summary |
shortlog |
changelog |
graph |
tags |
branches |
files |
changeset |
file |
revisions |
annotate |
diff |
raw

NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Thu Jul 09 22:01:41 2009 +0200 (2009-07-09) | |

changeset 31971 | 8c1b845ed105 |

parent 31901 | e280491f36b8 |

child 31997 | de0d280c31a7 |

child 32064 | 53ca12ff305d |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

10 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

13 *** Pure ***

15 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

16 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

19 *** HOL ***

21 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

22 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

23 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

24 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

25 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

26 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

27 INCOMPATIBILITY.

29 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicate

30 constant compow with infix syntax "^^". Power operations on

31 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

32 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

34 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

35 generated by the code generator; see Predicate.thy for an example.

37 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

38 procedure only.

40 * Implementation of quickcheck using generic code generator; default

41 generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records and

42 datatypes.

44 * Constants Set.Pow and Set.image now with authentic syntax;

45 object-logic definitions Set.Pow_def and Set.image_def.

46 INCOMPATIBILITY.

48 * Renamed theorems:

49 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

50 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

51 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

53 * New sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

54 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

55 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

56 that fail later.

58 * Discontinued ancient tradition to suffix certain ML module names

59 with "_package", e.g.:

61 DatatypePackage ~> Datatype

62 InductivePackage ~> Inductive

64 etc.

66 INCOMPATIBILITY.

68 * NewNumberTheory: Jeremy Avigad's new version of part of

69 NumberTheory. If possible, use NewNumberTheory, not NumberTheory.

71 * Simplified interfaces of datatype module. INCOMPATIBILITY.

73 * Abbreviation "arbitrary" of "undefined" has disappeared; use

74 "undefined" directly. INCOMPATIBILITY.

76 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

77 the same method as the approximation method.

79 * Method "approximate" supports now arithmetic expressions as

80 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

81 series expansion.

83 * Changed DERIV_intros to a dynamic fact (via Named_Thms). Each of

84 the theorems in DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional

85 function and matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be

86 solved by the simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes

87 the derivative of most elementary terms.

89 * Maclauren.DERIV_tac and Maclauren.deriv_tac was removed, they are

90 replaced by: (auto intro!: DERIV_intros). INCOMPATIBILITY.

93 *** ML ***

95 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

96 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

97 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

99 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

101 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

102 cominators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

103 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

106 *** System ***

108 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

110 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

111 this is always enabled.

115 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

116 --------------------------------

118 *** General ***

120 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

121 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

123 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

124 "isatool."

126 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

127 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

129 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

130 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

132 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

133 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

134 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

136 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

137 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

138 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

139 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

140 via "isabelle emacs".

142 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

143 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

144 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

146 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

147 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

148 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

150 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

151 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

152 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

153 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

154 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

156 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

157 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

158 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

159 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

161 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

162 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

163 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

166 *** Pure ***

168 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

169 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

170 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

172 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

173 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

174 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

175 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

176 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

178 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

179 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

180 useful in locale declarations.

182 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

183 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

184 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

185 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

186 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

187 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

188 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

189 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

190 no longer generated.

192 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

193 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

194 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

196 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

197 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

198 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

199 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

200 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

202 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

203 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

204 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

205 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

206 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

207 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

208 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

209 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

211 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

212 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

213 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

214 the parameters (context element "constrains").

216 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

218 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

219 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

220 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

222 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

223 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

225 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

226 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

227 in HOL, write

229 class foo = ...

231 instead of

233 class foo = type + ...

235 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

236 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

238 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

239 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

241 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

242 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

243 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

245 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

246 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

247 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

248 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

249 directly in regular applications.

251 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

252 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

254 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

255 interface with 'setup' command instead.

257 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

258 theory context.

260 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

261 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

263 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

264 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

265 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

266 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

267 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

268 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

270 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

272 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

273 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

274 normalization.

276 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

277 addressing etc.

279 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

281 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

282 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

284 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

286 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

287 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

288 parts of the code generator framework).

290 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

291 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

292 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

294 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

296 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

297 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

299 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

300 patterns, e.g.

302 find_consts "_ => bool"

304 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

305 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

306 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

307 hyphen:

309 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

311 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

312 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

314 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

315 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

316 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

317 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

318 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

319 higher-order unification.

322 *** Document preparation ***

324 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

325 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

326 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

329 *** HOL ***

331 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

332 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

334 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

335 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

336 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

337 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

338 Main, as before.

340 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

341 experimentation due to shorter build times.

343 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

344 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

345 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

346 new entry point Hypercomplex.

348 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

349 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

350 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

351 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

352 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

353 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

355 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

356 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

357 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

358 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

360 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

361 menu.

363 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

364 (contains the empty clause).

366 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

367 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

369 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

370 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

372 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

373 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

374 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

376 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

377 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

378 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

379 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

380 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

382 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

383 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

385 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

386 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

387 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

388 are now presented as a list of individual projections

389 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

390 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

391 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

392 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

393 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

395 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

397 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

399 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

400 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

402 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

403 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

404 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

405 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

407 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

408 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

410 op Int ~> Set.Int

411 op Un ~> Set.Un

412 INTER ~> Set.INTER

413 UNION ~> Set.UNION

414 Inter ~> Set.Inter

415 Union ~> Set.Union

416 {} ~> Set.empty

417 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

419 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

420 theory Set.

422 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

423 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

425 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

427 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

428 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

430 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

431 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

432 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

433 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

434 allowed. For examples see

435 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

437 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

439 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

440 INCOMPATIBILITY.

442 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

443 structure:

445 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

446 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

447 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

448 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

449 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

450 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

451 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

452 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

453 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

454 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

455 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

456 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

457 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

458 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

459 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

460 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

461 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

462 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

463 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

464 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

465 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

466 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

467 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

468 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

469 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

470 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

471 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

472 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

473 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

474 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

475 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

476 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

477 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

479 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

480 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

481 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

482 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

483 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

484 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

485 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

486 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

487 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

488 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

490 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

491 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

492 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

493 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

494 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

495 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

497 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

498 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

499 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

501 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

502 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

503 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

505 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

506 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

508 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

509 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

511 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

512 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

513 proofs, e.g.

515 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

517 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

519 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

520 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

521 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

523 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

524 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

525 INCOMPATIBILITY.

527 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

528 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

529 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

530 INCOMPATIBILITY.

532 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

533 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

534 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

535 preorder_class.*.

537 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

538 "diag" to "Id_on".

540 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

542 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

544 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

545 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

546 fold_image.

548 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

549 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

550 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

551 the former will disappear at some point.

553 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

554 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

555 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

557 rat_power_0 -> power_0

558 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

559 realpow_0 -> power_0

560 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

561 complexpow_0 -> power_0

562 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

563 power_poly_0 -> power_0

564 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

566 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

567 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

568 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

569 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

570 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

571 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

573 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

574 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

575 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

576 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

577 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

578 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

579 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

581 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

582 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

583 rename old lemmas as follows:

585 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

586 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

587 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

588 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

589 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

590 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

591 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

592 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

593 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

594 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

595 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

596 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

597 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

598 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

599 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

600 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

601 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

602 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

603 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

604 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

605 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

606 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

607 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

608 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

609 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

610 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

611 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

612 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

613 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

614 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

615 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

616 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

617 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

618 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

619 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

620 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

621 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

622 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

623 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

624 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

625 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

626 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

627 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

628 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

629 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

631 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

633 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

634 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

636 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

637 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

638 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

639 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

641 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

642 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

643 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

644 theory RealVector.

646 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

647 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

648 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

649 and inner products are included.

651 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

652 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

653 supported.

655 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

656 first diagonalization argument.

658 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

659 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

660 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

661 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

662 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

664 hide (open) const gcd

665 abbreviation gcd where

666 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

667 notation (output)

668 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

670 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

672 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

673 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

674 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

676 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

677 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

678 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

679 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

680 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

681 instrumentalizing code generation. See

682 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

683 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

684 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

685 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

686 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

687 cases.

689 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

690 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

691 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

692 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

693 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

695 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

696 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

697 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

698 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

699 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

702 *** HOL-Algebra ***

704 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

705 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

706 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

708 * New theory of factorial domains.

710 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

711 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

712 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

714 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

716 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

717 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

718 least_carrier ~> least_closed

719 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

720 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

721 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

722 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

725 *** HOL-Nominal ***

727 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

729 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

730 theory targets.

732 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

733 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

734 'inductive' etc.

736 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

737 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

739 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

740 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

742 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

743 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

744 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

745 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

746 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

747 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

748 the algorithm W:

750 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

751 -----------------------------------------------------------------

752 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

754 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

755 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

756 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

759 *** HOLCF ***

761 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

762 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

763 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

765 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

766 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

767 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

768 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

769 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

771 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

772 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

773 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

776 *** ZF ***

778 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

781 *** ML ***

783 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

784 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

785 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

786 5.2.1!

788 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

789 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

790 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

791 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

792 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

793 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

794 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

796 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

797 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

798 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

799 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

800 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

801 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

802 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

804 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

805 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

806 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

807 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

808 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

810 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

811 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

812 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

813 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

814 Method.add_method.

816 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

817 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

818 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

819 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

820 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

821 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

823 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

824 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

825 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

826 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

827 examples.

829 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

830 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

831 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

832 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

833 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

834 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

835 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

836 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

837 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

838 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

840 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

841 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

842 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

844 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

845 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

846 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

847 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

848 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

849 resort for legacy applications.

851 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

852 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

853 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

854 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

855 explicit runtime argument.

857 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

858 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

859 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

860 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

861 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

863 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

864 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

865 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

866 theory state.

868 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

869 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

871 @{binding name} - basic name binding

872 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

873 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

874 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

875 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

876 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

877 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

878 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

879 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

880 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

883 *** System ***

885 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

886 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

887 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

888 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

889 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

891 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

892 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

893 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

894 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

896 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

898 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

899 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

900 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

901 prover operations.

905 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

906 -------------------------------

908 *** General ***

910 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

911 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

913 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

914 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

915 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

916 provides a proper context already.

918 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

919 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

920 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

922 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

923 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

924 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

925 swap theory imports.

927 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

928 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

930 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

931 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

932 white space without escapes.

934 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

935 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

936 "foo_bar".

939 *** Pure ***

941 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

942 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

944 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

945 There are three ways of invoking it:

947 (1) unused_thms

948 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

950 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

951 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

952 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

954 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

955 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

956 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

957 their ancestors.

959 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

960 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

961 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

962 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

963 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

964 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

965 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

967 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

968 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

969 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

971 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

972 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

973 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

974 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

975 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

977 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

979 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

980 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

981 update of theories within ML code.

983 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

984 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

985 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

986 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

988 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

989 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

990 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

991 INCOMPATIBILITY.

993 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

995 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

996 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

997 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

998 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

999 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

1001 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

1002 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

1003 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

1004 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

1005 situations.

1007 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

1008 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

1009 proof text.

1011 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

1012 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

1014 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

1015 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

1016 predicates.

1019 *** Document preparation ***

1021 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

1022 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

1023 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

1024 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

1025 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

1026 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

1028 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

1029 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

1030 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

1033 *** HOL ***

1035 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

1036 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

1037 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

1038 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

1039 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

1040 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

1042 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

1043 with multithreading.

1045 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

1046 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

1047 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

1049 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

1050 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

1051 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

1052 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1054 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

1055 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

1056 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

1057 and makes them available separately. See

1058 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

1060 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

1061 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

1062 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

1063 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

1064 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

1065 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

1066 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

1067 the declared rules.

1069 This setup also deals with rules like

1071 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

1073 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

1074 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

1076 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

1078 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

1080 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

1081 definitions on => and bool.

1083 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

1084 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

1085 the following theorems have been renamed:

1087 subset_def -> subset_eq

1088 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

1089 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

1090 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

1091 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

1092 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

1093 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

1094 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

1096 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

1097 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

1098 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

1100 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

1101 The proof pattern

1103 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1104 then have "EX S. P S" ..

1106 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

1107 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

1109 have "EX S. P S"

1110 proof

1111 show "P S" <...>

1112 qed

1114 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

1115 The proof pattern

1117 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1118 also have "S = T" <...>

1119 finally have "P T" .

1121 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

1122 must be replaced by something like

1124 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

1125 moreover have "S = T" <...>

1126 ultimately have "P T" by simp

1128 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

1129 Code performing pattern matching on types via

1131 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

1133 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

1134 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

1135 type of the form

1137 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

1139 rather than

1141 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

1143 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

1144 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

1146 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1148 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

1149 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

1150 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1152 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

1153 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1155 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

1156 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1158 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

1159 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

1160 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1162 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

1163 the same name in theory Orderings:

1165 less_trans

1166 less_linear

1167 le_imp_less_or_eq

1168 le_less_trans

1169 less_le_trans

1170 less_not_sym

1171 less_asym

1173 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

1174 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

1175 and different variable names.

1177 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

1179 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

1180 finite maps.

1182 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

1184 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

1185 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

1186 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

1187 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

1188 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

1189 accordingly.

1191 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

1192 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

1193 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

1194 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

1196 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

1197 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

1198 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

1199 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

1200 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

1201 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1203 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

1204 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1206 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

1207 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

1208 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

1210 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

1211 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1213 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

1214 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

1216 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

1217 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1219 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

1220 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1222 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

1223 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

1224 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1226 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

1227 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1229 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

1230 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

1231 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

1232 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

1233 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

1234 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1236 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

1237 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

1238 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

1240 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

1242 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

1244 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

1245 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

1246 well-orders on sets and on types.

1249 *** ZF ***

1251 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

1252 same session:

1254 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

1255 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

1256 Int -> Int_ZF

1257 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

1258 Nat -> Nat_ZF

1259 List -> List_ZF

1260 Main -> Main_ZF

1262 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

1263 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

1264 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

1267 *** ML ***

1269 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

1270 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

1272 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

1273 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

1275 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

1277 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

1278 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

1279 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

1280 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

1281 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1283 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

1284 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

1285 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

1288 *** System ***

1290 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

1291 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

1293 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

1294 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

1295 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

1297 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

1298 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

1300 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

1301 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

1302 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

1304 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

1305 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

1306 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

1308 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

1309 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

1311 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

1312 way of changing the user's settings is via

1313 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

1314 script.

1316 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

1317 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

1318 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

1319 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

1320 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

1322 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

1323 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

1324 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

1328 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

1329 -----------------------------------

1331 *** General ***

1333 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

1334 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

1335 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

1336 legacy features will disappear eventually.

1338 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

1339 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

1340 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1342 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

1343 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

1344 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

1345 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1347 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

1348 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

1349 quotes.

1351 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

1352 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

1353 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

1354 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

1355 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

1356 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

1357 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

1358 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

1359 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

1361 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

1362 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

1363 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

1364 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

1365 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

1366 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

1368 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

1369 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

1370 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

1371 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

1373 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

1374 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

1375 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

1376 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

1377 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

1378 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

1380 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

1381 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

1382 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

1383 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

1384 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

1385 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

1386 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

1387 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

1389 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

1390 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

1391 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

1392 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

1393 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

1394 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

1395 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

1397 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

1398 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

1399 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

1401 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

1402 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

1403 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

1404 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

1405 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

1406 limit is imposed.

1408 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

1409 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

1410 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

1411 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

1412 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

1413 and scalability.

1415 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

1416 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

1419 *** Document preparation ***

1421 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

1422 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

1423 current context.

1425 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

1426 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

1428 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

1429 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

1430 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

1433 *** Pure ***

1435 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

1436 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

1437 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

1438 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

1439 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

1440 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

1441 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

1442 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

1443 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

1444 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

1446 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

1447 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

1448 sketch:

1450 internal compilation:

1451 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

1452 writing SML code to a file:

1453 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

1454 writing OCaml code to a file:

1455 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

1456 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

1457 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

1459 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

1460 method ``eval''

1462 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

1464 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

1466 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1467 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

1468 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1469 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

1471 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

1473 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

1474 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

1476 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

1477 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

1479 code_instance <and-list of instances>

1480 {(target)}+

1481 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

1483 code_class <and_list of classes>

1484 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

1485 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

1487 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

1489 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

1490 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

1491 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

1492 codegen".

1494 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

1495 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

1496 annotations).

1498 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

1499 syntax.

1501 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

1502 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

1503 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

1504 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

1505 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

1506 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

1508 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

1509 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

1510 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

1511 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

1512 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

1513 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

1514 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

1515 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

1516 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

1517 equations, see section "definitions".

1519 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

1520 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

1521 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

1522 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

1523 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

1524 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

1525 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

1526 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

1527 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

1528 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

1530 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

1531 configuration options:

1533 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

1534 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

1535 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

1536 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

1537 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

1538 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

1539 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

1540 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

1541 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

1543 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

1544 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

1545 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

1546 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

1547 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

1548 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

1549 order.

1551 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

1552 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

1553 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

1554 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

1555 context encountered later on.

1557 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

1558 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

1559 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

1560 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

1562 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

1563 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

1564 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

1565 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

1566 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

1567 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

1569 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

1570 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

1571 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

1572 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

1573 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

1574 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

1575 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

1576 more permissive.

1578 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

1579 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

1580 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

1581 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

1582 maintainability of proof texts.

1584 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

1585 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

1587 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

1588 then guess x and y by clarify

1590 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

1591 proof tools being involved here.

1593 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

1594 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

1595 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

1596 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

1597 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

1598 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

1599 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

1600 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

1602 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

1603 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

1604 certain special cases of literal facts:

1606 have "A" by fact == note `A`

1607 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

1608 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

1609 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

1611 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

1612 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

1613 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

1615 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

1616 both named and unnamed ones.

1618 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

1620 def x == "t" and y == "u"

1622 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

1623 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

1624 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

1625 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

1627 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

1628 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

1629 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

1630 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

1631 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

1633 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

1634 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

1636 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

1637 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

1638 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

1639 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

1640 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

1641 originally first one.

1643 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

1644 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

1645 expected.

1647 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

1648 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

1649 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

1650 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

1651 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

1653 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1654 assumes "EX x. P x"

1655 obtains x where "P x"

1657 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1658 assumes "A & B"

1659 obtains A and B

1661 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1662 assumes "A | B"

1663 obtains

1664 A

1665 | B

1667 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

1668 explicitly:

1670 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1671 obtains "~ thesis"

1673 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

1674 obtains "thesis ==> something"

1676 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

1677 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

1678 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

1679 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

1680 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

1681 case_names).

1683 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

1684 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

1685 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

1686 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

1688 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

1689 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

1690 top-level lemma.

1692 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

1693 introduction rule (default "that").

1695 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1696 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

1697 to occur.

1699 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

1700 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

1701 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

1702 representations independently of name spaces.

1704 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

1705 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

1706 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1708 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

1709 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

1710 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

1711 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

1712 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

1713 current context.

1715 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

1716 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

1717 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

1718 isar-ref manual. Examples:

1720 axiomatization

1721 eq (infix "===" 50) where

1722 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

1724 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

1725 definition g where "g x = f x x"

1727 abbreviation

1728 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

1729 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

1731 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

1732 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

1733 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

1734 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

1735 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

1736 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

1737 entities from a monomorphic theory.

1739 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

1740 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

1741 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

1742 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

1743 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

1745 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

1746 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

1747 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

1748 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

1750 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

1751 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

1752 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

1754 definition "K x _ = x"

1756 inductive conj for A B

1757 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

1759 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

1760 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

1761 abbreviations on output.

1763 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

1764 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

1765 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

1766 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

1768 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

1769 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

1770 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

1771 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

1772 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

1773 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

1774 `unfold_locales'; see below.

1776 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

1777 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

1778 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

1779 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

1780 unfold predicates to assumptions.

1782 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

1783 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

1784 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

1786 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

1787 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

1788 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

1789 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

1790 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

1792 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

1793 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

1795 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

1796 definition specification element in the context of locale

1797 partial_order.

1799 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

1800 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

1801 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

1802 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

1803 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

1804 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

1805 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

1806 examples.

1808 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

1809 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

1810 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

1811 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

1812 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

1814 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

1815 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

1816 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

1817 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

1818 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

1820 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

1821 (induct set: foo bar)

1822 (induct pred: foo bar)

1823 (induct type: foo bar)

1825 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

1826 new format.

1828 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

1829 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

1831 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

1832 considered a legacy feature.

1834 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

1835 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1837 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

1838 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

1839 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

1840 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

1842 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

1843 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

1844 manipulating the claset.

1846 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

1847 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

1848 least one premise.

1850 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

1851 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

1852 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

1853 rule steps.

1855 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

1856 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

1857 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

1858 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

1859 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

1860 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

1862 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

1863 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

1864 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

1866 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

1867 the graph browser tool.

1869 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

1870 default; use '!' option for full details.

1873 *** HOL ***

1875 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

1876 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

1877 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

1878 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

1879 multi-threading.

1881 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

1882 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

1883 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

1884 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

1885 work with multi-threading.

1887 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

1888 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

1889 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

1890 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

1891 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

1893 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

1895 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

1896 equality.

1898 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

1899 the new 'class' package:

1901 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

1902 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

1903 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

1904 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

1905 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

1906 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

1907 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

1908 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

1909 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

1910 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

1911 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

1912 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

1913 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

1914 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

1915 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

1916 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

1917 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

1918 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

1919 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

1920 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

1922 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

1924 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

1925 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

1926 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

1927 names.

1929 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

1930 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1932 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

1933 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

1934 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

1935 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

1936 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

1938 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

1939 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

1940 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

1941 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

1943 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

1945 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

1946 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

1947 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

1948 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

1949 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1951 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

1952 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1954 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

1955 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

1956 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1958 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

1959 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

1961 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

1962 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

1963 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

1964 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

1965 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

1966 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

1967 in the current context.

1969 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

1970 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

1971 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1973 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

1974 with new class dense_linear_order.

1976 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

1978 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

1979 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

1981 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

1982 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

1983 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

1984 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

1986 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

1987 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

1989 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

1991 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

1992 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

1993 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

1994 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

1995 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

1996 le_meetI ~> le_infI

1997 join_leI ~> le_supI

1998 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

1999 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

2000 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

2001 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

2002 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

2003 join_comm ~> sup_commute

2004 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

2005 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

2006 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

2007 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

2008 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

2009 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

2010 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

2011 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

2012 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

2013 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

2014 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

2015 join_aci ~> sup_aci

2016 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

2017 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

2018 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

2019 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

2020 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

2021 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

2022 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

2023 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

2024 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

2025 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

2027 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

2028 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

2029 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

2030 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

2031 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

2032 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

2033 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

2034 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

2035 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

2036 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

2037 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

2038 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

2039 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

2040 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

2041 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

2042 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

2043 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

2045 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

2046 mono_join ~> mono_sup

2047 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

2048 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

2049 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

2050 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

2051 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

2052 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

2053 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

2054 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

2055 meet1I ~> inf1I

2056 meet2I ~> inf2I

2057 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

2058 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

2059 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

2060 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

2061 meet1E ~> inf1E

2062 meet2E ~> inf2E

2063 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

2064 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

2065 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

2066 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

2067 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

2068 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

2069 join1CI ~> sup1CI

2070 join2CI ~> sup2CI

2071 join1E ~> sup1E

2072 join2E ~> sup2E

2074 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

2075 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

2076 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

2077 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

2078 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

2079 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

2081 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

2082 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

2083 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

2084 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

2086 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

2087 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

2089 meet_min ~> inf_min

2090 join_max ~> sup_max

2092 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

2093 type "'a::size ==> bool"

2095 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

2096 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

2097 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

2098 "*.size".

2100 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

2101 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2103 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

2104 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

2105 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2107 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2109 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

2110 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

2111 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

2112 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

2113 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

2114 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

2115 numerals on all operations.

2117 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

2119 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

2121 * Code generator library theories:

2122 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

2123 languages.

2124 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

2125 languages.

2126 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

2127 codes; includes Code_Integer.

2128 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

2129 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

2130 denominator).

2131 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

2132 representable by rational numbers.

2133 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

2134 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

2135 includes Code_Integer.

2136 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

2137 target-language built-in integers.

2138 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

2139 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

2141 * New package for inductive predicates

2143 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

2145 inductive

2146 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2147 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2148 where

2149 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

2150 | ...

2152 with full support for type-inference, rather than

2154 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2156 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2157 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2159 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

2160 intros

2161 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2162 ...

2164 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

2165 sets to be defined with the new package via

2167 inductive_set

2168 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2169 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2170 where

2171 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2172 | ...

2174 or

2176 inductive_set

2177 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

2178 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

2179 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

2180 where

2181 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

2182 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

2183 | ...

2185 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

2187 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

2188 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

2190 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2192 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

2193 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

2194 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

2195 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

2196 than before the actual inductive definition.

2198 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

2199 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

2200 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

2201 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

2202 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

2203 statements of the form

2205 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

2207 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

2208 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

2210 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

2212 - The format of the elimination rules is now

2214 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

2215 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2216 ==> ... ==> P

2218 for predicates and

2220 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2221 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

2222 ==> ... ==> P

2224 for sets rather than

2226 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

2227 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

2228 ==> ... ==> P

2230 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

2231 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

2232 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

2234 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

2235 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

2236 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

2238 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

2239 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

2240 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

2241 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

2242 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

2243 users are encouraged to use the new package.

2245 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

2246 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

2248 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

2249 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

2250 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

2251 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

2252 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

2253 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

2254 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

2255 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

2256 variable.

2258 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

2259 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

2260 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

2261 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2262 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

2263 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

2265 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

2266 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

2267 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

2268 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

2269 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

2270 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

2271 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

2272 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

2273 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

2275 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

2276 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

2277 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

2278 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

2279 rat, etc.

2281 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

2282 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

2283 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

2285 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

2287 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

2288 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

2290 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

2291 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

2293 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

2294 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

2295 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2297 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

2298 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

2299 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2301 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

2303 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

2305 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

2306 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

2307 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

2308 positive/negative (in inequations).

2310 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

2311 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

2312 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

2313 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2315 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

2316 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

2317 algebraic operations.

2319 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

2320 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2322 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

2323 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2325 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

2326 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

2327 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

2328 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

2329 adapted.

2331 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

2332 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

2333 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

2334 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

2335 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

2337 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

2338 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

2339 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

2341 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

2342 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

2343 better use 'abbreviation'.

2345 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2347 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

2348 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

2349 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

2350 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

2351 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

2352 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

2353 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

2354 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

2356 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

2358 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

2359 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

2360 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

2361 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

2362 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

2363 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

2365 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

2366 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

2367 "A = B" (with priority 50).

2369 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

2370 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

2371 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

2372 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2374 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

2376 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

2377 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2379 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

2380 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

2382 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

2383 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

2384 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

2386 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

2387 True/False.

2389 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

2391 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

2393 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

2394 ``rule'' method.

2396 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

2397 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

2398 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

2399 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

2401 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

2402 zChaff is still supported as well.

2404 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

2405 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

2407 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

2408 Library.

2410 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

2412 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

2413 as greatest fixed-point.

2415 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

2416 association lists.

2418 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

2419 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

2420 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

2422 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

2423 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

2424 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2425 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

2426 behavior.

2428 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

2430 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

2431 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

2432 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

2433 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

2434 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

2435 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

2437 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

2438 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

2439 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

2440 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

2441 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

2442 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

2443 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

2445 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

2446 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

2448 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

2449 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

2450 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

2451 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

2452 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

2455 *** HOL-Complex ***

2457 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

2458 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

2459 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

2460 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

2461 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2463 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

2464 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

2465 and norm :: 'a => real.

2467 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

2468 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

2469 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2471 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

2472 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

2474 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

2475 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

2476 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

2477 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2479 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2480 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2481 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

2482 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

2483 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2484 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

2485 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2486 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2487 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2488 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

2489 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

2490 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

2491 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

2492 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

2493 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

2495 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

2496 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

2497 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

2498 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2500 approx <-- capprox

2501 HFinite <-- CFinite

2502 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

2503 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

2504 monad <-- cmonad

2505 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

2506 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

2507 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

2508 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

2511 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2513 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

2515 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

2516 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2518 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

2519 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2521 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

2522 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

2523 of algebraic structures.

2525 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

2528 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2530 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

2531 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

2532 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

2533 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

2536 *** ML ***

2538 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

2539 (even on SML/NJ).

2541 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

2542 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

2543 compile-time. For example:

2545 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

2546 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

2547 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

2548 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

2549 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

2550 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

2551 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

2552 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

2553 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

2554 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

2555 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

2556 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

2557 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

2558 ML {* @{context} *}

2559 ML {* @{theory} *}

2560 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

2561 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

2562 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

2563 ML {* @{simpset} *}

2564 ML {* @{claset} *}

2565 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

2567 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

2569 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

2570 ML_Context.trace enabled.

2572 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

2573 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

2574 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

2576 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

2577 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

2579 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

2580 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

2581 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

2583 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

2584 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

2585 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

2586 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

2587 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

2588 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

2589 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

2590 declarations and definitions.

2592 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

2593 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

2594 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

2595 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

2597 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

2598 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

2599 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

2600 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2602 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

2603 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

2604 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

2605 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

2606 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

2607 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

2609 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

2610 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

2611 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

2612 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

2613 attributes, methods, etc.

2615 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

2616 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

2617 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

2618 fold_map combinators.

2620 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

2621 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

2622 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

2623 derivation.

2625 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

2626 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

2627 achieve the old behaviour.

2629 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

2630 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

2631 statements.

2633 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

2634 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

2635 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

2637 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

2638 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

2639 some popular functions from term.ML:

2641 Term.variant -> Name.variant

2642 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

2643 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

2645 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

2646 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

2648 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

2649 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

2650 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

2651 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

2652 various freeze_thaw operations.

2654 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

2655 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

2656 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

2657 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

2658 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

2659 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

2660 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

2661 in a locale context).

2663 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

2664 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

2665 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

2666 which are considered legacy and await removal.

2668 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

2669 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

2670 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

2671 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

2672 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

2673 a mere theory instead of a full context.

2675 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

2676 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

2677 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

2678 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

2679 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

2681 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

2683 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

2684 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

2685 this:

2687 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

2689 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

2690 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

2691 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

2692 -- use plain ERROR instead.

2694 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

2695 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

2697 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

2698 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

2700 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

2701 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

2702 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

2703 batch mode.

2705 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

2706 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

2707 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

2708 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2710 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

2711 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

2712 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

2713 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

2714 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

2716 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

2717 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

2718 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

2719 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

2720 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

2721 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

2723 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

2724 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

2725 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

2726 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2728 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

2729 "Trueprop" etc.

2732 *** System ***

2734 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

2735 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

2736 Isabelle installations.

2738 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

2739 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

2740 code.

2742 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

2744 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

2745 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

2746 independent theories, according to the given theory header

2747 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

2748 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

2749 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

2750 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

2751 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

2752 Implementation manual.

2756 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

2757 ----------------------------------

2759 *** General ***

2761 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

2763 theory <name>

2764 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

2765 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

2766 begin

2768 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

2770 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

2772 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

2773 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

2774 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

2776 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

2777 relative and absolute paths.

2779 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

2780 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

2781 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

2782 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

2783 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

2784 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

2785 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

2786 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

2787 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

2789 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

2791 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

2792 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

2793 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

2795 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

2796 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

2798 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

2799 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

2800 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

2801 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

2803 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

2804 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

2806 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

2807 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

2808 faster.

2811 *** Document preparation ***

2813 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

2814 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

2815 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

2816 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

2817 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

2818 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

2820 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

2821 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

2822 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

2823 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

2824 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

2825 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

2826 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

2827 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

2828 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

2829 \isadroptag.

2831 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

2832 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

2833 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

2834 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

2835 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

2836 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

2837 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

2838 specified above.

2840 * Several new antiquotations:

2842 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

2844 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

2846 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

2847 argument is a known logical constant;

2849 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

2850 theorem applying a "style" to it

2852 @{ML text}

2854 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

2855 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

2856 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

2857 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

2858 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

2859 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

2860 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

2862 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

2863 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

2864 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

2865 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

2867 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

2868 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

2869 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

2871 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

2872 a proof context.

2874 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

2875 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

2877 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

2878 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

2880 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

2881 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

2882 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

2885 *** Pure ***

2887 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

2888 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

2889 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

2890 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

2891 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

2892 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

2893 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

2895 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

2896 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

2897 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

2898 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

2899 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

2900 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

2901 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

2902 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

2904 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

2905 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

2906 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

2908 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

2909 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

2910 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

2912 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

2913 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

2914 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

2915 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

2916 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2918 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

2919 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

2920 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

2921 axclasses vs. locales.

2923 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

2924 instead of base 26 numbers.

2926 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

2927 marks in schematic variable names.

2929 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

2930 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

2931 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

2933 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

2934 by simp

2936 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

2938 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

2939 annotations as "(00...)".

2941 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

2942 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

2943 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

2944 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

2945 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

2946 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

2947 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

2949 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

2950 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

2951 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

2952 specifications.

2954 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

2955 locally fixed variables as well.

2957 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

2958 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

2959 Limit.

2961 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

2962 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

2963 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

2964 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

2965 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

2966 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

2967 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

2969 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

2970 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

2971 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

2973 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2975 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

2976 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

2977 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

2978 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

2979 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

2980 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

2982 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

2983 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

2985 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

2986 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

2987 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

2989 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

2991 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

2992 theory development.

2994 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

2995 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

2996 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

2997 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

2999 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

3000 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

3001 quoted when used as identifier.

3004 *** Locales ***

3006 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

3007 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

3008 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

3009 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

3010 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

3011 commands is a follows:

3013 (1) interpretation expr inst

3014 (2) interpretation target < expr

3015 (3) interpret expr inst

3017 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

3018 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

3019 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

3020 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

3021 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

3022 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

3023 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

3024 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

3025 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

3026 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

3028 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

3029 'interpret' instead.

3031 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

3032 parameters.

3034 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

3035 redeclaration.

3037 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

3039 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

3040 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

3041 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

3042 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

3043 to attribute arguments as expected.

3045 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

3046 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

3047 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

3048 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

3049 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

3050 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

3051 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

3052 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

3053 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

3054 values to argument tokens explicitly.

3056 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

3057 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

3058 theorem statement in rare situations.

3060 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

3061 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

3064 *** Provers ***

3066 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

3067 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

3068 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

3069 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

3070 still available as 'simplesubst'.

3072 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

3073 and quasi orders.

3075 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

3076 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

3078 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

3079 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

3081 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

3082 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

3083 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3086 *** HOL ***

3088 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

3090 syntax (epsilon)

3091 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

3093 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

3094 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

3095 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

3096 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

3098 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

3099 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

3100 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

3101 support corresponding Isar calculations.

3103 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

3104 instead of ":".

3106 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

3108 Old New

3109 {..n(} {..<n}

3110 {)n..} {n<..}

3111 {m..n(} {m..<n}

3112 {)m..n} {m<..n}

3113 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

3115 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

3116 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

3117 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

3119 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

3120 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

3122 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

3123 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

3124 interface.

3126 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

3127 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

3128 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

3129 be a tuple pattern.

3131 Some new syntax forms are available:

3133 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

3134 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

3135 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

3136 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

3138 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

3139 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

3141 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

3142 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

3143 (insert F x)'.

3145 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

3146 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

3147 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

3149 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

3150 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

3151 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

3153 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

3154 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

3155 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

3156 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3157 in unstructured proof scripts.

3159 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

3160 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

3161 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

3162 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

3163 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

3164 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

3165 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

3166 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

3167 <record_name>_ext_type.

3169 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

3170 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

3171 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

3172 quite long.

3174 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

3175 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

3176 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

3177 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

3179 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

3180 type-variables in the term.

3182 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

3183 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

3184 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

3185 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

3186 goals than previously.

3188 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

3189 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

3190 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

3191 just like y <= x.

3193 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

3194 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

3195 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

3196 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

3197 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

3198 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

3199 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

3201 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

3203 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

3204 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

3206 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

3207 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

3208 inequalities.

3210 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3211 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3213 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

3214 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

3215 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

3216 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

3217 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

3218 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

3219 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

3220 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

3221 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

3222 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

3223 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

3225 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

3227 zero_le_square

3228 not_square_less_zero

3230 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

3232 realpow_zero_zero

3233 realpow_two

3234 realpow_less

3235 zero_le_power

3236 realpow_two_le

3237 abs_realpow_two

3238 realpow_two_abs

3240 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

3242 * Theory List:

3244 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3245 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3247 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

3248 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

3249 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

3250 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

3252 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

3253 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

3256 *** HOL-Complex ***

3258 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

3259 integers in the reals.

3261 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

3262 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3264 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

3265 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3266 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3267 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3268 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

3270 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

3272 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

3274 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

3275 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

3277 hypreal = real star

3278 hypnat = nat star

3279 hcomplex = complex star

3281 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

3282 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3284 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

3286 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

3287 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

3288 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

3289 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

3290 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

3292 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3293 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

3294 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

3295 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

3296 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

3298 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

3299 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3301 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

3302 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

3303 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

3304 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

3305 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

3306 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

3307 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

3308 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

3309 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

3310 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

3311 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

3312 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

3313 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

3314 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

3315 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

3316 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

3317 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

3318 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

3319 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

3320 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

3321 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

3322 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

3323 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

3324 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

3326 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

3327 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

3328 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3330 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

3331 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

3332 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

3333 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

3334 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

3335 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

3336 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

3337 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

3338 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

3339 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

3340 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

3341 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

3342 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

3343 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

3344 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

3345 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

3346 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

3347 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

3348 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

3349 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

3350 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

3351 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

3352 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

3353 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3354 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

3355 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

3356 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

3357 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

3358 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

3359 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

3360 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

3361 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

3362 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

3363 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

3364 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

3365 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

3366 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

3367 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

3368 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

3369 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

3370 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

3371 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

3372 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

3373 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

3374 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

3375 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

3376 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

3377 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

3378 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

3379 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

3380 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

3381 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

3382 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

3383 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

3385 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

3386 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

3387 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

3388 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

3389 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

3390 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

3391 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

3392 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

3393 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

3394 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

3395 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

3397 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

3398 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

3399 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

3400 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

3401 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

3402 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

3403 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

3404 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

3405 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

3406 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

3407 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

3408 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

3409 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

3410 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

3411 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

3412 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

3413 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

3414 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

3415 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

3416 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

3417 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

3419 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

3420 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

3421 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

3422 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

3423 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

3424 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

3426 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

3429 *** HOLCF ***

3431 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

3432 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

3433 type-inference.

3435 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

3436 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

3437 instead of exponential time).

3439 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

3440 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

3442 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

3444 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

3445 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

3446 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

3447 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

3448 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

3449 syntax and examples.

3451 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

3452 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

3453 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

3454 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

3455 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

3457 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

3458 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

3460 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

3461 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

3462 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

3463 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

3464 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

3465 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

3468 *** ZF ***

3470 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

3471 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

3472 of a homomorphism).

3474 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

3475 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

3476 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

3479 *** Cube ***

3481 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

3482 theories.

3485 *** ML ***

3487 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

3488 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

3490 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

3491 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

3492 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

3493 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

3494 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

3496 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

3497 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

3498 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

3499 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

3501 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

3502 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

3503 suggests how one can translate existing code:

3505 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

3506 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

3507 last_elem xs = List.last xs

3508 flat xss = List.concat xss

3509 seq fs = List.app fs

3510 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

3511 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

3513 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

3514 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

3516 x |> f f #> g

3517 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

3519 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

3521 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

3522 infix 2 ?;

3523 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

3524 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

3526 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

3527 infix operators.

3529 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

3530 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

3531 example:

3533 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

3534 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

3536 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

3537 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

3539 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

3540 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

3542 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

3543 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

3545 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

3546 available:

3548 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

3549 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

3550 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

3551 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

3553 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3554 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

3555 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

3556 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

3557 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

3559 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

3560 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

3561 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

3563 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

3565 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

3566 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

3568 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

3569 Naive rewrites:

3571 make_keylist = AList.make

3572 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

3574 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

3575 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

3577 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

3578 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

3580 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

3581 Naive rewrites:

3583 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

3584 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

3586 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

3587 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

3588 lists.

3590 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

3591 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

3592 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

3593 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

3595 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

3596 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

3597 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

3598 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

3599 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

3600 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

3601 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

3602 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

3603 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

3604 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

3605 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

3606 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

3607 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

3608 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

3609 Output.raw have no effect.

3611 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

3612 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

3613 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

3615 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

3616 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

3617 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

3618 internal and external process view of file names are different.

3620 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

3621 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

3622 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

3623 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

3624 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

3625 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

3626 Library.sort_strings on result).

3628 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

3629 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

3630 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

3631 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

3633 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

3634 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

3635 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

3636 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

3637 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

3638 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

3639 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

3640 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

3641 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

3642 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

3643 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

3645 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

3646 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

3647 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

3648 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

3649 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

3650 with earlier declarations.

3652 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

3653 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

3654 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

3656 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

3657 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

3658 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

3659 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

3660 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

3661 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

3663 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

3664 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

3666 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

3667 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

3669 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

3670 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

3671 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

3672 Theory.merge, etc.)

3674 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

3675 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

3676 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

3678 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

3680 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

3681 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

3682 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

3683 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

3685 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

3686 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

3687 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

3688 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

3689 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

3690 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

3691 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

3692 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

3694 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

3695 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

3696 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3698 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

3699 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

3700 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

3702 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

3703 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

3705 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3706 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

3707 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3708 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

3710 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

3712 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

3713 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

3714 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

3715 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

3716 (both increase the runtime).

3718 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

3719 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

3720 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

3722 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

3723 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

3724 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

3725 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

3726 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

3727 for further details.

3729 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

3730 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

3731 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

3732 scripts for the time being.

3734 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

3735 generated HTML files. For example:

3737 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

3738 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

3741 *** System ***

3743 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

3744 isabelle, isatool etc.).

3746 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

3747 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

3749 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

3750 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

3752 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

3753 distribution being used.

3755 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

3756 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

3757 theories.

3761 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

3762 --------------------------------

3764 *** General ***

3766 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

3767 Replaces linorder.ML.

3769 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

3770 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

3771 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

3772 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

3773 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

3774 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

3775 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

3776 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

3777 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

3778 existing theory and ML files.

3780 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

3782 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

3783 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

3784 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

3785 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

3787 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

3788 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

3789 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

3790 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

3792 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

3793 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

3794 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

3796 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

3797 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

3798 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

3799 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

3800 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

3802 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

3803 (i.e. intersections of classes),

3805 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

3806 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

3807 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

3810 *** Isar ***

3812 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

3813 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

3814 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

3815 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

3816 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

3817 emulations.

3818 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

3819 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

3820 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

3822 * Attributes "where" and "of":

3823 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

3824 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

3825 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

3826 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

3828 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

3829 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

3830 and derived forms.

3832 * Locales:

3833 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

3834 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

3835 "_axioms") in the premise.

3836 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

3837 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

3838 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

3839 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

3840 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

3841 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

3842 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

3843 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

3844 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

3845 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

3846 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

3847 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

3848 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

3849 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

3850 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

3851 with "locale (open)".

3852 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

3854 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

3855 (Isar) contexts.

3858 *** HOL ***

3860 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

3861 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

3862 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

3863 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

3864 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

3866 * Simplifier:

3867 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

3868 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

3869 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

3870 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

3871 to solve goals from the assumptions.

3872 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

3873 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

3874 is solved by simplification already.

3876 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

3877 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

3879 * Numerics:

3880 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

3881 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

3882 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

3883 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

3884 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

3885 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

3886 exponentiation).

3888 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

3890 * Records:

3891 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

3892 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

3893 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

3894 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

3895 (not enabled by default).

3896 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

3897 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

3898 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

3900 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

3901 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

3902 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

3904 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

3906 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

3908 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

3909 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

3911 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

3912 matrix theory to linear programming.

3914 * Unions and Intersections:

3915 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

3916 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

3917 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

3918 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

3920 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

3921 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

3922 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

3923 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

3925 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

3926 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

3928 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

3929 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

3931 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

3932 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

3933 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

3935 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

3936 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

3937 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

3938 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

3939 for examples.

3942 *** HOLCF ***

3944 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

3948 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

3949 ------------------------------

3951 *** General ***

3953 * Provers/simplifier:

3955 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

3956 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

3957 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

3958 the order of assumptions.

3960 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3962 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

3963 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

3965 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

3967 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

3969 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

3971 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

3972 kind of problem.

3974 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

3975 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

3976 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

3977 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

3978 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

3979 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

3980 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

3982 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

3984 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

3985 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

3986 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

3987 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

3988 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

3989 the simplifier would diverge.

3991 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

3993 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

3994 congruence is ignored.

3996 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

3997 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

3998 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

4000 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

4001 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

4002 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

4003 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

4005 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

4006 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

4007 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

4008 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

4009 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

4010 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

4011 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

4013 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

4014 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

4015 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

4016 assumption failed.

4018 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

4019 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

4020 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

4021 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

4022 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

4023 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

4024 on the old view without predicates;

4026 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

4027 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

4028 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

4030 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

4031 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

4032 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

4033 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

4034 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

4035 be given (the default is 40);

4037 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

4038 (batch-mode only);

4040 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

4041 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

4042 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

4044 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

4045 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

4046 for slight decrease in efficiency;

4048 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

4049 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

4051 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

4052 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

4055 *** HOL ***

4057 * arith(_tac)

4059 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

4060 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

4061 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

4062 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

4064 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

4066 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

4067 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

4068 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

4070 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

4071 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

4073 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

4074 are distributed over a sum of terms;

4076 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

4077 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

4078 "<=", "<" and "=").

4080 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

4081 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

4083 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

4084 definition;

4086 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

4087 Finite_Set);

4089 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

4090 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

4092 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

4093 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

4095 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

4096 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

4097 of the empty set.

4099 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

4100 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

4101 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

4102 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

4104 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

4106 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

4107 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

4108 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

4110 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

4112 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

4113 Fleuriot);

4115 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

4117 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

4118 Gray and Kramer);

4120 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

4122 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

4123 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

4125 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

4126 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

4127 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

4128 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

4129 assignment, exceptions.

4132 *** ZF ***

4134 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

4135 universe, etc.);

4137 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

4140 *** ML ***

4142 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

4143 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

4144 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

4146 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

4148 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

4149 up simprocs;

4152 *** Document preparation ***

4154 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

4155 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

4156 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

4158 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

4159 other packages

4161 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

4162 broke \Rightarrow)

4164 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

4165 textcomp package)

4169 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

4170 --------------------------------

4172 *** Document preparation ***

4174 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

4175 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

4176 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

4177 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

4178 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

4179 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

4181 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

4182 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

4183 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

4185 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

4186 blocks after section headings;

4188 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

4189 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

4191 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

4192 better in printed text;

4194 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

4195 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

4196 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

4198 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

4199 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

4200 location;

4203 *** Isar ***

4205 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

4206 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

4207 "case (Suc n)");

4208 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

4209 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

4210 instantiation of cases;

4211 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

4212 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

4213 rules without further ado;

4214 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

4215 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

4216 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

4217 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

4218 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

4219 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

4220 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

4221 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

4222 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

4223 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

4224 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

4225 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

4226 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

4227 below);

4228 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

4229 success (no backtracking);

4230 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

4231 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

4232 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

4233 General versions);

4234 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

4235 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

4237 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

4238 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

4239 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

4240 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

4241 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

4242 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

4243 fails:

4245 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

4247 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

4248 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

4250 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

4251 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

4252 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

4253 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

4254 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

4255 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

4256 some examples;

4258 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

4259 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

4260 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

4261 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

4262 qualified by the locale name);

4264 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

4265 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

4266 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

4267 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

4268 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

4270 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

4271 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

4272 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

4273 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

4274 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

4276 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

4278 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

4279 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

4280 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

4282 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

4284 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

4286 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

4288 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

4289 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

4290 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

4292 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

4293 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

4294 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

4295 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

4296 proof *scripts*;

4298 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

4299 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

4300 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

4301 especially important for locales);

4303 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

4304 mode;

4306 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

4307 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

4308 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

4309 situations;

4311 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

4312 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

4314 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

4315 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

4316 discontinued;

4318 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

4319 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

4320 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

4322 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

4323 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

4324 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

4325 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

4326 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

4327 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

4328 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4330 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

4331 of introduction rules;

4333 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

4334 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

4335 conditional rules;

4337 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

4339 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

4340 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

4342 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

4343 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

4345 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

4346 wf_induct_rule;

4349 *** HOL ***

4351 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

4352 follows:

4354 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

4355 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

4357 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

4358 binary representation internally;

4360 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

4361 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

4363 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

4364 are some hints on converting existing sources:

4366 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

4367 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

4368 to be spaced properly;

4370 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

4371 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

4373 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

4375 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

4377 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

4378 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

4380 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

4382 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

4383 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

4384 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

4385 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

4386 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

4388 * HOL/record package improvements:

4389 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

4390 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

4391 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

4392 declared as simp by default;

4393 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

4394 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

4395 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

4396 INCOMPATIBILITY;

4397 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4398 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

4399 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

4400 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

4401 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

4402 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

4404 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

4405 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

4406 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

4407 via 'generate_code' theory section;

4409 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

4411 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

4412 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

4413 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

4415 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

4416 (beware of argument permutation!);

4418 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

4420 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

4422 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

4423 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4424 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

4426 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

4427 in this (rare) case use:

4429 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

4430 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

4432 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

4433 MAY FAIL;

4435 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

4436 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

4437 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

4438 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

4440 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

4441 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

4442 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

4444 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

4445 expressions;

4447 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

4448 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

4450 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4451 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

4452 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

4454 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

4456 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

4457 the "cases" method);

4459 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

4460 Florian Kammller);

4462 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

4463 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

4464 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

4466 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

4468 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

4471 *** HOLCF ***

4473 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

4474 operations;

4476 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

4477 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

4479 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

4480 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

4481 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

4483 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

4486 *** ZF ***

4488 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

4489 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

4490 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

4491 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

4493 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

4494 your theory on Main_ZFC;

4496 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

4497 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

4499 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

4500 typeless version of the formalism;

4502 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

4503 format;

4505 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

4506 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

4507 new-style theory format;

4509 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

4512 *** General ***

4514 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

4515 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

4516 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

4517 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

4519 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

4520 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

4522 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

4523 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

4524 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

4525 properly;

4527 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

4528 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

4530 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

4531 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

4532 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

4533 type variable);

4535 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

4536 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

4537 "type_brackets";

4539 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

4540 tokens into AST constants;

4542 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

4543 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

4544 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

4546 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

4547 practice);

4549 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

4550 addSafter;

4552 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

4553 as well;

4555 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

4556 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

4557 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

4558 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

4559 support requires further installations, e.g. from

4560 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

4562 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

4564 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

4565 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

4567 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

4568 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

4570 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

4571 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

4572 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

4574 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

4575 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

4576 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

4577 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

4578 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

4580 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

4581 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

4582 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

4583 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

4585 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

4586 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

4587 terminal);

4591 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

4592 -----------------------------------

4594 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4596 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

4597 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

4598 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

4600 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

4601 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

4602 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

4603 'split_rule (complete)';

4605 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

4606 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

4608 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

4610 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

4611 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

4612 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

4614 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

4615 operation;

4617 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

4619 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

4621 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

4622 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

4623 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

4625 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

4626 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

4629 *** Document preparation ***

4631 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

4632 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

4633 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

4634 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

4635 type-writer);

4637 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

4638 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

4640 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

4641 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

4643 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

4644 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

4645 definitions);

4647 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

4648 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

4649 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

4650 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

4652 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

4653 fonts;

4655 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

4656 generation;

4658 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

4661 *** Isar ***

4663 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

4664 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

4665 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

4666 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

4667 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

4669 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

4670 rules as well;

4672 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

4673 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

4674 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

4675 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

4677 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

4678 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

4680 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

4681 statements as well;

4683 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

4685 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

4686 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

4688 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

4689 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

4691 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

4693 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

4695 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

4696 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

4698 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

4699 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

4700 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

4702 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

4703 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

4704 the result to be shown in each case;

4706 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

4708 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

4711 *** HOL ***

4713 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

4714 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

4715 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

4716 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

4717 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

4719 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

4720 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

4721 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

4723 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

4724 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

4725 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

4726 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

4727 literature;

4729 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

4730 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

4731 operator \<Sum>;

4733 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

4734 HOL/subset.thy);

4736 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

4737 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

4738 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

4740 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

4741 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

4743 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

4744 rules with string literals);

4746 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

4747 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

4748 functions for the reals;

4750 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

4753 *** CTT ***

4755 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

4756 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

4758 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

4759 and Arith);

4762 *** General ***

4764 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

4765 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

4766 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

4767 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

4769 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

4770 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

4772 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

4773 as assumptions as well;

4775 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

4777 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

4781 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

4782 ----------------------------------

4784 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

4786 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

4787 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

4788 issue the following ML commands:

4790 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

4791 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

4793 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

4794 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

4796 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

4798 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

4799 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

4801 select_equality -> some_equality

4802 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

4803 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

4804 selectI2 -> someI2

4805 selectI -> someI

4806 select1_equality -> some1_equality

4807 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

4808 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

4810 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

4812 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

4813 instead);

4815 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

4816 f.simps instead of f.rules;

4818 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

4820 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

4821 sometimes be needed;

4823 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

4825 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

4827 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

4828 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

4829 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

4831 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

4832 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

4834 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

4835 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

4837 syntax (symbols)

4838 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

4839 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

4841 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4843 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

4844 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

4845 internally;

4847 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

4848 changed from A/r to A//r;

4850 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

4851 proofs;

4853 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

4854 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

4856 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4857 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

4858 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

4859 "rule del";

4861 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

4863 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

4865 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

4866 lib/texinputs);

4869 *** Document preparation ***

4871 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

4872 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

4873 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

4874 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

4876 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

4877 including proper document sources;

4879 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

4880 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

4881 of isatool usedir;

4883 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

4884 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

4885 LaTeX debugging;

4887 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

4889 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

4890 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

4891 graph for 'all sessions';

4893 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

4894 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

4895 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

4898 *** Isar ***

4900 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

4901 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

4902 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

4904 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

4905 generalized existence reasoning;

4907 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

4908 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

4909 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

4910 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

4911 premises;

4913 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

4914 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

4915 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

4916 to theorems as "tags";

4918 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

4919 class/type/const name spaces;

4921 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

4922 indicate potential overloading;

4924 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

4926 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

4927 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

4929 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

4930 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

4931 with the version in Provers/classical;

4933 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

4934 case name 'antecedent';

4936 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

4937 to the current context is now done automatically);

4939 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

4940 for definining proof methods in ML;

4942 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4943 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

4944 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

4945 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

4947 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

4948 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

4950 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

4951 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

4952 well (including splits);

4954 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

4955 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

4957 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

4958 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

4960 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

4961 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

4962 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

4964 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

4965 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

4966 calculations;

4968 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

4969 method anyway;

4971 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

4972 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

4973 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

4975 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

4976 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

4977 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

4978 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

4980 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

4982 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

4984 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

4985 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

4986 proof states;

4988 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

4989 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

4990 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

4992 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

4993 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

4994 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

4995 (for HOL datatypes);

4997 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

4998 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

4999 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

5001 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

5003 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

5004 should instead use individual commands for printing items

5005 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

5007 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

5010 *** HOL ***

5012 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

5013 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

5014 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

5015 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

5016 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

5017 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

5019 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

5020 Clemens Ballarin;

5022 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

5023 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

5024 Rasmussen;

5026 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

5027 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

5028 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

5029 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

5030 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

5031 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

5033 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

5034 von Oheimb;

5036 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

5037 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

5039 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

5041 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

5042 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

5043 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

5045 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

5046 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

5047 well; admit "r" as field name;

5049 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

5050 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

5052 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

5053 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

5055 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

5056 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

5057 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

5058 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

5059 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

5060 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

5061 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

5063 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

5064 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

5065 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

5067 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

5068 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

5069 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

5071 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

5072 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

5073 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

5074 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

5075 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

5077 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

5078 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

5079 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

5080 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

5081 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

5082 each equation;

5084 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

5085 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

5086 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

5087 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

5089 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

5090 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

5092 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

5094 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

5095 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

5096 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

5098 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

5100 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

5101 main HOL, but was unused);

5103 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

5104 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

5106 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

5107 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

5108 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

5109 bogus);

5112 *** ZF ***

5114 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

5115 expressions over nat and int;

5117 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

5118 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

5119 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

5121 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

5122 using the function intify;

5124 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

5125 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

5127 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

5128 simplification;

5130 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

5131 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

5134 *** General ***

5136 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

5137 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

5139 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

5140 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

5142 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

5143 explicit make_elim);

5145 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

5146 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

5147 use instead the strong form,

5148 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

5149 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

5150 from destruct-rules;

5152 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

5153 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

5155 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

5157 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

5158 for hiding of names;

5160 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

5161 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

5162 situations;

5164 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

5165 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

5166 Poly/ML);

5168 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

5169 useful for remote X11);

5171 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

5173 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

5174 order;

5176 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

5177 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

5179 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

5180 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

5182 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

5183 overloading (usually false);

5185 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

5186 results;

5190 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

5191 --------------------------------

5193 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5195 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

5196 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

5197 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

5199 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

5201 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

5202 complement;

5204 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

5206 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

5207 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

5209 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5210 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5212 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

5213 to constants declared in the same theory;

5215 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

5216 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

5217 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

5219 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5221 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

5222 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

5223 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

5224 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

5225 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

5226 where the string argument is only a comment.

5229 *** Proof tools ***

5231 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

5232 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

5233 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

5234 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

5236 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

5237 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

5238 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

5239 matching.

5242 *** General ***

5244 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

5245 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

5246 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

5247 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

5248 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

5249 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

5251 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

5252 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

5253 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

5254 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

5255 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

5257 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

5258 Isabelle/Isar;

5260 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

5261 using the graph browser tool;

5263 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

5265 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

5266 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

5267 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

5268 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

5269 isatool doc ref);

5271 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

5272 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

5274 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

5275 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

5277 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

5278 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

5279 Isabelle;

5281 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

5283 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

5284 empty;

5286 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

5287 long arrows);

5289 * new print_mode "HTML";

5291 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

5292 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

5294 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

5295 mode and goal output format:

5297 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

5298 244c244

5299 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

5300 ---

5301 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

5302 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

5303 181c181

5304 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

5305 ---

5306 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

5308 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

5310 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

5312 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

5313 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

5314 result still apply;

5316 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

5317 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

5320 *** HOL ***

5322 ** HOL arithmetic **

5324 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

5325 int:

5327 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

5328 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

5329 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

5330 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

5331 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

5332 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

5333 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

5334 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

5336 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

5337 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

5338 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

5339 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

5340 simplifier.

5342 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

5343 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

5344 int(m) < int(n)'.

5346 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

5347 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

5348 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

5349 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

5350 type constraints;

5352 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

5353 arguments;

5355 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

5356 are now available;

5358 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

5359 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

5360 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

5361 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

5362 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

5363 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

5365 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

5368 ** HOL misc **

5370 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

5371 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

5373 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

5374 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

5376 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

5377 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

5378 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

5379 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

5381 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

5382 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

5383 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

5384 "mono" attribute);

5386 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

5387 (using function types) such as

5389 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

5391 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

5392 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

5393 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

5394 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

5396 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

5397 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

5399 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

5400 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

5402 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

5403 names rather than an ML expression;

5405 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

5406 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

5407 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

5408 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

5410 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

5411 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

5412 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

5414 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

5415 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

5416 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

5418 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

5419 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

5421 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

5422 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

5423 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

5425 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

5427 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

5428 thus available for user theories;

5430 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

5431 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

5432 time;

5434 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

5435 several times and then mp;

5438 *** LK ***

5440 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

5441 formulas;

5443 * the simplifier is now installed

5445 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

5447 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

5450 *** ZF ***

5452 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

5453 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5455 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

5456 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

5458 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

5460 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

5461 constructors;

5463 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

5464 type-checking rules;

5466 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

5467 to the claset;

5469 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

5470 if(P,x,y);

5473 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5475 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

5477 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

5478 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

5480 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

5482 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

5483 printing empty lines;

5485 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

5486 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

5487 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

5488 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

5490 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

5491 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

5492 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

5494 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

5495 now of type real instead of int;

5497 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

5498 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

5499 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

5500 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

5502 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

5503 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

5504 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

5505 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

5506 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

5510 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

5511 ----------------------------------

5513 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5515 * several changes of automated proof tools;

5517 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

5518 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

5520 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

5521 called `inj_on';

5523 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

5524 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

5525 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

5527 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

5528 required);

5530 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

5531 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

5532 now taken as an integer constant.

5534 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

5537 *** Proof tools ***

5539 * Simplifier:

5540 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

5541 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

5542 simplify.

5543 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

5544 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

5545 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

5546 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

5547 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

5549 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

5550 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

5551 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

5552 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

5553 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

5554 one (emitting a warning).

5555 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

5556 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

5557 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

5558 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

5559 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

5561 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

5562 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

5563 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

5564 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

5565 by Force_tac;

5567 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

5568 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

5570 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

5571 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

5572 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

5573 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

5574 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

5575 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

5576 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

5577 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

5578 split_all_tac for record fields.

5580 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

5581 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

5582 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

5583 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

5585 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

5586 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

5587 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

5588 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

5589 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

5590 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

5591 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

5592 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

5593 t is the name of the datatype).

5595 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

5596 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

5597 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

5598 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

5601 *** General ***

5603 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

5604 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

5605 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

5606 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

5607 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

5608 (backup your sources first!);

5610 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

5611 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

5613 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

5614 definitions that have local scope;

5616 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

5618 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

5619 (e.g. package initialization);

5621 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

5622 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

5624 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

5625 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

5627 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

5629 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

5631 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

5633 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

5636 *** HOL ***

5638 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

5640 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

5641 definitions such as

5643 inductive EVEN ODD

5644 intrs

5645 null "0 : EVEN"

5646 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

5647 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

5649 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

5650 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

5651 correctly (also ZF);

5653 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

5654 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

5655 contained in "induct";

5658 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

5659 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

5661 datatype

5662 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5663 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5664 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5665 | NUM 'a

5666 and

5667 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

5668 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5669 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

5671 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

5673 datatype

5674 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

5675 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

5677 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

5678 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

5680 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

5681 <function_name>.simps.

5683 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5685 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

5686 ancestor.

5687 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

5688 generic induct_tac instead.

5689 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

5690 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

5691 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

5692 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

5693 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

5694 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

5695 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

5696 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

5697 sort constraints.

5698 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

5699 of recursive argument.

5701 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

5702 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

5705 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

5706 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

5707 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

5708 support is as follows:

5710 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

5711 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

5713 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

5714 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

5716 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

5717 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

5719 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

5720 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

5721 the name of your record type.

5723 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

5725 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

5727 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

5728 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

5729 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

5730 solve record problems automatically.

5733 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

5734 default; theory Main includes everything;

5736 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

5738 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

5740 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

5742 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

5744 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

5745 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

5746 with add/delsplits);

5748 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

5749 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

5750 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

5751 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

5752 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

5753 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

5754 %u.f();

5756 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

5757 makes more sense);

5759 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5760 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5761 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5763 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

5764 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

5765 literature);

5767 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

5768 the well-founded relation;

5770 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

5771 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

5772 release ONLY.

5774 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

5775 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

5776 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5778 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

5780 * HOL/List:

5781 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

5782 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

5783 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

5784 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

5785 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

5786 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

5788 * HOL/Arith:

5789 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

5790 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

5791 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

5792 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

5794 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

5795 instead of "inverse";

5797 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

5798 of the multiset ordering;

5800 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

5801 (not included by default);

5803 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

5805 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

5806 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

5808 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5809 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5810 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5813 *** ZF ***

5815 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

5816 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

5818 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

5819 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

5820 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

5822 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

5823 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

5824 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

5826 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

5828 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

5829 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

5830 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

5832 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

5833 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

5836 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

5838 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

5839 also src/Pure/README;

5841 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

5842 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

5843 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

5844 print_data function becomes basically useless;

5846 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

5847 are qualified by default;

5849 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

5850 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

5851 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

5853 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

5854 cterm -> thm;

5856 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

5857 subgoal;

5859 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

5861 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

5862 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

5863 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

5864 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

5865 for example;

5869 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

5870 --------------------------------

5872 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

5874 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

5875 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

5877 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

5878 simpset / simpset_ref;

5880 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

5881 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

5883 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

5885 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

5888 *** General Changes ***

5890 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

5891 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

5892 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

5893 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

5894 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

5895 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

5896 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

5897 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

5898 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

5899 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

5900 section;

5902 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

5903 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

5904 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

5905 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

5906 to patch your ML files accordingly;

5908 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

5909 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

5910 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

5912 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

5913 conditional equations;

5915 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

5917 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

5918 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

5919 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

5920 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

5922 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

5923 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

5925 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

5926 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

5928 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

5929 show_types);

5931 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

5933 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

5935 * removed old README and Makefiles;

5937 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

5939 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

5941 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

5942 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

5944 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

5945 (which abbreviates $HOME);

5947 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

5948 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

5949 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

5951 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

5952 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

5955 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5957 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

5958 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

5959 splitting it into several subgoals;

5961 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

5964 *** Simplifier ***

5966 * added simplification meta rules:

5967 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

5969 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

5970 logics (again);

5972 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

5974 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

5975 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

5976 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

5979 *** Syntax ***

5981 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

5983 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

5985 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

5987 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

5990 *** HOL ***

5992 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5993 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5995 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

5997 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

5998 protocol TLS;

6000 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

6002 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

6003 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

6004 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

6005 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

6006 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

6007 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

6009 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

6010 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

6011 are rewritten to

6012 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

6013 and those of the form

6014 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

6015 are rewritten to

6016 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

6018 * HOL/datatype

6019 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

6021 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

6022 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

6023 ...

6024 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

6025 )

6027 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

6029 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

6030 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

6031 ...

6032 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

6033 )

6034 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

6035 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

6036 split_list_case and split_option_case.

6038 * HOL/Arithmetic:

6039 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

6040 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

6041 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

6042 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

6043 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

6044 `standard'.

6046 * HOL/Lists:

6047 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

6048 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

6049 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

6051 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

6053 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

6054 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

6056 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

6057 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

6058 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

6061 *** HOLCF ***

6063 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

6065 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

6066 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

6068 * domain package:

6069 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

6070 . creates hierachical name space,

6071 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

6072 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

6073 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

6074 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

6075 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

6076 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

6078 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

6080 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

6081 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

6084 *** FOL and ZF ***

6086 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

6087 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

6089 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

6090 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

6094 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

6095 ------------------------------

6097 *** General Changes ***

6099 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

6100 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

6102 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

6104 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

6106 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

6107 messages and clean internal interface;

6109 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

6110 setting goals_limit);

6113 *** Syntax ***

6115 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

6116 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

6118 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

6119 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

6120 "symbols" syntax table;

6122 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

6123 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

6124 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

6125 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

6126 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

6128 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

6129 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

6130 version of xterm);

6132 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

6134 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

6135 access type of constant);

6138 *** Classical Reasoner ***

6140 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

6141 some limitations. Blast_tac...

6142 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

6143 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

6144 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

6145 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

6146 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

6147 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

6148 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

6150 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

6151 assumptions;

6153 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

6154 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

6155 (and access functions for it);

6157 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

6158 + functions for handling clasimpsets

6159 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

6160 safe steps.

6161 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

6162 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

6163 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

6165 *** Simplifier ***

6167 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

6168 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

6169 redex);

6171 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

6173 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

6175 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

6176 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

6177 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

6178 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

6181 *** HOL ***

6183 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

6184 also for type `nat';

6186 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

6187 datatypes and also for type `nat';

6189 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

6191 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

6192 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

6194 * primrec now also works with type nat;

6196 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

6197 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

6199 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

6200 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

6202 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

6203 infinite lists;

6205 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

6207 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

6208 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

6210 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

6212 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

6214 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

6216 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

6218 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

6219 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

6220 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

6221 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

6222 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

6223 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

6224 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

6225 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

6226 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

6229 *** ZF ***

6231 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

6232 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

6233 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

6237 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

6238 ---------------------------------

6240 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

6242 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

6244 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

6245 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

6246 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

6247 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

6249 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

6251 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

6252 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

6254 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

6256 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

6257 examples on HOL/Auth);