NEWS
author haftmann
Mon Dec 09 22:49:27 2013 +0100 (2013-12-09)
changeset 54708 8e71c6ed4d74
parent 54705 0dff3326d12a
child 54732 b01bb3d09928
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    17 
    18 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    19 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    20 
    21 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    22 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    23 
    24 
    25 *** HOL ***
    26 
    27 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
    28 operations on records.
    29 
    30 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    31 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    32 
    33 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    34     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    35 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    36 
    37 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    38     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    39     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    40 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    43   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    44   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    45   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    46     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    47   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    48     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    49   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    50 INCOMPATBILITY.
    51 
    52 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    53     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    54     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    55     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    56     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    57 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Fact name consolidation:
    60     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    61     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    62     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    63     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    64     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    65 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    66 
    67 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    68 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    69 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    70 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    71 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    72 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    73 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    74 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    75 
    76 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    77 
    78 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    79 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    80 
    81 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    82 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    83 
    84 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    85 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    86 or the brute way with
    87 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    88 
    89 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    90 
    91 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    92 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    93 
    94 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    95 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    96 
    97 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
    98 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
    99 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   100 INCOMPATIBILITY
   101 
   102 * Nitpick:
   103   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   104     infinite values.
   105 
   106 
   107 *** ML ***
   108 
   109 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   110 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   112 formal context.
   113 
   114 
   115 *** System ***
   116 
   117 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   118 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   119 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   120 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   121 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   122 
   123 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   124 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   125 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   126 
   127 
   128 
   129 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   130 -------------------------------------
   131 
   132 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   133 
   134 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   135 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   136 
   137 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   138 after edits surrounding the command location.
   139 
   140 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   141 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   142 e.g. out-of-memory).
   143 
   144 
   145 *** System ***
   146 
   147 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   148 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   149 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   150 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   151 
   152 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   153 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   154 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   155 
   156 
   157 
   158 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   159 -------------------------------------
   160 
   161 *** General ***
   162 
   163 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   164 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   165 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   168 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   169 
   170 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   171 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   172 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   173 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   174 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   175 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   176 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   177 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   178 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   179 syntax.
   180 
   181 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   182 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   183 
   184 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   185 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   186 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   187 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   188 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   189 
   190 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   194 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   195 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   196 
   197 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   198 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   199 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   200 
   201 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   202 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   203 
   204 
   205 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   206 
   207 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   208 Documentation panel.
   209 
   210 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   211 documentation.
   212 
   213 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   214 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   215 
   216 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   217 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   218 normal editing and checking process.
   219 
   220 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   221 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   222 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   223 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   224 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   225 
   226 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   227 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   228 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   229 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   230 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   231 
   232 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   233 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   234 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   235 
   236 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   237 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   238 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   239 to resolve conflict.
   240 
   241 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   242 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   243 
   244 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   245 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   246 such command executions while editing.
   247 
   248 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   249 document content.
   250 
   251 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   252 toplevel theorem statements.
   253 
   254 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   255 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   256 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   257 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   258 
   259 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   260 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   261 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   262 
   263 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   264 / Global Options / Appearance".
   265 
   266 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   267 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   268 
   269 
   270 *** Pure ***
   271 
   272 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   273 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   274 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   275 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   276 details.
   277 
   278 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   279 
   280 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   281 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   282 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   283 
   284 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   288 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   289 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   290 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291 
   292 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   293 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   294 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   295 
   296 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   297 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   298 
   299 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   300 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   301 situations.
   302 
   303 
   304 *** HOL ***
   305 
   306 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   307 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309 
   310 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   311 
   312 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   313 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   314 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   315 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   316 
   317   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   318 
   319 * Code generator:
   320   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   321     'code_instance'.
   322   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   323     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   324 
   325 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   326 examples.
   327 
   328 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   329 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   330 to distinguish both when desired.
   331 
   332 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   333 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   334 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   335 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   338 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   339 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   340 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   341 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   342 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   343 
   344 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   345 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   346 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   347 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   348 
   349 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   350 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   351 
   352 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   353 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   354 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   355 
   356 * Lifting:
   357   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   358     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   359       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   360       transfer rules
   361     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   362       correspondence relation can be generated
   363     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   364       parametricity
   365     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   366   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   367   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   368     copies
   369   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   370     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   371     anonymous context)
   372   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   373     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   374   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   375     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   376   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   377     INCOMPATIBILITY
   378 
   379 * Transfer:
   380   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   381     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   382   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   383   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   384     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   385   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   386 
   387 * Reification and reflection:
   388   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   389     "Reification".
   390   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   391   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   395   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   396     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   397     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   398   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   399     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   400   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   401     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   402     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   403     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   404     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   405     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   406     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   407     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   408   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   409     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   410   - Fact renames:
   411       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   412       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   414 
   415 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   416 
   417 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   418 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   419 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   423 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   424 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   425 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   426 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   427 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   428 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   429 lemmas.
   430 
   431 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   432 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   433 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   434 
   435 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   436 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   437 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   438 
   439 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   440 top and bottom elements.
   441 
   442 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   443 
   444 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   445 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   446 
   447  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   448    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   449    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   450 
   451  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   452    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   453    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   454 
   455    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   456    arbitrary filter.
   457 
   458  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   459    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   460    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   461    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   462    on a compact set.
   463 
   464  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   465    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   466    linear_continuum_topology).
   467 
   468  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   469    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   470    on all sequences converging to x.
   471 
   472  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   473    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   474    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   475    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   476    left or right.
   477 
   478  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   479 
   480      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   481 
   482  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   483    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   484 
   485  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   486    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   487    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   488    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   489    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   490    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   491 
   492  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   493 
   494    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   495 
   496    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   497      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   498 
   499    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   500 
   501    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   502      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   503 
   504    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   505 
   506    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   507 
   508  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   509 
   510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * Nitpick:
   513   - Added option "spy"
   514   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   515 
   516 * Sledgehammer:
   517   - Renamed option:
   518       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   519     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   521   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   522   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   523 
   524 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   525 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   526 
   527 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   528   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   529   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   530     generated code.
   531   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   532   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   533   - Fact renames:
   534     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   535     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   536     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   537 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   540 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   541 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   542 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   543 
   544 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   545 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   546 
   547 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   548 
   549 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   550 
   551     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   552     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   553 
   554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   555 
   556 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   557 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   558 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   559 
   560 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   561 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   562 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   563 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * HOL-BNF:
   566   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   567     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   568     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   569     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   570   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   571     coinduct).
   572   - Renamed keywords:
   573     data ~> datatype_new
   574     codata ~> codatatype
   575     bnf_def ~> bnf
   576   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   577     discs ~> disc
   578     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   579     map_id' ~> map_id
   580     sels ~> sel
   581     set_map' ~> set_map
   582     sets ~> set
   583 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   584 
   585 
   586 *** ML ***
   587 
   588 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   589 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   590 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   591 Examples.thy in particular.
   592 
   593 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   594 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   595 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   596 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   597 
   598 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   599 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   600 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   601 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   603 
   604 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   605 
   606     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   607     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   608 
   609 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   612 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   613 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   614 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   615 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   616 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   617 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   618 
   619 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   620 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   621 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   622 clasets separately from the context.
   623 
   624 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   625 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   626 
   627 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   628 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   629 
   630 
   631 *** System ***
   632 
   633 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   634 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   637 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   640 settings variable.
   641 
   642 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   643 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   644 always pdf.
   645 
   646 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   647 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   648 
   649 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   650 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   651 
   652 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   653 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   654 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   655 
   656 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   657 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   658 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   659 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   660 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   661 for HTML presentation of theories.
   662 
   663 
   664 
   665 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   666 -----------------------------------
   667 
   668 *** General ***
   669 
   670 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   671 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   672 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   673 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   674 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   675 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   676 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   677 
   678 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   679 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   680 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   681 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   682 
   683 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   684 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   685 
   686 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   687 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   688 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   689 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   690 dependencies properly.
   691 
   692 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   693 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   694 
   695 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   696 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   697 
   698 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   699 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   700 and "class ... context ...".
   701 
   702 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   703 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   704 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   705 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   706 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   707 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   708 
   709 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   710 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   711 
   712 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   713 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   714 
   715 
   716 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   717 
   718 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   719 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   720 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   721 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   722 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   723 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   724 
   725 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   726 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   727 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   728 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   729 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   730 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   731 
   732 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   733 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   734 browser on demand.
   735 
   736 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   737 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   738 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   739 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   740 
   741 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   742 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   743 
   744 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   745 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   746 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   747 potentially infinite message streams.
   748 
   749 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   750 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   751 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   752 schemes.
   753 
   754 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   755 symbols.
   756 
   757 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   758 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   759 
   760 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   761 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   762 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   763 
   764 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   765 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   766 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   767 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   768 
   769 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   770 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   771 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   772 
   773 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   774 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   775 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   776 Isabelle distribution.
   777 
   778 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   779 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   780 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   781 
   782 
   783 *** Pure ***
   784 
   785 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   786 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   787 
   788 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   789 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   790 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791 
   792 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   793 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   794 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   795 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   796 with some care where this is really required.
   797 
   798 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   799 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   800 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   801 
   802   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   803 
   804 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   805 a Hasse diagram.
   806 
   807 
   808 *** HOL ***
   809 
   810 * Sledgehammer:
   811 
   812   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   813     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   814   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   815   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   816   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   817   - Renamed options:
   818       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   819       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   820       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   821       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   822 
   823 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   824 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   825 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   826 
   827 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   829 
   830 * Lifting:
   831   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   832   - quot_del attribute
   833   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   834 
   835 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   836 expressions.
   837 
   838 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   839 pointfree expressions.
   840 
   841 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   842 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   843 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   844 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   848 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   849 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   850 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   851 accordingly.
   852 
   853 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   854 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   857 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858 
   859 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   862 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   863 
   864 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   865 
   866 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   867 
   868   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   869   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   870 
   871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872 
   873 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   874 
   875   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   876   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   877 
   878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   881 
   882   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   883     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   884     output f x converges to G.
   885 
   886   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   887     infinity (at_bot).
   888 
   889   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   890     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   891 
   892   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   893     at_top".
   894 
   895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   898 lattice type classes.
   899 
   900 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   901 
   902     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   903     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   904 
   905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   906 
   907 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   908 changes as follows.
   909 
   910   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   911 
   912       prefix ~> prefixeq
   913       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   914 
   915   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   916     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   917     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   918     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   919 
   920   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   921     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   922     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   923 
   924   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   925     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   926     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   927     Library/Prefix_Order.
   928 
   929   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   930     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   931 
   932       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   933       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   934       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   935       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   936       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   937       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   938       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   939       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   940       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   941       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   942       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   943       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   944       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   945       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   946       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   947       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   948 
   949 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   950 
   951 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   952 
   953 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   954 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   955 
   956 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   957 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   958 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   959 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   960 
   961   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   962   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   963   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   964   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   965   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   966   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   967   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   968   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   969   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   970   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   971 
   972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   973 
   974 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   975 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   976 Data").
   977 
   978 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   979 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   980 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   981 code.
   982 
   983 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   984 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   985 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   987 
   988 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   989 
   990 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   991 
   992 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   993 
   994   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   995   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   996 
   997 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   998 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   999 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1000 
  1001   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1002 
  1003     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1004     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1005     cart_base i  removed
  1006     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1007 
  1008   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1009 
  1010   Renamed lemmas:
  1011 
  1012     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1013     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1014     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1015     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1016     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1017     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1018     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1019     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1020     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1021     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1022 
  1023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1024 
  1025 * HOL/Probability:
  1026 
  1027   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1028 
  1029   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1030     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1031     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1032 
  1033   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1034     projective family).
  1035 
  1036 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1037 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1038 
  1039 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1040 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1041 datatypes.
  1042 
  1043 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1044 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1045 
  1046 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1047 trees for the code generator.
  1048 
  1049 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1050 Lifting/Transfer.
  1051 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1052 
  1053 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056 
  1057 *** Document preparation ***
  1058 
  1059 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1060 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1061 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1062 
  1063 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1064 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1065 
  1066 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1067 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1068 document/root.tex.
  1069 
  1070 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1071 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 
  1074 *** ML ***
  1075 
  1076 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1077 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1078 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1079 
  1080 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1081 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1082 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1083 
  1084 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1085 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1086 necessarily printing visible text.
  1087 
  1088 
  1089 *** System ***
  1090 
  1091 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1092 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1093 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1094 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1095 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1096 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1097 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1098 
  1099 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1100 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1101 
  1102   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1103 
  1104 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1105 
  1106 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1107 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1108 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1109 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1110 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1111 
  1112 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1113 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1114 
  1115 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1116 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1117 
  1118 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1122 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1123 version of Isabelle.
  1124 
  1125 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1126 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1127 
  1128 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1129 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1130 for home-made settings.
  1131 
  1132 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1133 
  1134 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1135 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1136 configuration.
  1137 
  1138 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1139 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1140 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1141 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1142 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1143 
  1144 
  1145 
  1146 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1147 ------------------------------
  1148 
  1149 *** General ***
  1150 
  1151 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1152 
  1153   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1154     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1155   - markup for bound variables
  1156   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1157   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1158   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1159     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1160 
  1161 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1162 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1163 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1164 
  1165 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1166 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1167 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1168 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1169 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1170 
  1171   context
  1172     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1173     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1174   begin
  1175 
  1176   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1177 
  1178   end
  1179 
  1180   thm my_trans
  1181 
  1182 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1183 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1184 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1185 
  1186 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1187 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1188 
  1189 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1190 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1191 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1192 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1193 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1194 
  1195 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1196 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1197 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1198 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1199 indices of schematic variables.
  1200 
  1201 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1202 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1203 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1204 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1205 etc. was exploited.
  1206 
  1207 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1208 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1209 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1210 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1211 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1212 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1213 
  1214 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1215 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1216 manual.
  1217 
  1218 
  1219 *** Pure ***
  1220 
  1221 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1222 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1223 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1224 
  1225 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1226 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1227 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1228 undocumented feature.)
  1229 
  1230 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1231 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1232 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1233 
  1234   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1235 
  1236   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1237     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1238 
  1239 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1240 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1241 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1242 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1243 
  1244 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1245 
  1246     num ~> num_token
  1247     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1248     xstr ~> str_token
  1249 
  1250 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1251 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1252 position information via constraints).
  1253 
  1254 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1255 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1256 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1257 
  1258 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1259 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1260 
  1261 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1262 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1263 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1266 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1267 
  1268 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1269 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1270 
  1271   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1272 
  1273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1276 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1277 
  1278 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1279 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1280 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1281 
  1282 
  1283 *** HOL ***
  1284 
  1285 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1286 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1287 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1288 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1289 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1290 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1291 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1292 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1293 possible.
  1294 
  1295 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1296 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1297 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1298 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1299 
  1300 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1301 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1302 
  1303 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1304 
  1305 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1306 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1307 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1308 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1309 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1310 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1311 
  1312   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1313     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1314 
  1315   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1316     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1317     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1318 
  1319   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1320     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1321 
  1322   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1323     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1324     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1325 
  1326   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1327     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1328 
  1329 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1330 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1331 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1332 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1333 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1334 
  1335   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1336     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1337     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1338     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1339     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1340 
  1341     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1342     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1343 
  1344   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1345     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1346     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1347     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1348     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1349     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1350     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1351     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1352 
  1353   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1354     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1355     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1356     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1357 
  1358   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1359     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1360     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1361     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1362 
  1363   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1364     from type nat to type int.
  1365 
  1366 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1367 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1368 
  1369   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1370     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1371     type.  Example syntax:
  1372 
  1373     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1374       is List.insert
  1375 
  1376     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1377     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1378     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1379     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1380     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1381     by the package.
  1382 
  1383   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1384     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1385     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1386     code generation for each constant.
  1387 
  1388   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1389     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1390     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1391     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1392     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1393 
  1394   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1395     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1396     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1397 
  1398 * Quotient package:
  1399 
  1400   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1401     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1402 
  1403   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1404     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1405 
  1406   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1407     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1408     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1409 
  1410   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1411     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1412 
  1413 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1414 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1415 
  1416 * Quickcheck:
  1417 
  1418   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1419     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1420     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1421     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1422     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1423 
  1424     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1425     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1426     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1427 
  1428     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1429     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1430 
  1431     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1432     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1433     show genuine counterexamples.
  1434 
  1435   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1436     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1437 
  1438     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1439     constructors of that type.
  1440 
  1441   - Support for multisets.
  1442 
  1443   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1444 
  1445   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1446     conjectures in a locale context.
  1447 
  1448 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1449 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1450 
  1451 * Sledgehammer:
  1452   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1453     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1454   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1455   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1456     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1457   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1458   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1459   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1460   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1461 
  1462 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1463 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1464 
  1465 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1466 
  1467 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1468 
  1469 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1470 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1471 
  1472   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1473 
  1474 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1475 a list and a nat.
  1476 
  1477 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1478 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1479 
  1480 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1481 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1482 default.
  1483 
  1484 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1485 
  1486   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1487 
  1488 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1489 
  1490 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1491 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1492 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1493 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1494 one_case.
  1495 
  1496 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1497 the result of the fact expression.
  1498 
  1499 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1500 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1501 of some relation theorems:
  1502 
  1503   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1504   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1505   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1506   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1507   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1508   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1509 
  1510 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1511 
  1512 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1513 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1514 
  1515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1516 
  1517 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1518 to match the constant's name:
  1519 
  1520   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1521   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1522   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1523   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1524   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1525   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1526   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1527   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1528   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1529   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1530   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1531   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1532   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1533   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1534   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1535   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1536   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1537   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1538   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1539   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1540   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1541   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1542   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1543   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1544 
  1545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1548 and corresponding theorem names:
  1549 
  1550   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1551 
  1552   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1553 
  1554   - Renamed theorems:
  1555 
  1556     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1557     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1558     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1559     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1560     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1561     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1562     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1563     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1564     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1565     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1566     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1567     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1568     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1569     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1570     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1571     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1572     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1573     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1574     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1575     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1576     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1577     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1578     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1579 
  1580     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1581 
  1582     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1583 
  1584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1585 
  1586 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1587 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1588 
  1589   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1590   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1591   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1592   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1593   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1594   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1595   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1596   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1597   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1598   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1599   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1600   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1601   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1602   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1603   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1604   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1605   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1606   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1607   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1608   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1609   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1610 
  1611 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1612 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1615 
  1616 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1617 
  1618   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1619   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1620   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1621   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1622   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1623   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1624   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1625   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1626   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1627   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1628   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1629   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1630   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1631   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1632   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1633   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1634   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1635   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1636 
  1637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1638 
  1639 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1640 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1641 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1642 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1643 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1644 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1645 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1646 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1647 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1648 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1649 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1650 
  1651 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1652 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1653 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1654 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1655 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1656 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1657 
  1658 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1659 through option types.
  1660 
  1661 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1662 relations.
  1663 
  1664 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1667 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1668 
  1669   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1670   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1671   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1672   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1673   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1674   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1675   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1676   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1677   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1678   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1679   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1680   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1681   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1682   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1683   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1684   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1685   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1686   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1687   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1688   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1689   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1690   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1691   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1692   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1693   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1694   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1695   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1696   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1697   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1698   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1699   zless_le ~> less_le
  1700   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1701   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1702   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1703 
  1704 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1705 
  1706   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1707 
  1708 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1709 
  1710 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1711 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1712 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1713 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1717 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1718 
  1719 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1720 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1721 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1722 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1723 follows:
  1724 
  1725   Operations:
  1726   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1727   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1728   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1729   del -> rbt_del
  1730   delete -> rbt_delete
  1731   ins -> rbt_ins
  1732   insert -> rbt_insert
  1733   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1734   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1735   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1736   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1737   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1738   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1739   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1740   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1741   union -> rbt_union
  1742   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1743   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1744 
  1745   Lemmas:
  1746   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1747   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1748   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1749   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1750   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1751   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1752   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1753   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1754   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1755   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1756   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1757   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1758   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1759   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1760   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1761   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1762   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1763   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1764   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1765   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1766   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1767   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1768   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1769   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1770   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1771   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1772   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1773   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1774   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1775   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1776   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1777   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1778   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1779   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1780   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1781   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1782   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1783   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1784   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1785   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1786   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1787   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1788   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1789   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1790   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1791   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1792   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1793   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1794   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1795   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1796   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1797   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1798   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1799   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1800   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1801   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1802   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1803   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1804   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1805   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1806   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1807   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1808   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1809   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1810   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1811   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1812   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1813   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1814   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1815   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1816   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1817   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1818   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1819   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1820   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1821   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1822   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1823   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1824   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1825   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1826   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1827   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1828   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1829 
  1830 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1831 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1832 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834   Changed Operations:
  1835   float_abs -> abs
  1836   float_nprt -> nprt
  1837   float_pprt -> pprt
  1838   pow2 -> use powr
  1839   round_down -> float_round_down
  1840   round_up -> float_round_up
  1841   scale -> exponent
  1842 
  1843   Removed Operations:
  1844   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1845 
  1846   Renamed Lemmas:
  1847   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1848   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1849   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1850   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1851   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1852   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1853   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1854   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1855   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1856   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1857   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1858   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1859   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1860   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1861   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1862   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1863   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1864   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1865   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1866   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1867   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1868   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1869   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1870   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1871   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1872   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1873   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1874   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1875   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1876   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1877   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1878   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1879   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1880   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1881   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1882   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1883 
  1884   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1885   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1886   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1887   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1888   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1889   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1890   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1891   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1892   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1893   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1894 
  1895 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1896 association lists with distinct keys.
  1897 
  1898 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1899 annotated commands.
  1900 
  1901 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1902 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1903 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1904 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1905 
  1906 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1907 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1908 instead.
  1909 
  1910   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1911   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1912   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1913   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1914   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1915   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1916   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1917   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1918   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1919   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1920   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1921   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1922   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1923   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1924   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1925   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1926   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1927   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1928   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1929   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1930   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1931   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1932   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1933   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1934   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1935   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1936   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1937   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1938   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1939   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1940   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1941   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1942   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1943   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1944   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1945   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1946   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1947   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1948   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1949   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1950   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1951 
  1952 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1953 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1954 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1955 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1956 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1957 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1958 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1959 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1960 
  1961 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1962 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1963 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1964 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1965 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1966 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1967 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1968 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1969 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1970 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1971 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1972 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1973 
  1974   Renamed constants:
  1975   measure -> emeasure
  1976   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1977   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1978   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1979   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1980 
  1981   Removed locales:
  1982   completeable_measure_space
  1983   finite_measure_space
  1984   finite_prob_space
  1985   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1986   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1987   finite_sigma_algebra
  1988   measure_space
  1989   pair_finite_prob_space
  1990   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1991   pair_finite_space
  1992   pair_sigma_algebra
  1993   product_sigma_algebra
  1994 
  1995   Removed constants:
  1996   conditional_space
  1997   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1998   image_space
  1999   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2000   pair_measure_generator
  2001   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2002   subvimage
  2003 
  2004   Replacement theorems:
  2005   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2006   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2007   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2008   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2009   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2010   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2011   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2012   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2013   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2014   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2015   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2016   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2017   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2018   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2019   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2020   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2021   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2022   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2023   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2024   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2025   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2026   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2027   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2028   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2029   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2030   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2031   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2032   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2033   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2034   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2035   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2036   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2037   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2038   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2039   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2040   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2041   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2042   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2043   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2044   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2045   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2046   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2047   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2048   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2049   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2050   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2051   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2052   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2053   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2054   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2055   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2056   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2057   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2058   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2059   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2060   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2061   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2062   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2063   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2064   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2065   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2066   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2067   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2068   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2069   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2070   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2071   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2072   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2073   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2074   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2075   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2076   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2077   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2078   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2079   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2080   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2081   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2082   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2083   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2084   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2085   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2086   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2087   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2088   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2089   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2090   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2091   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2092   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2093   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2094   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2095   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2096   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2097   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2098   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2099   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2100   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2101   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2102   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2103   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2104   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2105   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2106   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2107   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2108   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2109   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2110   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2111   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2112   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2113   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2114   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2115   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2116   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2117   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2118   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2119   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2120   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2121   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2122   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2123   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2124   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2125   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2126   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2127   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2128   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2129   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2130   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2131   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2132   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2133 
  2134 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2135 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2136 
  2137 
  2138 *** FOL ***
  2139 
  2140 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2141 
  2142 
  2143 *** ZF ***
  2144 
  2145 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2146 analysis.
  2147 
  2148 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2149 
  2150 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 
  2153 *** ML ***
  2154 
  2155 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2156 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2157 
  2158 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2159 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2160 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2161 
  2162 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2163 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2164 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2165 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2166 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2167 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2168 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2169 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2170 
  2171 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2172 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2173 
  2174 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2175 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2176 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2177 
  2178 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2179 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2182 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2183 context as well.
  2184 
  2185 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2186 
  2187   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2188   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2189   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2190   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2191   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2192   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2193   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2194   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2195   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2196   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2197   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2198   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2199 
  2200 
  2201 *** System ***
  2202 
  2203 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2204 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2205 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2206 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2207 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2208 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2209 the generic user home was intended.
  2210 
  2211 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2212 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2213 
  2214 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2215 (not just JRE).
  2216 
  2217 
  2218 
  2219 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2220 ------------------------------------
  2221 
  2222 *** General ***
  2223 
  2224 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2225 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2226 
  2227   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2228     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2229     files for checking).
  2230 
  2231   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2232     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2233     positions.
  2234 
  2235   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2236     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2237     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2238 
  2239   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2240     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2241     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2242 
  2243   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2244     cores.
  2245 
  2246   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2247     versions (garbage collection).
  2248 
  2249 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2250 including some remaining limitations.
  2251 
  2252 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2253 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2254 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2255 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2256 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2260 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2261 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2262 
  2263 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2264 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2265 usedir option -Q.
  2266 
  2267 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2268 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2269 
  2270   long_names   ~> names_long
  2271   short_names  ~> names_short
  2272   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2273 
  2274 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2275 
  2276   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2277 
  2278 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2279 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2280 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2281 
  2282 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2283 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2284 
  2285 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2286   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2287   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2288   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2289     "Classical Reasoner".
  2290 
  2291 
  2292 *** HOL ***
  2293 
  2294 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2295 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2298 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2299 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2300 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2301 class complete_linorder.
  2302 
  2303 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2304 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2305 
  2306 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2307 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2308 
  2309   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2310   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2311   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2312   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2313   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2314   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2315   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2316   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2317   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2318   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2319   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2320 
  2321 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2322 
  2323   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2324   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2325   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2326   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2327   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2328   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2329   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2330   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2331   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2332   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2333   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2334   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2335   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2336   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2337   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2338   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2339 
  2340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2346 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2347 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2348 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2351 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2352 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2354 
  2355 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2356 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2357 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2358 
  2359 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2360 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2361 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2364 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2365 
  2366 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2367 
  2368     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2369     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2370 
  2371 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2372 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2375 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2376 
  2377 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2378 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2379 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2380 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2383   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2384   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2385   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2386   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2387   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2388   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2389 
  2390 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2391 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2392 
  2393   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2394   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2395   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2396   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2397   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2398   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2399   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2400   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2401   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2402   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2403   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2404   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2405   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2406   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2407   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2408   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2409   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2410   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2411   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2412   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2413   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2414   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2415   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2416   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2417   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2418   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2419   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2420   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2421   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2422   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2423   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2424   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2425   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2426   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2427   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2428   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2429   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2430   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2431   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2432   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2433   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2434   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2435   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2436   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2437   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2438   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2439   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2440   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2441   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2442   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2443   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2444   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2445   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2446   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2447   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2448   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2449   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2450   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2451   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2452   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2453   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2454   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2455   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2456   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2457   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2458   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2459   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2460   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2461   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2462   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2463   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2464   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2465   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2466   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2467   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2468   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2469   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2470   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2471   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2472   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2473   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2474   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2475 
  2476 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2477 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2478 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2479 
  2480 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2481 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2482 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2483 
  2484 * Code generation:
  2485 
  2486   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2487     characters in the target language.
  2488 
  2489   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2490     instead.
  2491 
  2492   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2493 
  2494   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2495     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2496 
  2497       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2498 
  2499 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2502 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2503 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2504 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2505 syntax.
  2506 
  2507 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2508 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2509 
  2510 * Nitpick:
  2511   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2512   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2513   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2514     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * Sledgehammer:
  2517   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2518   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2519     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2520   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2521     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2522   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2523     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2525     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2526   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2527     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2528 
  2529 * Metis:
  2530   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2532     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2533 
  2534 * Command 'try':
  2535   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2536     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2537   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2538     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2539 
  2540 * Quickcheck:
  2541   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2542     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2543   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2544     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2545   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2546     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2547     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2548     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2549   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2550     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2551 
  2552 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2553 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2554 
  2555 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2556 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2557 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2558 
  2559 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2560 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2564 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2565 
  2566 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2567 arithmetic.
  2568 
  2569 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2570 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2571 and lattice type classes.
  2572 
  2573 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2574 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2575 
  2576 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2577 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2578 
  2579 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2580 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2581 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2582 
  2583   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2584   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2585   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2586   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2587 
  2588 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2589 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2590 constants:
  2591 
  2592   type inat   ~> type enat
  2593   Fin         ~> enat
  2594   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2595   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2596   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2597 
  2598 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2599 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2602 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2603 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2604 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2605 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2606 
  2607 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2608 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2609 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2610 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2611 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2612 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2613 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2614 
  2615   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2616   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2617   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2618   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2619 
  2620 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2621 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2622 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2625   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2626   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2627   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2628   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2629   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2630   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2631   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2632   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2633   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2634   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2635   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2636   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2637   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2638   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2639   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2640   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2641   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2642   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2643   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2644   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2645   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2646   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2647   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2648   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2649   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2650   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2651   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2652   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2653   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2654   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2655   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2656   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2657   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2658   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2659   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2660   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2661   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2662   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2663   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2664   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2665   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2666   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2667   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2668   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2669   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2670   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2671   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2672   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2673   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2674   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2675 
  2676 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2677   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2678   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2679   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2680   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2681     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2682 
  2683 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684 
  2685   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2686   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2687   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2688   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2689   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2690   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2691   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2692   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2693   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2694   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2695   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2696   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2697   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2698   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2699   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2700   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2701   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2702   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2703   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2704   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2705   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2706   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2707   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2708   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2709   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2710 
  2711 
  2712 *** Document preparation ***
  2713 
  2714 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2715 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2716 same.
  2717 
  2718 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2719 result.
  2720 
  2721 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2722 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2723 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2724 
  2725 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2726 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2727 
  2728 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2729 like this:
  2730 
  2731   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2732   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2733 
  2734 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2735 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2736 layouts.
  2737 
  2738 
  2739 *** ML ***
  2740 
  2741 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2742 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2743 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2744 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2745 under external program control.
  2746 
  2747 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2748 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2749 
  2750 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2751 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2752 (better known as Proof General).
  2753 
  2754 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2755 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2756 
  2757 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2758 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2759 
  2760 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2761 (including quotes etc.).
  2762 
  2763 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2764 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2765 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2766 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2767 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2768 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2769 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2770 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2771 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2772 
  2773 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2774 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2775 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2776 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2777 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2778 
  2779 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2780 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2781 
  2782 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2783 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2784 
  2785 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2786 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2787 
  2788 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2789 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2790 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2791 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2792 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2793 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2794 proper Proof.context.
  2795 
  2796 
  2797 *** System ***
  2798 
  2799 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2800 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2801 
  2802 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2803 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2804 
  2805 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2806 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2807 
  2808   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2809   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2810   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2811   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2812   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2813 
  2814 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2815 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2816 
  2817 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2818 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2819 example:
  2820 
  2821   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2822 
  2823 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2824 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2825 
  2826 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2827 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2828 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2829 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2830 
  2831 
  2832 
  2833 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2834 ----------------------------------
  2835 
  2836 *** General ***
  2837 
  2838 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2839 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2840 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2841 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2842 like this:
  2843 
  2844   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2845 
  2846 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2847 
  2848 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2849 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2850 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2851 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2852 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2853 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2854 
  2855 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2856 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2857 the following package declarations:
  2858 
  2859   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2860   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2861 
  2862 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2863 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2864 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2865 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2866 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2867 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2868 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2869 
  2870 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2871 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2872 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2873 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2874 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2875 
  2876 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2877 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2878 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2879 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2880 
  2881 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2882 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2883 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2884 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2885 
  2886   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2887 
  2888   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2889   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2890   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2891   show_types                    show_types
  2892   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2893   show_consts                   show_consts
  2894   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2895 
  2896   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2897   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2898   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2899 
  2900   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2901   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2902 
  2903   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2904 
  2905   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2906   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2907   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2908   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2909   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2910 
  2911 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2912 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2913 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2914 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2915 
  2916 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2918 
  2919   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2920   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2921 
  2922 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2923 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2924 float_token.
  2925 
  2926 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2927 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2928 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2931 DejaVu Sans.
  2932 
  2933 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2934 
  2935 
  2936 *** Pure ***
  2937 
  2938 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2939 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2940 time.
  2941 
  2942 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2943 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2946 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2947 
  2948 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2949 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2950 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2951 command already provided this functionality.
  2952 
  2953 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2954 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2955 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2956 without interpretations.
  2957 
  2958 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2959 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2960 
  2961 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2962 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2963 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2964 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2965 
  2966 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2967 'definition' instead.
  2968 
  2969 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2970 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2971 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2972 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2973 
  2974 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2975 constructors.
  2976 
  2977 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2978 the local file system.
  2979 
  2980 
  2981 *** HOL ***
  2982 
  2983 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2984 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2985 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2986 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2987 
  2988   declare [[coercion f]]
  2989 
  2990 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2991 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2992 
  2993   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2994 
  2995 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2996 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2997 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2998 other theories like this:
  2999 
  3000   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3001 
  3002 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3003 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3004 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3005 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3006 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3007 for examples.
  3008 
  3009 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3010 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3011 
  3012 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3013 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3014 
  3015 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3016 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3017 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3018 
  3019 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3020 functorial structure of types.
  3021 
  3022 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3023 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3024 
  3025 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3026 languages.
  3027 
  3028 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3029 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3031 
  3032 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3033 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034 
  3035 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3036 combinators any longer.
  3037 
  3038 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3039 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3040 
  3041 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3042 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3043 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3044 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3045 
  3046   record 'a foo = ...
  3047   ...
  3048   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3049 
  3050 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3051 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3055 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3056 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3057 
  3058 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3059 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3060 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3061 
  3062 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3063 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3064 
  3065 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3066 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3067 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3068 independently.
  3069 
  3070 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3071 counter example search.
  3072 
  3073 * Sledgehammer:
  3074   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3075     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3076     sledgehammer").
  3077   - Renamed commands:
  3078     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3079     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3080     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3081     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082   - Renamed options:
  3083     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3084     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3085     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3086     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3087     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Nitpick:
  3090   - Renamed options:
  3091     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3092     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3093     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3095   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3096   - Added "whack" option.
  3097   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3098   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3099   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3100   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3101     higher cardinalities.
  3102   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3103 
  3104 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3105 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3106 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3107 
  3108     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3109 
  3110 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3111 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3112 
  3113 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3114 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3115 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3116 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3117 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3118 "smt_solver".
  3119 
  3120 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3121 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3122 
  3123 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3124 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3125 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3126 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3129   - Renamed:
  3130     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3131     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3132     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3133   - Added:
  3134     smt_verbose
  3135     smt_random_seed
  3136     smt_datatypes
  3137     smt_infer_triggers
  3138     smt_monomorph_limit
  3139     cvc3_options
  3140     remote_cvc3_options
  3141     remote_z3_options
  3142     yices_options
  3143 
  3144 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3145 header.
  3146 
  3147 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3148 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3149 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3150 
  3151   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3152 
  3153 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3156 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3161 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3164 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3165 
  3166 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3167 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3170 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3171 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3172 
  3173 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3177 
  3178 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3179 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3182 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3183 for congruent(2)).
  3184 
  3185 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3186 
  3187   types
  3188     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3189     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3190 
  3191   constants
  3192     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3193     True ~> HOL.True
  3194     False ~> HOL.False
  3195     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3196     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3197     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3198     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3199     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3200     The ~> HOL.The
  3201     All ~> HOL.All
  3202     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3203     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3204     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3205     If ~> HOL.If
  3206     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3207     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3208     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3209     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3210     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3211     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3212     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3213     op : ~> Set.member
  3214     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3215 
  3216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3217 
  3218 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3219 
  3220     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3221     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3222     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3223     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3224     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3225     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3226     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3227     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3228 
  3229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3230 
  3231 * More stylized fact names:
  3232 
  3233   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3234   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3235   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3236   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3237 
  3238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3241 
  3242   constants
  3243     null ~> List.null
  3244 
  3245   facts
  3246     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3247     null_empty ~> null_def
  3248 
  3249 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3250 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3251 generation.
  3252 
  3253 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3254 Haskell code.
  3255 
  3256 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3257 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3258 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259 
  3260 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3261 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3264 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3265 
  3266 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3267 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3268 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3271 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3277 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3278 referred to by its qualified name.
  3279 
  3280   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3281   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3282   product ~>  Enum.product
  3283 
  3284 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3285 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3289 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3290 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3294 sort_key.
  3295 
  3296 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3300 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3301 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3302 
  3303   types
  3304     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3305               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3306               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3307         (depends on your needs)
  3308 
  3309   constants
  3310      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3311      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3312      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3313 
  3314 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3315 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3316 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3317 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3320 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3321 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3322 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3323 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3329 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3330 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3331 
  3332 
  3333 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3334 
  3335 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3336 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3337 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3338 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3339 compatibility.
  3340 
  3341 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3342 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3343 
  3344 
  3345 *** HOLCF ***
  3346 
  3347 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3348 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3349 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3353 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3354 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3357   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3358   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3359 
  3360 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3361 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3362 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3365 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3366 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3367 domain definition now works:
  3368 
  3369   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3370 
  3371 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3372 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3373 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3374 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3375 
  3376   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3377     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3378 
  3379   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3380 
  3381 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3382 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3383 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3386 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3387 
  3388 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3389 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3390 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3391 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3392 
  3393 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3394 
  3395 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3403 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3404 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3405 
  3406 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3407 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3408 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3411 still supported as an input translation.
  3412 
  3413 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3414 
  3415   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3416   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3417   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3418   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3419   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3420   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3421   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3422 
  3423 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3424 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3425 
  3426   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3427   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3428   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3429   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3430   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3431   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3432 
  3433 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3434 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3437 
  3438   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3439   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3440   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3441   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3442 
  3443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3446 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3449 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3450 
  3451   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3452   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3453   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3454   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3455   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3456   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3457   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3458   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3459   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3460   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3461   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3462   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3463   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3464   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3465   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3466   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3467   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3468   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3469   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3470   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3471 
  3472 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473 
  3474   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3475   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3476   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3477   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3478   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3479   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3480   box_less             ~> box_below
  3481   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3482   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3483   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3484   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3485   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3486   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3487   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3488   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3489   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3490   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3491   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3492   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3493   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3494   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3495   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3496   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3497   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3498   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3499   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3500   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3501   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3502   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3503   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3504   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3505   up_less              ~> up_below
  3506   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3507   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3508   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3509   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3510   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3511   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3512   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3513   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3514   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3515   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3516   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3517   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3518   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3519 
  3520 
  3521 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3522 
  3523 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3524 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 
  3527 *** ML ***
  3528 
  3529 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3530 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3531 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3532 
  3533 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3534 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3535 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3536 
  3537 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3538 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3539 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3540 
  3541 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3542 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3543 
  3544 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3545 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3546 
  3547 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3548 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3549 
  3550 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3551 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3552 
  3553 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3554 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3555 almost all situations.
  3556 
  3557 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3558 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3559 Isabelle/ML.
  3560 
  3561 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3562 meaning.
  3563 
  3564 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3565 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3566 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3567 
  3568 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3569 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3570 
  3571 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3572 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3573 
  3574 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3575 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3576 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3577 
  3578 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3579 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3580 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3581 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3582 configuration options.
  3583 
  3584 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3585 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3586 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3587 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3588 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3589 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3590 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3591 
  3592 
  3593 
  3594 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3595 ---------------------------------
  3596 
  3597 *** General ***
  3598 
  3599 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3600 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3601 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3602 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3603 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3604 their full internal name.
  3605 
  3606 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3607 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3608 Some hints on upgrading:
  3609 
  3610   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3611     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3612     which are independent of this issue.
  3613 
  3614   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3615     provides the following special forms:
  3616 
  3617       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3618       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3619       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3620 
  3621     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3622     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3623     extra variables".
  3624 
  3625     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3626     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3627     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3628     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3629     "logic".
  3630 
  3631   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3632     antiquotations:
  3633 
  3634       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3635       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3636       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3637       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3638 
  3639   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3640     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3641     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3642     antiquotations.
  3643 
  3644 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3645 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3646 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3647 diagnose syntax problems.
  3648 
  3649 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3650 
  3651 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3652 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3653 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3654 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3655 
  3656 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3657 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3658 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3659 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3662 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3663 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3664 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3665 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3668 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3669 
  3670 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3671 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3672 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3673 
  3674   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3675 
  3676 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3677 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3678 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3679 
  3680 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3681 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3685 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3686 
  3687 
  3688 *** Pure ***
  3689 
  3690 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3691 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3692 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3693 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3694 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3695 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3696 inspect proof terms.
  3697 
  3698 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3699 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3700 are added internally.  For example:
  3701 
  3702   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3703 
  3704 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3705 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708 
  3709 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3710 'class' instead.
  3711 
  3712 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3713 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3717 invariants.
  3718 
  3719 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3720 user space functionality any longer.
  3721 
  3722 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3723 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3727 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3728 
  3729 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3730 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3731 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3732 
  3733 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3734 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3735 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3736 
  3737 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3738 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 
  3741 *** HOL ***
  3742 
  3743 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3744 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3745 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3746 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3747 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3748 
  3749 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3750 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3751 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3752 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3753 
  3754   fun
  3755     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3756   where
  3757     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3758 
  3759   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3760     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3761 
  3762   quotient_definition
  3763     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3764 
  3765 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3766 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3767 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3768 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3769 
  3770 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3771 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3772 
  3773 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3774 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3775 
  3776 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3777 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3780 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3781 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3782 
  3783 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3784 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3793 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3796 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3797 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3800   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3801   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3802   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3803   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3804   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3805   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3806   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3807   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3808   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3809   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3810   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3811   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3812   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3813   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3814   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3815   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3816   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3817   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3818   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3819   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3820   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3821   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3822   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3823   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3824   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3825   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3826   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3827   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3828   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3829 
  3830 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3831 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3832 
  3833 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3834 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3835 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3836 
  3837 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3838 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3839 
  3840 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3841 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3842 
  3843 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3844 
  3845 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3846 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3847 
  3848 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3849 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3850 
  3851 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3852 
  3853 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3854 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3855 
  3856 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3857 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3858 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3859 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3862   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3863   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3864   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3866 
  3867 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3868 lattices):
  3869 
  3870     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3871     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3872 
  3873     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3874 
  3875     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3876     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3877     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3878     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3879     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3880     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3881     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3882     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3883     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3884     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3885     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3886     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3887     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3888 
  3889     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3890     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3891     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3892     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3893     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3894     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3895     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3896     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3897     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3898     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3899     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3900     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3901     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3902     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3903     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3904     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3905     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3906     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3907 
  3908   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3909   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3910 
  3911     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3912     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3913     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3914     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3915     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3916 
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * Refined field classes:
  3920   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3921     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3922     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3923   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3927   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3928   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3929   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3930     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3931   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3932     equal_neg_zero.
  3933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3936 sets to lattices:
  3937 
  3938   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3939   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3940   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3941   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3942   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3943   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3944   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3945   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3946   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3947   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3948 
  3949 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3950 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3951 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3952 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3953 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3954 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3957 multiset order:
  3958 
  3959   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3960     <= and <;
  3961   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3962     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3963     multiset_order;
  3964   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3965     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3966     generation;
  3967   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3968     if needed.
  3969 
  3970 Renamed:
  3971 
  3972   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3973   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3974   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3975 
  3976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977 
  3978 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3979 
  3980 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3981 
  3982 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3983 
  3984 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3985 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3986 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988   Constants:
  3989   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3990   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3991   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3992   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3993   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3994   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3995   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3996   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3997   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3998   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3999   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4000   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4001   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4002 
  4003   Lemmas:
  4004   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4005   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4006   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4007   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4008   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4009   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4010   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4011   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4012   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4013   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4014   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4015   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4016   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4017 
  4018 * Sledgehammer:
  4019   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4020     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4021     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4022     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4023     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4024     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4025     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4027   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4028     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4029   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4030     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4031     is still experimental.)
  4032   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4033     full-typed mode.
  4034   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4035 
  4036 * Nitpick:
  4037   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4038   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4039   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4040     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4041   - Added support for quotient types.
  4042   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4043     constructs.
  4044   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4045     "termination" proofs).
  4046   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4047   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4048   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4049   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4050     record getters.
  4051   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4052   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4053   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4054   - Added "atoms" option.
  4055   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4056     problems.
  4057   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4058     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4059     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4061     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4065   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4066   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4067   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4068   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4069   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4070   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4071   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4072   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4073   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 
  4076 *** HOLCF ***
  4077 
  4078 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4079 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4080 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4083 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4084 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4085 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4088 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4089 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4090 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4091 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4094 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4095 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096 
  4097 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4098 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4101   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4102 
  4103 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4104 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4107   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4108   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4109   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4110   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4111 
  4112 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4113 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4114 
  4115   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4116   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4117   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4118 
  4119 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4120 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4124 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4125 
  4126 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4127 
  4128 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4129 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 
  4132 *** ML ***
  4133 
  4134 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4135 
  4136     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4137     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4138 
  4139     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4140     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4141     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4142     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4143 
  4144     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4145     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4146     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4147 
  4148 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4149 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4150 
  4151 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4152 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4153 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4154 
  4155 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4156 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4157 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4158 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4159 
  4160 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4161 the context or even global references.
  4162 
  4163 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4164 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4165 
  4166 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4167 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4168 
  4169   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4170   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4171   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4172   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4173   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4174   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4175   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4176   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4177   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4178   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4179 
  4180 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4181 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4182 
  4183 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4184 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4185 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4186 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4187 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4188 
  4189 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4190 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4191 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4192 Theory_Data version.
  4193 
  4194 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4195 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4196 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4197 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4198 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4199 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4200 explicitly in rare situations.
  4201 
  4202 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4203 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4207 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4208 
  4209 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4210 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4211 quite rare).
  4212 
  4213 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4214 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4217 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4218 terms.
  4219 
  4220 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4221 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4222 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4223 
  4224 
  4225 *** System ***
  4226 
  4227 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4228 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4229 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4230 
  4231 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4232 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4233 respectively.
  4234 
  4235 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4236 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4237 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4238 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4239 
  4240   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4241 
  4242 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4243 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4244 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4245 component.
  4246 
  4247 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4248 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4249 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4250 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4251 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4252 the user for manual installation.
  4253 
  4254 
  4255 
  4256 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4257 -------------------------------------
  4258 
  4259 *** General ***
  4260 
  4261 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4262 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4263 
  4264 
  4265 *** Pure ***
  4266 
  4267 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4268 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4269 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4270 
  4271 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4272 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4273 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4274 
  4275 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4276 interpretation.
  4277 
  4278 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4279 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 
  4282 *** Document preparation ***
  4283 
  4284 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4285 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4286 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4287 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4288 
  4289 
  4290 *** HOL ***
  4291 
  4292 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4293 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4294 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4295 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4296 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4297 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4298 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4299 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4300 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4301 
  4302 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4303 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4304 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4305 
  4306 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4307 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4308 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4309 
  4310 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4311 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4312 
  4313 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4314 
  4315 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4316 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4317 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4318 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4319 
  4320 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4321 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4322 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4323 "mirabelle" utility.
  4324 
  4325 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4326 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4327 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4328 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4329 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4330 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4331 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4332 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4333 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4334 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4335 
  4336 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4337 procedure only.
  4338 
  4339 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4340 
  4341 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4342 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4343 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4344 that fail later.
  4345 
  4346 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4347 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4348 
  4349 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4350 the same method as the approximation method.
  4351 
  4352 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4353 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4354 series expansion.
  4355 
  4356 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4357 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4358 
  4359 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4360 reals.
  4361 
  4362 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4363 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4364 
  4365 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4366 fixpoint theorem.
  4367 
  4368 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4369   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4370     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4371   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4372     accordingly
  4373   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4374     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4375   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4376     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4377 
  4378 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4379 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4380 lattice.
  4381 
  4382 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4383 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4384 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4385 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4386 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4387 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4389 
  4390 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4391   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4392     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4393   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4394     le_inf_iff
  4395   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4396     sup_aci)
  4397   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4398   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4399   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4400     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4401     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4402     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4403     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4404     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4405     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4406     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4407     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4408     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4409     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4410   - authentic syntax for
  4411     Set.Pow
  4412     Set.image
  4413   - mere abbreviations:
  4414     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4415     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4416     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4417     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4418     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4419     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4420     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4421     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4422   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4423 
  4424 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4425 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4426 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4427 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4428 
  4429 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4430 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4431 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4434 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4435 
  4436 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4437 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4438 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4439 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4440 
  4441 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4442 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4443 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4444 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4445 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4446 
  4447 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4448 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4452 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4455 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4456 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4457 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4458 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4459 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4460 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4464     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4465     code_post       replaces    code post
  4466     etc.
  4467   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4468 
  4469 * Renamed methods:
  4470     sizechange -> size_change
  4471     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4472   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4473 
  4474 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4475 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4476 
  4477 * Renamed theorems:
  4478     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4479     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4480     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4481     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4482     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4483   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4487 
  4488 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 
  4492 *** HOLCF ***
  4493 
  4494 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4495 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4496 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4497 
  4498 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4499 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4500 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4501 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4502 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4503 
  4504 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4505 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4506 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4507 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4508 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4509 
  4510 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4511 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4512 constructor are pre-configured.
  4513 
  4514 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4515 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4516 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4517 
  4518 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4519 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4520 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4521 as well.)
  4522 
  4523 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4524 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4525 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4526 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4527 examples.
  4528 
  4529 
  4530 *** ML ***
  4531 
  4532 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4533 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4534 
  4535 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4536 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4537 position, logical grouping etc.
  4538 
  4539 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4540 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4541 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4542 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4543 
  4544 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4545 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4546 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4547 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4548 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4549 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4550 
  4551 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4552 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4553 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4554 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4555 experiments with references.
  4556 
  4557 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4558 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4559 
  4560 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4561 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4562 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4563 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4564 
  4565 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4566 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4567 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4568 
  4569 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4570 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4571 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4579 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4580 
  4581 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4582 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4583 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4584 
  4585 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4586 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4587 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4588 
  4589 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4590 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4591 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4593 
  4594 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4595 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4596 instead of global theory.
  4597 
  4598 
  4599 *** System ***
  4600 
  4601 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4602 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4603 usedir option -q.
  4604 
  4605 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4606 also the system manual.
  4607 
  4608 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4609 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4610 
  4611 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4612 this is always enabled.
  4613 
  4614 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4615 
  4616 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4617 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4618 currently supported on Linux only.
  4619 
  4620 
  4621 
  4622 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4623 --------------------------------
  4624 
  4625 *** General ***
  4626 
  4627 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4628 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4629 
  4630   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4631     "isatool."
  4632 
  4633   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4634     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4635 
  4636   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4637     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4638 
  4639 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4640 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4641 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4642 
  4643 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4644 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4645 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4646 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4647 via "isabelle emacs".
  4648 
  4649 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4650 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4651 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4652 
  4653 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4654 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4655 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4656 
  4657 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4658 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4659 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4660 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4661 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4662 
  4663 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4664 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4665 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4666 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4667 
  4668 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4669 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4670 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4671 
  4672 
  4673 *** Pure ***
  4674 
  4675 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4676 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4677 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4678 
  4679 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4680 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4681 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4682 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4683 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4684 
  4685 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4686 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4687 useful in locale declarations.
  4688 
  4689 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4690 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4691 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4692 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4693 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4694 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4695 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4696 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4697 no longer generated.
  4698 
  4699 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4700 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4701 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4702 
  4703 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4704 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4705 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4706 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4707 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4708 
  4709 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4711 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4712 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4713 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4714 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4715 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4716 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4717 
  4718 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4719 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4720 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4721 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4722 
  4723 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4724 
  4725 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4726 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4727 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4728 
  4729 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4730 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4733 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4734 in HOL, write
  4735 
  4736     class foo = ...
  4737 
  4738 instead of
  4739 
  4740     class foo = type + ...
  4741 
  4742 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4743 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4744 
  4745 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4746 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4747 
  4748 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4749 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4750 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4751 
  4752 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4753 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4754 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4755 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4756 directly in regular applications.
  4757 
  4758 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4759 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4760 
  4761 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4762 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4763 
  4764 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4765 theory context.
  4766 
  4767 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4768 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4769 
  4770 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4771 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4772 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4773 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4774 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4775 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4776 
  4777   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4778 
  4779 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4780 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4781 normalization.
  4782 
  4783 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4784 addressing etc.
  4785 
  4786 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4787 
  4788   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4789   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4790 
  4791 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4792 
  4793   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4794      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4795      parts of the code generator framework).
  4796 
  4797   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4798      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4799      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4800 
  4801 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4804 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4805 
  4806 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4807 patterns, e.g.
  4808 
  4809     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4810 
  4811 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4812 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4813 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4814 hyphen:
  4815 
  4816     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4817 
  4818 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4819 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4820 
  4821 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4822 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4823 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4824 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4825 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4826 higher-order unification.
  4827 
  4828 
  4829 *** Document preparation ***
  4830 
  4831 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4832 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4833 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4834 
  4835 
  4836 *** HOL ***
  4837 
  4838 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4839 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4840 
  4841 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4842 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4843 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4844 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4845 Main, as before.
  4846 
  4847 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4848 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4849 
  4850 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4851 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4852 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4853 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4854 
  4855 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4856 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4857 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4858 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4859 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4860 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4861 
  4862 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4863 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4864 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4865 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4866 
  4867 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4868 menu.
  4869 
  4870 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4871 (contains the empty clause).
  4872 
  4873 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4874 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4875 
  4876 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4877 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4878 
  4879 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4880 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4881 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4882 
  4883 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4884 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4885 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4886 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4887 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4888 
  4889 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4890 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4891 
  4892 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4893 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4894 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4895 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4896 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4897 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4898 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4899 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4900 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4901 
  4902 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4903 
  4904 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4905 
  4906 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4907 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 
  4909 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4910 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4911 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4912 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4913 
  4914 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4915 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4916 
  4917     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4918     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4919     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4920     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4921     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4922     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4923     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4924     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4925 
  4926 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4927 theory Set.
  4928 
  4929 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4930 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4931 
  4932 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4933 
  4934 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4935 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4936 
  4937 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4938 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4939 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4940 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4941 allowed. For examples see
  4942 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4943 
  4944 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4945 
  4946 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4948 
  4949 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4950 structure:
  4951 
  4952     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4953     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4954     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4955     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4956     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4957     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4958     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4959     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4960     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4961     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4962     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4963     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4964     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4965     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4966     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4967     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4968     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4969     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4970     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4971     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4972     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4973     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4974     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4975     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4976     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4977     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4978     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4979     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4980     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4981     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4982     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4983     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4984     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4985 
  4986     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4987     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4988     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4989     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4990     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4991     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4992     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4993     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4994     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4995     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4996 
  4997     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4998     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4999     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5000     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5001     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5002     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5003 
  5004 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5005 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5006 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5007 
  5008 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5009 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5010 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5011 
  5012 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5013 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5016 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5017 
  5018 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5019 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5020 proofs, e.g.
  5021 
  5022   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5023 
  5024 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5025 
  5026 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5027 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5028 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5029 
  5030 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5031 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5033 
  5034 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5035 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5036 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5038 
  5039 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5040 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5041 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5042 preorder_class.*.
  5043 
  5044 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5045 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5046 
  5047 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5048 
  5049   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5050 
  5051 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5052 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5053 fold_image.
  5054 
  5055 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5056 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5057 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5058 the former will disappear at some point.
  5059 
  5060 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5061 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5062 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5063 
  5064 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5065 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5066 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5067 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5068 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5069 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5070 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5071 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5072 
  5073 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5074 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5075 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5076 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5077 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5078 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5079 
  5080     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5081     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5082     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5083     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5084     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5085     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5086     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5087 
  5088 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5089 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5090 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5091 
  5092 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5093 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5094 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5095 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5096 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5097 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5098 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5099 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5100 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5101 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5102 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5103 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5104 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5105 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5106 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5107 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5108 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5109 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5110 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5111 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5112 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5113 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5114 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5115 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5116 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5117 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5118 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5119 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5120 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5121 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5122 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5123 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5124 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5125 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5126 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5127 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5128 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5129 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5130 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5131 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5132 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5133 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5134 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5135 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5136 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5137 
  5138 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5139 
  5140 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5141 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5142 
  5143 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5144 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5145 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5146 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5147 
  5148 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5149 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5150 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5151 theory RealVector.
  5152 
  5153 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5154 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5155 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5156 and inner products are included.
  5157 
  5158 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5159 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5160 supported.
  5161 
  5162 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5163 first diagonalization argument.
  5164 
  5165 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5166 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5167 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5168 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5169 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5170 
  5171     hide (open) const gcd
  5172     abbreviation gcd where
  5173       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5174     notation (output)
  5175       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5176 
  5177 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5178 
  5179 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5180 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5181 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5182 
  5183 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5184 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5185 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5186 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5187 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5188 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5189 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5190 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5191 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5192 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5193 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5194 cases.
  5195 
  5196 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5197 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5198 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5199 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5200 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5201 
  5202     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5203     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5204     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5205     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5206     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5207 
  5208 
  5209 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5210 
  5211 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5212 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5213 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5214 
  5215 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5216 
  5217 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5218 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5219 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5220 
  5221 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5222 
  5223 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5224 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5225 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5226 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5227 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5228 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5229 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5230 
  5231 
  5232 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5233 
  5234 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5235 
  5236 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5237 theory targets.
  5238 
  5239 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5240 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5241 'inductive' etc.
  5242 
  5243 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5244 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5245 
  5246 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5247 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5248 
  5249 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5250 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5251 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5252 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5253 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5254 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5255 the algorithm W:
  5256 
  5257  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5258  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5259          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5260 
  5261 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5262 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5263 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5264 
  5265 
  5266 *** HOLCF ***
  5267 
  5268 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5269 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5270 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5271 
  5272 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5273 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5274 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5275 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5276 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5277 
  5278 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5279 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5280 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5281 
  5282 
  5283 *** ZF ***
  5284 
  5285 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5286 
  5287 
  5288 *** ML ***
  5289 
  5290 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5291 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5292 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5293 5.2.1!
  5294 
  5295 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5296 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5297 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5298 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5299 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5300 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5301 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5302 
  5303 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5304 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5305 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5306 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5307 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5308 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5309 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5310 
  5311 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5312 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5313 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5314 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5315 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5316 
  5317 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5318 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5319 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5320 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5321 Method.add_method.
  5322 
  5323 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5324 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5325 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5326 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5327 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5328 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5329 
  5330 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5331 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5332 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5333 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5334 examples.
  5335 
  5336 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5337 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5338 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5339 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5340 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5341 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5342 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5343 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5344 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5345 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5346 
  5347 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5348 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5349 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5350 
  5351 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5352 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5353 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5354 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5355 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5356 resort for legacy applications.
  5357 
  5358 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5359 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5360 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5361 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5362 explicit runtime argument.
  5363 
  5364 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5365 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5366 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5367 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5368 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5369 
  5370 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5371 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5372 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5373 theory state.
  5374 
  5375 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5376 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5377 
  5378   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5379   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5380   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5381   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5382   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5383   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5384   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5385   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5386   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5387   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5388 
  5389 
  5390 *** System ***
  5391 
  5392 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5393 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5394 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5395 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5396 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5397 
  5398 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5399 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5400 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5401 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5402 
  5403 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5404 
  5405 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5406 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5407 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5408 prover operations.
  5409 
  5410 
  5411 
  5412 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5413 -------------------------------
  5414 
  5415 *** General ***
  5416 
  5417 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5418 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5419 
  5420 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5421 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5422 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5423 provides a proper context already.
  5424 
  5425 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5426 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5427 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5428 
  5429 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5430 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5431 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5432 swap theory imports.
  5433 
  5434 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5435 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5436 
  5437 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5438 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5439 white space without escapes.
  5440 
  5441 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5442 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5443 "foo_bar".
  5444 
  5445 
  5446 *** Pure ***
  5447 
  5448 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5449 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5450 
  5451 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5452 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5453 
  5454 (1) unused_thms
  5455      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5456 
  5457 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5458      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5459      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5460 
  5461 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5462      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5463      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5464      their ancestors.
  5465 
  5466 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5467 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5468 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5469 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5470 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5471 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5472 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5473 
  5474 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5475 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5476 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5477 
  5478 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5479 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5480 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5481 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5482 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5483 
  5484 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5485 
  5486 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5487 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5488 update of theories within ML code.
  5489 
  5490 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5491 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5492 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5493 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5494 
  5495 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5496 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5497 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5499 
  5500 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5501 
  5502 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5503 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5504 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5505 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5506 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5507 
  5508 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5509 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5510 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5511 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5512 situations.
  5513 
  5514 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5515 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5516 proof text.
  5517 
  5518 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5519 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5520 
  5521 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5522 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5523 predicates.
  5524 
  5525 
  5526 *** Document preparation ***
  5527 
  5528 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5529 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5530 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5531 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5532 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5533 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5534 
  5535 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5536 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5537 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5538 
  5539 
  5540 *** HOL ***
  5541 
  5542 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5543 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5544 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5545 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5546 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5547 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5548 
  5549 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5550 with multithreading.
  5551 
  5552 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5553 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5554 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5555 
  5556 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5557 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5558 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5559 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5560 
  5561 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5562 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5563 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5564 and makes them available separately.  See
  5565 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5566 
  5567 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5568 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5569 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5570 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5571 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5572 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5573 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5574 the declared rules.
  5575 
  5576 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5577 
  5578   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5579 
  5580 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5581 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5582 
  5583 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5584 
  5585   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5586 
  5587   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5588     definitions on => and bool.
  5589 
  5590   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5591     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5592     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5593 
  5594       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5595       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5596       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5597       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5598       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5599       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5600       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5601       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5602 
  5603   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5604     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5605     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5606 
  5607   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5608     The proof pattern
  5609 
  5610       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5611       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5612 
  5613     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5614     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5615 
  5616       have "EX S. P S"
  5617       proof
  5618         show "P S" <...>
  5619       qed
  5620 
  5621   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5622     The proof pattern
  5623 
  5624       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5625       also have "S = T" <...>
  5626       finally have "P T" .
  5627 
  5628     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5629     must be replaced by something like
  5630 
  5631       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5632       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5633       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5634 
  5635   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5636     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5637 
  5638       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5639 
  5640     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5641     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5642     type of the form
  5643 
  5644       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5645 
  5646     rather than
  5647 
  5648       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5649 
  5650 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5651 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5652 
  5653 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5654 
  5655 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5656 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5660 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5661 
  5662 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5663 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5666 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5667 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5668 
  5669 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5670 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5671 
  5672   less_trans
  5673   less_linear
  5674   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5675   le_less_trans
  5676   less_le_trans
  5677   less_not_sym
  5678   less_asym
  5679 
  5680 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5681 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5682 and different variable names.
  5683 
  5684 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5685 
  5686 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5687 finite maps.
  5688 
  5689 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5690 
  5691 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5692 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5693 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5694 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5695 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5696 accordingly.
  5697 
  5698 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5699 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5700 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5701 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5702 
  5703 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5704 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5705 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5706 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5707 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5711 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5712 
  5713 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5714 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5715 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5716 
  5717 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5719 
  5720 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5721 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5722 
  5723 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5724 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5725 
  5726 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5727 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5728 
  5729 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5730 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732 
  5733 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5734 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5735 
  5736 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5737 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5738 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5739 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5740 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5741 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5742 
  5743 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5744 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5745 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5746 
  5747 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5748 
  5749 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5750 
  5751 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5752 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5753 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5754 
  5755 
  5756 *** ZF ***
  5757 
  5758 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5759 same session:
  5760 
  5761   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5762   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5763   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5764   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5765   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5766   List      -> List_ZF
  5767   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5768 
  5769 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5770 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5771 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5772 
  5773 
  5774 *** ML ***
  5775 
  5776 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5777 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5778 
  5779 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5780 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5781 
  5782 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5783 
  5784 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5785 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5786 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5787 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5788 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5789 
  5790 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5791 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5792 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5793 
  5794 
  5795 *** System ***
  5796 
  5797 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5798 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5799 
  5800 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5801 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5802 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5803 
  5804 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5805 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5806 
  5807 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5808 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5809 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5810 
  5811 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5812 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5813 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5814 
  5815 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5816 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5817 
  5818 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5819 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5820 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5821 script.
  5822 
  5823 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5824 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5825 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5826 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5827 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5828 
  5829 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5830 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5831 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5832 
  5833 
  5834 
  5835 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5836 -----------------------------------
  5837 
  5838 *** General ***
  5839 
  5840 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5841 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5842 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5843 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5844 
  5845 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5846 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5847 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5848 
  5849 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5850 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5851 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5852 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5853 
  5854 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5855 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5856 quotes.
  5857 
  5858 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5859 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5860 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5861 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5862 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5863 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5864 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5865 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5866 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5867 
  5868 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5869 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5870 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5871 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5872 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5873 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5874 
  5875 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5876 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5877 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5878 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5879 
  5880 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5881 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5882 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5883 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5884 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5885 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5886 
  5887 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5888 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5889 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5890 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5891 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5892 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5893 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5894 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5895 
  5896 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5897 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5898 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5899 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5900 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5901 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5902 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5903 
  5904 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5905 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5906 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5907 
  5908 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5909 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5910 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5911 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5912 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5913 limit is imposed.
  5914 
  5915 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5916 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5917 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5918 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5919 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5920 and scalability.
  5921 
  5922 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5923 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5924 
  5925 
  5926 *** Document preparation ***
  5927 
  5928 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5929 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5930 current context.
  5931 
  5932 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5933 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5934 
  5935 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5936 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5937 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5938 
  5939 
  5940 *** Pure ***
  5941 
  5942 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5943 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5944 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5945 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5946 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5947 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5948 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5949 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5950 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5951 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5952 
  5953 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5954 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5955 sketch:
  5956 
  5957     internal compilation:
  5958         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5959     writing SML code to a file:
  5960         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5961     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5962         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5963     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5964         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5965 
  5966     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5967         method ``eval''
  5968 
  5969 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5970 
  5971 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5972 
  5973     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5974     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5975     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5976     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5977 
  5978 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5979 
  5980     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5981       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5982 
  5983     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5984       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5985 
  5986     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5987       {(target)}+
  5988         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5989 
  5990     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5991       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5992         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5993 
  5994 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5995 
  5996 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5997 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5998 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5999 codegen".
  6000 
  6001 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6002 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6003 annotations).
  6004 
  6005 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6006 syntax.
  6007 
  6008 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6009 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6010 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6011 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6012 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6013 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6014 
  6015 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6016 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6017 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6018 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6019 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6020 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6021 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6022 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6023 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6024 equations, see section "definitions".
  6025 
  6026 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6027 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6028 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6029 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6030 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6031 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6032 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6033 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6034 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6035 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6036 
  6037 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6038 configuration options:
  6039 
  6040   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6041   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6042   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6043   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6044   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6045   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6046   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6047   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6048   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6049 
  6050 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6051 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6052 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6053 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6054 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6055 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6056 order.
  6057 
  6058 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6059 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6060 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6061 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6062 context encountered later on.
  6063 
  6064 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6065 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6066 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6067 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6068 
  6069 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6070 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6071 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6072 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6073 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6074 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6075 
  6076 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6077 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6078 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6079 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6080 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6081 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6082 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6083 more permissive.
  6084 
  6085 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6086 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6087 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6088 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6089 maintainability of proof texts.
  6090 
  6091 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6092 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6093 
  6094   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6095   then guess x and y by clarify
  6096 
  6097 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6098 proof tools being involved here.
  6099 
  6100 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6101 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6102 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6103 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6104 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6105 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6106 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6107 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6108 
  6109 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6110 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6111 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6112 
  6113   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6114   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6115   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6116   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6117 
  6118 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6119 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6120 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6121 
  6122 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6123 both named and unnamed ones.
  6124 
  6125 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6126 
  6127   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6128 
  6129 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6130 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6131 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6132 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6133 
  6134 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6135 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6136 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6137 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6138 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6139 
  6140 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6141 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6142 
  6143 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6144 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6145 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6146 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6147 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6148 originally first one.
  6149 
  6150 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6151 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6152 expected.
  6153 
  6154 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6155 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6156 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6157 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6158 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6159 
  6160   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6161     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6162     obtains x where "P x"
  6163 
  6164   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6165     assumes "A & B"
  6166     obtains A and B
  6167 
  6168   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6169     assumes "A | B"
  6170     obtains
  6171       A
  6172     | B
  6173 
  6174 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6175 explicitly:
  6176 
  6177   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6178     obtains "~ thesis"
  6179 
  6180   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6181     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6182 
  6183 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6184 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6185 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6186 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6187 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6188 case_names).
  6189 
  6190 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6191 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6192 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6193 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6194 
  6195 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6196 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6197 top-level lemma.
  6198 
  6199 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6200 introduction rule (default "that").
  6201 
  6202 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6203 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6204 to occur.
  6205 
  6206 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6207 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6208 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6209 representations independently of name spaces.
  6210 
  6211 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6212 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6213 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6214 
  6215 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6216 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6217 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6218 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6219 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6220 current context.
  6221 
  6222 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6223 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6224 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6225 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6226 
  6227   axiomatization
  6228     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6229     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6230 
  6231   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6232   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6233 
  6234   abbreviation
  6235     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6236     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6237 
  6238 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6239 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6240 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6241 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6242 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6243 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6244 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6245 
  6246 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6247 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6248 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6249 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6250 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6251 
  6252 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6253 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6254 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6255 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6256 
  6257 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6258 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6259 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6260 
  6261   definition "