset_interior ~> interior_mono

930 subset_closure ~> closure_mono

931 closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV

932 real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2

933 real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3

934 real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel

935 real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3

936 norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2

938 * Session HOL-Probability:

939 - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.

940 - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.

941 - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent

942 - Use extended reals instead of positive extended

943 reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

945 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

947 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

948 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

949 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

950 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

951 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

952 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

953 monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD

954 monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE

955 monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]

956 cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]

957 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

958 cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app

959 cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app

960 cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]

961 cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]

962 contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]

963 contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]

964 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

965 UU_I ~> bottomI

966 lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)

967 lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)

968 Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)

969 Def_inject ~> lift.inject

970 below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff

971 eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff

974 *** Document preparation ***

976 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also

977 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the

978 same.

980 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its

981 result.

983 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of

984 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,

985 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.

987 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>

988 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).

990 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups

991 like this:

993 \isabellestyle{it} %preferred default

994 {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}

996 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators. Implicit

997 tab-width is now defined as 1. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual

998 layouts.

1001 *** ML ***

1003 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML

1004 representations within quoted string tokens. By encoding logical

1005 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be

1006 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text

1007 under external program control.

1009 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory

1010 data, which requires explicit setup.

1012 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official

1013 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop

1014 (better known as Proof General).

1016 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme. Old

1017 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.

1019 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes

1020 former start_timing/end_timing etc.

1022 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users

1023 (including quotes etc.).

1025 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories

1026 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as

1027 type constraints). Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant

1028 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints. Positions can

1029 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /

1030 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant

1031 "_strip_positions" within parse trees. As last resort, positions can

1032 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is

1033 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.

1035 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute

1036 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less

1037 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1038 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,

1039 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.

1041 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is

1042 already available via context of "advanced" translation.

1044 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic

1045 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.

1047 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving

1048 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).

1050 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types

1051 claset/clasimpset. Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs

1052 operate directly on Proof.context. Raw type claset retains its use as

1053 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via

1054 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc. Type clasimpset has been discontinued.

1055 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require

1056 proper Proof.context.

1059 *** System ***

1061 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version

1062 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.

1064 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been

1065 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.

1067 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and

1068 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:

1070 ISABELLE_CSDP (formerly CSDP_EXE)

1071 ISABELLE_GHC (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)

1072 ISABELLE_OCAML (formerly EXEC_OCAML)

1073 ISABELLE_SWIPL (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)

1074 ISABELLE_YAP (formerly EXEC_YAP)

1076 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has

1077 been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1079 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static

1080 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML. For

1081 example:

1083 Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"

1085 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode

1086 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.

1088 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the

1089 Prover IDE. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have

1090 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to

1091 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.

1095 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)

1096 ----------------------------------

1098 *** General ***

1100 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see

1101 src/Tools/jEdit). This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with

1102 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis. The

1103 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run

1104 like this:

1106 Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit

1108 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

1110 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

1111 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),

1112 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

1113 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

1114 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

1115 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

1117 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

1118 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

1119 the following package declarations:

1121 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

1122 \usepackage{textcomp}

1124 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

1125 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

1126 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

1127 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

1128 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

1129 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

1130 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

1132 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master

1133 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).

1134 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.

1135 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use

1136 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.

1138 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

1139 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

1140 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

1141 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

1143 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

1144 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

1145 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

1146 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

1148 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

1150 eta_contract eta_contract

1151 show_brackets show_brackets

1152 show_sorts show_sorts

1153 show_types show_types

1154 show_question_marks show_question_marks

1155 show_consts show_consts

1156 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

1158 Syntax.ast_trace syntax_ast_trace

1159 Syntax.ast_stat syntax_ast_stat

1160 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

1162 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

1163 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

1165 Method.rule_trace rule_trace

1167 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

1168 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

1169 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

1170 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

1171 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

1173 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be

1174 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

1175 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

1176 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

1178 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

1179 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1181 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

1182 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

1184 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

1185 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

1186 float_token.

1188 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):

1189 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.

1190 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1192 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

1193 DejaVu Sans.

1195 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

1198 *** Pure ***

1200 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat

1201 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some

1202 time.

1204 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)

1205 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1207 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

1208 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1210 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept

1211 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate

1212 entities in the context of the interpretation. The 'interpretation'

1213 command already provided this functionality.

1215 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances

1216 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in

1217 the current context. Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context

1218 without interpretations.

1220 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

1221 in addition to interpretations in theories.

1223 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

1224 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

1225 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

1226 feature is still required for historical reasons.

1228 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1229 'definition' instead.

1231 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of

1232 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as

1233 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon. Consider using "assms"

1234 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.

1236 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

1237 constructors.

1239 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

1240 the local file system.

1243 *** HOL ***

1245 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type

1246 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term. Theory

1247 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as

1248 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:

1250 declare [[coercion f]]

1252 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to

1253 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

1255 declare [[coercion_map map]]

1257 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

1258 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

1259 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

1260 other theories like this:

1262 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

1264 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

1265 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

1266 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

1267 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

1268 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy

1269 for examples.

1271 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

1272 as [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1274 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

1275 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

1277 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to

1278 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

1279 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

1281 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the

1282 functorial structure of types.

1284 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

1285 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

1287 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target

1288 languages.

1290 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

1291 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

1292 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1294 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

1295 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1297 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case

1298 combinators any longer.

1300 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with

1301 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".

1303 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record

1304 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

1305 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

1306 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

1308 record 'a foo = ...

1309 ...

1310 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

1312 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a

1313 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).

1314 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1316 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

1317 testing. Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",

1318 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".

1320 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

1321 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

1322 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

1324 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to

1325 "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1327 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

1328 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

1329 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

1330 independently.

1332 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

1333 counter example search.

1335 * Sledgehammer:

1336 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof

1337 method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc

1338 sledgehammer").

1339 - Renamed commands:

1340 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

1341 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

1342 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

1343 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1344 - Renamed options:

1345 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

1346 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

1347 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

1348 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

1349 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1351 * Nitpick:

1352 - Renamed options:

1353 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

1354 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

1355 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1356 - Added support for partial quotient types.

1357 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

1358 - Added "whack" option.

1359 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

1360 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

1361 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

1362 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

1363 higher cardinalities.

1364 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

1366 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options

1367 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled

1368 to diagnose these tools. E.g.

1370 using [[metis_trace = true]]

1372 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

1373 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

1375 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to

1376 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable

1377 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example. For

1378 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;

1379 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option

1380 "smt_solver".

1382 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,

1383 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".

1385 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using

1386 the oracle mode (no proofs). Direct support of pairs has been dropped

1387 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT

1388 support for a similar behavior). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1390 * Changed SMT configuration options:

1391 - Renamed:

1392 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)

1393 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

1394 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1395 - Added:

1396 smt_verbose

1397 smt_random_seed

1398 smt_datatypes

1399 smt_infer_triggers

1400 smt_monomorph_limit

1401 cvc3_options

1402 remote_cvc3_options

1403 remote_z3_options

1404 yices_options

1406 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

1407 header.

1409 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list

1410 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions. Occasional

1411 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:

1413 declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]

1415 * Removed old version of primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1417 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

1418 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1420 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1422 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

1423 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1425 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction

1426 rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.

1428 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

1429 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1431 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

1432 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

1433 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1435 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1437 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".

1438 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1440 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

1441 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1443 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

1444 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

1445 for congruent(2)).

1447 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

1449 types

1450 bool ~> HOL.bool

1451 nat ~> Nat.nat

1453 constants

1454 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

1455 True ~> HOL.True

1456 False ~> HOL.False

1457 op & ~> HOL.conj

1458 op | ~> HOL.disj

1459 op --> ~> HOL.implies

1460 op = ~> HOL.eq

1461 Not ~> HOL.Not

1462 The ~> HOL.The

1463 All ~> HOL.All

1464 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

1465 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

1466 Let ~> HOL.Let

1467 If ~> HOL.If

1468 Ball ~> Set.Ball

1469 Bex ~> Set.Bex

1470 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

1471 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

1472 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

1473 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

1474 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

1475 op : ~> Set.member

1476 Collect ~> Set.Collect

1478 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1480 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:

1482 bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def

1483 top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def

1484 inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def

1485 sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def

1486 bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def

1487 top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def

1488 inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def

1489 sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def

1491 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1493 * More stylized fact names:

1495 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

1496 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

1497 set_ext ~> set_eqI

1498 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

1500 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1502 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:

1504 constants

1505 null ~> List.null

1507 facts

1508 mem_iff ~> member_def

1509 null_empty ~> null_def

1511 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not supposed to be used

1512 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

1513 generation.

1515 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating

1516 Haskell code.

1518 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". Term

1519 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems

1520 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1522 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

1523 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1525 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

1526 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.

1528 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

1529 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

1530 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1532 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"

1533 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1535 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".

1536 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1538 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.

1539 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be

1540 referred to by its qualified name.

1542 enum ~> Enum.enum

1543 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

1544 product ~> Enum.product

1546 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

1547 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

1548 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1550 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into

1551 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names

1552 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.

1553 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1555 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

1556 sort_key.

1558 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.

1559 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1561 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean

1562 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

1563 instead of finite cartesian products.

1565 types

1566 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

1567 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

1568 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

1569 (depends on your needs)

1571 constants

1572 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

1573 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

1574 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

1576 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

1577 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

1578 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

1579 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1581 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real

1582 numbers. Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the

1583 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for

1584 arbitrary sigma finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on

1585 the integral in Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1587 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

1588 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1590 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and

1591 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program

1592 verifier. See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.

1595 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1597 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and

1598 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative

1599 counterparts. Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory

1600 qualifier 'add'. Previous theorem names are redeclared for

1601 compatibility.

1603 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a

1604 definition). This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.

1607 *** HOLCF ***

1609 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

1610 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

1611 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1614 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort. Class "predomain"

1615 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by

1616 replacing sort annotations as shown below. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1618 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

1619 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

1620 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

1622 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".

1623 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

1624 "default_sort rep" declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1626 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed

1627 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict

1628 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following

1629 domain definition now works:

1631 domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")

1633 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class

1634 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,

1635 'a option, and 'a list. Additionally, it configures fixrec and the

1636 domain package to work with these types. For example:

1638 fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"

1639 where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"

1641 domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")

1643 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a

1644 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See

1645 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1647 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class

1648 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1650 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl". HOLCF no longer

1651 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances

1652 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in

1653 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

1655 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".

1657 * The predicate "directed" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1659 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1661 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".

1662 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1664 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax

1665 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents

1666 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".

1668 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed

1669 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set

1670 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1672 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom". The syntax "UU" is

1673 still supported as an input translation.

1675 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

1677 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

1678 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

1679 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

1680 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

1681 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

1682 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

1683 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

1685 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

1686 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1688 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

1689 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

1690 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

1691 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

1692 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

1693 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

1695 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

1696 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1698 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

1700 - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.

1701 - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.

1702 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

1703 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

1705 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1707 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are

1708 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1710 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

1711 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1713 thelub_const ~> lub_const

1714 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

1715 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

1716 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

1717 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

1718 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

1719 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

1720 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

1721 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

1722 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

1723 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

1724 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

1725 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

1726 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

1727 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

1728 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

1729 UU_I ~> bottomI

1730 compact_UU ~> compact_bottom

1731 deflation_UU ~> deflation_bottom

1732 finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom

1734 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1736 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

1737 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

1738 refl_less ~> below_refl

1739 trans_less ~> below_trans

1740 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

1741 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

1742 box_less ~> box_below

1743 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

1744 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

1745 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

1746 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

1747 adm_less ~> adm_below

1748 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

1749 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

1750 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

1751 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

1752 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

1753 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

1754 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

1755 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

1756 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

1757 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

1758 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

1759 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

1760 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

1761 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

1762 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

1763 injection_less ~> injection_below

1764 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

1765 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

1766 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

1767 up_less ~> up_below

1768 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

1769 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

1770 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

1771 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

1772 spair_less ~> spair_below

1773 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

1774 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

1775 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

1776 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

1777 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

1778 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

1779 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

1780 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

1783 *** FOL and ZF ***

1785 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper

1786 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1788 *** ZF ***

1790 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case analysis.

1792 * Much greater use of special symbols.

1794 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1796 *** ML ***

1798 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

1799 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

1800 failed assertions is included in the error output.

1802 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

1803 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

1804 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

1806 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of

1807 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.

1808 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

1810 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

1811 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

1813 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

1814 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

1816 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

1817 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

1819 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier. Note that the

1820 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.

1822 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

1823 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

1824 almost all situations.

1826 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

1827 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

1828 Isabelle/ML.

1830 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

1831 meaning.

1833 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

1834 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

1835 rarely-used global-only stuff.

1837 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

1838 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

1840 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

1841 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

1843 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

1844 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

1845 @{thms} for most purposes.

1847 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar

1848 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

1849 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

1850 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

1851 configuration options.

1853 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

1854 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

1855 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

1856 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

1857 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

1858 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

1859 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

1863 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

1864 ---------------------------------

1866 *** General ***

1868 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

1869 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

1870 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

1871 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

1872 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

1873 their full internal name.

1875 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

1876 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

1877 Some hints on upgrading:

1879 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

1880 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

1881 which are independent of this issue.

1883 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

1884 provides the following special forms:

1886 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

1887 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

1888 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

1890 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

1891 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

1892 extra variables".

1894 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

1895 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

1896 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

1897 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

1898 "logic".

1900 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

1901 antiquotations:

1903 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

1904 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

1905 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

1906 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

1908 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

1909 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

1910 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

1911 antiquotations.

1913 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

1914 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

1915 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

1916 diagnose syntax problems.

1918 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

1920 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

1921 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

1922 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

1923 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

1925 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

1926 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

1927 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

1928 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1930 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

1931 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

1932 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

1933 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

1934 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1936 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

1937 discontinued (old legacy feature).

1939 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

1940 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

1941 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

1943 using [[trace_simp = true]]

1945 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

1946 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

1947 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

1949 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

1950 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

1951 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1953 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

1954 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

1957 *** Pure ***

1959 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

1960 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

1961 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

1962 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

1963 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

1964 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

1965 inspect proof terms.

1967 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

1968 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

1969 are added internally. For example:

1971 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

1973 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

1974 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1976 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1978 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1979 'class' instead.

1981 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

1982 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

1983 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1985 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

1986 invariants.

1988 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

1989 user space functionality any longer.

1991 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

1992 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

1993 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1995 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

1996 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

1998 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

1999 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

2000 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

2002 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

2003 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

2004 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

2006 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

2007 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

2010 *** HOL ***

2012 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

2013 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

2014 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

2015 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

2016 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

2018 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

2019 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

2020 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

2021 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

2023 fun

2024 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

2025 where

2026 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

2028 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

2029 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

2031 quotient_definition

2032 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

2034 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

2035 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

2036 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

2037 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

2039 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

2040 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

2042 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

2043 separate HOL-SMT session.

2045 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

2046 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2048 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

2049 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

2050 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

2052 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

2053 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2055 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

2056 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2058 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

2059 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2061 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

2062 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2064 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

2065 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

2066 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2068 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

2069 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

2070 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

2071 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

2072 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

2073 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

2074 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

2075 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

2076 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

2077 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

2078 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

2079 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

2080 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

2081 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

2082 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

2083 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

2084 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

2085 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

2086 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

2087 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

2088 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

2089 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

2090 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

2091 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

2092 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

2093 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

2094 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

2095 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

2096 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

2097 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

2099 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

2100 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

2102 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

2103 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

2104 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

2106 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

2107 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

2109 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

2110 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2112 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

2114 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

2115 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2117 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

2118 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2120 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2122 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

2123 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

2125 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

2126 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

2127 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

2128 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2130 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

2131 - less_eq, less: Orderings

2132 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

2133 - inverse, divide: Rings

2134 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2136 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

2137 lattices):

2139 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

2140 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

2142 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

2144 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

2145 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

2146 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

2147 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

2148 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

2149 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

2150 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

2151 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

2152 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

2153 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

2154 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

2155 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

2156 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

2158 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

2159 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

2160 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

2161 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

2162 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

2163 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

2164 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

2165 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

2166 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

2167 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

2168 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

2169 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

2170 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

2171 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

2172 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

2173 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

2174 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

2175 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

2177 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

2178 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

2180 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

2181 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

2182 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

2183 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

2184 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

2186 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2188 * Refined field classes:

2189 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

2190 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

2191 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

2192 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

2193 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2195 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

2196 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

2197 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

2198 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

2199 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

2200 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

2201 equal_neg_zero.

2202 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2204 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

2205 sets to lattices:

2207 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

2208 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

2209 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

2210 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

2211 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

2212 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

2213 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

2214 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

2215 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

2216 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

2218 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

2219 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

2220 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

2221 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

2222 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

2223 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2225 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

2226 multiset order:

2228 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

2229 <= and <;

2230 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

2231 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

2232 multiset_order;

2233 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

2234 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

2235 generation;

2236 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

2237 if needed.

2239 Renamed:

2241 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

2242 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

2243 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

2245 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2247 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

2249 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

2251 * Theory List: added transpose.

2253 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

2254 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

2255 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2257 Constants:

2258 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

2259 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

2260 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

2261 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

2262 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

2263 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

2264 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

2265 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

2266 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

2267 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

2268 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

2269 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

2270 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

2272 Lemmas:

2273 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

2274 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

2275 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

2276 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

2277 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

2278 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

2279 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

2280 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

2281 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

2282 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

2283 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

2284 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

2285 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

2287 * Sledgehammer:

2288 - Renamed ATP commands:

2289 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

2290 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

2291 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

2292 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

2293 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

2294 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2295 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

2296 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

2297 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

2298 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

2299 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

2300 is still experimental.)

2301 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

2302 full-typed mode.

2303 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

2305 * Nitpick:

2306 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

2307 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

2308 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

2309 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

2310 - Added support for quotient types.

2311 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

2312 constructs.

2313 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

2314 "termination" proofs).

2315 - Added support for term postprocessors.

2316 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

2317 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

2318 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

2319 record getters.

2320 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

2321 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

2322 - Improved precision of set constructs.

2323 - Added "atoms" option.

2324 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

2325 problems.

2326 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

2327 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

2328 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2329 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

2330 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2331 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2333 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

2334 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

2335 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

2336 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

2337 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

2338 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

2339 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

2340 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

2341 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

2342 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2345 *** HOLCF ***

2347 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

2348 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

2349 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2351 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

2352 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

2353 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

2354 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

2356 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

2357 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

2358 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

2359 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

2360 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2362 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

2363 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

2364 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2366 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

2367 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2369 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

2370 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

2372 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

2373 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2375 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

2376 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

2377 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

2378 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

2379 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

2381 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

2382 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2384 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

2385 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

2386 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

2388 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

2389 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

2390 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2392 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

2393 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2395 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2397 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

2398 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

2401 *** ML ***

2403 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

2405 @{class NAME} -- type class

2406 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

2408 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

2409 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

2410 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

2411 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

2413 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

2414 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

2415 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

2417 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

2418 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

2420 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

2421 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

2422 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

2424 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

2425 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

2426 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

2427 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

2429 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

2430 the context or even global references.

2432 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

2433 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

2435 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

2436 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

2438 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

2439 OuterLex ~> Token

2440 OuterParse ~> Parse

2441 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

2442 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

2443 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

2444 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

2445 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

2446 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

2447 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

2449 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

2450 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

2452 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

2453 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

2454 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

2455 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

2456 pass the proper local context through the code!

2458 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

2459 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

2460 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

2461 Theory_Data version.

2463 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

2464 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

2465 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

2466 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

2467 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

2468 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

2469 explicitly in rare situations.

2471 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

2472 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

2473 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2475 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

2476 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

2478 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

2479 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

2480 quite rare).

2482 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

2483 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

2485 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

2486 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

2487 terms.

2489 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

2490 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

2491 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

2494 *** System ***

2496 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

2497 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

2498 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

2500 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

2501 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

2502 respectively.

2504 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

2505 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

2506 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

2507 prefers 64 bit if available:

2509 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

2511 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

2512 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

2513 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

2514 component.

2516 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

2517 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

2518 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

2519 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

2520 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

2521 the user for manual installation.

2525 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

2526 -------------------------------------

2528 *** General ***

2530 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

2531 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

2534 *** Pure ***

2536 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

2537 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

2538 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

2540 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

2541 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

2542 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

2544 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

2545 interpretation.

2547 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

2548 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2551 *** Document preparation ***

2553 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

2554 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

2555 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

2556 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

2559 *** HOL ***

2561 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

2562 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

2563 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

2564 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

2565 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

2566 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

2567 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

2568 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

2569 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

2571 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

2572 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

2573 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

2575 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

2576 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

2577 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

2579 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

2580 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

2582 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

2584 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

2585 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

2586 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

2587 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

2589 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

2590 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

2591 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

2592 "mirabelle" utility.

2594 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

2595 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

2596 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

2597 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

2598 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

2599 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

2600 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

2601 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

2602 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

2603 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

2605 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

2606 procedure only.

2608 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

2610 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

2611 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

2612 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

2613 that fail later.

2615 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

2616 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

2618 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

2619 the same method as the approximation method.

2621 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

2622 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

2623 series expansion.

2625 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

2626 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

2628 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

2629 reals.

2631 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

2632 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

2634 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

2635 fixpoint theorem.

2637 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2638 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

2639 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

2640 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

2641 accordingly

2642 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

2643 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

2644 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

2645 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

2647 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

2648 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

2649 lattice.

2651 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

2652 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

2653 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

2654 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

2655 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

2656 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

2657 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2659 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

2660 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

2661 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

2662 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

2663 le_inf_iff

2664 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

2665 sup_aci)

2666 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

2667 - new class "boolean_algebra"

2668 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

2669 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

2670 renamed and with authentic syntax:

2671 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

2672 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

2673 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

2674 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

2675 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

2676 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

2677 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

2678 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

2679 - authentic syntax for

2680 Set.Pow

2681 Set.image

2682 - mere abbreviations:

2683 Set.empty (for bot)

2684 Set.UNIV (for top)

2685 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

2686 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

2687 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

2688 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

2689 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

2690 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

2691 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

2693 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

2694 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

2695 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

2696 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

2698 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

2699 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

2700 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2702 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

2703 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2705 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

2706 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

2707 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

2708 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2710 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

2711 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

2712 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

2713 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

2714 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

2716 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

2717 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

2718 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2720 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

2721 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2723 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

2724 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

2725 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

2726 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

2727 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

2728 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

2729 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

2730 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2732 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

2733 code_unfold replaces code unfold

2734 code_post replaces code post

2735 etc.

2736 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2738 * Renamed methods:

2739 sizechange -> size_change

2740 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

2741 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2743 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

2744 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

2746 * Renamed theorems:

2747 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

2748 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

2749 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

2750 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

2751 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

2752 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2754 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

2755 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2757 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

2758 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2761 *** HOLCF ***

2763 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

2764 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

2765 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

2767 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

2768 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

2769 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

2770 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

2771 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

2773 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

2774 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

2775 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

2776 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

2777 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

2779 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

2780 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

2781 constructor are pre-configured.

2783 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

2784 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

2785 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

2787 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

2788 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

2789 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

2790 as well.)

2792 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

2793 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

2794 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

2795 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2796 examples.

2799 *** ML ***

2801 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

2802 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

2804 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

2805 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

2806 position, logical grouping etc.

2808 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

2809 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

2810 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

2811 copy operation) is still available for some time.

2813 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

2814 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

2815 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

2816 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

2817 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

2818 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

2820 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

2821 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

2822 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

2823 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

2824 experiments with references.

2826 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

2827 parallel tactical reasoning.

2829 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

2830 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

2831 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

2832 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

2834 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

2835 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

2836 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

2838 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

2839 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

2840 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

2842 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2844 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

2845 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2847 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

2848 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

2850 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

2851 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

2852 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

2854 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

2855 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

2856 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2858 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

2859 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

2860 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

2861 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2863 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2864 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

2865 instead of global theory.

2868 *** System ***

2870 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

2871 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

2872 usedir option -q.

2874 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

2875 also the system manual.

2877 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

2878 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

2880 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

2881 this is always enabled.

2883 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

2885 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

2886 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

2887 currently supported on Linux only.

2891 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

2892 --------------------------------

2894 *** General ***

2896 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

2897 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2899 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

2900 "isatool."

2902 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

2903 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

2905 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

2906 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

2908 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

2909 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

2910 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

2912 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

2913 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

2914 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

2915 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

2916 via "isabelle emacs".

2918 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

2919 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

2920 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

2922 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

2923 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

2924 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

2926 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

2927 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

2928 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

2929 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

2930 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

2932 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

2933 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

2934 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

2935 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2937 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

2938 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

2939 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

2942 *** Pure ***

2944 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

2945 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

2946 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

2948 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

2949 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

2950 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

2951 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

2952 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

2954 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

2955 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

2956 useful in locale declarations.

2958 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

2959 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

2960 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

2961 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

2962 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

2963 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

2964 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

2965 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

2966 no longer generated.

2968 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

2969 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

2970 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

2972 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

2973 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

2974 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

2975 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

2976 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

2978 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

2979 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

2980 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

2981 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

2982 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

2983 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

2984 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

2985 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

2987 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

2988 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

2989 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

2990 the parameters (context element "constrains").

2992 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2994 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

2995 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

2996 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

2998 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

2999 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3001 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

3002 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

3003 in HOL, write

3005 class foo = ...

3007 instead of

3009 class foo = type + ...

3011 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

3012 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3014 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

3015 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

3017 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

3018 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

3019 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

3021 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

3022 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

3023 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

3024 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

3025 directly in regular applications.

3027 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

3028 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

3030 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

3031 interface with 'setup' command instead.

3033 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

3034 theory context.

3036 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

3037 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3039 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

3040 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

3041 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

3042 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

3043 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

3044 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

3046 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

3048 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

3049 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

3050 normalization.

3052 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

3053 addressing etc.

3055 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

3057 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

3058 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

3060 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3062 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

3063 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

3064 parts of the code generator framework).

3066 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

3067 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

3068 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

3070 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3072 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

3073 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3075 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

3076 patterns, e.g.

3078 find_consts "_ => bool"

3080 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

3081 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

3082 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

3083 hyphen:

3085 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

3087 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

3088 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

3090 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

3091 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

3092 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

3093 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

3094 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

3095 higher-order unification.

3098 *** Document preparation ***

3100 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

3101 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

3102 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

3105 *** HOL ***

3107 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

3108 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

3110 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

3111 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

3112 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

3113 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

3114 Main, as before.

3116 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

3117 experimentation due to shorter build times.

3119 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

3120 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

3121 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

3122 new entry point Hypercomplex.

3124 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

3125 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

3126 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

3127 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

3128 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

3129 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

3131 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

3132 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

3133 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

3134 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

3136 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

3137 menu.

3139 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

3140 (contains the empty clause).

3142 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

3143 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

3145 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

3146 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

3148 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

3149 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

3150 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3152 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

3153 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

3154 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

3155 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

3156 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

3158 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

3159 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

3161 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

3162 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

3163 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

3164 are now presented as a list of individual projections

3165 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

3166 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3167 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

3168 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

3169 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

3171 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

3173 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

3175 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

3176 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

3178 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

3179 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

3180 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

3181 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

3183 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

3184 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

3186 op Int ~> Set.Int

3187 op Un ~> Set.Un

3188 INTER ~> Set.INTER

3189 UNION ~> Set.UNION

3190 Inter ~> Set.Inter

3191 Union ~> Set.Union

3192 {} ~> Set.empty

3193 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

3195 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

3196 theory Set.

3198 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

3199 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

3201 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

3203 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

3204 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

3206 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

3207 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

3208 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

3209 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

3210 allowed. For examples see

3211 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

3213 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

3215 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

3216 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3218 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

3219 structure:

3221 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

3222 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

3223 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

3224 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

3225 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

3226 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

3227 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

3228 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

3229 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

3230 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

3231 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

3232 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

3233 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

3234 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

3235 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

3236 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

3237 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

3238 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

3239 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

3240 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

3241 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

3242 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

3243 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

3244 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

3245 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

3246 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

3247 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

3248 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

3249 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

3250 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

3251 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

3252 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

3253 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

3255 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3256 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3257 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3258 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

3259 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3260 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3261 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3262 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3263 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3264 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

3266 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3267 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3268 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3269 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3270 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3271 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

3273 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

3274 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

3275 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

3277 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

3278 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

3279 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

3281 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

3282 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3284 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

3285 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

3287 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

3288 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

3289 proofs, e.g.

3291 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

3293 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

3295 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

3296 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

3297 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3299 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

3300 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

3301 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3303 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

3304 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

3305 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

3306 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3308 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

3309 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

3310 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

3311 preorder_class.*.

3313 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

3314 "diag" to "Id_on".

3316 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

3318 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

3320 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

3321 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

3322 fold_image.

3324 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

3325 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

3326 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

3327 the former will disappear at some point.

3329 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

3330 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

3331 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

3333 rat_power_0 -> power_0

3334 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

3335 realpow_0 -> power_0

3336 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

3337 complexpow_0 -> power_0

3338 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

3339 power_poly_0 -> power_0

3340 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

3342 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

3343 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

3344 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

3345 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

3346 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

3347 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

3349 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

3350 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

3351 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

3352 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

3353 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

3354 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

3355 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

3357 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

3358 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

3359 rename old lemmas as follows:

3361 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

3362 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

3363 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

3364 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

3365 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

3366 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

3367 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

3368 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

3369 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

3370 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

3371 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

3372 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

3373 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

3374 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

3375 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

3376 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

3377 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

3378 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

3379 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

3380 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

3381 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

3382 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

3383 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

3384 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

3385 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

3386 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

3387 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

3388 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

3389 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

3390 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

3391 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

3392 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

3393 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

3394 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

3395 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

3396 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

3397 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

3398 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

3399 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

3400 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

3401 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

3402 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

3403 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

3404 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

3405 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

3407 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3409 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

3410 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

3412 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

3413 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

3414 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

3415 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

3417 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

3418 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

3419 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

3420 theory RealVector.

3422 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

3423 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

3424 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

3425 and inner products are included.

3427 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

3428 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

3429 supported.

3431 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

3432 first diagonalization argument.

3434 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

3435 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

3436 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

3437 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

3438 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

3440 hide (open) const gcd

3441 abbreviation gcd where

3442 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

3443 notation (output)

3444 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

3446 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

3448 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

3449 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

3450 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3452 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

3453 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

3454 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

3455 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

3456 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

3457 instrumentalizing code generation. See

3458 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

3459 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

3460 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

3461 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

3462 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

3463 cases.

3465 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

3466 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

3467 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

3468 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

3469 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

3471 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

3472 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

3473 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

3474 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

3475 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

3478 *** HOL-Algebra ***

3480 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

3481 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

3482 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

3484 * New theory of factorial domains.

3486 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

3487 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

3488 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

3490 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

3492 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

3493 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

3494 least_carrier ~> least_closed

3495 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

3496 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

3497 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

3498 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

3501 *** HOL-Nominal ***

3503 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

3505 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

3506 theory targets.

3508 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

3509 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

3510 'inductive' etc.

3512 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

3513 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

3515 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

3516 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

3518 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

3519 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

3520 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

3521 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

3522 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

3523 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

3524 the algorithm W:

3526 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

3527 -----------------------------------------------------------------

3528 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

3530 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

3531 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

3532 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

3535 *** HOLCF ***

3537 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

3538 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

3539 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

3541 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

3542 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

3543 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

3544 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

3545 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3547 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

3548 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

3549 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3552 *** ZF ***

3554 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

3557 *** ML ***

3559 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

3560 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

3561 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

3562 5.2.1!

3564 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

3565 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

3566 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

3567 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

3568 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

3569 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

3570 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

3572 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

3573 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

3574 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

3575 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

3576 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

3577 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

3578 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

3580 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

3581 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

3582 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

3583 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

3584 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

3586 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

3587 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

3588 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

3589 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

3590 Method.add_method.

3592 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

3593 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

3594 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

3595 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

3596 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

3597 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

3599 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

3600 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

3601 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

3602 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

3603 examples.

3605 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

3606 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

3607 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

3608 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

3609 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

3610 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

3611 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

3612 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

3613 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

3614 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

3616 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

3617 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

3618 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

3620 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

3621 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

3622 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

3623 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

3624 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

3625 resort for legacy applications.

3627 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

3628 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

3629 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

3630 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

3631 explicit runtime argument.

3633 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

3634 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

3635 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

3636 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

3637 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3639 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

3640 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

3641 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

3642 theory state.

3644 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

3645 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

3647 @{binding name} - basic name binding

3648 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

3649 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

3650 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

3651 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

3652 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

3653 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

3654 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

3655 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

3656 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

3659 *** System ***

3661 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

3662 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

3663 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

3664 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

3665 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

3667 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

3668 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

3669 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

3670 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

3672 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

3674 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

3675 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

3676 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

3677 prover operations.

3681 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

3682 -------------------------------

3684 *** General ***

3686 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

3687 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

3689 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

3690 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

3691 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

3692 provides a proper context already.

3694 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

3695 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

3696 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

3698 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

3699 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

3700 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

3701 swap theory imports.

3703 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

3704 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

3706 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

3707 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3708 white space without escapes.

3710 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

3711 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

3712 "foo_bar".

3715 *** Pure ***

3717 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

3718 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

3720 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

3721 There are three ways of invoking it:

3723 (1) unused_thms

3724 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

3726 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

3727 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

3728 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

3730 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

3731 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

3732 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

3733 their ancestors.

3735 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

3736 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

3737 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

3738 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

3739 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

3740 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

3741 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

3743 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

3744 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

3745 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

3747 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

3748 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

3749 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

3750 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

3751 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

3753 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

3755 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

3756 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

3757 update of theories within ML code.

3759 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

3760 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

3761 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

3762 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

3764 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

3765 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

3766 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

3767 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3769 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

3771 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

3772 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

3773 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

3774 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

3775 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

3777 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

3778 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

3779 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

3780 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

3781 situations.

3783 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

3784 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

3785 proof text.

3787 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

3788 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

3790 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

3791 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

3792 predicates.

3795 *** Document preparation ***

3797 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

3798 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

3799 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

3800 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

3801 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

3802 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

3804 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

3805 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

3806 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

3809 *** HOL ***

3811 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

3812 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

3813 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

3814 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

3815 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

3816 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

3818 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

3819 with multithreading.

3821 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

3822 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

3823 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

3825 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

3826 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

3827 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

3828 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3830 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

3831 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

3832 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

3833 and makes them available separately. See

3834 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

3836 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

3837 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

3838 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

3839 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

3840 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

3841 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

3842 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

3843 the declared rules.

3845 This setup also deals with rules like

3847 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

3849 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

3850 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

3852 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

3854 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3856 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

3857 definitions on => and bool.

3859 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

3860 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

3861 the following theorems have been renamed:

3863 subset_def -> subset_eq

3864 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

3865 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

3866 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

3867 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

3868 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

3869 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

3870 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

3872 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

3873 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

3874 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

3876 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

3877 The proof pattern

3879 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3880 then have "EX S. P S" ..

3882 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

3883 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

3885 have "EX S. P S"

3886 proof

3887 show "P S" <...>

3888 qed

3890 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

3891 The proof pattern

3893 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3894 also have "S = T" <...>

3895 finally have "P T" .

3897 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

3898 must be replaced by something like

3900 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

3901 moreover have "S = T" <...>

3902 ultimately have "P T" by simp

3904 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

3905 Code performing pattern matching on types via

3907 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

3909 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

3910 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

3911 type of the form

3913 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

3915 rather than

3917 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

3919 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

3920 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

3922 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3924 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

3925 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

3926 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3928 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

3929 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3931 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

3932 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3934 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

3935 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

3936 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3938 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

3939 the same name in theory Orderings:

3941 less_trans

3942 less_linear

3943 le_imp_less_or_eq

3944 le_less_trans

3945 less_le_trans

3946 less_not_sym

3947 less_asym

3949 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

3950 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

3951 and different variable names.

3953 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

3955 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

3956 finite maps.

3958 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

3960 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

3961 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

3962 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

3963 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

3964 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

3965 accordingly.

3967 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

3968 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

3969 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

3970 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

3972 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

3973 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

3974 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

3975 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

3976 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

3977 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3979 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

3980 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3982 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

3983 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

3984 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

3986 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

3987 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3989 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

3990 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

3992 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

3993 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3995 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

3996 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3998 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

3999 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

4000 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4002 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

4003 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4005 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

4006 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

4007 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

4008 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

4009 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

4010 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4012 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

4013 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

4014 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

4016 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

4018 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

4020 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

4021 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

4022 well-orders on sets and on types.

4025 *** ZF ***

4027 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

4028 same session:

4030 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

4031 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

4032 Int -> Int_ZF

4033 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

4034 Nat -> Nat_ZF

4035 List -> List_ZF

4036 Main -> Main_ZF

4038 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

4039 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

4040 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

4043 *** ML ***

4045 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

4046 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

4048 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

4049 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

4051 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

4053 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

4054 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

4055 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

4056 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

4057 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4059 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

4060 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

4061 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

4064 *** System ***

4066 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

4067 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

4069 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

4070 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

4071 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

4073 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

4074 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

4076 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

4077 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

4078 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

4080 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

4081 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

4082 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

4084 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

4085 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

4087 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

4088 way of changing the user's settings is via

4089 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

4090 script.

4092 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

4093 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

4094 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

4095 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

4096 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

4098 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

4099 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

4100 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

4104 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

4105 -----------------------------------

4107 *** General ***

4109 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

4110 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

4111 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

4112 legacy features will disappear eventually.

4114 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

4115 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

4116 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4118 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

4119 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

4120 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

4121 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4123 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

4124 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

4125 quotes.

4127 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

4128 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

4129 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

4130 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

4131 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

4132 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

4133 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

4134 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

4135 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

4137 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

4138 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

4139 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

4140 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

4141 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

4142 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

4144 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

4145 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

4146 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

4147 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

4149 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

4150 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

4151 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

4152 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

4153 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

4154 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

4156 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

4157 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

4158 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

4159 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

4160 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

4161 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

4162 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

4163 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

4165 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

4166 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

4167 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

4168 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

4169 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

4170 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

4171 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

4173 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

4174 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

4175 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

4177 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

4178 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

4179 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

4180 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

4181 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

4182 limit is imposed.

4184 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

4185 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

4186 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

4187 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

4188 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

4189 and scalability.

4191 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

4192 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

4195 *** Document preparation ***

4197 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

4198 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

4199 current context.

4201 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

4202 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

4204 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

4205 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

4206 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

4209 *** Pure ***

4211 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

4212 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

4213 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

4214 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

4215 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

4216 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

4217 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

4218 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

4219 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

4220 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

4222 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

4223 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

4224 sketch:

4226 internal compilation:

4227 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

4228 writing SML code to a file:

4229 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

4230 writing OCaml code to a file:

4231 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

4232 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

4233 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

4235 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

4236 method ``eval''

4238 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

4240 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

4242 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

4243 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

4244 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

4245 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

4247 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

4249 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

4250 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

4252 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

4253 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

4255 code_instance <and-list of instances>

4256 {(target)}+

4257 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

4259 code_class <and_list of classes>

4260 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

4261 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

4263 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

4265 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

4266 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

4267 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

4268 codegen".

4270 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

4271 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

4272 annotations).

4274 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

4275 syntax.

4277 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

4278 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

4279 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

4280 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

4281 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

4282 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

4284 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

4285 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

4286 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

4287 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

4288 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

4289 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

4290 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

4291 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

4292 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

4293 equations, see section "definitions".

4295 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

4296 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

4297 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

4298 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

4299 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

4300 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

4301 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

4302 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

4303 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

4304 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

4306 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

4307 configuration options:

4309 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

4310 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

4311 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

4312 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

4313 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

4314 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

4315 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

4316 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

4317 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

4319 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

4320 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

4321 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

4322 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

4323 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

4324 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

4325 order.

4327 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

4328 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

4329 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

4330 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

4331 context encountered later on.

4333 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

4334 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

4335 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

4336 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

4338 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

4339 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

4340 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

4341 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

4342 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

4343 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

4345 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

4346 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

4347 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

4348 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

4349 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

4350 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

4351 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

4352 more permissive.

4354 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

4355 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

4356 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

4357 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

4358 maintainability of proof texts.

4360 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

4361 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

4363 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

4364 then guess x and y by clarify

4366 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

4367 proof tools being involved here.

4369 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

4370 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

4371 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

4372 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

4373 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

4374 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

4375 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

4376 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

4378 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

4379 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

4380 certain special cases of literal facts:

4382 have "A" by fact == note `A`

4383 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

4384 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

4385 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

4387 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

4388 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

4389 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

4391 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

4392 both named and unnamed ones.

4394 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

4396 def x == "t" and y == "u"

4398 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

4399 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

4400 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

4401 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

4403 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

4404 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

4405 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

4406 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

4407 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

4409 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

4410 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

4412 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

4413 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

4414 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

4415 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

4416 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

4417 originally first one.

4419 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

4420 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

4421 expected.

4423 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

4424 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

4425 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

4426 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

4427 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

4429 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4430 assumes "EX x. P x"

4431 obtains x where "P x"

4433 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4434 assumes "A & B"

4435 obtains A and B

4437 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4438 assumes "A | B"

4439 obtains

4440 A

4441 | B

4443 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

4444 explicitly:

4446 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4447 obtains "~ thesis"

4449 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

4450 obtains "thesis ==> something"

4452 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

4453 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

4454 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

4455 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

4456 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

4457 case_names).

4459 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

4460 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

4461 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

4462 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

4464 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

4465 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

4466 top-level lemma.

4468 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

4469 introduction rule (default "that").

4471 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

4472 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

4473 to occur.

4475 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

4476 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

4477 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

4478 representations independently of name spaces.

4480 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

4481 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

4482 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4484 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

4485 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

4486 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

4487 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

4488 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

4489 current context.

4491 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

4492 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

4493 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

4494 isar-ref manual. Examples:

4496 axiomatization

4497 eq (infix "===" 50) where

4498 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

4500 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

4501 definition g where "g x = f x x"

4503 abbreviation

4504 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

4505 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

4507 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

4508 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

4509 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

4510 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

4511 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

4512 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

4513 entities from a monomorphic theory.

4515 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

4516 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

4517 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

4518 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

4519 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

4521 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

4522 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

4523 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

4524 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

4526 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

4527 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

4528 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

4530 definition "K x _ = x"

4532 inductive conj for A B

4533 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

4535 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

4536 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

4537 abbreviations on output.

4539 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

4540 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

4541 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

4542 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

4544 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

4545 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

4546 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

4547 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

4548 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

4549 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

4550 `unfold_locales'; see below.

4552 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

4553 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

4554 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

4555 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

4556 unfold predicates to assumptions.

4558 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

4559 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

4560 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

4562 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

4563 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

4564 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

4565 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

4566 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

4568 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

4569 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

4571 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

4572 definition specification element in the context of locale

4573 partial_order.

4575 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

4576 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

4577 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

4578 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

4579 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

4580 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

4581 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

4582 examples.

4584 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

4585 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

4586 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

4587 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

4588 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

4590 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

4591 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

4592 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

4593 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

4594 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

4596 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

4597 (induct set: foo bar)

4598 (induct pred: foo bar)

4599 (induct type: foo bar)

4601 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

4602 new format.

4604 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

4605 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

4607 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

4608 considered a legacy feature.

4610 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

4611 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4613 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

4614 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

4615 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

4616 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

4618 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

4619 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

4620 manipulating the claset.

4622 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

4623 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

4624 least one premise.

4626 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

4627 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

4628 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

4629 rule steps.

4631 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

4632 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

4633 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

4634 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

4635 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

4636 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

4638 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

4639 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

4640 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

4642 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

4643 the graph browser tool.

4645 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

4646 default; use '!' option for full details.

4649 *** HOL ***

4651 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

4652 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

4653 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

4654 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

4655 multi-threading.

4657 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

4658 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

4659 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

4660 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

4661 work with multi-threading.

4663 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

4664 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

4665 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

4666 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

4667 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

4669 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

4671 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

4672 equality.

4674 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

4675 the new 'class' package:

4677 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

4678 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

4679 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

4680 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

4681 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

4682 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

4683 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

4684 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

4685 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

4686 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

4687 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

4688 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

4689 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

4690 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

4691 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

4692 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

4693 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

4694 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

4695 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

4696 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

4698 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

4700 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

4701 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

4702 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

4703 names.

4705 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

4706 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

4708 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

4709 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

4710 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

4711 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

4712 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

4714 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

4715 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

4716 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

4717 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

4719 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

4721 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

4722 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

4723 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

4724 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

4725 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4727 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

4728 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4730 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

4731 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

4732 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

4734 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

4735 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

4737 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

4738 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

4739 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

4740 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

4741 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

4742 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

4743 in the current context.

4745 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

4746 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

4747 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4749 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

4750 with new class dense_linear_order.

4752 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

4754 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

4755 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

4757 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

4758 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

4759 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

4760 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

4762 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

4763 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

4765 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

4767 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

4768 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

4769 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

4770 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

4771 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

4772 le_meetI ~> le_infI

4773 join_leI ~> le_supI

4774 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

4775 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

4776 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

4777 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

4778 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

4779 join_comm ~> sup_commute

4780 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

4781 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

4782 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

4783 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

4784 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

4785 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

4786 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

4787 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

4788 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

4789 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

4790 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

4791 join_aci ~> sup_aci

4792 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

4793 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

4794 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

4795 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

4796 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

4797 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

4798 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

4799 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

4800 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

4801 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

4803 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

4804 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

4805 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

4806 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

4807 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

4808 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

4809 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

4810 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

4811 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

4812 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

4813 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

4814 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

4815 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

4816 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

4817 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

4818 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

4819 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

4821 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

4822 mono_join ~> mono_sup

4823 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

4824 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

4825 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

4826 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

4827 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

4828 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

4829 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

4830 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

4831 meet1I ~> inf1I

4832 meet2I ~> inf2I

4833 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

4834 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

4835 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

4836 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

4837 meet1E ~> inf1E

4838 meet2E ~> inf2E

4839 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

4840 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

4841 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4842 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

4843 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

4844 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

4845 join1CI ~> sup1CI

4846 join2CI ~> sup2CI

4847 join1E ~> sup1E

4848 join2E ~> sup2E

4850 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

4851 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

4852 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

4853 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

4854 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

4855 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

4857 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

4858 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

4859 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

4860 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

4862 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

4863 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

4865 meet_min ~> inf_min

4866 join_max ~> sup_max

4868 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

4869 type "'a::size ==> bool"

4871 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

4872 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

4873 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

4874 "*.size".

4876 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

4877 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4879 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

4880 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

4881 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4883 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4885 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

4886 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

4887 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

4888 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

4889 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

4890 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

4891 numerals on all operations.

4893 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

4895 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

4897 * Code generator library theories:

4898 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

4899 languages.

4900 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

4901 languages.

4902 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

4903 codes; includes Code_Integer.

4904 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

4905 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

4906 denominator).

4907 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

4908 representable by rational numbers.

4909 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

4910 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

4911 includes Code_Integer.

4912 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

4913 target-language built-in integers.

4914 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

4915 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

4917 * New package for inductive predicates

4919 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

4921 inductive

4922 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4923 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4924 where

4925 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4926 | ...

4928 with full support for type-inference, rather than

4930 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4932 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4933 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4935 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

4936 intros

4937 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4938 ...

4940 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

4941 sets to be defined with the new package via

4943 inductive_set

4944 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4945 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4946 where

4947 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4948 | ...

4950 or

4952 inductive_set

4953 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

4954 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

4955 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

4956 where

4957 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

4958 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

4959 | ...

4961 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

4963 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

4964 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

4966 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4968 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

4969 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

4970 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

4971 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

4972 than before the actual inductive definition.

4974 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

4975 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

4976 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

4977 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

4978 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

4979 statements of the form

4981 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

4983 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

4984 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

4986 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

4988 - The format of the elimination rules is now

4990 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

4991 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4992 ==> ... ==> P

4994 for predicates and

4996 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

4997 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

4998 ==> ... ==> P

5000 for sets rather than

5002 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

5003 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

5004 ==> ... ==> P

5006 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

5007 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

5008 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

5010 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

5011 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

5012 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

5014 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

5015 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

5016 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

5017 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

5018 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

5019 users are encouraged to use the new package.

5021 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

5022 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

5024 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

5025 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

5026 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

5027 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

5028 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

5029 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

5030 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

5031 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

5032 variable.

5034 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

5035 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

5036 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

5037 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5038 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

5039 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

5041 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

5042 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

5043 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

5044 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

5045 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

5046 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

5047 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

5048 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

5049 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

5051 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

5052 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

5053 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

5054 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

5055 rat, etc.

5057 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

5058 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

5059 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

5061 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

5063 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

5064 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

5066 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

5067 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

5069 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

5070 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

5071 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5073 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

5074 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

5075 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5077 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

5079 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

5081 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

5082 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

5083 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

5084 positive/negative (in inequations).

5086 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

5087 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

5088 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

5089 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5091 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

5092 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

5093 algebraic operations.

5095 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

5096 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5098 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

5099 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5101 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

5102 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

5103 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

5104 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

5105 adapted.

5107 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

5108 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

5109 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

5110 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

5111 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

5113 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

5114 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

5115 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

5117 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

5118 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

5119 better use 'abbreviation'.

5121 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

5123 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

5124 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

5125 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

5126 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

5127 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

5128 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

5129 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

5130 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

5132 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

5134 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

5135 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

5136 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

5137 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

5138 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

5139 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

5141 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

5142 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

5143 "A = B" (with priority 50).

5145 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

5146 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

5147 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

5148 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5150 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

5152 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

5153 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5155 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

5156 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

5158 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

5159 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

5160 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

5162 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

5163 True/False.

5165 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

5167 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

5169 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

5170 ``rule'' method.

5172 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

5173 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

5174 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

5175 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

5177 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

5178 zChaff is still supported as well.

5180 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

5181 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

5183 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

5184 Library.

5186 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

5188 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

5189 as greatest fixed-point.

5191 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

5192 association lists.

5194 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

5195 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

5196 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

5198 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

5199 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

5200 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5201 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

5202 behavior.

5204 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

5206 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

5207 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

5208 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

5209 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

5210 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

5211 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

5213 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

5214 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

5215 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

5216 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

5217 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

5218 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

5219 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

5221 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

5222 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

5224 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

5225 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

5226 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

5227 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

5228 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

5231 *** HOL-Complex ***

5233 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

5234 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

5235 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

5236 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

5237 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5239 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

5240 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

5241 and norm :: 'a => real.

5243 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

5244 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

5245 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

5247 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

5248 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

5250 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

5251 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

5252 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

5253 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5255 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

5256 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

5257 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

5258 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

5259 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

5260 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

5261 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

5262 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

5263 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

5264 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

5265 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

5266 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

5267 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

5268 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

5269 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

5271 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

5272 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

5273 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

5274 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5276 approx <-- capprox

5277 HFinite <-- CFinite

5278 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

5279 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

5280 monad <-- cmonad

5281 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

5282 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

5283 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

5284 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

5287 *** HOL-Algebra ***

5289 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

5291 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

5292 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5294 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

5295 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5297 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

5298 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

5299 of algebraic structures.

5301 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

5304 *** HOL-Nominal ***

5306 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

5307 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

5308 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

5309 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

5312 *** ML ***

5314 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

5315 (even on SML/NJ).

5317 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

5318 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

5319 compile-time. For example:

5321 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

5322 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

5323 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

5324 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

5325 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

5326 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

5327 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

5328 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

5329 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

5330 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

5331 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

5332 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

5333 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

5334 ML {* @{context} *}

5335 ML {* @{theory} *}

5336 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

5337 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

5338 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

5339 ML {* @{simpset} *}

5340 ML {* @{claset} *}

5341 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

5343 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

5345 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

5346 ML_Context.trace enabled.

5348 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

5349 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

5350 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

5352 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

5353 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

5355 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

5356 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

5357 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

5359 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

5360 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

5361 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

5362 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

5363 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

5364 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

5365 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

5366 declarations and definitions.

5368 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

5369 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

5370 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

5371 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

5373 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

5374 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

5375 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

5376 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

5378 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

5379 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

5380 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

5381 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

5382 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

5383 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

5385 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

5386 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

5387 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

5388 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

5389 attributes, methods, etc.

5391 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

5392 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

5393 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

5394 fold_map combinators.

5396 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

5397 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

5398 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

5399 derivation.

5401 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

5402 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

5403 achieve the old behaviour.

5405 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

5406 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

5407 statements.

5409 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

5410 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

5411 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

5413 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

5414 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

5415 some popular functions from term.ML:

5417 Term.variant -> Name.variant

5418 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

5419 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

5421 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

5422 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

5424 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

5425 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

5426 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

5427 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

5428 various freeze_thaw operations.

5430 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

5431 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

5432 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

5433 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

5434 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

5435 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

5436 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

5437 in a locale context).

5439 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

5440 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

5441 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

5442 which are considered legacy and await removal.

5444 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

5445 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

5446 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

5447 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

5448 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

5449 a mere theory instead of a full context.

5451 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

5452 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

5453 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

5454 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

5455 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

5457 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

5459 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

5460 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

5461 this:

5463 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

5465 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

5466 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

5467 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

5468 -- use plain ERROR instead.

5470 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

5471 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

5473 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

5474 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

5476 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

5477 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

5478 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

5479 batch mode.

5481 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

5482 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

5483 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

5484 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5486 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

5487 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

5488 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

5489 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

5490 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

5492 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

5493 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

5494 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

5495 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

5496 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

5497 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

5499 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

5500 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

5501 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

5502 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5504 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

5505 "Trueprop" etc.

5508 *** System ***

5510 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

5511 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

5512 Isabelle installations.

5514 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

5515 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

5516 code.

5518 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

5520 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

5521 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

5522 independent theories, according to the given theory header

5523 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

5524 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

5525 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

5526 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

5527 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

5528 Implementation manual.

5532 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

5533 ----------------------------------

5535 *** General ***

5537 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

5539 theory <name>

5540 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

5541 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

5542 begin

5544 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

5546 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

5548 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

5549 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

5550 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

5552 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

5553 relative and absolute paths.

5555 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

5556 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

5557 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

5558 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

5559 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

5560 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

5561 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

5562 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

5563 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

5565 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

5567 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

5568 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

5569 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

5571 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

5572 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

5574 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

5575 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

5576 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

5577 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

5579 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

5580 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

5582 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

5583 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

5584 faster.

5587 *** Document preparation ***

5589 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

5590 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

5591 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

5592 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

5593 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

5594 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

5596 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

5597 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

5598 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

5599 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

5600 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

5601 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

5602 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

5603 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

5604 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

5605 \isadroptag.

5607 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

5608 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

5609 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

5610 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

5611 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

5612 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

5613 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

5614 specified above.

5616 * Several new antiquotations:

5618 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

5620 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

5622 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

5623 argument is a known logical constant;

5625 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

5626 theorem applying a "style" to it

5628 @{ML text}

5630 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

5631 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

5632 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

5633 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

5634 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

5635 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

5636 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

5638 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

5639 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

5640 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

5641 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

5643 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

5644 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

5645 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

5647 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

5648 a proof context.

5650 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

5651 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

5653 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

5654 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

5656 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

5657 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

5658 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

5661 *** Pure ***

5663 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

5664 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

5665 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

5666 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

5667 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

5668 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

5669 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

5671 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

5672 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

5673 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

5674 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

5675 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

5676 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

5677 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

5678 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

5680 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

5681 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

5682 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

5684 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

5685 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

5686 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

5688 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

5689 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

5690 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

5691 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

5692 INCOMPATIBILITY.

5694 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

5695 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

5696 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

5697 axclasses vs. locales.

5699 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

5700 instead of base 26 numbers.

5702 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

5703 marks in schematic variable names.

5705 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

5706 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

5707 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

5709 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

5710 by simp

5712 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

5714 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

5715 annotations as "(00...)".

5717 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

5718 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

5719 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

5720 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

5721 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

5722 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

5723 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

5725 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

5726 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

5727 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

5728 specifications.

5730 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

5731 locally fixed variables as well.

5733 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

5734 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

5735 Limit.

5737 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

5738 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

5739 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

5740 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

5741 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

5742 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

5743 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

5745 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

5746 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

5747 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

5749 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5751 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

5752 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

5753 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

5754 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

5755 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

5756 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

5758 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

5759 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

5761 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

5762 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

5763 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

5765 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

5767 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

5768 theory development.

5770 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

5771 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

5772 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

5773 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

5775 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

5776 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

5777 quoted when used as identifier.

5780 *** Locales ***

5782 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

5783 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

5784 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

5785 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

5786 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

5787 commands is a follows:

5789 (1) interpretation expr inst

5790 (2) interpretation target < expr

5791 (3) interpret expr inst

5793 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

5794 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

5795 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

5796 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

5797 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

5798 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

5799 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

5800 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

5801 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

5802 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

5804 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

5805 'interpret' instead.

5807 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

5808 parameters.

5810 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

5811 redeclaration.

5813 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

5815 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

5816 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

5817 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

5818 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

5819 to attribute arguments as expected.

5821 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

5822 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

5823 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

5824 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

5825 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

5826 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

5827 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

5828 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

5829 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

5830 values to argument tokens explicitly.

5832 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

5833 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

5834 theorem statement in rare situations.

5836 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

5837 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

5840 *** Provers ***

5842 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

5843 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

5844 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

5845 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

5846 still available as 'simplesubst'.

5848 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

5849 and quasi orders.

5851 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

5852 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

5854 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

5855 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

5857 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

5858 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

5859 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

5862 *** HOL ***

5864 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

5866 syntax (epsilon)

5867 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

5869 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

5870 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

5871 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

5872 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

5874 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

5875 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

5876 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

5877 support corresponding Isar calculations.

5879 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

5880 instead of ":".

5882 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

5884 Old New

5885 {..n(} {..<n}

5886 {)n..} {n<..}

5887 {m..n(} {m..<n}

5888 {)m..n} {m<..n}

5889 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

5891 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

5892 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

5893 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

5895 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

5896 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

5898 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

5899 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

5900 interface.

5902 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

5903 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

5904 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

5905 be a tuple pattern.

5907 Some new syntax forms are available:

5909 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

5910 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

5911 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

5912 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

5914 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

5915 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

5917 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

5918 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

5919 (insert F x)'.

5921 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

5922 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

5923 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

5925 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

5926 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

5927 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

5929 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

5930 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

5931 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

5932 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

5933 in unstructured proof scripts.

5935 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

5936 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

5937 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

5938 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

5939 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

5940 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

5941 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

5942 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

5943 <record_name>_ext_type.

5945 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

5946 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

5947 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

5948 quite long.

5950 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

5951 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

5952 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

5953 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

5955 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

5956 type-variables in the term.

5958 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

5959 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

5960 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

5961 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

5962 goals than previously.

5964 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

5965 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

5966 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

5967 just like y <= x.

5969 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

5970 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

5971 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

5972 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

5973 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

5974 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

5975 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

5977 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

5979 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

5980 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

5982 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

5983 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

5984 inequalities.

5986 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

5987 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5989 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

5990 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

5991 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

5992 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

5993 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

5994 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

5995 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

5996 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

5997 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

5998 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

5999 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

6001 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

6003 zero_le_square

6004 not_square_less_zero

6006 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

6008 realpow_zero_zero

6009 realpow_two

6010 realpow_less

6011 zero_le_power

6012 realpow_two_le

6013 abs_realpow_two

6014 realpow_two_abs

6016 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

6018 * Theory List:

6020 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

6021 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6023 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

6024 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

6025 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

6026 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

6028 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

6029 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

6032 *** HOL-Complex ***

6034 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

6035 integers in the reals.

6037 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

6038 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6040 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

6041 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

6042 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

6043 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

6044 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

6046 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

6048 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

6050 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

6051 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

6053 hypreal = real star

6054 hypnat = nat star

6055 hcomplex = complex star

6057 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

6058 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6060 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

6062 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

6063 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

6064 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

6065 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

6066 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

6068 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

6069 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

6070 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

6071 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

6072 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

6074 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

6075 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6077 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

6078 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

6079 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

6080 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

6081 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

6082 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

6083 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

6084 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

6085 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

6086 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

6087 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

6088 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

6089 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

6090 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

6091 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

6092 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

6093 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

6094 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

6095 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

6096 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

6097 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

6098 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

6099 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

6100 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

6102 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

6103 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

6104 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6106 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

6107 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

6108 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

6109 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

6110 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

6111 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

6112 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

6113 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

6114 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

6115 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

6116 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

6117 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

6118 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

6119 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

6120 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

6121 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

6122 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

6123 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

6124 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

6125 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

6126 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

6127 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

6128 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

6129 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

6130 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

6131 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

6132 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

6133 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

6134 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

6135 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

6136 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

6137 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

6138 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

6139 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

6140 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

6141 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

6142 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

6143 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

6144 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

6145 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

6146 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

6147 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

6148 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

6149 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

6150 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

6151 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

6152 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

6153 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

6154 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

6155 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

6156 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

6157 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

6158 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

6159 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

6161 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

6162 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

6163 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

6164 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

6165 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

6166 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

6167 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

6168 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

6169 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

6170 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

6171 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

6173 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

6174 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

6175 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

6176 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

6177 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

6178 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

6179 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

6180 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

6181 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

6182 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

6183 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

6184 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

6185 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

6186 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

6187 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

6188 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

6189 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

6190 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

6191 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

6192 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

6193 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

6195 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

6196 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

6197 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

6198 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

6199 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

6200 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

6202 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

6205 *** HOLCF ***

6207 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

6208 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

6209 type-inference.

6211 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

6212 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

6213 instead of exponential time).

6215 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

6216 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

6218 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

6220 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

6221 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

6222 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

6223 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

6224 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

6225 syntax and examples.

6227 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

6228 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

6229 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

6230 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

6231 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

6233 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

6234 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

6236 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

6237 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

6238 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

6239 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

6240 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

6241 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

6244 *** ZF ***

6246 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

6247 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

6248 of a homomorphism).

6250 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually