NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Jul 27 15:25:00 2014 +0200 (2014-07-27)
changeset 57693 8ccc4875fe4f
parent 57650 17d7f5d96328
child 57695 987c9ceeaafd
child 57822 9ea92df3631a
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
     5 ---------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    10 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    11 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    12 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    13 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    14 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    15 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    16 some examples.
    17 
    18 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
    19 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
    20 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
    21 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
    22 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
    23 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
    24 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
    25 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
    26 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    38 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    39 supports input via ` (backquote).
    40 
    41 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    42 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    43 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    44 
    45 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    46 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    47 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
    48 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    49 
    50 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
    51 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    52 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
    53 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    54 
    55 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    56 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    57 
    58 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    59 not check existence within the file-system.
    60 
    61 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
    62 isar-ref, jedit, system.
    63 
    64 
    65 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    66 
    67 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
    68 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
    69 buffer.
    70 
    71 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
    72 to PIDE hyperlinks.
    73 
    74 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    75 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    76 
    77 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    78 auxiliary ML files.
    79 
    80 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
    81 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
    82 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
    83 
    84 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
    85 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
    86 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    87 
    88 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
    89 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
    90 caret".
    91 
    92 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
    93 completion popup and context-menu.
    94 
    95 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
    96 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
    97 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
    98 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
    99 
   100 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   101 to highlight text via regular expression.
   102 
   103 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   104 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   105 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   106 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   107 
   108 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   109 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   110 
   111 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   112 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   113 
   114 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   115 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   116 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   117 
   118 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   119 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
   120 within the context.
   121 
   122 
   123 *** Pure ***
   124 
   125 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   126 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   127 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   128 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   129 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   130 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   131 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   132 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   133 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   134 
   135 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   136 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   137 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   138 renaming needs to be applied:
   139 
   140   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   141   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   142   all            ~>  Pure.all
   143   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   144   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   145 
   146 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   147 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   148 old constants:
   149 
   150 setup {*
   151   fn thy => thy
   152     |> Sign.root_path
   153     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   154     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   155     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   156     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   157 *}
   158 
   159 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   160 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   161 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   162 
   163 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   164 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   165 instantiated theorem.
   166 
   167 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   168 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   169 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   170 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   171 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   172 
   173   attribute_setup standard =
   174     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   175 
   176 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   177 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   178 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   179 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   180 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   181 
   182 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   183 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   184 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   185 
   186 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   187 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   188 
   189 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   190 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   191 
   192 
   193 *** HOL ***
   194 
   195 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   196 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   205 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   211 with the given constants.
   212 
   213 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   214 operations on records.
   215 
   216 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   217 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   222 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   223 
   224 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   227 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   228 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   229 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   230 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   233 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   236   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   237   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   238   part of theory "Main".
   239 
   240   Theory renamings:
   241     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   242     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   243     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   244     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   245     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   246     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   247     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   248     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   249     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   250     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   251     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   252     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   253     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   254     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   255     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   256     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   257     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   258     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   259     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   260     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   261     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   262     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   263 
   264   New theories:
   265     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   266     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   267     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   268     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   269     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   270 
   271   Discontinued theories:
   272     BNF/BNF.thy
   273     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * New (co)datatype package:
   278   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   279   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   280     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   281   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   282     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   283   - Renamed commands:
   284       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   285       primrec_new ~> primrec
   286       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   287     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   289     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   292     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   293     using "prim(co)rec".
   294     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   296     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   299     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   300     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   301     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Old datatype package:
   304   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   305     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   306     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   308     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   309     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   310 
   311 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   312   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   313   BNF-based datatype package.
   314 
   315   Renamed constants:
   316     Option.set ~> set_option
   317     Option.map ~> map_option
   318     option_rel ~> rel_option
   319 
   320   Renamed theorems:
   321     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   322     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   323     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   324     option.recs ~> option.rec
   325     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   326     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   327     map.simps ~> list.map
   328     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   329     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   330     the.simps ~> option.sel
   331 
   332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   335     sum_map ~> map_sum
   336     map_pair ~> map_prod
   337     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   338     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   339     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   340     set_rel ~> rel_set
   341     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   342     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   343     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   344     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   345 
   346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   347 
   348 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   349 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   350 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   351 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   352 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   353 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   354 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   357 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   358 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   359 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   360 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   361 
   362 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   363 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   364 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   365 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   366 
   367 * Sledgehammer:
   368   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   369   - MaSh overhaul:
   370     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
   371       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   372     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   373       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   374       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   375       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   376   - New option:
   377       smt_proofs
   378   - Renamed options:
   379       isar_compress ~> compress
   380       isar_try0 ~> try0
   381 
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   385 
   386 * Nitpick:
   387   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   388     take infinite values.
   389   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   390     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   391   - Removed "std" option.
   392   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   393     "hide_types".
   394 
   395 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   396 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   399 
   400 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   401   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   402   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   403     SUP instead uniformly.
   404   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   405     or SUP and Sup.
   406   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   407   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   408   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   409     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   410     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   411 
   412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   413 
   414 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   415 
   416 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   417 
   418   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   419   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   420   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   421   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   422 
   423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   424 
   425 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
   426 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
   427 
   428 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   429 
   430     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   431     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   432     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   433     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   434     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   435     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   436     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   437     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   438     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   439     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   440     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   441     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   442     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   443     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   444     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   445     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   446     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   447     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   448     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   449     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   450     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   451     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   452     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   453     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   454     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   455     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   456     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   457     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   458     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   459     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   460     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   461     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   462     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   463     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   464     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   465     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   466     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   467     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   468     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   469     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   470     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   471     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   472     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   473     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   474     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   475     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   476     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   477     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   478     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   479     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   480     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   481     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   482     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   483     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   484     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   485     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   486     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   487     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   488     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   489 
   490   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   491   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   492   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   493     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   494 
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   498 
   499   Fact consolidations:
   500     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   501     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   502     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   503     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   504     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   505     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   506     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   507     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   508     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   509     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   510     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   511     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   512     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   513     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   514     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   515     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   516     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   517     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   518     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   519     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   520     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   521     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   522     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   523     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   524     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   525     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   526     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   527     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   528     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   529     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   530     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   531     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   532     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   533     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   534     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   535     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   536     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   537     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   538     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   539     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   540 
   541 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   542 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   543 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   544 
   545 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
   546 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   547 
   548 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   549 
   550 INCOMPATBILITY.
   551 
   552 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
   553 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   557 
   558 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   559     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   560 
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
   564   consolidation:
   565     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   566     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   567 
   568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   569 
   570 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   571   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   572   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   573   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   574     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   575   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   576     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   577   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   578 
   579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
   582 
   583     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
   584     add_commute ~> add.commute
   585     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
   586     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
   587     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
   588     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
   589     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
   590     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
   591     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
   592     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
   593     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
   594     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
   595     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
   596 
   597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
   600 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
   601 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
   602 
   603 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   604     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   605     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   606     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   607     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   608 
   609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 * Fact name consolidation:
   612     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   613     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   614     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   615     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   616     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   617 
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   621 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   622 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   623 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   624 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   625 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
   626 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
   627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   628 
   629 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   630 
   631 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   632 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   633 
   634 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   635 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   636 
   637 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   638 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   639 or the brute way with
   640 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   641 
   642 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
   643 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
   644 stating boundedness of sets.
   645 
   646 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
   647 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
   648 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   649 
   650 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   651   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   652   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   653   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   654   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   655   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   656   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   657   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   658   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   659   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   660   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   661   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   662 
   663   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   664 
   665   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   666 
   667     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   668     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
   669     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
   670     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
   671     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   672 
   673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   676   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   677 
   678   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   679 
   680   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   681 
   682   - removed constant isDiff
   683 
   684   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
   685     input syntax.
   686 
   687   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
   688 
   689   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   690 
   691   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   692 
   693   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   694 
   695   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
   696     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
   697     has_vector_derivative.
   698 
   699   - Other renamings:
   700     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   701     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   702     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   703     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   704     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   705     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   706     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   707 
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
   711 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
   712 in continuous_intros.
   713 
   714 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
   715 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
   716 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   717 
   718 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
   719 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
   720 especially removes
   721 
   722     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   723 
   724 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   725     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   726 
   727 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   728 
   729   Renamings:
   730     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   731     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   732     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   733     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   734     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   735     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   736     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   737     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   738     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   739     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   740     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   741     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   742 
   743     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   744     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   745     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   746 
   747   Removed theorems:
   748     complex_zero_def
   749     complex_add_def
   750     complex_minus_def
   751     complex_diff_def
   752     complex_one_def
   753     complex_mult_def
   754     complex_inverse_def
   755     complex_scaleR_def
   756 
   757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   760 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
   763 
   764 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
   765 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
   766 
   767 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
   768 
   769 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * HOL-Word:
   773   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
   774     of "word_arith_wis".
   775   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   776     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   777     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   778 
   779 * HOL-Number_Theory:
   780   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
   781   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
   782   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
   783     (except the AFP)
   784 
   785 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 
   787 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   788   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
   789   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   790     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   791   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   792     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   793     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   794     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   795     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
   796     intervals.
   797   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
   798     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
   799     - renamed theorems:
   800         interval ~> box
   801         mem_interval ~> mem_box
   802         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
   803         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
   804         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
   805         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
   806         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
   807         subset_interval ~> subset_box
   808         open_interval ~> open_box
   809         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
   810         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
   811         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
   812         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
   813         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
   814         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
   815         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
   816         convex_box ~> convex_prod
   817         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
   818         convex_interval ~> convex_box
   819         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
   820         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
   821         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
   822         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
   823         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
   824         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
   825         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
   826         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
   827         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
   828         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
   829         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
   830         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
   831         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
   832         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
   833 
   834     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
   835         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
   836         has_integral + has_integral_real
   837         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
   838         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
   839         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
   840         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
   841         integral_const + integral_const_real
   842         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
   843         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
   844         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
   845         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
   846         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
   847         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
   848         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
   849         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
   850         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
   851         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
   852 
   853   - renamed theorems:
   854     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   855     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   856     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   857 
   858 * HOL-Probability:
   859   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
   860     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   861 
   862     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   863     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   864     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   865     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   866     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   867     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   868     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   869     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   870     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   871     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   872     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   873     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   874     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   875     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   876     integral_indicator          ~>
   877          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   878     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   879     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   880     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   881 
   882     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   883          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   884 
   885     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   886          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   887 
   888     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   889          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   890 
   891     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   892          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   893          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   894 
   895     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   896          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   897 
   898     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   899          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   900 
   901     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   902          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   903          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   904 
   905     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   906          positive_integral_real_affine
   907 
   908     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   909          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   910 
   911     The following theorems where removed:
   912 
   913     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   914     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   915     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   916     lebesgue_integral_multc
   917     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   918     integral_cmul_indicator
   919     integral_real
   920 
   921   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   922 
   923     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   924       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   925 
   926     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   927 
   928   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
   929     distributed random variables.
   930 
   931 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
   932 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
   933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 
   936 *** Scala ***
   937 
   938 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   939 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   940 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   941 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   942 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   943 
   944 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
   945 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   946 
   947 
   948 *** ML ***
   949 
   950 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   951 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   952 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   953 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   954 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   955 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   956 
   957 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   958 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   959 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   960 actually belongs to it).
   961 
   962 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   963 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   964 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   965 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   966 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   967 of schematic variables.
   968 
   969 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   970 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   971 
   972 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   973 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
   974 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   980 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   981 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   985 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   987 formal context.
   988 
   989 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   990 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   991 
   992 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   993 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   994 
   995 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   996 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   997 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   998 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   999 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  1000 
  1001 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  1002 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  1003 purposes.
  1004 
  1005 
  1006 *** System ***
  1007 
  1008 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  1009 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  1010 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  1011 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  1012 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  1013 
  1014 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  1015 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  1016 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  1017 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  1018 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  1019 settings variable.
  1020 
  1021 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1022 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1023 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1024 
  1025 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1026 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1027 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1028 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1029 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1030 
  1031 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1032 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1033 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1034 
  1035 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1036 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1037 
  1038 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1039 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1040 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1041 
  1042 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1043 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1044 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1045 processing is started.
  1046 
  1047 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1048 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1049 
  1050 
  1051 
  1052 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1053 -------------------------------------
  1054 
  1055 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1056 
  1057 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1058 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1059 
  1060 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1061 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1062 
  1063 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1064 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1065 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1066 
  1067 
  1068 *** System ***
  1069 
  1070 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1071 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1072 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1073 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1074 
  1075 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1076 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1077 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1078 
  1079 
  1080 
  1081 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1082 -------------------------------------
  1083 
  1084 *** General ***
  1085 
  1086 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1087 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1088 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1089 
  1090 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1091 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1094 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1095 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1096 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1097 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1098 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1099 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1100 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1101 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1102 syntax.
  1103 
  1104 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1105 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1106 
  1107 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1108 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1109 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1110 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1111 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1112 
  1113 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1115 
  1116 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1117 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1118 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1119 
  1120 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1121 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1122 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1123 
  1124 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1125 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1126 
  1127 
  1128 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1129 
  1130 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1131 Documentation panel.
  1132 
  1133 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1134 documentation.
  1135 
  1136 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1137 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1138 
  1139 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1140 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1141 normal editing and checking process.
  1142 
  1143 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1144 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1145 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1146 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1147 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1148 
  1149 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1150 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1151 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1152 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1153 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1154 
  1155 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1156 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1157 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1158 
  1159 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1160 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1161 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1162 to resolve conflict.
  1163 
  1164 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1165 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1166 
  1167 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1168 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1169 such command executions while editing.
  1170 
  1171 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1172 document content.
  1173 
  1174 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1175 toplevel theorem statements.
  1176 
  1177 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1178 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1179 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1180 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1181 
  1182 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1183 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1184 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1185 
  1186 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1187 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1188 
  1189 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1190 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1191 
  1192 
  1193 *** Pure ***
  1194 
  1195 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1196 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1197 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1198 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1199 details.
  1200 
  1201 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1202 
  1203 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1204 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1205 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1206 
  1207 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1211 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1212 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1213 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1216 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1217 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1218 
  1219 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1220 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1221 
  1222 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1223 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1224 situations.
  1225 
  1226 
  1227 *** HOL ***
  1228 
  1229 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1230 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232 
  1233 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1234 
  1235 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1236 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1237 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1238 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1239 
  1240   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1241 
  1242 * Code generator:
  1243   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1244     'code_instance'.
  1245   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1246     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1247 
  1248 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1249 examples.
  1250 
  1251 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1252 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1253 to distinguish both when desired.
  1254 
  1255 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1256 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1257 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1258 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1259 
  1260 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1261 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1262 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1263 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1264 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1265 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1266 
  1267 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1268 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1269 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1270 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1271 
  1272 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1273 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1274 
  1275 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1276 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1277 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1278 
  1279 * Lifting:
  1280   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1281     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1282       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1283       transfer rules
  1284     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1285       correspondence relation can be generated
  1286     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1287       parametricity
  1288     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1289   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1290   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1291     copies
  1292   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1293     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1294     anonymous context)
  1295   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1296     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1297   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1298     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1299   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1300     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1301 
  1302 * Transfer:
  1303   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1304     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1305   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1306   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1307     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1308   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1309 
  1310 * Reification and reflection:
  1311   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1312     "Reification".
  1313   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1314   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1318   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1319     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1320     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1321   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1322     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1323   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1324     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1325     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1326     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1327     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1328     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1329     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1330     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1331   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1332     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1333   - Fact renames:
  1334       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1335       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1337 
  1338 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1339 
  1340 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1341 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1342 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1344 
  1345 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1346 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1347 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1348 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1349 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1350 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1351 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1352 lemmas.
  1353 
  1354 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1355 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1356 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1357 
  1358 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1359 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1360 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1361 
  1362 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1363 top and bottom elements.
  1364 
  1365 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1366 
  1367 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1368 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1369 
  1370  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1371    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1372    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1373 
  1374  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1375    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1376    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1377 
  1378    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1379    arbitrary filter.
  1380 
  1381  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1382    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1383    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1384    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1385    on a compact set.
  1386 
  1387  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1388    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1389    linear_continuum_topology).
  1390 
  1391  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1392    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1393    on all sequences converging to x.
  1394 
  1395  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1396    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1397    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1398    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1399    left or right.
  1400 
  1401  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1402 
  1403      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1404 
  1405  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1406    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1407 
  1408  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1409    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1410    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1411    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1412    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1413    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1414 
  1415  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1416 
  1417    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1418 
  1419    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1420      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1421 
  1422    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1423 
  1424    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1425      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1426 
  1427    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1428 
  1429    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1430 
  1431  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1432 
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Nitpick:
  1436   - Added option "spy".
  1437   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1438 
  1439 * Sledgehammer:
  1440   - Renamed option:
  1441       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1444   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1445   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1446 
  1447 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1448 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1449 
  1450 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1451   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1452   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1453     generated code.
  1454   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1455   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1456   - Fact renames:
  1457     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1458     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1459     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1460 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1463 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1464 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1465 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1466 
  1467 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1468 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1469 
  1470 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1471 
  1472 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1473 
  1474     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1475     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1476 
  1477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1480 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1481 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1482 
  1483 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1484 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1485 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1486 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1487 
  1488 * HOL-BNF:
  1489   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1490     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1491     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1492     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1493   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1494     coinduct).
  1495   - Renamed keywords:
  1496     data ~> datatype_new
  1497     codata ~> codatatype
  1498     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1499   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1500     discs ~> disc
  1501     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1502     map_id' ~> map_id
  1503     sels ~> sel
  1504     set_map' ~> set_map
  1505     sets ~> set
  1506 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1507 
  1508 
  1509 *** ML ***
  1510 
  1511 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1512 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1513 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1514 Examples.thy in particular.
  1515 
  1516 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1517 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1518 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1519 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1520 
  1521 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1522 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1523 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1524 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526 
  1527 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1528 
  1529     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1530     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1531 
  1532 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1533 
  1534 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1535 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1536 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1537 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1538 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1539 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1540 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1541 
  1542 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1543 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1544 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1545 clasets separately from the context.
  1546 
  1547 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1548 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1549 
  1550 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1551 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1552 
  1553 
  1554 *** System ***
  1555 
  1556 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1557 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1560 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1561 
  1562 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1563 settings variable.
  1564 
  1565 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1566 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1567 always pdf.
  1568 
  1569 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1570 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1571 
  1572 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1573 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1574 
  1575 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1576 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1577 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1578 
  1579 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1580 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1581 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1582 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1583 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1584 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1585 
  1586 
  1587 
  1588 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1589 -----------------------------------
  1590 
  1591 *** General ***
  1592 
  1593 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1594 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1595 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1596 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1597 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1598 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1599 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1600 
  1601 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1602 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1603 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1604 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1605 
  1606 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1607 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1608 
  1609 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1610 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1611 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1612 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1613 dependencies properly.
  1614 
  1615 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1616 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1617 
  1618 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1619 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1620 
  1621 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1622 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1623 and "class ... context ...".
  1624 
  1625 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1626 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1627 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1628 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1629 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1630 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1631 
  1632 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1633 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1634 
  1635 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1636 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1637 
  1638 
  1639 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1640 
  1641 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1642 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1643 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1644 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1645 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1646 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1647 
  1648 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1649 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1650 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1651 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1652 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1653 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1654 
  1655 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1656 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1657 browser on demand.
  1658 
  1659 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1660 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1661 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1662 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1663 
  1664 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1665 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1666 
  1667 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1668 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1669 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1670 potentially infinite message streams.
  1671 
  1672 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1673 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1674 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1675 schemes.
  1676 
  1677 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1678 symbols.
  1679 
  1680 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1681 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1682 
  1683 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1684 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1685 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1686 
  1687 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1688 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1689 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1690 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1691 
  1692 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1693 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1694 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1695 
  1696 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1697 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1698 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1699 Isabelle distribution.
  1700 
  1701 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1702 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1703 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1704 
  1705 
  1706 *** Pure ***
  1707 
  1708 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1709 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1710 
  1711 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1712 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1713 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1716 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1717 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1718 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1719 with some care where this is really required.
  1720 
  1721 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1722 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1723 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1724 
  1725   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1726 
  1727 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1728 a Hasse diagram.
  1729 
  1730 
  1731 *** HOL ***
  1732 
  1733 * Sledgehammer:
  1734 
  1735   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1736     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1737   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1738   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1739   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1740   - Renamed options:
  1741       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1742       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1743       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1744       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1745 
  1746 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1747 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1748 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1749 
  1750 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1752 
  1753 * Lifting:
  1754   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1755   - quot_del attribute
  1756   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1757 
  1758 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1759 expressions.
  1760 
  1761 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1762 pointfree expressions.
  1763 
  1764 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1765 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1766 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1767 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1771 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1772 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1773 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1774 accordingly.
  1775 
  1776 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1777 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1780 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1785 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1786 
  1787 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1788 
  1789 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1790 
  1791   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1792   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1793 
  1794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1795 
  1796 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1797 
  1798   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1799   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1800 
  1801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1802 
  1803 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1804 
  1805   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1806     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1807     output f x converges to G.
  1808 
  1809   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1810     infinity (at_bot).
  1811 
  1812   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1813     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1814 
  1815   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1816     at_top".
  1817 
  1818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1819 
  1820 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1821 lattice type classes.
  1822 
  1823 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1824 
  1825     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1826     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1827 
  1828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1829 
  1830 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1831 changes as follows.
  1832 
  1833   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1834 
  1835       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1836       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1837 
  1838   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1839     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1840     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1841     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1842 
  1843   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1844     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1845     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1846 
  1847   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1848     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1849     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1850     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1851 
  1852   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1853     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1854 
  1855       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1856       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1857       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1858       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1859       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1860       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1861       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1862       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1863       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1864       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1865       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1866       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1867       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1868       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1869       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1870       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1871 
  1872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1875 
  1876 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1877 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1878 
  1879 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1880 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1881 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1882 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1883 
  1884   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1885   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1886   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1887   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1888   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1889   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1890   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1891   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1892   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1893   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1894 
  1895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1898 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1899 Data").
  1900 
  1901 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1902 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1903 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1904 code.
  1905 
  1906 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1907 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1908 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1909 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910 
  1911 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1912 
  1913 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1914 
  1915 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1916 
  1917   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1918   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1919 
  1920 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1921 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1922 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1923 
  1924   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1925 
  1926     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1927     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1928     cart_base i  removed
  1929     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1930 
  1931   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1932 
  1933   Renamed lemmas:
  1934 
  1935     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1936     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1937     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1938     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1939     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1940     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1941     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1942     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1943     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1944     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1945 
  1946 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1947 
  1948 * HOL/Probability:
  1949 
  1950   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1951 
  1952   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1953     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1954     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1955 
  1956   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1957     projective family).
  1958 
  1959 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1960 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1961 
  1962 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1963 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1964 datatypes.
  1965 
  1966 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1967 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1968 
  1969 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1970 trees for the code generator.
  1971 
  1972 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1973 Lifting/Transfer.
  1974 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1975 
  1976 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1978 
  1979 
  1980 *** Document preparation ***
  1981 
  1982 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1983 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1984 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1985 
  1986 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1987 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1988 
  1989 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1990 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1991 document/root.tex.
  1992 
  1993 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1994 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 
  1997 *** ML ***
  1998 
  1999 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  2000 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  2001 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  2002 
  2003 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  2004 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  2005 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  2006 
  2007 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  2008 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  2009 necessarily printing visible text.
  2010 
  2011 
  2012 *** System ***
  2013 
  2014 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  2015 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  2016 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  2017 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  2018 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  2019 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  2020 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2021 
  2022 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2023 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2024 
  2025   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2026 
  2027 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2028 
  2029 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2030 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2031 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2032 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2033 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2034 
  2035 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2036 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2037 
  2038 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2039 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2040 
  2041 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2043 
  2044 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2045 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2046 version of Isabelle.
  2047 
  2048 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2049 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2050 
  2051 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2052 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2053 for home-made settings.
  2054 
  2055 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2056 
  2057 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2058 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2059 configuration.
  2060 
  2061 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2062 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2063 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2064 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2065 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2066 
  2067 
  2068 
  2069 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2070 ------------------------------
  2071 
  2072 *** General ***
  2073 
  2074 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2075 
  2076   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2077     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2078   - markup for bound variables
  2079   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2080   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2081   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2082     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2083 
  2084 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2085 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2086 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2087 
  2088 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2089 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2090 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2091 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2092 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2093 
  2094   context
  2095     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2096     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2097   begin
  2098 
  2099   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2100 
  2101   end
  2102 
  2103   thm my_trans
  2104 
  2105 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2106 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2107 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2108 
  2109 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2110 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2111 
  2112 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2113 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2114 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2115 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2116 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2117 
  2118 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2119 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2120 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2121 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2122 indices of schematic variables.
  2123 
  2124 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2125 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2126 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2127 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2128 etc. was exploited.
  2129 
  2130 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2131 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2132 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2133 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2134 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2135 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2136 
  2137 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2138 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2139 manual.
  2140 
  2141 
  2142 *** Pure ***
  2143 
  2144 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2145 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2146 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2147 
  2148 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2149 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2150 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2151 undocumented feature.)
  2152 
  2153 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2154 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2155 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2156 
  2157   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2158 
  2159   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2160     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2161 
  2162 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2163 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2164 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2165 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2166 
  2167 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2168 
  2169     num ~> num_token
  2170     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2171     xstr ~> str_token
  2172 
  2173 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2174 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2175 position information via constraints).
  2176 
  2177 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2178 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2179 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2182 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2183 
  2184 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2185 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2186 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2189 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2190 
  2191 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2192 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2193 
  2194   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2195 
  2196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2199 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2200 
  2201 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2202 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2203 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2204 
  2205 
  2206 *** HOL ***
  2207 
  2208 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2209 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2210 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2211 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2212 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2213 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2214 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2215 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2216 possible.
  2217 
  2218 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2219 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2220 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2221 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2222 
  2223 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2224 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2225 
  2226 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2227 
  2228 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2229 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2230 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2231 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2232 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2233 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2234 
  2235   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2236     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2237 
  2238   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2239     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2240     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2241 
  2242   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2243     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2244 
  2245   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2246     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2247     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2248 
  2249   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2250     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2251 
  2252 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2253 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2254 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2255 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2256 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2257 
  2258   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2259     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2260     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2261     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2262     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2263 
  2264     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2265     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2266 
  2267   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2268     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2269     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2270     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2271     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2272     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2273     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2274     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2275 
  2276   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2277     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2278     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2279     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2280 
  2281   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2282     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2283     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2284     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2285 
  2286   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2287     from type nat to type int.
  2288 
  2289 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2290 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2291 
  2292   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2293     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2294     type.  Example syntax:
  2295 
  2296     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2297       is List.insert
  2298 
  2299     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2300     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2301     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2302     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2303     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2304     by the package.
  2305 
  2306   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2307     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2308     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2309     code generation for each constant.
  2310 
  2311   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2312     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2313     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2314     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2315     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2316 
  2317   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2318     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2319     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2320 
  2321 * Quotient package:
  2322 
  2323   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2324     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2325 
  2326   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2327     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2328 
  2329   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2330     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2331     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2334     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2337 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2338 
  2339 * Quickcheck:
  2340 
  2341   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2342     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2343     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2344     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2345     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2346 
  2347     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2348     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2349     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2350 
  2351     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2352     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2353 
  2354     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2355     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2356     show genuine counterexamples.
  2357 
  2358   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2359     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2360 
  2361     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2362     constructors of that type.
  2363 
  2364   - Support for multisets.
  2365 
  2366   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2367 
  2368   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2369     conjectures in a locale context.
  2370 
  2371 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2372 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2373 
  2374 * Sledgehammer:
  2375   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2376     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2377   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2378   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2379     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2380   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2381   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2382   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2383   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2384 
  2385 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2386 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2387 
  2388 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2389 
  2390 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2393 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2394 
  2395   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2396 
  2397 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2398 a list and a nat.
  2399 
  2400 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2401 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2402 
  2403 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2404 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2405 default.
  2406 
  2407 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2408 
  2409   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2410 
  2411 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2412 
  2413 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2414 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2415 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2416 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2417 one_case.
  2418 
  2419 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2420 the result of the fact expression.
  2421 
  2422 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2423 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2424 of some relation theorems:
  2425 
  2426   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2427   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2428   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2429   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2430   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2431   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2432 
  2433 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2434 
  2435 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2436 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2437 
  2438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2441 to match the constant's name:
  2442 
  2443   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2444   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2445   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2446   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2447   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2448   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2449   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2450   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2451   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2452   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2453   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2454   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2455   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2456   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2457   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2458   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2459   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2460   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2461   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2462   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2463   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2464   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2465   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2466   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2467 
  2468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2469 
  2470 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2471 and corresponding theorem names:
  2472 
  2473   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2474 
  2475   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2476 
  2477   - Renamed theorems:
  2478 
  2479     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2480     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2481     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2482     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2483     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2484     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2485     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2486     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2487     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2488     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2489     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2490     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2491     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2492     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2493     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2494     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2495     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2496     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2497     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2498     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2499     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2500     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2501     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2502 
  2503     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2504 
  2505     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2506 
  2507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2510 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2511 
  2512   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2513   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2514   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2515   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2516   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2517   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2518   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2519   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2520   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2521   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2522   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2523   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2524   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2525   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2526   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2527   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2528   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2529   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2530   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2531   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2532   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2533 
  2534 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2535 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2536 
  2537 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2540 
  2541   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2542   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2543   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2544   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2545   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2546   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2547   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2548   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2549   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2550   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2551   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2552   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2553   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2554   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2555   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2556   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2557   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2558   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2559 
  2560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2561 
  2562 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2563 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2564 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2565 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2566 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2567 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2568 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2569 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2570 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2571 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2572 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2573 
  2574 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2575 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2576 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2577 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2578 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2579 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2580 
  2581 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2582 through option types.
  2583 
  2584 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2585 relations.
  2586 
  2587 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2590 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2591 
  2592   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2593   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2594   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2595   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2596   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2597   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2598   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2599   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2600   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2601   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2602   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2603   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2604   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2605   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2606   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2607   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2608   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2609   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2610   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2611   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2612   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2613   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2614   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2615   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2616   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2617   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2618   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2619   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2620   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2621   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2622   zless_le ~> less_le
  2623   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2624   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2625   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2626 
  2627 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2628 
  2629   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2630 
  2631 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2632 
  2633 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2634 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2635 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2636 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2640 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2641 
  2642 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2643 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2644 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2645 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2646 follows:
  2647 
  2648   Operations:
  2649   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2650   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2651   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2652   del -> rbt_del
  2653   delete -> rbt_delete
  2654   ins -> rbt_ins
  2655   insert -> rbt_insert
  2656   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2657   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2658   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2659   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2660   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2661   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2662   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2663   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2664   union -> rbt_union
  2665   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2666   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2667 
  2668   Lemmas:
  2669   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2670   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2671   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2672   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2673   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2674   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2675   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2676   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2677   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2678   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2679   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2680   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2681   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2682   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2683   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2684   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2685   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2686   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2687   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2688   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2689   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2690   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2691   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2692   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2693   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2694   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2695   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2696   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2697   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2698   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2699   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2700   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2701   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2702   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2703   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2704   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2705   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2706   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2707   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2708   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2709   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2710   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2711   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2712   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2713   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2714   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2715   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2716   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2717   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2718   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2719   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2720   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2721   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2722   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2723   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2724   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2725   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2726   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2727   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2728   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2729   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2730   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2731   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2732   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2733   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2734   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2735   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2736   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2737   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2738   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2739   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2740   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2741   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2742   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2743   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2744   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2745   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2746   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2747   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2748   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2749   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2750   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2751   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2752 
  2753 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2754 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2755 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2756 
  2757   Changed Operations:
  2758   float_abs -> abs
  2759   float_nprt -> nprt
  2760   float_pprt -> pprt
  2761   pow2 -> use powr
  2762   round_down -> float_round_down
  2763   round_up -> float_round_up
  2764   scale -> exponent
  2765 
  2766   Removed Operations:
  2767   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2768 
  2769   Renamed Lemmas:
  2770   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2771   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2772   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2773   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2774   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2775   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2776   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2777   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2778   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2779   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2780   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2781   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2782   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2783   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2784   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2785   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2786   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2787   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2788   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2789   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2790   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2791   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2792   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2793   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2794   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2795   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2796   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2797   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2798   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2799   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2800   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2801   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2802   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2803   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2804   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2805   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2806 
  2807   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2808   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2809   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2810   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2811   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2812   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2813   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2814   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2815   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2816   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2817 
  2818 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2819 association lists with distinct keys.
  2820 
  2821 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2822 annotated commands.
  2823 
  2824 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2825 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2826 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2827 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2830 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2831 instead.
  2832 
  2833   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2834   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2835   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2836   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2837   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2838   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2839   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2840   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2841   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2842   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2843   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2844   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2845   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2846   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2847   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2848   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2849   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2850   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2851   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2852   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2853   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2854   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2855   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2856   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2857   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2858   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2859   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2860   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2861   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2862   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2863   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2864   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2865   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2866   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2867   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2868   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2869   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2870   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2871   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2872   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2873   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2874 
  2875 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2876 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2877 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2878 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2879 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2880 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2881 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2882 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2883 
  2884 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2885 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2886 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2887 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2888 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2889 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2890 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2891 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2892 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2893 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2894 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2895 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2896 
  2897   Renamed constants:
  2898   measure -> emeasure
  2899   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2900   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2901   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2902   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2903 
  2904   Removed locales:
  2905   completeable_measure_space
  2906   finite_measure_space
  2907   finite_prob_space
  2908   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2909   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2910   finite_sigma_algebra
  2911   measure_space
  2912   pair_finite_prob_space
  2913   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2914   pair_finite_space
  2915   pair_sigma_algebra
  2916   product_sigma_algebra
  2917 
  2918   Removed constants:
  2919   conditional_space
  2920   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2921   image_space
  2922   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2923   pair_measure_generator
  2924   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2925   subvimage
  2926 
  2927   Replacement theorems:
  2928   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2929   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2930   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2931   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2932   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2933   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2934   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2935   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2936   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2937   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2938   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2939   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2940   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2941   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2942   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2943   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2944   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2945   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2946   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2947   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2948   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2949   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2950   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2951   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2952   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2953   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2954   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2955   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2956   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2957   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2958   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2959   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2960   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2961   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2962   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2963   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2964   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2965   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2966   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2967   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2968   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2969   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2970   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2971   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2972   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2973   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2974   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2975   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2976   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2977   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2978   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2979   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2980   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2981   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2982   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2983   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2984   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2985   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2986   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2987   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2988   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2989   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2990   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2991   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2992   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2993   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2994   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2995   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2996   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2997   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2998   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2999   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  3000   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  3001   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  3002   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  3003   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  3004   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  3005   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  3006   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  3007   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3008   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  3009   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3010   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  3011   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  3012   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  3013   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  3014   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  3015   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  3016   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  3017   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  3018   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  3019   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  3020   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3021   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3022   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3023   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3024   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3025   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3026   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3027   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3028   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3029   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3030   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3031   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3032   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3033   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3034   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3035   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3036   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3037   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3038   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3039   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3040   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3041   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3042   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3043   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3044   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3045   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3046   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3047   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3048   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3049   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3050   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3051   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3052   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3053   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3054   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3055   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3056 
  3057 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3058 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3059 
  3060 
  3061 *** FOL ***
  3062 
  3063 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3064 
  3065 
  3066 *** ZF ***
  3067 
  3068 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3069 analysis.
  3070 
  3071 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3072 
  3073 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3074 
  3075 
  3076 *** ML ***
  3077 
  3078 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3079 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3080 
  3081 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3082 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3083 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3084 
  3085 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3086 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3087 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3088 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3089 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3090 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3091 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3092 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3093 
  3094 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3095 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3096 
  3097 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3098 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3099 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3100 
  3101 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3102 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3103 
  3104 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3105 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3106 context as well.
  3107 
  3108 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3109 
  3110   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3111   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3112   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3113   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3114   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3115   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3116   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3117   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3118   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3119   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3120   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3121   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3122 
  3123 
  3124 *** System ***
  3125 
  3126 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3127 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3128 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3129 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3130 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3131 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3132 the generic user home was intended.
  3133 
  3134 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3135 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3136 
  3137 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3138 (not just JRE).
  3139 
  3140 
  3141 
  3142 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3143 ------------------------------------
  3144 
  3145 *** General ***
  3146 
  3147 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3148 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3149 
  3150   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3151     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3152     files for checking).
  3153 
  3154   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3155     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3156     positions.
  3157 
  3158   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3159     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3160     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3161 
  3162   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3163     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3164     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3165 
  3166   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3167     cores.
  3168 
  3169   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3170     versions (garbage collection).
  3171 
  3172 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3173 including some remaining limitations.
  3174 
  3175 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3176 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3177 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3178 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3179 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3183 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3184 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3185 
  3186 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3187 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3188 usedir option -Q.
  3189 
  3190 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3191 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3192 
  3193   long_names   ~> names_long
  3194   short_names  ~> names_short
  3195   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3196 
  3197 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3198 
  3199   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3200 
  3201 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3202 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3203 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3204 
  3205 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3206 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3207 
  3208 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3209   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3210   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3211   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3212     "Classical Reasoner".
  3213 
  3214 
  3215 *** HOL ***
  3216 
  3217 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3218 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3219 
  3220 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3221 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3222 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3223 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3224 class complete_linorder.
  3225 
  3226 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3227 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3228 
  3229 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3230 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3231 
  3232   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3233   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3234   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3235   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3236   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3237   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3238   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3239   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3240   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3241   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3242   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3243 
  3244 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3245 
  3246   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3247   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3248   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3249   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3250   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3251   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3252   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3253   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3254   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3255   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3256   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3257   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3258   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3259   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3260   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3261   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3262 
  3263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3269 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3270 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3271 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3274 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3275 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3276 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3277 
  3278 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3279 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3280 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3281 
  3282 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3283 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3284 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3287 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3288 
  3289 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3290 
  3291     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3292     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3293 
  3294 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3295 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3296 
  3297 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3298 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3301 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3302 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3303 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304 
  3305   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3306   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3307   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3308   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3309   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3310   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3311   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3312 
  3313 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3314 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3317   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3318   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3319   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3320   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3321   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3322   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3323   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3324   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3325   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3326   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3327   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3328   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3329   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3330   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3331   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3332   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3333   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3334   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3335   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3336   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3337   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3338   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3339   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3340   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3341   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3342   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3343   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3344   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3345   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3346   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3347   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3348   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3349   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3350   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3351   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3352   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3353   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3354   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3355   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3356   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3357   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3358   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3359   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3360   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3361   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3362   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3363   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3364   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3365   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3366   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3367   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3368   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3369   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3370   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3371   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3372   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3373   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3374   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3375   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3376   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3377   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3378   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3379   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3380   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3381   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3382   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3383   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3384   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3385   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3386   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3387   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3388   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3389   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3390   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3391   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3392   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3393   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3394   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3395   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3396   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3397   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3398 
  3399 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3400 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3401 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3402 
  3403 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3404 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3405 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3406 
  3407 * Code generation:
  3408 
  3409   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3410     characters in the target language.
  3411 
  3412   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3413     instead.
  3414 
  3415   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3416 
  3417   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3418     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3419 
  3420       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3421 
  3422 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3425 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3426 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3427 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3428 syntax.
  3429 
  3430 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3431 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3432 
  3433 * Nitpick:
  3434   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3435   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3436   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3437     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Sledgehammer:
  3440   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3441   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3442     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3443   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3444     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3445   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3446     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3448     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3449   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3450     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451 
  3452 * Metis:
  3453   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3455     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Command 'try':
  3458   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3459     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3461     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3462 
  3463 * Quickcheck:
  3464   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3465     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3466   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3467     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3468   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3469     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3470     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3471     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3472   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3473     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3474 
  3475 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3476 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3477 
  3478 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3479 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3480 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3481 
  3482 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3483 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3487 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3490 arithmetic.
  3491 
  3492 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3493 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3494 and lattice type classes.
  3495 
  3496 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3497 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3498 
  3499 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3500 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3501 
  3502 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3503 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3504 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3507   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3508   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3509   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3510 
  3511 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3512 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3513 constants:
  3514 
  3515   type inat   ~> type enat
  3516   Fin         ~> enat
  3517   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3518   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3519   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3520 
  3521 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3522 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3525 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3526 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3527 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3528 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3529 
  3530 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3531 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3532 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3533 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3534 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3535 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3536 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3537 
  3538   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3539   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3540   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3541   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3542 
  3543 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3544 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3545 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3548   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3549   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3550   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3551   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3552   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3553   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3554   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3555   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3556   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3557   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3558   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3559   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3560   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3561   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3562   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3563   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3564   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3565   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3566   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3567   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3568   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3569   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3570   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3571   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3572   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3573   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3574   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3575   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3576   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3577   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3578   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3579   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3580   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3581   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3582   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3583   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3584   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3585   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3586   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3587   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3588   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3589   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3590   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3591   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3592   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3593   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3594   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3595   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3596   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3597   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3598 
  3599 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3600   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3601   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3602   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3603   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3604     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3609   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3610   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3611   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3612   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3613   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3614   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3615   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3616   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3617   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3618   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3619   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3620   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3621   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3622   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3623   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3624   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3625   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3626   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3627   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3628   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3629   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3630   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3631   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3632   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3633 
  3634 
  3635 *** Document preparation ***
  3636 
  3637 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3638 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3639 same.
  3640 
  3641 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3642 result.
  3643 
  3644 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3645 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3646 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3647 
  3648 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3649 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3650 
  3651 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3652 like this:
  3653 
  3654   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3655   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3656 
  3657 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3658 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3659 layouts.
  3660 
  3661 
  3662 *** ML ***
  3663 
  3664 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3665 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3666 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3667 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3668 under external program control.
  3669 
  3670 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3671 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3672 
  3673 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3674 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3675 (better known as Proof General).
  3676 
  3677 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3678 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3679 
  3680 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3681 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3682 
  3683 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3684 (including quotes etc.).
  3685 
  3686 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3687 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3688 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3689 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3690 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3691 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3692 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3693 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3694 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3695 
  3696 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3697 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3698 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3699 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3700 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3701 
  3702 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3703 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3704 
  3705 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3706 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3707 
  3708 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3709 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3710 
  3711 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3712 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3713 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3714 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3715 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3716 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3717 proper Proof.context.
  3718 
  3719 
  3720 *** System ***
  3721 
  3722 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3723 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3724 
  3725 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3726 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3727 
  3728 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3729 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3730 
  3731   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3732   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3733   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3734   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3735   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3736 
  3737 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3738 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3741 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3742 example:
  3743 
  3744   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3745 
  3746 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3747 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3748 
  3749 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3750 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3751 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3752 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3753 
  3754 
  3755 
  3756 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3757 ----------------------------------
  3758 
  3759 *** General ***
  3760 
  3761 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3762 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3763 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3764 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3765 like this:
  3766 
  3767   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3768 
  3769 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3770 
  3771 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3772 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3773 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3774 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3775 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3776 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3777 
  3778 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3779 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3780 the following package declarations:
  3781 
  3782   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3783   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3784 
  3785 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3786 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3787 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3788 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3789 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3790 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3791 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3792 
  3793 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3794 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3795 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3796 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3797 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3798 
  3799 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3800 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3801 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3802 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3803 
  3804 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3805 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3806 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3807 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3808 
  3809   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3810 
  3811   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3812   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3813   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3814   show_types                    show_types
  3815   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3816   show_consts                   show_consts
  3817   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3818 
  3819   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3820   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3821   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3822 
  3823   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3824   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3825 
  3826   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3827 
  3828   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3829   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3830   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3831   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3832   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3833 
  3834 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3835 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3836 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3837 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3838 
  3839 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3843   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3844 
  3845 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3846 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3847 float_token.
  3848 
  3849 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3850 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3852 
  3853 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3854 DejaVu Sans.
  3855 
  3856 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3857 
  3858 
  3859 *** Pure ***
  3860 
  3861 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3862 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3863 time.
  3864 
  3865 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3866 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3867 
  3868 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3869 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3870 
  3871 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3872 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3873 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3874 command already provided this functionality.
  3875 
  3876 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3877 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3878 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3879 without interpretations.
  3880 
  3881 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3882 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3883 
  3884 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3885 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3886 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3887 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3888 
  3889 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3890 'definition' instead.
  3891 
  3892 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3893 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3894 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3895 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3896 
  3897 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3898 constructors.
  3899 
  3900 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3901 the local file system.
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 *** HOL ***
  3905 
  3906 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3907 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3908 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3909 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3910 
  3911   declare [[coercion f]]
  3912 
  3913 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3914 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3915 
  3916   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3917 
  3918 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3919 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3920 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3921 other theories like this:
  3922 
  3923   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3924 
  3925 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3926 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3927 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3928 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3929 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3930 for examples.
  3931 
  3932 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3933 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3936 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3937 
  3938 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3939 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3940 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3941 
  3942 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3943 functorial structure of types.
  3944 
  3945 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3946 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3947 
  3948 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3949 languages.
  3950 
  3951 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3952 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954 
  3955 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3956 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957 
  3958 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3959 combinators any longer.
  3960 
  3961 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3962 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3963 
  3964 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3965 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3966 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3967 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3968 
  3969   record 'a foo = ...
  3970   ...
  3971   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3972 
  3973 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3974 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3978 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3979 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3980 
  3981 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3982 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3983 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3984 
  3985 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3986 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3989 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3990 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3991 independently.
  3992 
  3993 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3994 counter example search.
  3995 
  3996 * Sledgehammer:
  3997   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3998     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3999     sledgehammer").
  4000   - Renamed commands:
  4001     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  4002     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  4003     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  4004     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005   - Renamed options:
  4006     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  4007     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  4008     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  4009     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  4010     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011 
  4012 * Nitpick:
  4013   - Renamed options:
  4014     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  4015     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  4016     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  4018   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  4019   - Added "whack" option.
  4020   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4021   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4022   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4023   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4024     higher cardinalities.
  4025   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4026 
  4027 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4028 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4029 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4030 
  4031     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4032 
  4033 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4034 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4035 
  4036 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4037 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4038 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4039 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4040 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4041 "smt_solver".
  4042 
  4043 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4044 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4045 
  4046 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4047 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4048 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4049 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4052   - Renamed:
  4053     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4054     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4055     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056   - Added:
  4057     smt_verbose
  4058     smt_random_seed
  4059     smt_datatypes
  4060     smt_infer_triggers
  4061     smt_monomorph_limit
  4062     cvc3_options
  4063     remote_cvc3_options
  4064     remote_z3_options
  4065     yices_options
  4066 
  4067 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4068 header.
  4069 
  4070 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4071 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4072 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4073 
  4074   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4075 
  4076 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4077 
  4078 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4079 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082 
  4083 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4084 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4085 
  4086 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4087 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4088 
  4089 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4090 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4091 
  4092 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4093 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4094 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4099 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4100 
  4101 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4102 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4103 
  4104 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4105 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4106 for congruent(2)).
  4107 
  4108 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4109 
  4110   types
  4111     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4112     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4113 
  4114   constants
  4115     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4116     True ~> HOL.True
  4117     False ~> HOL.False
  4118     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4119     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4120     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4121     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4122     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4123     The ~> HOL.The
  4124     All ~> HOL.All
  4125     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4126     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4127     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4128     If ~> HOL.If
  4129     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4130     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4131     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4132     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4133     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4134     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4135     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4136     op : ~> Set.member
  4137     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4138 
  4139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4140 
  4141 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4142 
  4143     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4144     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4145     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4146     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4147     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4148     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4149     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4150     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4151 
  4152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * More stylized fact names:
  4155 
  4156   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4157   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4158   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4159   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4160 
  4161 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4162 
  4163 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4164 
  4165   constants
  4166     null ~> List.null
  4167 
  4168   facts
  4169     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4170     null_empty ~> null_def
  4171 
  4172 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4173 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4174 generation.
  4175 
  4176 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4177 Haskell code.
  4178 
  4179 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4180 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4181 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4184 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4187 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4188 
  4189 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4190 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4191 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4192 
  4193 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4194 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4195 
  4196 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4198 
  4199 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4200 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4201 referred to by its qualified name.
  4202 
  4203   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4204   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4205   product ~>  Enum.product
  4206 
  4207 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4208 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4210 
  4211 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4212 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4213 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4217 sort_key.
  4218 
  4219 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4223 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4224 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4225 
  4226   types
  4227     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4228               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4229               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4230         (depends on your needs)
  4231 
  4232   constants
  4233      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4234      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4235      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4236 
  4237 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4238 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4239 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4240 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4241 
  4242 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4243 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4244 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4245 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4246 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247 
  4248 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4252 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4253 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4254 
  4255 
  4256 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4257 
  4258 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4259 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4260 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4261 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4262 compatibility.
  4263 
  4264 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4265 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4266 
  4267 
  4268 *** HOLCF ***
  4269 
  4270 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4271 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4272 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4276 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4277 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4278 
  4279   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4280   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4281   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4282 
  4283 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4284 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4285 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4288 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4289 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4290 domain definition now works:
  4291 
  4292   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4293 
  4294 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4295 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4296 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4297 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4298 
  4299   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4300     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4301 
  4302   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4303 
  4304 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4305 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4306 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4309 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4310 
  4311 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4312 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4313 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4314 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4315 
  4316 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4317 
  4318 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4324 
  4325 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4326 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4327 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4328 
  4329 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4330 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4331 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4334 still supported as an input translation.
  4335 
  4336 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4337 
  4338   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4339   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4340   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4341   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4342   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4343   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4344   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4345 
  4346 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4347 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4348 
  4349   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4350   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4351   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4352   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4353   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4354   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4355 
  4356 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4357 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4360 
  4361   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4362   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4363   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4364   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4365 
  4366 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4369 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4372 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4375   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4376   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4377   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4378   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4379   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4380   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4381   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4382   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4383   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4384   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4385   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4386   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4387   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4388   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4389   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4390   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4391   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4392   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4393   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4394 
  4395 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4396 
  4397   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4398   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4399   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4400   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4401   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4402   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4403   box_less             ~> box_below
  4404   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4405   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4406   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4407   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4408   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4409   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4410   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4411   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4412   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4413   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4414   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4415   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4416   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4417   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4418   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4419   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4420   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4421   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4422   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4423   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4424   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4425   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4426   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4427   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4428   up_less              ~> up_below
  4429   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4430   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4431   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4432   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4433   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4434   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4435   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4436   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4437   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4438   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4439   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4440   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4441   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4442 
  4443 
  4444 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4445 
  4446 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4447 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4448 
  4449 
  4450 *** ML ***
  4451 
  4452 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4453 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4454 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4455 
  4456 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4457 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4458 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4459 
  4460 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4461 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4462 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4463 
  4464 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4465 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4466 
  4467 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4468 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4469 
  4470 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4471 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4472 
  4473 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4474 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4475 
  4476 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4477 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4478 almost all situations.
  4479 
  4480 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4481 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4482 Isabelle/ML.
  4483 
  4484 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4485 meaning.
  4486 
  4487 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4488 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4489 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4490 
  4491 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4492 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4493 
  4494 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4495 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4496 
  4497 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4498 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4499 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4500 
  4501 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4502 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4503 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4504 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4505 configuration options.
  4506 
  4507 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4508 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4509 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4510 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4511 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4512 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4513 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4514 
  4515 
  4516 
  4517 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4518 ---------------------------------
  4519 
  4520 *** General ***
  4521 
  4522 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4523 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4524 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4525 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4526 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4527 their full internal name.
  4528 
  4529 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4530 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4531 Some hints on upgrading:
  4532 
  4533   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4534     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4535     which are independent of this issue.
  4536 
  4537   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4538     provides the following special forms:
  4539 
  4540       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4541       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4542       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4543 
  4544     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4545     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4546     extra variables".
  4547 
  4548     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4549     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4550     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4551     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4552     "logic".
  4553 
  4554   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4555     antiquotations:
  4556 
  4557       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4558       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4559       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4560       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4561 
  4562   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4563     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4564     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4565     antiquotations.
  4566 
  4567 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4568 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4569 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4570 diagnose syntax problems.
  4571 
  4572 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4573 
  4574 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4575 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4576 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4577 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4578 
  4579 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4580 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4581 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4582 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4583 
  4584 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4585 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4586 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4587 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4588 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4591 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4592 
  4593 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4594 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4595 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4596 
  4597   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4598 
  4599 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4600 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4601 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4602 
  4603 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4604 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4608 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4609 
  4610 
  4611 *** Pure ***
  4612 
  4613 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4614 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4615 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4616 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4617 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4618 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4619 inspect proof terms.
  4620 
  4621 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4622 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4623 are added internally.  For example:
  4624 
  4625   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4626 
  4627 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4628 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4629 
  4630 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4633 'class' instead.
  4634 
  4635 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4636 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4640 invariants.
  4641 
  4642 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4643 user space functionality any longer.
  4644 
  4645 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4646 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4650 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4651 
  4652 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4653 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4654 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4655 
  4656 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4657 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4658 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4659 
  4660 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4661 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4662 
  4663 
  4664 *** HOL ***
  4665 
  4666 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4667 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4668 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4669 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4670 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4671 
  4672 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4673 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4674 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4675 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4676 
  4677   fun
  4678     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4679   where
  4680     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4681 
  4682   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4683     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4684 
  4685   quotient_definition
  4686     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4687 
  4688 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4689 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4690 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4691 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4692 
  4693 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4694 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4695 
  4696 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4697 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4698 
  4699 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4703 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4704 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4705 
  4706 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4707 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4711 
  4712 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4714 
  4715 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4716 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4717 
  4718 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4719 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4720 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4723   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4724   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4725   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4726   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4727   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4728   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4729   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4730   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4731   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4732   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4733   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4734   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4735   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4736   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4737   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4738   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4739   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4740   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4741   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4742   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4743   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4744   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4745   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4746   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4747   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4748   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4749   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4750   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4751   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4752 
  4753 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4754 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4755 
  4756 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4757 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4758 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4759 
  4760 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4761 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4762 
  4763 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4764 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4767 
  4768 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4769 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4772 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4773 
  4774 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4777 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4778 
  4779 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4780 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4781 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4782 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783 
  4784 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4785   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4786   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4787   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4789 
  4790 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4791 lattices):
  4792 
  4793     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4794     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4795 
  4796     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4797 
  4798     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4799     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4800     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4801     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4802     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4803     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4804     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4805     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4806     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4807     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4808     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4809     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4810     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4811 
  4812     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4813     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4814     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4815     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4816     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4817     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4818     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4819     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4820     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4821     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4822     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4823     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4824     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4825     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4826     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4827     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4828     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4829     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4830 
  4831   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4832   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4833 
  4834     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4835     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4836     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4837     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4838     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4839 
  4840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842 * Refined field classes:
  4843   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4844     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4845     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4846   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4850   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4851   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4852   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4853     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4854   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4855     equal_neg_zero.
  4856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4859 sets to lattices:
  4860 
  4861   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4862   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4863   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4864   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4865   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4866   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4867   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4868   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4869   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4870   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4871 
  4872 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4873 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4874 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4875 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4876 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4877 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4878 
  4879 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4880 multiset order:
  4881 
  4882   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4883     <= and <;
  4884   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4885     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4886     multiset_order;
  4887   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4888     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4889     generation;
  4890   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4891     if needed.
  4892 
  4893 Renamed:
  4894 
  4895   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4896   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4897   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4898 
  4899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4902 
  4903 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4904 
  4905 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4906 
  4907 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4908 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4909 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911   Constants:
  4912   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4913   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4914   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4915   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4916   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4917   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4918   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4919   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4920   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4921   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4922   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4923   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4924   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4925 
  4926   Lemmas:
  4927   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4928   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4929   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4930   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4931   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4932   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4933   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4934   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4935   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4936   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4937   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4938   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4939   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4940 
  4941 * Sledgehammer:
  4942   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4943     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4944     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4945     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4946     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4947     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4948     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4949   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4950   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4951     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4952   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4953     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4954     is still experimental.)
  4955   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4956     full-typed mode.
  4957   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4958 
  4959 * Nitpick:
  4960   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4961   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4962   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4963     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4964   - Added support for quotient types.
  4965   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4966     constructs.
  4967   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4968     "termination" proofs).
  4969   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4970   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4971   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4972   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4973     record getters.
  4974   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4975   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4976   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4977   - Added "atoms" option.
  4978   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4979     problems.
  4980   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4981     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4982     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4983   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4984     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4985   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4986 
  4987 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4988   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4989   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4990   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4991   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4992   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4993   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4994   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4995   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4996   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4997 
  4998 
  4999 *** HOLCF ***
  5000 
  5001 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  5002 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  5003 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  5006 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  5007 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  5008 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5009 
  5010 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  5011 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  5012 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  5013 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  5014 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  5017 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  5018 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5019 
  5020 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5021 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5022 
  5023   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5024   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5025 
  5026 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5027 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5028 
  5029   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5030   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5031   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5032   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5033   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5034 
  5035 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5036 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5037 
  5038   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5039   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5040   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5041 
  5042 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5043 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5045 
  5046 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5047 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5048 
  5049 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5052 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5053 
  5054 
  5055 *** ML ***
  5056 
  5057 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5058 
  5059     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5060     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5061 
  5062     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5063     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5064     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5065     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5066 
  5067     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5068     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5069     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5070 
  5071 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5072 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5073 
  5074 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5075 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5076 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5077 
  5078 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5079 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5080 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5081 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5082 
  5083 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5084 the context or even global references.
  5085 
  5086 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5087 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5088 
  5089 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5090 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5091 
  5092   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5093   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5094   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5095   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5096   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5097   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5098   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5099   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5100   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5101   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5102 
  5103 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5104 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5105 
  5106 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5107 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5108 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5109 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5110 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5111 
  5112 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5113 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5114 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5115 Theory_Data version.
  5116 
  5117 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5118 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5119 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5120 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5121 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5122 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5123 explicitly in rare situations.
  5124 
  5125 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5126 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5128 
  5129 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5130 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5131 
  5132 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5133 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5134 quite rare).
  5135 
  5136 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5137 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5138 
  5139 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5140 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5141 terms.
  5142 
  5143 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5144 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5145 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5146 
  5147 
  5148 *** System ***
  5149 
  5150 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5151 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5152 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5153 
  5154 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5155 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5156 respectively.
  5157 
  5158 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5159 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5160 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5161 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5162 
  5163   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5164 
  5165 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5166 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5167 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5168 component.
  5169 
  5170 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5171 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5172 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5173 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5174 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5175 the user for manual installation.
  5176 
  5177 
  5178 
  5179 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5180 -------------------------------------
  5181 
  5182 *** General ***
  5183 
  5184 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5185 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5186 
  5187 
  5188 *** Pure ***
  5189 
  5190 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5191 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5192 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5193 
  5194 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5195 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5196 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5197 
  5198 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5199 interpretation.
  5200 
  5201 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5202 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 
  5205 *** Document preparation ***
  5206 
  5207 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5208 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5209 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5210 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5211 
  5212 
  5213 *** HOL ***
  5214 
  5215 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5216 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5217 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5218 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5219 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5220 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5221 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5222 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5223 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5224 
  5225 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5226 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5227 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5228 
  5229 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5230 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5231 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5232 
  5233 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5234 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5235 
  5236 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5237 
  5238 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5239 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5240 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5241 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5242 
  5243 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5244 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5245 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5246 "mirabelle" utility.
  5247 
  5248 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5249 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5250 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5251 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5252 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5253 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5254 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5255 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5256 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5257 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5258 
  5259 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5260 procedure only.
  5261 
  5262 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5263 
  5264 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5265 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5266 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5267 that fail later.
  5268 
  5269 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5270 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5271 
  5272 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5273 the same method as the approximation method.
  5274 
  5275 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5276 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5277 series expansion.
  5278 
  5279 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5280 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5281 
  5282 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5283 reals.
  5284 
  5285 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5286 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5287 
  5288 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5289 fixpoint theorem.
  5290 
  5291 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5292   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5293     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5294   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5295     accordingly
  5296   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5297     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5298   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5299     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5300 
  5301 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5302 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5303 lattice.
  5304 
  5305 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5306 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5307 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5308 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5309 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5310 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5312 
  5313 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5314   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5315     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5316   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5317     le_inf_iff
  5318   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5319     sup_aci)
  5320   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5321   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5322   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5323     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5324     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5325     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5326     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5327     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5328     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5329     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5330     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5331     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5332     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5333   - authentic syntax for
  5334     Set.Pow
  5335     Set.image
  5336   - mere abbreviations:
  5337     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5338     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5339     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5340     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5341     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5342     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5343     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5344     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5345   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5346 
  5347 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5348 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5349 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5350 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5351 
  5352 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5353 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5354 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355 
  5356 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5357 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5358 
  5359 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5360 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5361 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5362 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5363 
  5364 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5365 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5366 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5367 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5368 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5369 
  5370 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5371 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5373 
  5374 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5375 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5378 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5379 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5380 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5381 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5382 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5383 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5385 
  5386 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5387     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5388     code_post       replaces    code post
  5389     etc.
  5390   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5391 
  5392 * Renamed methods:
  5393     sizechange -> size_change
  5394     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5395   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5396 
  5397 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5398 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5399 
  5400 * Renamed theorems:
  5401     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5402     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5403     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5404     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5405     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5406   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5407 
  5408 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5410 
  5411 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5413 
  5414 
  5415 *** HOLCF ***
  5416 
  5417 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5418 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5419 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5420 
  5421 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5422 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5423 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5424 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5425 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5426 
  5427 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5428 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5429 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5430 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5431 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5432 
  5433 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5434 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5435 constructor are pre-configured.
  5436 
  5437 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5438 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5439 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5440 
  5441 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5442 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5443 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5444 as well.)
  5445 
  5446 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5447 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5448 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5449 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5450 examples.
  5451 
  5452 
  5453 *** ML ***
  5454 
  5455 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5456 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5457 
  5458 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5459 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5460 position, logical grouping etc.
  5461 
  5462 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5463 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5464 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5465 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5466 
  5467 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5468 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5469 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5470 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5471 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5472 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5473 
  5474 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5475 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5476 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5477 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5478 experiments with references.
  5479 
  5480 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5481 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5482 
  5483 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5484 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5485 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5486 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5487 
  5488 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5489 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5490 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5491 
  5492 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5493 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5494 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5495 
  5496 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5497 
  5498 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5502 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5503 
  5504 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5505 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5506 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5507 
  5508 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5509 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5510 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5511 
  5512 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5513 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5514 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5516 
  5517 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5518 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5519 instead of global theory.
  5520 
  5521 
  5522 *** System ***
  5523 
  5524 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5525 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5526 usedir option -q.
  5527 
  5528 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5529 also the system manual.
  5530 
  5531 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5532 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5533 
  5534 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5535 this is always enabled.
  5536 
  5537 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5538 
  5539 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5540 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5541 currently supported on Linux only.
  5542 
  5543 
  5544 
  5545 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5546 --------------------------------
  5547 
  5548 *** General ***
  5549 
  5550 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5551 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5552 
  5553   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5554     "isatool."
  5555 
  5556   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5557     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5558 
  5559   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5560     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5561 
  5562 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5563 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5564 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5565 
  5566 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5567 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5568 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5569 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5570 via "isabelle emacs".
  5571 
  5572 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5573 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5574 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5575 
  5576 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5577 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5578 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5579 
  5580 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5581 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5582 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5583 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5584 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5585 
  5586 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5587 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5588 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5589 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5590 
  5591 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5592 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5593 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5594 
  5595 
  5596 *** Pure ***
  5597 
  5598 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5599 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5600 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5601 
  5602 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5603 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5604 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5605 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5606 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5607 
  5608 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5609 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5610 useful in locale declarations.
  5611 
  5612 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5613 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5614 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5615 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5616 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5617 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5618 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5619 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5620 no longer generated.
  5621 
  5622 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5623 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5624 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5625 
  5626 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5627 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5628 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5629 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5630 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5631 
  5632 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5633 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5634 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5635 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5636 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5637 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5638 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5639 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5640 
  5641 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5642 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5643 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5644 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5645 
  5646 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5647 
  5648 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5649 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5650 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5651 
  5652 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5653 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5654 
  5655 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5656 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5657 in HOL, write
  5658 
  5659     class foo = ...
  5660 
  5661 instead of
  5662 
  5663     class foo = type + ...
  5664 
  5665 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5666 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5669 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5670 
  5671 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5672 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5673 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5674 
  5675 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5676 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5677 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5678 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5679 directly in regular applications.
  5680 
  5681 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5682 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5683 
  5684 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5685 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5686 
  5687 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5688 theory context.
  5689 
  5690 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5691 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5692 
  5693 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5694 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5695 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5696 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5697 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5698 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5699 
  5700   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5701 
  5702 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5703 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5704 normalization.
  5705 
  5706 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5707 addressing etc.
  5708 
  5709 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5710 
  5711   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5712   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5713 
  5714 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5715 
  5716   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5717      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5718      parts of the code generator framework).
  5719 
  5720   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5721      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5722      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5723 
  5724 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5725 
  5726 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5727 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5728 
  5729 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5730 patterns, e.g.
  5731 
  5732     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5733 
  5734 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5735 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5736 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5737 hyphen:
  5738 
  5739     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5740 
  5741 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5742 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5743 
  5744 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5745 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5746 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5747 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5748 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5749 higher-order unification.
  5750 
  5751 
  5752 *** Document preparation ***
  5753 
  5754 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5755 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5756 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5757 
  5758 
  5759 *** HOL ***
  5760 
  5761 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5762 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5763 
  5764 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5765 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5766 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5767 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5768 Main, as before.
  5769 
  5770 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5771 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5772 
  5773 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5774 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5775 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5776 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5777 
  5778 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5779 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5780 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5781 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5782 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5783 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5784 
  5785 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5786 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5787 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5788 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5789 
  5790 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5791 menu.
  5792 
  5793 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5794 (contains the empty clause).
  5795 
  5796 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5797 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5798 
  5799 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5800 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5801 
  5802 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5803 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5804 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5805 
  5806 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5807 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5808 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5809 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5810 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5811 
  5812 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5813 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5814 
  5815 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5816 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5817 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5818 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5819 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5820 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5821 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5822 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5823 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5824 
  5825 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5826 
  5827 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5828 
  5829 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5830 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5831 
  5832 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5833 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5834 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5835 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5836 
  5837 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5838 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5839 
  5840     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5841     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5842     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5843     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5844     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5845     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5846     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5847     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5848 
  5849 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5850 theory Set.
  5851 
  5852 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5853 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5854 
  5855 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5856 
  5857 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5858 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5859 
  5860 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5861 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5862 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5863 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5864 allowed. For examples see
  5865 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5866 
  5867 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5868 
  5869 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871 
  5872 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5873 structure:
  5874 
  5875     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5876     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5877     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5878     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5879     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5880     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5881     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5882     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5883     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5884     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5885     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5886     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5887     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5888     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5889     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5890     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5891     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5892     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5893     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5894     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5895     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5896     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5897     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5898     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5899     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5900     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5901     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5902     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5903     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5904     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5905     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5906     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5907     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5908 
  5909     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5910     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5911     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5912     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5913     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5914     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5915     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5916     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5917     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5918     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5919 
  5920     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5921     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5922     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5923     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5924     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5925     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5926 
  5927 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5928 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5929 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5930 
  5931 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5932 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5933 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5934 
  5935 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5936 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5937 
  5938 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5939 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5940 
  5941 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5942 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5943 proofs, e.g.
  5944 
  5945   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5946 
  5947 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5948 
  5949 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5950 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5951 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5954 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5956 
  5957 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5958 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5959 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5961 
  5962 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5963 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5964 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5965 preorder_class.*.
  5966 
  5967 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5968 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5969 
  5970 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5971 
  5972   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5973 
  5974 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5975 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5976 fold_image.
  5977 
  5978 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5979 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5980 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5981 the former will disappear at some point.
  5982 
  5983 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5984 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5985 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5986 
  5987 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5988 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5989 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5990 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5991 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5992 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5993 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5994 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5995 
  5996 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5997 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5998 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5999 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  6000 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  6001 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  6002 
  6003     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  6004     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  6005     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  6006     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  6007     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  6008     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  6009     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6010 
  6011 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  6012 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6013 rename old lemmas as follows:
  6014 
  6015 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  6016 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  6017 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  6018 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  6019 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  6020 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  6021 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  6022 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  6023 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  6024 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  6025 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  6026 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  6027 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  6028 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  6029 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  6030 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  6031 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  6032 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  6033 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  6034 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  6035 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  6036 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  6037 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  6038 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  6039 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  6040 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  6041 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6042 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  6043 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  6044 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  6045 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  6046 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  6047 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  6048 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  6049 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  6050 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  6051 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  6052 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  6053 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  6054 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  6055 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  6056 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  6057 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  6058 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  6059 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  6060 
  6061 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6062 
  6063 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  6064 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  6065 
  6066 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  6067 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  6068 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  6069 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  6070 
  6071 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  6072 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  6073 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  6074 theory RealVector.
  6075 
  6076 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  6077 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  6078 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  6079 and inner products are included.
  6080 
  6081 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  6082 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  6083 supported.
  6084 
  6085 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  6086 first diagonalization argument.
  6087 
  6088 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  6089 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  6090 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  6091 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6092 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  6093 
  6094     hide (open) const gcd
  6095     abbreviation gcd where
  6096       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  6097     notation (output)
  6098       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  6099 
  6100 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  6101 
  6102 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  6103 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  6104 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6105 
  6106 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  6107 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  6108 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  6109 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  6110 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  6111 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  6112 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  6113 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  6114 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  6115 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  6116 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  6117 cases.
  6118 
  6119 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  6120 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  6121 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  6122 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  6123 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  6124 
  6125     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  6126     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  6127     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  6128     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  6129     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  6130 
  6131 
  6132 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6133 
  6134 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  6135 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  6136 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  6137 
  6138 * New theory of factorial domains.
  6139 
  6140 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  6141 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  6142 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  6143 
  6144 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6145 
  6146 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  6147 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  6148 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  6149 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  6150 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  6151 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  6152 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  6153 
  6154 
  6155 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6156 
  6157 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  6158 
  6159 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  6160 theory targets.
  6161 
  6162 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  6163 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  6164 'inductive' etc.
  6165 
  6166 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  6167 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  6168 
  6169 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  6170 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  6171 
  6172 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  6173 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  6174 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  6175 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  6176 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  6177 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  6178 the algorithm W:
  6179 
  6180  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  6181  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  6182          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  6183 
  6184 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  6185 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6186 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6187 
  6188 
  6189 *** HOLCF ***
  6190 
  6191 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6192 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6193 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6194 
  6195 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6196 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6197 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6198 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6199 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6202 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6203 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6204 
  6205 
  6206 *** ZF ***
  6207 
  6208 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6209 
  6210 
  6211 *** ML ***
  6212 
  6213 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6214 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6215 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6216 5.2.1!
  6217 
  6218 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6219 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6220 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6221 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6222 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6223 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6224 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6225 
  6226 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6227 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6228 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6229 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6230 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6231 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6232 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6233 
  6234 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6235 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6236 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6237 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6238 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6239 
  6240 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6241 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6242 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6243 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6244 Method.add_method.
  6245 
  6246 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6247 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6248 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6249 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6250 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6251 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6252 
  6253 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6254 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6255 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6256 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6257 examples.
  6258 
  6259 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6260 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6261 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6262 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6263 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6264 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6265 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old