NEWS
author haftmann
Mon Aug 23 11:17:13 2010 +0200 (2010-08-23)
changeset 38642 8fa437809c67
parent 38622 86fc906dcd86
child 38656 d5d342611edb
permissions -rw-r--r--
dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1; tuned names of technical rule duplicates
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Explicit treatment of UTF8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
    10 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
    11 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
    12 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
    13 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
    14 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
    15 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
    16 
    17 * Theory loading: only the master source file is looked-up in the
    18 implicit load path, all other files are addressed relatively to its
    19 directory.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
    20 
    21 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
    22 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
    23 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
    24 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Pure ***
    28 
    29 * Interpretation command 'interpret' accepts a list of equations like
    30 'interpretation' does.
    31 
    32 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
    33 in addition to interpretations in theories.
    34 
    35 
    36 *** HOL ***
    37 
    38 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Theory SetsAndFunctions has been split into Function_Algebras and Set_Algebras;
    41 canonical names for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Records: logical foundation type for records do not carry a '_type' suffix
    45 any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    46 
    47 * Code generation for records: more idiomatic representation of record types.
    48 Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code generation any longer.
    49 INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable rep_datatype declaration
    50 helps to succeed then:
    51 
    52   record 'a foo = ...
    53   ...
    54   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
    55 
    56 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
    57 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
    60 counter example search.
    61 
    62 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.  Syntax
    63 in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
    64 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    65 
    66 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
    67 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    68 
    69 * Abolished symbol type names:  "prod" and "sum" replace "*" and "+"
    70 respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    71 
    72 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case";  names
    73 of ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
    74 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    75 
    76 * Dropped old infix syntax "mem" for List.member;  use "in set"
    77 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    78 
    79 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in List.thy
    80 
    81   constants
    82     null ~> List.null
    83 
    84   facts
    85     mem_iff ~> member_def
    86     null_empty ~> null_def
    87 
    88 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not suppossed to be used
    89 regularly unless for striking reasons;  their main purpose was code
    90 generation.
    91 
    92 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
    93 
    94   types
    95     bool ~> HOL.bool
    96     nat ~> Nat.nat
    97 
    98   constants
    99     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   100     True ~> HOL.True
   101     False ~> HOL.False
   102     Not ~> HOL.Not
   103     The ~> HOL.The
   104     All ~> HOL.All
   105     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   106     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   107     Let ~> HOL.Let
   108     If ~> HOL.If
   109     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   110     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   111     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   112     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   113     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   114     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   115     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   116     op : ~> Set.member
   117     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   118 
   119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   120 
   121 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   122 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   123 
   124 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality
   125 (class eq) carry proper names and are treated as default code
   126 equations.
   127 
   128 * List.thy: use various operations from the Haskell prelude when
   129 generating Haskell code.
   130 
   131 * code_simp.ML and method code_simp: simplification with rules determined
   132 by code generator.
   133 
   134 * code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   135 combinators any longer.
   136 
   137 * Multivariate Analysis: Introduced a type class for euclidean space. Most
   138 theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces instead of finite
   139 cartesian products.
   140 
   141   types
   142     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
   143               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
   144               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
   145         (depends on your needs)
   146 
   147   constants
   148      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
   149      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
   150      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
   151 
   152 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some finite
   153 type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products of euclidean
   154 spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to be euclidean_spaces.
   155 
   156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157 
   158 * Inductive package: offers new command "inductive_simps" to automatically
   159 derive instantiated and simplified equations for inductive predicates,
   160 similar to inductive_cases.
   161 
   162 
   163 *** FOL ***
   164 
   165 * All constant names are now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 
   168 *** ZF ***
   169 
   170 * All constant names are now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 
   173 *** ML ***
   174 
   175 * ML antiquotations @{theory} and @{theory_ref} refer to named
   176 theories from the ancestry of the current context, not any accidental
   177 theory loader state as before.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle
   178 change in semantics.
   179 
   180 
   181 *** System ***
   182 
   183 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   184 
   185 
   186 
   187 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
   188 ---------------------------------
   189 
   190 *** General ***
   191 
   192 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
   193 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
   194 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
   195 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
   196 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
   197 their full internal name.
   198 
   199 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
   200 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
   201 Some hints on upgrading:
   202 
   203   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
   204     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
   205     which are independent of this issue.
   206 
   207   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
   208     provides the following special forms:
   209 
   210       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
   211       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
   212       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
   213 
   214     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
   215     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
   216     extra variables".
   217 
   218     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
   219     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
   220     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
   221     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
   222     "logic".
   223 
   224   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
   225     antiquotations:
   226 
   227       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
   228       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
   229       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
   230       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
   231 
   232   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
   233     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
   234     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
   235     antiquotations.
   236 
   237 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
   238 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
   239 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
   240 diagnose syntax problems.
   241 
   242 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
   243 
   244 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
   245 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
   246 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
   247 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
   248 
   249 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
   250 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
   251 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
   252 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253 
   254 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
   255 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
   256 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
   257 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
   258 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   259 
   260 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
   261 discontinued (old legacy feature).
   262 
   263 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
   264 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
   265 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
   266 
   267   using [[trace_simp = true]]
   268 
   269 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
   270 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
   271 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
   272 
   273 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
   274 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
   278 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
   279 
   280 
   281 *** Pure ***
   282 
   283 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
   284 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
   285 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
   286 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
   287 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
   288 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
   289 inspect proof terms.
   290 
   291 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
   292 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
   293 are added internally.  For example:
   294 
   295   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
   296 
   297 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
   298 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   303 'class' instead.
   304 
   305 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
   306 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
   307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
   310 invariants.
   311 
   312 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
   313 user space functionality any longer.
   314 
   315 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
   316 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
   320 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
   321 
   322 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
   323 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
   324 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
   325 
   326 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
   327 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
   328 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
   329 
   330 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
   331 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   332 
   333 
   334 *** HOL ***
   335 
   336 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
   337 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
   338 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
   339 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
   340 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
   341 
   342 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
   343 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
   344 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
   345 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
   346 
   347   fun
   348     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
   349   where
   350     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
   351 
   352   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
   353     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
   354 
   355   quotient_definition
   356     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
   357 
   358 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
   359 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
   360 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
   361 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
   362 
   363 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
   364 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
   365 
   366 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
   367 separate HOL-SMT session.
   368 
   369 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
   370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
   373 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
   374 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
   375 
   376 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
   377 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
   380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
   383 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   384 
   385 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
   386 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
   389 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
   390 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   391 
   392   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
   393   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
   394   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
   395   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
   396   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
   397   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
   398   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
   399   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
   400   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
   401   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
   402   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
   403   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
   404   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
   405   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
   406   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
   407   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
   408   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
   409   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
   410   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
   411   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
   412   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
   413   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
   414   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
   415   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
   416   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
   417   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
   418   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
   419   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
   420   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
   421   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
   422 
   423 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
   424 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
   425 
   426 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
   427 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
   428 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
   429 
   430 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
   431 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
   432 
   433 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
   434 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
   437 
   438 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
   439 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
   442 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   445 
   446 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
   447 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
   448 
   449 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
   450 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
   451 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
   452 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   453 
   454 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
   455   - less_eq, less: Orderings
   456   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
   457   - inverse, divide: Rings
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
   461 lattices):
   462 
   463     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
   464     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
   465 
   466     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
   467 
   468     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
   469     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
   470     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
   471     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
   472     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
   473     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
   474     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
   475     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
   476     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
   477     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
   478     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
   479     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
   480     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
   481 
   482     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
   483     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
   484     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
   485     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
   486     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
   487     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
   488     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
   489     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
   490     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
   491     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
   492     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
   493     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
   494     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
   495     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
   496     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
   497     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
   498     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
   499     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
   500 
   501   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
   502   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
   503 
   504     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
   505     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
   506     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
   507     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
   508     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
   509 
   510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * Refined field classes:
   513   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
   514     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
   515     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
   516   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
   517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   518 
   519 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
   520   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
   521   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
   522   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
   523     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
   524   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
   525     equal_neg_zero.
   526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   527 
   528 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
   529 sets to lattices:
   530 
   531   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
   532   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
   533   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
   534   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
   535   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
   536   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
   537   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
   538   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
   539   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
   540   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
   541 
   542 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
   543 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
   544 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
   545 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
   546 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
   547 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   548 
   549 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
   550 multiset order:
   551 
   552   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
   553     <= and <;
   554   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
   555     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
   556     multiset_order;
   557   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
   558     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
   559     generation;
   560   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
   561     if needed.
   562 
   563 Renamed:
   564 
   565   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
   566   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
   567   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
   568 
   569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   570 
   571 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
   572 
   573 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
   574 
   575 * Theory List: added transpose.
   576 
   577 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
   578 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
   579 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   580 
   581   Constants:
   582   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
   583   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
   584   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
   585   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
   586   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
   587   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
   588   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
   589   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
   590   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
   591   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
   592   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
   593   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
   594   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
   595 
   596   Lemmas:
   597   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
   598   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
   599   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
   600   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
   601   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
   602   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
   603   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
   604   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
   605   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
   606   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
   607   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
   608   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
   609   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
   610 
   611 * Sledgehammer:
   612   - Renamed ATP commands:
   613     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
   614     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
   615     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
   616     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
   617     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
   618     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
   620   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
   621     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
   622   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
   623     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
   624     is still experimental.)
   625   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
   626     full-typed mode.
   627   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
   628 
   629 * Nitpick:
   630   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
   631   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
   632   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
   633     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
   634   - Added support for quotient types.
   635   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
   636     constructs.
   637   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
   638     "termination" proofs).
   639   - Added support for term postprocessors.
   640   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
   641   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
   642   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
   643     record getters.
   644   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
   645   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
   646   - Improved precision of set constructs.
   647   - Added "atoms" option.
   648   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
   649     problems.
   650   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
   651     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
   652     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   653   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
   654     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
   658   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
   659   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
   660   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
   661   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
   662   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
   663   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
   664   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
   665   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
   666   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   667 
   668 
   669 *** HOLCF ***
   670 
   671 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
   672 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
   673 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
   676 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
   677 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
   678 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
   681 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
   682 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
   683 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
   684 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685 
   686 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
   687 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
   688 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
   691 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
   694   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
   695 
   696 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
   697 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
   700   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
   701   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
   702   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
   703   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
   704 
   705 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
   706 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   707 
   708   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
   709   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
   710   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
   711 
   712 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
   713 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
   714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   715 
   716 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
   717 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   720 
   721 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
   722 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 
   725 *** ML ***
   726 
   727 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
   728 
   729     @{class NAME}         -- type class
   730     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
   731 
   732     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
   733     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
   734     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
   735     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
   736 
   737     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
   738     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
   739     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
   740 
   741 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
   742 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
   743 
   744 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
   745 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
   746 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
   747 
   748 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
   749 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
   750 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
   751 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
   752 
   753 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
   754 the context or even global references.
   755 
   756 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
   757 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
   758 
   759 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
   760 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
   761 
   762   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
   763   OuterLex      ~>  Token
   764   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
   765   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
   766   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
   767   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
   768   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
   769   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
   770   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
   771   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
   772 
   773 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
   774 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
   775 
   776 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
   777 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
   778 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
   779 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
   780 pass the proper local context through the code!
   781 
   782 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
   783 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
   784 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
   785 Theory_Data version.
   786 
   787 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
   788 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
   789 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
   790 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
   791 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
   792 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
   793 explicitly in rare situations.
   794 
   795 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
   796 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
   797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   798 
   799 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
   800 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
   803 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
   804 quite rare).
   805 
   806 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
   807 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
   810 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
   811 terms.
   812 
   813 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
   814 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
   815 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
   816 
   817 
   818 *** System ***
   819 
   820 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
   821 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
   822 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
   823 
   824 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
   825 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
   826 respectively.
   827 
   828 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
   829 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
   830 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
   831 prefers 64 bit if available:
   832 
   833   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
   834 
   835 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
   836 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
   837 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
   838 component.
   839 
   840 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
   841 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
   842 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
   843 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
   844 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
   845 the user for manual installation.
   846 
   847 
   848 
   849 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
   850 -------------------------------------
   851 
   852 *** General ***
   853 
   854 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
   855 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
   856 
   857 
   858 *** Pure ***
   859 
   860 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
   861 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
   862 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
   863 
   864 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
   865 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
   866 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
   867 
   868 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
   869 interpretation.
   870 
   871 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
   872 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 
   875 *** Document preparation ***
   876 
   877 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
   878 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
   879 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
   880 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
   881 
   882 
   883 *** HOL ***
   884 
   885 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
   886 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
   887 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
   888 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
   889 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
   890 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
   891 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
   892 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
   893 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
   894 
   895 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
   896 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
   897 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
   898 
   899 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
   900 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
   901 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
   902 
   903 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
   904 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
   905 
   906 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
   907 
   908 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
   909 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
   910 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
   911 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
   912 
   913 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
   914 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
   915 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
   916 "mirabelle" utility.
   917 
   918 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
   919 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
   920 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
   921 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
   922 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
   923 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
   924 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
   925 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
   926 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
   927 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
   928 
   929 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
   930 procedure only.
   931 
   932 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
   933 
   934 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
   935 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
   936 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
   937 that fail later.
   938 
   939 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
   940 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
   941 
   942 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
   943 the same method as the approximation method.
   944 
   945 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
   946 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
   947 series expansion.
   948 
   949 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
   950 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
   951 
   952 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
   953 reals.
   954 
   955 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
   956 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
   957 
   958 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
   959 fixpoint theorem.
   960 
   961 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
   962   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
   963     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
   964   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
   965     accordingly
   966   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
   967     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
   968   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
   969     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
   970 
   971 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
   972 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
   973 lattice.
   974 
   975 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
   976 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
   977 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
   978 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
   979 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
   980 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
   981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   982 
   983 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
   984   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
   985     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
   986   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
   987     le_inf_iff
   988   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
   989     sup_aci)
   990   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
   991   - new class "boolean_algebra"
   992   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
   993     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
   994     renamed and with authentic syntax:
   995     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
   996     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
   997     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
   998     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
   999     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  1000     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  1001     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  1002     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  1003   - authentic syntax for
  1004     Set.Pow
  1005     Set.image
  1006   - mere abbreviations:
  1007     Set.empty               (for bot)
  1008     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  1009     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  1010     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  1011     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  1012     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  1013     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  1014     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  1015   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  1016 
  1017 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  1018 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  1019 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  1020 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  1021 
  1022 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  1023 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  1024 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  1027 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1028 
  1029 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  1030 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  1031 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  1032 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1033 
  1034 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  1035 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1036 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  1037 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  1038 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  1039 
  1040 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  1041 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  1042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  1045 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  1048 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  1049 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  1050 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  1051 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  1052 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  1053 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  1054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  1057     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  1058     code_post       replaces    code post
  1059     etc.
  1060   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Renamed methods:
  1063     sizechange -> size_change
  1064     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  1065   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  1068 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  1069 
  1070 * Renamed theorems:
  1071     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1072     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  1073     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1074     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  1075     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  1076   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  1079 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1080 
  1081 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  1082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1083 
  1084 
  1085 *** HOLCF ***
  1086 
  1087 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  1088 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  1089 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  1090 
  1091 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  1092 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  1093 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  1094 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  1095 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  1096 
  1097 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  1098 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  1099 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  1100 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  1101 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  1102 
  1103 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  1104 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  1105 constructor are pre-configured.
  1106 
  1107 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  1108 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  1109 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  1110 
  1111 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  1112 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  1113 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  1114 as well.)
  1115 
  1116 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  1117 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  1118 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  1119 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  1120 examples.
  1121 
  1122 
  1123 *** ML ***
  1124 
  1125 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  1126 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  1127 
  1128 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  1129 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  1130 position, logical grouping etc.
  1131 
  1132 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  1133 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  1134 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  1135 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  1136 
  1137 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  1138 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  1139 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  1140 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  1141 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  1142 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  1143 
  1144 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  1145 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  1146 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  1147 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  1148 experiments with references.
  1149 
  1150 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  1151 parallel tactical reasoning.
  1152 
  1153 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  1154 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  1155 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  1156 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  1157 
  1158 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  1159 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  1160 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  1161 
  1162 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  1163 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  1164 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1165 
  1166 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1167 
  1168 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  1169 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1170 
  1171 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  1172 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  1173 
  1174 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  1175 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  1176 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  1177 
  1178 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  1179 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  1180 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1181 
  1182 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  1183 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  1184 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  1185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1186 
  1187 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1188 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  1189 instead of global theory.
  1190 
  1191 
  1192 *** System ***
  1193 
  1194 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  1195 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  1196 usedir option -q.
  1197 
  1198 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  1199 also the system manual.
  1200 
  1201 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  1202 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  1203 
  1204 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  1205 this is always enabled.
  1206 
  1207 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  1208 
  1209 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  1210 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  1211 currently supported on Linux only.
  1212 
  1213 
  1214 
  1215 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  1216 --------------------------------
  1217 
  1218 *** General ***
  1219 
  1220 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  1221 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  1222 
  1223   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  1224     "isatool."
  1225 
  1226   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  1227     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  1228 
  1229   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  1230     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  1231 
  1232 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  1233 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  1234 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  1235 
  1236 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  1237 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  1238 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  1239 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  1240 via "isabelle emacs".
  1241 
  1242 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  1243 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  1244 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  1245 
  1246 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  1247 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  1248 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  1249 
  1250 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  1251 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  1252 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  1253 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  1254 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  1255 
  1256 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  1257 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  1258 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  1259 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  1260 
  1261 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  1262 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  1263 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  1264 
  1265 
  1266 *** Pure ***
  1267 
  1268 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  1269 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  1270 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  1271 
  1272 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  1273 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  1274 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  1275 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  1276 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  1277 
  1278 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  1279 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  1280 useful in locale declarations.
  1281 
  1282 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  1283 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  1284 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  1285 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  1286 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  1287 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  1288 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  1289 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  1290 no longer generated.
  1291 
  1292 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  1293 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  1294 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  1295 
  1296 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  1297 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  1298 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  1299 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  1300 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  1301 
  1302 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1303 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  1304 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  1305 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  1306 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  1307 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  1308 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  1309 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  1310 
  1311 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  1312 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  1313 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  1314 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  1315 
  1316 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1317 
  1318 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  1319 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  1320 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  1321 
  1322 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  1323 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  1326 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  1327 in HOL, write
  1328 
  1329     class foo = ...
  1330 
  1331 instead of
  1332 
  1333     class foo = type + ...
  1334 
  1335 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  1336 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1337 
  1338 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  1339 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  1340 
  1341 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  1342 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  1343 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  1344 
  1345 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  1346 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  1347 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  1348 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  1349 directly in regular applications.
  1350 
  1351 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  1352 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  1353 
  1354 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  1355 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  1356 
  1357 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  1358 theory context.
  1359 
  1360 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  1361 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  1364 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  1365 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  1366 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  1367 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  1368 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  1369 
  1370   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  1371 
  1372 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  1373 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  1374 normalization.
  1375 
  1376 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  1377 addressing etc.
  1378 
  1379 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  1380 
  1381   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  1382   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  1383 
  1384 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1385 
  1386   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  1387      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  1388      parts of the code generator framework).
  1389 
  1390   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  1391      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  1392      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  1393 
  1394 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1395 
  1396 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  1397 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1398 
  1399 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  1400 patterns, e.g.
  1401 
  1402     find_consts "_ => bool"
  1403 
  1404 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  1405 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  1406 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  1407 hyphen:
  1408 
  1409     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  1410 
  1411 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  1412 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  1413 
  1414 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  1415 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  1416 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  1417 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  1418 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  1419 higher-order unification.
  1420 
  1421 
  1422 *** Document preparation ***
  1423 
  1424 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  1425 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  1426 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  1427 
  1428 
  1429 *** HOL ***
  1430 
  1431 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  1432 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  1433 
  1434 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  1435 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  1436 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  1437 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  1438 Main, as before.
  1439 
  1440 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  1441 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  1442 
  1443 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  1444 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  1445 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  1446 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  1447 
  1448 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  1449 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  1450 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  1451 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  1452 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  1453 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  1454 
  1455 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  1456 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  1457 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  1458 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  1459 
  1460 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  1461 menu.
  1462 
  1463 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  1464 (contains the empty clause).
  1465 
  1466 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  1467 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  1468 
  1469 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  1470 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  1471 
  1472 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  1473 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  1474 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  1477 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  1478 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  1479 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  1480 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  1481 
  1482 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  1483 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  1484 
  1485 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  1486 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  1487 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  1488 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  1489 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  1490 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  1491 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  1492 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  1493 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  1494 
  1495 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  1496 
  1497 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  1498 
  1499 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  1500 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  1503 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  1504 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  1505 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  1506 
  1507 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  1508 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1509 
  1510     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  1511     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  1512     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  1513     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  1514     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  1515     Union ~>    Set.Union
  1516     {} ~>       Set.empty
  1517     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  1518 
  1519 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  1520 theory Set.
  1521 
  1522 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  1523 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  1524 
  1525 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  1526 
  1527 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  1528 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  1529 
  1530 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  1531 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  1532 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  1533 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  1534 allowed. For examples see
  1535 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  1536 
  1537 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  1538 
  1539 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  1540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  1543 structure:
  1544 
  1545     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  1546     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1547     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1548     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1549     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1550     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1551     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  1552     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1553     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1554     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1555     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1556     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1557     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1558     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1559     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1560     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1561     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  1562     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  1563     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1564     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1565     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1566     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1567     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1568     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1569     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1570     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1571     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1572     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1573     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1574     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1575     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  1576     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  1577     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  1578 
  1579     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1580     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1581     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1582     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  1583     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1584     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1585     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1586     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1587     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1588     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  1589 
  1590     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  1591     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  1592     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  1593     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  1594     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  1595     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  1596 
  1597 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  1598 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  1599 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  1600 
  1601 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  1602 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  1603 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  1604 
  1605 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  1606 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  1609 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  1610 
  1611 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  1612 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  1613 proofs, e.g.
  1614 
  1615   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  1616 
  1617 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  1618 
  1619 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  1620 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  1621 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1622 
  1623 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  1624 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  1625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  1628 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  1629 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  1630 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1631 
  1632 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  1633 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  1634 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  1635 preorder_class.*.
  1636 
  1637 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  1638 "diag" to "Id_on".
  1639 
  1640 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  1641 
  1642   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1643 
  1644 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  1645 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  1646 fold_image.
  1647 
  1648 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  1649 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  1650 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  1651 the former will disappear at some point.
  1652 
  1653 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  1654 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  1655 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  1656 
  1657 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  1658 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  1659 realpow_0      -> power_0
  1660 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  1661 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  1662 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  1663 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  1664 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  1665 
  1666 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  1667 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  1668 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  1669 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  1670 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  1671 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  1672 
  1673     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  1674     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  1675     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  1676     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  1677     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  1678     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  1679     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  1680 
  1681 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  1682 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1683 rename old lemmas as follows:
  1684 
  1685 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  1686 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  1687 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  1688 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  1689 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  1690 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  1691 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  1692 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  1693 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  1694 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  1695 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  1696 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  1697 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  1698 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  1699 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  1700 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  1701 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  1702 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  1703 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  1704 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  1705 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  1706 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  1707 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  1708 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  1709 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  1710 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  1711 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  1712 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  1713 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  1714 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  1715 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  1716 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  1717 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  1718 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  1719 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  1720 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  1721 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  1722 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  1723 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  1724 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  1725 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  1726 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  1727 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  1728 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  1729 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  1730 
  1731 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  1734 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  1735 
  1736 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  1737 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  1738 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  1739 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  1740 
  1741 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  1742 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  1743 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  1744 theory RealVector.
  1745 
  1746 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  1747 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  1748 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  1749 and inner products are included.
  1750 
  1751 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  1752 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  1753 supported.
  1754 
  1755 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  1756 first diagonalization argument.
  1757 
  1758 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  1759 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  1760 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  1761 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1762 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  1763 
  1764     hide (open) const gcd
  1765     abbreviation gcd where
  1766       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  1767     notation (output)
  1768       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  1769 
  1770 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  1771 
  1772 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  1773 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  1774 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  1777 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  1778 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  1779 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  1780 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  1781 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  1782 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  1783 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  1784 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  1785 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  1786 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  1787 cases.
  1788 
  1789 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  1790 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  1791 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  1792 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  1793 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  1794 
  1795     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  1796     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  1797     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  1798     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  1799     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  1800 
  1801 
  1802 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1803 
  1804 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  1805 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  1806 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  1807 
  1808 * New theory of factorial domains.
  1809 
  1810 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  1811 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  1812 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  1813 
  1814 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1815 
  1816 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  1817 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  1818 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  1819 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  1820 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  1821 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  1822 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  1823 
  1824 
  1825 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  1826 
  1827 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  1828 
  1829 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  1830 theory targets.
  1831 
  1832 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  1833 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  1834 'inductive' etc.
  1835 
  1836 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  1837 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  1838 
  1839 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  1840 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  1841 
  1842 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  1843 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  1844 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  1845 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  1846 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  1847 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  1848 the algorithm W:
  1849 
  1850  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  1851  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  1852          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  1853 
  1854 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  1855 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  1856 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  1857 
  1858 
  1859 *** HOLCF ***
  1860 
  1861 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  1862 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  1863 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  1864 
  1865 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  1866 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  1867 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  1868 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  1869 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1870 
  1871 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  1872 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  1873 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 
  1876 *** ZF ***
  1877 
  1878 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  1879 
  1880 
  1881 *** ML ***
  1882 
  1883 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  1884 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  1885 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  1886 5.2.1!
  1887 
  1888 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  1889 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  1890 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  1891 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  1892 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  1893 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  1894 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  1895 
  1896 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  1897 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  1898 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  1899 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  1900 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  1901 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  1902 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  1903 
  1904 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  1905 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  1906 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  1907 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  1908 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  1909 
  1910 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  1911 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  1912 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  1913 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  1914 Method.add_method.
  1915 
  1916 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  1917 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  1918 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  1919 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  1920 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  1921 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  1922 
  1923 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  1924 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  1925 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  1926 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  1927 examples.
  1928 
  1929 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  1930 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  1931 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  1932 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  1933 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  1934 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  1935 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  1936 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  1937 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  1938 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  1939 
  1940 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  1941 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  1942 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  1943 
  1944 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  1945 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  1946 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  1947 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  1948 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  1949 resort for legacy applications.
  1950 
  1951 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  1952 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  1953 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  1954 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  1955 explicit runtime argument.
  1956 
  1957 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  1958 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  1959 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  1960 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  1961 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1962 
  1963 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  1964 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  1965 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  1966 theory state.
  1967 
  1968 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  1969 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  1970 
  1971   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  1972   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  1973   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  1974   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  1975   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  1976   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  1977   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  1978   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  1979   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  1980   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  1981 
  1982 
  1983 *** System ***
  1984 
  1985 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  1986 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  1987 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  1988 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  1989 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  1990 
  1991 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  1992 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  1993 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  1994 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  1995 
  1996 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  1997 
  1998 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  1999 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  2000 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  2001 prover operations.
  2002 
  2003 
  2004 
  2005 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  2006 -------------------------------
  2007 
  2008 *** General ***
  2009 
  2010 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  2011 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  2012 
  2013 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  2014 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  2015 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  2016 provides a proper context already.
  2017 
  2018 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  2019 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  2020 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  2021 
  2022 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  2023 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  2024 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  2025 swap theory imports.
  2026 
  2027 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  2028 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  2029 
  2030 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  2031 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2032 white space without escapes.
  2033 
  2034 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  2035 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  2036 "foo_bar".
  2037 
  2038 
  2039 *** Pure ***
  2040 
  2041 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  2042 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  2043 
  2044 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  2045 There are three ways of invoking it:
  2046 
  2047 (1) unused_thms
  2048      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  2049 
  2050 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  2051      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  2052      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  2053 
  2054 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  2055      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  2056      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  2057      their ancestors.
  2058 
  2059 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  2060 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  2061 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  2062 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  2063 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  2064 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  2065 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  2066 
  2067 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  2068 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  2069 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  2070 
  2071 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  2072 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  2073 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  2074 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  2075 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  2076 
  2077 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  2078 
  2079 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  2080 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  2081 update of theories within ML code.
  2082 
  2083 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  2084 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  2085 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  2086 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  2087 
  2088 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  2089 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  2090 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  2091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2092 
  2093 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  2094 
  2095 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  2096 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  2097 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  2098 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  2099 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  2100 
  2101 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  2102 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  2103 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  2104 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  2105 situations.
  2106 
  2107 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  2108 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  2109 proof text.
  2110 
  2111 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  2112 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  2113 
  2114 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  2115 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  2116 predicates.
  2117 
  2118 
  2119 *** Document preparation ***
  2120 
  2121 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  2122 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  2123 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  2124 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  2125 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  2126 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  2127 
  2128 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  2129 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  2130 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  2131 
  2132 
  2133 *** HOL ***
  2134 
  2135 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  2136 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  2137 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  2138 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  2139 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  2140 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  2141 
  2142 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  2143 with multithreading.
  2144 
  2145 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  2146 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  2147 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  2148 
  2149 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  2150 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  2151 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  2152 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2153 
  2154 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  2155 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  2156 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  2157 and makes them available separately.  See
  2158 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  2159 
  2160 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  2161 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  2162 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  2163 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  2164 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  2165 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  2166 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  2167 the declared rules.
  2168 
  2169 This setup also deals with rules like 
  2170 
  2171   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  2172 
  2173 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  2174 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  2175 
  2176 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  2177 
  2178   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  2179 
  2180   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  2181     definitions on => and bool.
  2182 
  2183   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  2184     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  2185     the following theorems have been renamed:
  2186 
  2187       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  2188       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  2189       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  2190       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  2191       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  2192       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  2193       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  2194       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  2195 
  2196   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  2197     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  2198     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  2199 
  2200   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  2201     The proof pattern
  2202 
  2203       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2204       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  2205 
  2206     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  2207     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  2208 
  2209       have "EX S. P S"
  2210       proof
  2211         show "P S" <...>
  2212       qed
  2213 
  2214   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  2215     The proof pattern
  2216 
  2217       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2218       also have "S = T" <...>
  2219       finally have "P T" .
  2220 
  2221     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  2222     must be replaced by something like
  2223 
  2224       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2225       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  2226       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  2227 
  2228   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  2229     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  2230 
  2231       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  2232 
  2233     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  2234     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  2235     type of the form
  2236 
  2237       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  2238 
  2239     rather than
  2240 
  2241       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  2242 
  2243 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  2244 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  2245 
  2246 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  2249 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  2250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2251 
  2252 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  2253 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  2256 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257 
  2258 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  2259 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  2260 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2261 
  2262 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  2263 the same name in theory Orderings:
  2264 
  2265   less_trans
  2266   less_linear
  2267   le_imp_less_or_eq
  2268   le_less_trans
  2269   less_le_trans
  2270   less_not_sym
  2271   less_asym
  2272 
  2273 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  2274 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  2275 and different variable names.
  2276 
  2277 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  2278 
  2279 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  2280 finite maps.
  2281 
  2282 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  2283 
  2284 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  2285 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  2286 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  2287 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  2288 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  2289 accordingly.
  2290 
  2291 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  2292 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  2293 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  2294 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  2295 
  2296 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  2297 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  2298 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  2299 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  2300 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  2301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  2304 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  2307 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  2308 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  2309 
  2310 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  2311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  2314 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  2315 
  2316 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  2317 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2318 
  2319 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  2320 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321 
  2322 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  2323 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  2324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  2327 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328 
  2329 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  2330 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  2331 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  2332 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  2333 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  2334 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  2337 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  2338 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  2339 
  2340 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  2341 
  2342 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  2343 
  2344 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  2345 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  2346 well-orders on sets and on types.
  2347 
  2348 
  2349 *** ZF ***
  2350 
  2351 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  2352 same session:
  2353 
  2354   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  2355   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  2356   Int       -> Int_ZF
  2357   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  2358   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  2359   List      -> List_ZF
  2360   Main      -> Main_ZF
  2361 
  2362 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  2363 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  2364 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  2365 
  2366 
  2367 *** ML ***
  2368 
  2369 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  2370 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  2371 
  2372 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  2373 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  2374 
  2375 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  2376 
  2377 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  2378 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  2379 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  2380 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  2381 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2382 
  2383 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  2384 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  2385 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  2386 
  2387 
  2388 *** System ***
  2389 
  2390 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  2391 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  2392 
  2393 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  2394 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  2395 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  2396 
  2397 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  2398 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  2399 
  2400 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  2401 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  2402 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  2403 
  2404 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  2405 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  2406 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  2407 
  2408 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  2409 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  2410 
  2411 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  2412 way of changing the user's settings is via
  2413 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  2414 script.
  2415 
  2416 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  2417 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  2418 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  2419 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  2420 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  2421 
  2422 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  2423 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  2424 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  2425 
  2426 
  2427 
  2428 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  2429 -----------------------------------
  2430 
  2431 *** General ***
  2432 
  2433 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  2434 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  2435 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2436 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  2437 
  2438 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  2439 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  2440 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  2443 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  2444 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  2445 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2446 
  2447 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  2448 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  2449 quotes.
  2450 
  2451 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  2452 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  2453 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  2454 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  2455 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  2456 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  2457 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  2458 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  2459 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  2460 
  2461 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  2462 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  2463 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  2464 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  2465 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  2466 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  2467 
  2468 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  2469 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  2470 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  2471 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  2472 
  2473 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  2474 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  2475 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  2476 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  2477 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  2478 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  2479 
  2480 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  2481 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  2482 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  2483 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  2484 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  2485 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  2486 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  2487 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  2488 
  2489 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  2490 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  2491 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  2492 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  2493 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  2494 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  2495 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  2496 
  2497 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  2498 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  2499 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  2500 
  2501 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  2502 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  2503 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  2504 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  2505 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  2506 limit is imposed.
  2507 
  2508 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  2509 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  2510 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  2511 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  2512 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  2513 and scalability.
  2514 
  2515 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  2516 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  2517 
  2518 
  2519 *** Document preparation ***
  2520 
  2521 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  2522 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  2523 current context.
  2524 
  2525 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  2526 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  2527 
  2528 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  2529 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  2530 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  2531 
  2532 
  2533 *** Pure ***
  2534 
  2535 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  2536 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  2537 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  2538 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  2539 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  2540 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  2541 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  2542 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  2543 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  2544 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  2545 
  2546 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  2547 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  2548 sketch:
  2549 
  2550     internal compilation:
  2551         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  2552     writing SML code to a file:
  2553         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  2554     writing OCaml code to a file:
  2555         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  2556     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  2557         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  2558 
  2559     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  2560         method ``eval''
  2561 
  2562 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  2563 
  2564 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  2565 
  2566     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  2567     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  2568     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  2569     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  2570 
  2571 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  2572 
  2573     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  2574       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  2575 
  2576     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  2577       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  2578 
  2579     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  2580       {(target)}+
  2581         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  2582 
  2583     code_class <and_list of classes>
  2584       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  2585         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  2586 
  2587 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  2588 
  2589 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  2590 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  2591 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  2592 codegen".
  2593 
  2594 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  2595 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  2596 annotations).
  2597 
  2598 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  2599 syntax.
  2600 
  2601 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  2602 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  2603 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  2604 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  2605 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  2606 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  2607 
  2608 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  2609 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  2610 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  2611 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  2612 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  2613 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  2614 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  2615 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  2616 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  2617 equations, see section "definitions".
  2618 
  2619 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  2620 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  2621 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  2622 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  2623 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  2624 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  2625 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  2626 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  2627 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  2628 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  2629 
  2630 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  2631 configuration options:
  2632 
  2633   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  2634   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  2635   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  2636   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  2637   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  2638   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  2639   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  2640   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  2641   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  2642 
  2643 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  2644 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  2645 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  2646 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  2647 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  2648 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  2649 order.
  2650 
  2651 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  2652 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  2653 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  2654 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  2655 context encountered later on.
  2656 
  2657 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  2658 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  2659 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  2660 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  2661 
  2662 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  2663 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  2664 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  2665 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  2666 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  2667 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  2668 
  2669 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  2670 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  2671 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  2672 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  2673 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  2674 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  2675 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  2676 more permissive.
  2677 
  2678 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  2679 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  2680 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  2681 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  2682 maintainability of proof texts.
  2683 
  2684 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  2685 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  2686 
  2687   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  2688   then guess x and y by clarify
  2689 
  2690 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  2691 proof tools being involved here.
  2692 
  2693 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  2694 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  2695 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  2696 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  2697 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  2698 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  2699 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  2700 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  2701 
  2702 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  2703 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  2704 certain special cases of literal facts:
  2705 
  2706   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  2707   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  2708   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  2709   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  2710 
  2711 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  2712 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  2713 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  2714 
  2715 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  2716 both named and unnamed ones.
  2717 
  2718 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  2719 
  2720   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  2721 
  2722 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  2723 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  2724 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  2725 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  2726 
  2727 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  2728 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  2729 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  2730 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  2731 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  2732 
  2733 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  2734 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  2735 
  2736 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  2737 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  2738 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  2739 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  2740 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  2741 originally first one.
  2742 
  2743 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  2744 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  2745 expected.
  2746 
  2747 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  2748 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  2749 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  2750 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  2751 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  2752 
  2753   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  2754     assumes "EX x. P x"
  2755     obtains x where "P x"
  2756 
  2757   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  2758     assumes "A & B"
  2759     obtains A and B
  2760 
  2761   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  2762     assumes "A | B"
  2763     obtains
  2764       A
  2765     | B
  2766 
  2767 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  2768 explicitly:
  2769 
  2770   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  2771     obtains "~ thesis"
  2772 
  2773   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  2774     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  2775 
  2776 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  2777 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  2778 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  2779 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  2780 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  2781 case_names).
  2782 
  2783 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  2784 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  2785 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  2786 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  2787 
  2788 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  2789 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  2790 top-level lemma.
  2791 
  2792 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  2793 introduction rule (default "that").
  2794 
  2795 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2796 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  2797 to occur.
  2798 
  2799 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  2800 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  2801 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  2802 representations independently of name spaces.
  2803 
  2804 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  2805 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  2806 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  2809 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  2810 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  2811 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  2812 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  2813 current context.
  2814 
  2815 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  2816 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  2817 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  2818 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  2819 
  2820   axiomatization
  2821     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  2822     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  2823 
  2824   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  2825   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  2826 
  2827   abbreviation
  2828     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  2829     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  2830 
  2831 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  2832 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  2833 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  2834 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  2835 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  2836 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  2837 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  2838 
  2839 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  2840 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  2841 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  2842 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  2843 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  2844 
  2845 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  2846 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  2847 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  2848 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  2849 
  2850 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  2851 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  2852 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  2853 
  2854   definition "K x _ = x"
  2855 
  2856   inductive conj for A B
  2857   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  2858 
  2859 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  2860 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  2861 abbreviations on output.
  2862 
  2863 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  2864 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  2865 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  2866 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  2867 
  2868 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  2869 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  2870 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  2871 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  2872 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  2873 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  2874 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  2875 
  2876 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  2877 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  2878 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  2879 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  2880 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  2881 
  2882 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  2883 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  2884 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  2885 
  2886 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  2887 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  2888 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  2889 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  2890 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  2891 
  2892   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  2893     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  2894 
  2895 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  2896 definition specification element in the context of locale
  2897 partial_order.
  2898 
  2899 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  2900 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  2901 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  2902 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  2903 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  2904 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  2905 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  2906 examples.
  2907 
  2908 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  2909 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  2910 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  2911 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  2912 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  2913 
  2914 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  2915 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  2916 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  2917 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  2918 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  2919 
  2920   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  2921   (induct set: foo bar)
  2922   (induct pred: foo bar)
  2923   (induct type: foo bar)
  2924 
  2925 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  2926 new format.
  2927 
  2928 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  2929 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  2930 
  2931 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  2932 considered a legacy feature.
  2933 
  2934 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  2935 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  2938 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  2939 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  2940 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  2941   
  2942 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  2943 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  2944 manipulating the claset.
  2945 
  2946 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  2947 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  2948 least one premise.
  2949 
  2950 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  2951 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  2952 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  2953 rule steps.
  2954 
  2955 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  2956 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  2957 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  2958 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  2959 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  2960 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  2961 
  2962 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  2963 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  2964 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  2965 
  2966 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  2967 the graph browser tool.
  2968 
  2969 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  2970 default; use '!' option for full details.
  2971 
  2972 
  2973 *** HOL ***
  2974 
  2975 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  2976 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  2977 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  2978 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  2979 multi-threading.
  2980   
  2981 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  2982 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  2983 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  2984 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  2985 work with multi-threading.
  2986 
  2987 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  2988 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  2989 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  2990 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  2991 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  2992 
  2993 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  2994 
  2995 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  2996 equality.
  2997 
  2998 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  2999 the new 'class' package:
  3000 
  3001     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  3002     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  3003     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  3004     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  3005     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  3006     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  3007     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  3008     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  3009     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  3010     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  3011     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  3012     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  3013     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  3014     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  3015     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  3016     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  3017     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  3018     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  3019     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  3020     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  3021 
  3022 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  3023 
  3024 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  3025 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  3026 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  3027 names.
  3028 
  3029 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  3030 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  3031 
  3032 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  3033 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  3034 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  3035 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  3036 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  3037 
  3038 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  3039 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  3040 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  3041 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  3042 
  3043 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  3044 
  3045 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  3046 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  3047 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  3048 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  3049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3050 
  3051 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  3052 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  3055 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  3056 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3057 
  3058 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  3059 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  3060 
  3061 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  3062 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  3063 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  3064 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  3065 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  3066 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  3067 in the current context.
  3068 
  3069 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  3070 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  3074 with new class dense_linear_order.
  3075 
  3076 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  3077 
  3078     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  3079     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  3080 
  3081     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  3082       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  3083     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  3084     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  3085 
  3086     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  3087     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  3088 
  3089   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  3090 
  3091     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  3092     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  3093     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  3094     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  3095     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  3096     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  3097     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  3098     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  3099     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  3100     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  3101     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  3102     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  3103     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  3104     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  3105     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  3106     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  3107     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  3108     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  3109     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  3110     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  3111     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  3112     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  3113     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  3114     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  3115     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  3116     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  3117     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  3118     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  3119     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  3120     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  3121     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  3122     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  3123     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  3124     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  3125     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  3126 
  3127     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  3128     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  3129     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  3130     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  3131     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  3132     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  3133     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  3134     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  3135     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  3136     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  3137     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  3138     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  3139     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  3140     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  3141     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  3142     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  3143     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  3144 
  3145     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  3146     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  3147     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  3148     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  3149     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  3150     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  3151     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  3152     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  3153     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  3154     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  3155     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  3156     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  3157     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  3158     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  3159     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  3160     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  3161     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  3162     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  3163     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  3164     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  3165     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  3166     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  3167     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  3168     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  3169     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  3170     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  3171     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  3172     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  3173 
  3174     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  3175     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  3176     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  3177     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  3178     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  3179     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  3180 
  3181     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  3182     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  3183     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  3184     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  3185 
  3186     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  3187     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  3188 
  3189     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  3190     join_max                ~> sup_max
  3191 
  3192 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  3193 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  3194 
  3195 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  3196 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  3197 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  3198 "*.size".
  3199 
  3200 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  3201 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  3204 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  3205 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  3210 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  3211 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  3212 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  3213 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  3214 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  3215 numerals on all operations.
  3216 
  3217 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  3218 
  3219 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  3220 
  3221 * Code generator library theories:
  3222   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  3223     languages.
  3224   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  3225     languages.
  3226   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  3227     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  3228   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  3229   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  3230     denominator).
  3231   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  3232     representable by rational numbers.
  3233   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  3234     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  3235     includes Code_Integer.
  3236   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  3237     target-language built-in integers.
  3238   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  3239     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  3240 
  3241 * New package for inductive predicates
  3242 
  3243   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  3244 
  3245     inductive
  3246       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3247       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3248     where
  3249       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  3250     | ...
  3251 
  3252   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  3253 
  3254     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3255 
  3256     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3257     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3258 
  3259     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  3260     intros
  3261       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3262       ...
  3263 
  3264   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  3265   sets to be defined with the new package via
  3266 
  3267     inductive_set
  3268       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3269       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3270     where
  3271       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3272     | ...
  3273 
  3274   or
  3275 
  3276     inductive_set
  3277       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3278       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3279       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3280     where
  3281       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3282     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  3283     | ...
  3284 
  3285   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  3286 
  3287   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  3288   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  3289 
  3290   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3291 
  3292   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  3293     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  3294     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  3295     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  3296     than before the actual inductive definition.
  3297 
  3298   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  3299     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  3300     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  3301     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  3302     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  3303     statements of the form
  3304 
  3305       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  3306 
  3307     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  3308     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  3309 
  3310       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  3311 
  3312   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  3313 
  3314       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  3315         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  3316         ==> ... ==> P
  3317 
  3318     for predicates and
  3319 
  3320       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  3321         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  3322         ==> ... ==> P
  3323 
  3324     for sets rather than
  3325 
  3326       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  3327         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  3328         ==> ... ==> P
  3329 
  3330     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  3331     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  3332     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  3333 
  3334   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  3335     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  3336     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  3337 
  3338 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  3339 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  3340 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  3341 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  3342 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  3343 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  3344 
  3345 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  3346 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  3347 
  3348 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  3349 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  3350 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  3351 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  3352 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  3353 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  3354 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  3355 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  3356 variable.
  3357 
  3358 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  3359 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  3360 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  3361 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3362   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  3363   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  3364 
  3365 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  3366 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  3367 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  3368 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  3369 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  3370 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  3371 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  3372 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  3373 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  3374 
  3375 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  3376 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  3377 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  3378 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  3379 rat, etc.
  3380 
  3381 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  3382 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  3383 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  3384 
  3385 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  3386 
  3387 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  3388 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  3389 
  3390 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  3391 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  3392 
  3393 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  3394 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  3395 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  3398 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  3399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  3402 
  3403 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  3404 
  3405 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  3406 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  3407 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  3408 positive/negative (in inequations).
  3409 
  3410 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  3411 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  3412 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  3413 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  3416 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  3417 algebraic operations.
  3418 
  3419 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  3420 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  3423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  3426 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  3427 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  3428 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  3429 adapted.
  3430  
  3431 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  3432 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  3433 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  3434 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  3435 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  3436 
  3437 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  3438 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  3439 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  3440 
  3441 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  3442 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  3443 better use 'abbreviation'.
  3444 
  3445 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  3448 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  3449 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  3450   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  3451       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  3452   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  3453   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  3454   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  3455 
  3456 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  3457 
  3458 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  3459 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  3460 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  3461 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  3462 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  3463 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  3464 
  3465 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  3466 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  3467 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  3468 
  3469 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  3470 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  3471 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  3472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473 
  3474 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  3475 
  3476 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  3477 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3478 
  3479 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  3480 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  3481 
  3482 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  3483 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  3484 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  3485 
  3486 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  3487 True/False.
  3488 
  3489 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  3490 
  3491 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  3492 
  3493 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  3494 ``rule'' method.
  3495 
  3496 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  3497 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  3498 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  3499 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  3500 
  3501 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  3502 zChaff is still supported as well.
  3503 
  3504 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  3505 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  3506 
  3507 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  3508 Library.
  3509 
  3510 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  3511 
  3512 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  3513 as greatest fixed-point.
  3514 
  3515 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  3516 association lists.
  3517 
  3518 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  3519 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  3520 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  3521 
  3522 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  3523 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  3524 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  3526 behavior.
  3527 
  3528 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  3529 
  3530 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  3531 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  3532 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  3533 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  3534 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  3535 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  3536 
  3537 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  3538 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  3539 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  3540 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  3541 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  3542 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  3543 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  3544 
  3545 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  3546 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  3547 
  3548 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  3549 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  3550 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  3551 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  3552 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  3553 
  3554 
  3555 *** HOL-Complex ***
  3556 
  3557 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  3558 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  3559 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  3560 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  3561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  3564 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  3565 and norm :: 'a => real.
  3566 
  3567 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  3568 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  3569 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  3572 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  3573 
  3574 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  3575 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  3576 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  3577 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578 
  3579   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  3580   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  3581   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  3582   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  3583   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  3584   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  3585   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  3586   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  3587   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  3588   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  3589   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  3590   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  3591   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  3592   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  3593   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  3594 
  3595 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  3596 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  3597 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  3598 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3599 
  3600   approx        <-- capprox
  3601   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  3602   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  3603   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  3604   monad         <-- cmonad
  3605   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  3606   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  3607   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  3608   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  3609 
  3610 
  3611 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3612 
  3613 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  3614 
  3615 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  3616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3617 
  3618 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  3619 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  3622 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  3623 of algebraic structures.
  3624 
  3625 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  3626 
  3627 
  3628 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3629 
  3630 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  3631 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  3632 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  3633 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  3634 
  3635 
  3636 *** ML ***
  3637 
  3638 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  3639 (even on SML/NJ).
  3640 
  3641 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  3642 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  3643 compile-time.  For example:
  3644 
  3645 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  3646 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  3647 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  3648 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  3649 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  3650 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  3651 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  3652 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  3653 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  3654 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  3655 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  3656 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  3657 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  3658 ML {* @{context} *}
  3659 ML {* @{theory} *}
  3660 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  3661 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  3662 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  3663 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  3664 ML {* @{claset} *}
  3665 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  3666 
  3667 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  3668 
  3669 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  3670 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  3671 
  3672 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  3673 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  3674 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  3675 
  3676 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  3677 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  3678 
  3679 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  3680 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  3681 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  3682 
  3683 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  3684 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  3685 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  3686 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  3687 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  3688 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  3689 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  3690 declarations and definitions.
  3691 
  3692 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  3693 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  3694 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  3695 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  3696 
  3697 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  3698 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  3699 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  3700 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  3703 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  3704 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  3705 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  3706 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  3707 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  3708 
  3709 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  3710 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  3711 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  3712 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  3713 attributes, methods, etc.
  3714 
  3715 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  3716 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  3717 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  3718 fold_map combinators.
  3719 
  3720 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  3721 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  3722 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  3723 derivation.
  3724 
  3725 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  3726 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  3727 achieve the old behaviour.
  3728 
  3729 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  3730 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  3731 statements.
  3732 
  3733 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  3734 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  3735 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  3736 
  3737 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  3738 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  3739 some popular functions from term.ML:
  3740 
  3741   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  3742   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  3743   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  3744 
  3745 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  3746 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  3747 
  3748 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  3749 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  3750 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  3751 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  3752 various freeze_thaw operations.
  3753 
  3754 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  3755 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  3756 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  3757 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  3758 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  3759 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  3760 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  3761 in a locale context).
  3762 
  3763 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  3764 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  3765 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  3766 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  3767 
  3768 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  3769 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  3770 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  3771 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  3772 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  3773 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  3774 
  3775 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  3776 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  3777 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  3778 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  3779 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  3780 
  3781   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  3782 
  3783 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  3784 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  3785 this:
  3786 
  3787   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  3788 
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  3790 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  3791 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  3792 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  3793 
  3794 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  3795 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  3796 
  3797 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  3798 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  3799 
  3800 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  3801 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  3802 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  3803 batch mode.
  3804 
  3805 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  3806 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  3807 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  3808 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  3811 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  3812 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  3813 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  3814 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  3815 
  3816 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  3817 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  3818 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  3819 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  3820 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  3821 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  3822 
  3823 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  3824 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  3825 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  3829 "Trueprop" etc.
  3830 
  3831 
  3832 *** System ***
  3833 
  3834 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  3835 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  3836 Isabelle installations.
  3837 
  3838 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  3839 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  3840 code.
  3841 
  3842 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  3843 
  3844 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  3845 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  3846 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  3847 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  3848 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  3849 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  3850 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  3851 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  3852 Implementation manual.
  3853 
  3854 
  3855 
  3856 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  3857 ----------------------------------
  3858 
  3859 *** General ***
  3860 
  3861 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  3862 
  3863   theory <name>
  3864   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  3865   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  3866   begin
  3867 
  3868 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  3869 
  3870   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  3871 
  3872 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  3873 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  3874 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  3875 
  3876 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  3877 relative and absolute paths.
  3878 
  3879 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  3880 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  3881 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  3882 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  3883 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  3884 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  3885 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  3886 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  3887 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  3888 
  3889   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  3890 
  3891 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  3892 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  3893 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  3894 
  3895 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  3896 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3897 
  3898 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  3899 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  3900 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  3901 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  3902 
  3903   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  3904   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  3905 
  3906 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  3907 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  3908 faster.
  3909 
  3910 
  3911 *** Document preparation ***
  3912 
  3913 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  3914 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  3915 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  3916 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  3917 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  3918 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  3919 
  3920 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  3921 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  3922 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  3923 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  3924 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  3925 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  3926 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  3927 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  3928 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  3929 \isadroptag.
  3930 
  3931 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  3932 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  3933 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  3934 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  3935 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  3936 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  3937 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  3938 specified above.
  3939 
  3940 * Several new antiquotations:
  3941 
  3942   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  3943 
  3944   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  3945 
  3946   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  3947   argument is a known logical constant;
  3948 
  3949   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  3950   theorem applying a "style" to it
  3951 
  3952   @{ML text}
  3953 
  3954 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  3955 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  3956 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  3957 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  3958 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  3959 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  3960 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  3961 
  3962 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  3963 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  3964 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  3965 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  3966 
  3967 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  3968 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  3969 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  3970 
  3971 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  3972 a proof context.
  3973 
  3974 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  3975 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  3976 
  3977 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  3978 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  3979 
  3980 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  3981 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  3982 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  3983 
  3984 
  3985 *** Pure ***
  3986 
  3987 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  3988 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  3989 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  3990 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  3991 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  3992 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  3993 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  3994 
  3995 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  3996 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  3997 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  3998 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  3999 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  4000 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  4001 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  4002 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  4003 
  4004 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  4005 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  4006 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  4007 
  4008 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  4009 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  4010 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  4011 
  4012 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  4013 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  4014 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  4015 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  4016 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  4019 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  4020 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  4021 axclasses vs. locales.
  4022 
  4023 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  4024 instead of base 26 numbers.
  4025 
  4026 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  4027 marks in schematic variable names.
  4028 
  4029 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  4030 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  4031 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  4032 
  4033   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  4034     by simp
  4035 
  4036 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  4037 
  4038 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  4039 annotations as "(00...)".
  4040 
  4041 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  4042 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  4043 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  4044 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  4045 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  4046 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  4047 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  4048 
  4049 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  4050 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  4051 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  4052 specifications.
  4053 
  4054 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  4055 locally fixed variables as well.
  4056 
  4057 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  4058 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  4059 Limit.
  4060 
  4061 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  4062 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  4063 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  4064 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  4065 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  4066 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  4067 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  4068 
  4069 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  4070 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  4071 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  4072 
  4073 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  4076 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  4077 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  4078 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  4079 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  4080 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  4081 
  4082 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  4083 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  4084 
  4085 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  4086 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  4087 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  4088 
  4089 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  4090 
  4091 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  4092 theory development.
  4093 
  4094 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  4095 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  4096 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  4097 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  4098 
  4099 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  4100 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  4101 quoted when used as identifier.
  4102 
  4103 
  4104 *** Locales ***
  4105 
  4106 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  4107 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  4108 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  4109 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  4110 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  4111 commands is a follows:
  4112 
  4113   (1) interpretation expr inst
  4114   (2) interpretation target < expr
  4115   (3) interpret expr inst
  4116 
  4117 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  4118 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  4119 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  4120 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  4121 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  4122 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  4123 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  4124 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  4125 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  4126 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  4127 
  4128 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  4129 'interpret' instead.
  4130 
  4131 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  4132 parameters.
  4133 
  4134 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  4135 redeclaration.
  4136 
  4137 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  4138 
  4139 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  4140 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  4141 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  4142 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  4143 to attribute arguments as expected.
  4144 
  4145 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  4146 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  4147 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  4148 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  4149 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  4150 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  4151 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  4152 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  4153 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  4154 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  4155 
  4156 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  4157 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  4158 theorem statement in rare situations.
  4159 
  4160 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  4161 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  4162 
  4163 
  4164 *** Provers ***
  4165 
  4166 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  4167 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  4168 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  4169 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  4170 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  4171 
  4172 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  4173 and quasi orders.
  4174 
  4175 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  4176 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  4177 
  4178 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  4179 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  4180 
  4181 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  4182 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  4183 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4184 
  4185 
  4186 *** HOL ***
  4187 
  4188 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  4189 
  4190   syntax (epsilon)
  4191     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  4192 
  4193 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  4194 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  4195 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  4196 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4197 
  4198 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  4199 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  4200 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  4201 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  4202 
  4203 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  4204 instead of ":".
  4205 
  4206 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  4207 
  4208   Old       New
  4209   {..n(}    {..<n}
  4210   {)n..}    {n<..}
  4211   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  4212   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  4213   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  4214 
  4215 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  4216 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  4217 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  4218 
  4219   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  4220   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  4221 
  4222 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  4223 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  4224 interface.
  4225 
  4226 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  4227 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  4228 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  4229 be a tuple pattern.
  4230 
  4231 Some new syntax forms are available:
  4232 
  4233   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  4234   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  4235   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  4236   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  4237 
  4238 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  4239 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  4240 
  4241 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  4242 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  4243 (insert F x)'.
  4244 
  4245 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  4246 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  4247 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  4248 
  4249 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  4250 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  4251 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  4252 
  4253 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  4254 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  4255 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  4256 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4257 in unstructured proof scripts.
  4258 
  4259 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  4260 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  4261 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  4262 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  4263 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  4264 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  4265 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  4266 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  4267 <record_name>_ext_type.
  4268 
  4269 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  4270 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  4271 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  4272 quite long.
  4273 
  4274 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  4275 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  4276 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  4277 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  4278 
  4279 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  4280 type-variables in the term.
  4281 
  4282 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  4283 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  4284 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4285 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  4286 goals than previously.
  4287 
  4288 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  4289 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  4290 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  4291 just like y <= x.
  4292 
  4293 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  4294 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  4295 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  4296 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  4297 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  4298 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  4299 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  4300 
  4301 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  4302 
  4303 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  4304 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  4305 
  4306 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  4307 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  4308 inequalities.
  4309 
  4310 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4311 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4312 
  4313   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  4314   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  4315   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  4316   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  4317   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  4318   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  4319   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  4320   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  4321   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  4322   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  4323   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  4324 
  4325 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  4326      
  4327      zero_le_square
  4328      not_square_less_zero 
  4329 
  4330   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  4331   
  4332      realpow_zero_zero
  4333      realpow_two
  4334      realpow_less
  4335      zero_le_power
  4336      realpow_two_le
  4337      abs_realpow_two
  4338      realpow_two_abs     
  4339 
  4340 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  4341 
  4342 * Theory List:
  4343 
  4344 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4345 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4346 
  4347   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  4348   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  4349   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  4350   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  4351 
  4352 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  4353 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  4354 
  4355 
  4356 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4357 
  4358 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  4359 integers in the reals.
  4360 
  4361 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4362 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4363 
  4364   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  4365   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4366   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4367   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4368   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4369 
  4370 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  4371 
  4372 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  4373 
  4374 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  4375 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  4376 
  4377   hypreal = real star
  4378   hypnat = nat star
  4379   hcomplex = complex star
  4380 
  4381 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  4382 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4383 
  4384   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  4385 
  4386   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  4387   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  4388   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  4389   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  4390   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  4391 
  4392   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4393   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  4394   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  4395   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  4396   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  4397 
  4398 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  4399 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4400 
  4401   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  4402   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  4403   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  4404   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  4405   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  4406   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  4407   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  4408   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  4409   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  4410   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  4411   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  4412   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  4413   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  4414   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  4415   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  4416   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  4417   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  4418   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  4419   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  4420   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  4421   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  4422   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  4423   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  4424   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  4425 
  4426 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  4427 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  4428 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4429 
  4430   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  4431   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  4432   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  4433   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  4434   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  4435   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  4436   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  4437   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  4438   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  4439   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  4440     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  4441   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  4442   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  4443   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  4444   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  4445   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  4446   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  4447   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  4448   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  4449   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  4450   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  4451   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  4452   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  4453   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4454   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4455   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  4456   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  4457   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  4458   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  4459   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  4460   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  4461   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  4462   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  4463   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  4464   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  4465   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  4466   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  4467   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  4468   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  4469   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  4470   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  4471   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  4472   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  4473   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  4474   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  4475   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  4476   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  4477   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  4478   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  4479   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  4480   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  4481   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  4482   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  4483   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  4484 
  4485   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  4486   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  4487   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  4488   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  4489   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  4490   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  4491   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  4492   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  4493   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  4494   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  4495   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  4496 
  4497   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  4498   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  4499   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  4500   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  4501   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  4502   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  4503   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  4504   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  4505   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  4506   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  4507   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  4508   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  4509   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  4510   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  4511   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  4512   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  4513   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  4514   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  4515   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  4516   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  4517   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  4518 
  4519 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  4520 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  4521 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  4522 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  4523 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  4524 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  4525 
  4526 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  4527 
  4528 
  4529 *** HOLCF ***
  4530 
  4531 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  4532 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  4533 type-inference.
  4534 
  4535 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  4536 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  4537 instead of exponential time).
  4538 
  4539 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  4540 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  4541 
  4542   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  4543 
  4544 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  4545 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  4546 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  4547 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  4548 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4549 syntax and examples.
  4550 
  4551 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  4552 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  4553 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  4554 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  4555 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  4556 
  4557 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  4558 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4559 
  4560   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  4561   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  4562   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  4563   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  4564   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  4565   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  4566 
  4567 
  4568 *** ZF ***
  4569 
  4570 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  4571 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  4572 of a homomorphism).
  4573 
  4574 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  4575 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  4576 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  4577 
  4578 
  4579 *** Cube ***
  4580 
  4581 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  4582 theories.
  4583 
  4584 
  4585 *** ML ***
  4586 
  4587 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  4588 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  4589 
  4590 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  4591 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  4592 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  4593 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  4594 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  4595 
  4596 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  4597 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  4598 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  4599 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  4600 
  4601 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  4602 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  4603 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  4604 
  4605     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  4606     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  4607     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  4608     flat xss = List.concat xss
  4609     seq fs = List.app fs
  4610     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  4611     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  4612 
  4613 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  4614 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  4615 
  4616   x |> f                f #> g
  4617   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  4618 
  4619 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  4620 
  4621   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  4622   infix 2 ?;
  4623   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  4624   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  4625 
  4626 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  4627 infix operators.
  4628 
  4629 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  4630 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  4631 example:
  4632 
  4633   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  4634     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  4635 
  4636   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  4637     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  4638 
  4639   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  4640     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  4641 
  4642   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  4643     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  4644 
  4645 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  4646 available:
  4647 
  4648   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  4649   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  4650   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  4651   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  4652 
  4653 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  4654 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  4655 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  4656 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  4657 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  4658 
  4659   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  4660   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  4661   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  4662 
  4663 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  4664 
  4665   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  4666   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  4667 
  4668 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  4669 Naive rewrites:
  4670 
  4671   make_keylist = AList.make
  4672   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  4673 
  4674 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  4675   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  4676 
  4677     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  4678     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  4679 
  4680 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  4681   Naive rewrites:
  4682 
  4683     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  4684     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  4685 
  4686 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  4687 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  4688 lists.
  4689 
  4690 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  4691 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  4692 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  4693 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  4694 
  4695 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  4696 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  4697 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  4698 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  4699 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  4700 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  4701 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  4702 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  4703 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  4704 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  4705 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  4706 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  4707 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  4708 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  4709 Output.raw have no effect.
  4710 
  4711 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  4712 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  4713 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  4714 
  4715 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  4716 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  4717 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  4718 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  4719 
  4720 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  4721 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  4722 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  4723 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  4724 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  4725 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  4726 Library.sort_strings on result).
  4727 
  4728 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  4729 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  4730 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  4731 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  4734 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  4735 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  4736 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  4737 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  4738 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  4739 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  4740 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  4741 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  4742 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  4743 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  4744 
  4745 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  4746 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  4747 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  4748 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  4749 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  4750 with earlier declarations.
  4751 
  4752 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  4753 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  4754 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4755 
  4756 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  4757 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  4758 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  4759 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  4760 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  4761 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  4762 
  4763   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  4764     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  4765 
  4766   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  4767     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  4768 
  4769   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  4770     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  4771     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  4772     Theory.merge, etc.)
  4773 
  4774 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  4775 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  4776 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  4777 
  4778 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  4779 
  4780 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  4781 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  4782 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  4783 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  4784 
  4785 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  4786 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  4787 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  4788 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  4789 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  4790 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  4791 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  4792 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  4795 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  4796 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  4797 
  4798 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  4799 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  4800 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  4801 
  4802 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  4803 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  4804 
  4805   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  4806   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  4807   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  4808   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  4809 
  4810 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  4811 
  4812 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  4813 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  4814 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  4815 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  4816 (both increase the runtime).
  4817 
  4818 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  4819 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  4820 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  4821 
  4822 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  4823 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  4824 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  4825 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  4826 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  4827 for further details.
  4828 
  4829 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  4830 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  4831 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  4832 scripts for the time being.
  4833 
  4834 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  4835 generated HTML files.  For example:
  4836 
  4837   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  4838   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 *** System ***
  4842 
  4843 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  4844 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  4845 
  4846 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  4847 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  4848 
  4849 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  4850 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  4851 
  4852 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  4853 distribution being used.
  4854 
  4855 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  4856 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  4857 theories.
  4858 
  4859 
  4860 
  4861 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  4862 --------------------------------
  4863 
  4864 *** General ***
  4865 
  4866 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  4867   Replaces linorder.ML.
  4868 
  4869 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  4870   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  4871   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  4872   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  4873   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  4874   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  4875   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  4876   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  4877   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  4878   existing theory and ML files.
  4879 
  4880 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  4881 
  4882 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  4883   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  4884   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  4885   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  4886 
  4887 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  4888   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  4889   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  4890   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  4891 
  4892 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  4893   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  4894   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  4895 
  4896 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  4897   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  4898   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  4899   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  4900   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  4901 
  4902 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  4903   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  4904 
  4905 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  4906   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  4907   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  4908 
  4909 
  4910 *** Isar ***
  4911 
  4912 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  4913   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  4914   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  4915     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  4916     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  4917     emulations.
  4918   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  4919     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  4920     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  4921 
  4922 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  4923   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  4924     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  4925     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  4926   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  4927 
  4928 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  4929   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  4930   and derived forms.
  4931 
  4932 * Locales:
  4933   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  4934     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  4935     "_axioms") in the premise.
  4936     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  4937   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  4938     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  4939   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  4940     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  4941   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  4942         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  4943     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  4944     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  4945     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  4946     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  4947     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  4948       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  4949     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  4950     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  4951     with "locale (open)".
  4952       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  4953 
  4954 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  4955   (Isar) contexts.
  4956 
  4957 
  4958 *** HOL ***
  4959 
  4960 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  4961   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  4962   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  4963   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  4964   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  4965 
  4966 * Simplifier:
  4967   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  4968     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  4969     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  4970     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  4971     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  4972   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  4973     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  4974     is solved by simplification already.
  4975 
  4976 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  4977     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  4978 
  4979 * Numerics:
  4980   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  4981     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  4982   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  4983     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  4984   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  4985     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  4986     exponentiation).
  4987 
  4988 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  4989 
  4990 * Records:
  4991   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  4992     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  4993     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  4994   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  4995     (not enabled by default).
  4996   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  4997     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  4998   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  4999 
  5000 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  5001   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  5002   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  5003 
  5004 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  5005 
  5006 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  5007 
  5008 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  5009   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  5010 
  5011 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  5012   matrix theory to linear programming.
  5013 
  5014 * Unions and Intersections:
  5015   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  5016   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  5017   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  5018   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  5019 
  5020 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  5021   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  5022   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  5023   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  5024 
  5025 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  5026   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  5027 
  5028 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  5029   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  5030 
  5031 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  5032   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  5033   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  5034 
  5035 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  5036   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  5037   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  5038   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  5039   for examples.
  5040 
  5041 
  5042 *** HOLCF ***
  5043 
  5044 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  5045 
  5046 
  5047 
  5048 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  5049 ------------------------------
  5050 
  5051 *** General ***
  5052 
  5053 * Provers/simplifier:
  5054 
  5055   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  5056     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  5057     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  5058     the order of assumptions.
  5059 
  5060     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5061 
  5062     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  5063        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  5064 
  5065         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  5066 
  5067        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  5068 
  5069         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  5070 
  5071        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  5072        kind of problem.
  5073 
  5074     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  5075        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  5076        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  5077        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  5078        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  5079        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  5080        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  5081 
  5082   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  5083 
  5084   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  5085     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  5086     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  5087     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  5088     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  5089     the simplifier would diverge.
  5090 
  5091   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  5092 
  5093   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  5094     congruence is ignored.
  5095 
  5096 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  5097   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  5098   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  5099 
  5100 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  5101 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  5102    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  5103 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  5104 
  5105 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  5106 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
  5107       PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
  5108 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
  5109 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
  5110 (or rather last, the way they are printed).
  5111 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
  5112 
  5113 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
  5114 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
  5115 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
  5116 assumption failed.
  5117 
  5118 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
  5119 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
  5120 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
  5121 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
  5122 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
  5123 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
  5124 on the old view without predicates;
  5125 
  5126 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
  5127 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
  5128 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
  5129 
  5130 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
  5131 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
  5132 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
  5133 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
  5134 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
  5135 be given (the default is 40);
  5136 
  5137 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
  5138 (batch-mode only);
  5139 
  5140 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
  5141 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
  5142 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
  5143 
  5144 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
  5145 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
  5146 for slight decrease in efficiency;
  5147 
  5148 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
  5149 linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
  5150 
  5151 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
  5152 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
  5153 
  5154 
  5155 *** HOL ***
  5156 
  5157 * arith(_tac)
  5158 
  5159  - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
  5160    Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
  5161    of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
  5162    In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
  5163 
  5164  - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
  5165 
  5166  - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
  5167    linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
  5168    Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
  5169 
  5170 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
  5171 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
  5172 
  5173 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
  5174 are distributed over a sum of terms;
  5175 
  5176 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
  5177 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
  5178 "<=", "<" and "=").
  5179 
  5180 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
  5181 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
  5182 
  5183 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
  5184 definition;
  5185 
  5186 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
  5187 Finite_Set);
  5188 
  5189 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
  5190 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
  5191 
  5192 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
  5193   each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
  5194 
  5195 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
  5196 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
  5197 of the empty set.
  5198 
  5199 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
  5200 any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
  5201 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
  5202 Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
  5203 
  5204 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
  5205 
  5206 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
  5207 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
  5208 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
  5209 
  5210 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
  5211 
  5212 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
  5213 Fleuriot);
  5214 
  5215 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
  5216 
  5217 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
  5218 Gray and Kramer);
  5219 
  5220 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
  5221 
  5222 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
  5223 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
  5224 
  5225 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
  5226 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
  5227 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
  5228 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
  5229 assignment, exceptions.
  5230 
  5231 
  5232 *** ZF ***
  5233 
  5234 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
  5235 universe, etc.);
  5236 
  5237 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
  5238 
  5239 
  5240 *** ML ***
  5241 
  5242 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
  5243 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
  5244 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
  5245 
  5246 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
  5247 
  5248 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
  5249 up simprocs;
  5250 
  5251 
  5252 *** Document preparation ***
  5253 
  5254 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
  5255 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
  5256 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
  5257 
  5258 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
  5259 other packages
  5260 
  5261 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
  5262 broke \Rightarrow)
  5263 
  5264 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
  5265 textcomp package)
  5266 
  5267 
  5268 
  5269 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
  5270 --------------------------------
  5271 
  5272 *** Document preparation ***
  5273 
  5274 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
  5275 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
  5276 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
  5277 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
  5278 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
  5279 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
  5280 
  5281 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
  5282 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
  5283 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
  5284 
  5285 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
  5286 blocks after section headings;
  5287 
  5288 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
  5289 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
  5290 
  5291 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
  5292 better in printed text;
  5293 
  5294 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
  5295 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
  5296 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
  5297 
  5298 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
  5299 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
  5300 location;
  5301 
  5302 
  5303 *** Isar ***
  5304 
  5305 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
  5306   - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
  5307     "case (Suc n)");
  5308   - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
  5309     claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
  5310     instantiation of cases;
  5311   - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
  5312     rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
  5313     rules without further ado;
  5314   - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
  5315     rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
  5316     atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
  5317     statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
  5318     slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
  5319   - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
  5320     facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
  5321     rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
  5322     scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
  5323     statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
  5324     the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
  5325   - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
  5326     rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
  5327     below);
  5328   - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
  5329     success (no backtracking);
  5330   - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
  5331   - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
  5332   - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
  5333     General versions);
  5334   - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
  5335   - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
  5336 
  5337 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
  5338 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
  5339 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
  5340 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
  5341 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
  5342 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
  5343 fails:
  5344 
  5345   assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
  5346 
  5347 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
  5348 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
  5349 
  5350 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
  5351 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
  5352 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
  5353 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
  5354 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
  5355 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
  5356 some examples;
  5357 
  5358 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
  5359 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
  5360 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
  5361 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
  5362 qualified by the locale name);
  5363 
  5364 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
  5365 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
  5366 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
  5367 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
  5368 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
  5369 
  5370 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
  5371 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
  5372 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
  5373 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
  5374 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
  5375 
  5376 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
  5377 
  5378 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
  5379 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
  5380 use hard-wired "Trueprop";
  5381 
  5382 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;
  5383 
  5384 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
  5385 
  5386 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
  5387 
  5388 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
  5389 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
  5390 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
  5391 
  5392 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
  5393 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
  5394 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
  5395 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
  5396 proof *scripts*;
  5397 
  5398 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
  5399 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
  5400 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
  5401 especially important for locales);
  5402 
  5403 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
  5404 mode;
  5405 
  5406 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
  5407 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
  5408 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
  5409 situations;
  5410 
  5411 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
  5412 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
  5413 
  5414 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
  5415 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
  5416 discontinued;
  5417 
  5418 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
  5419 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
  5420 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
  5421 
  5422 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
  5423 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
  5424 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
  5425 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
  5426 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
  5427 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
  5428 INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5429 
  5430 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
  5431 of introduction rules;
  5432 
  5433 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
  5434 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
  5435 conditional rules;
  5436 
  5437 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
  5438 
  5439 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
  5440 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
  5441 
  5442 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
  5443 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
  5444 
  5445 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
  5446 wf_induct_rule;
  5447 
  5448 
  5449 *** HOL ***
  5450 
  5451 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
  5452 follows:
  5453 
  5454   - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
  5455   numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
  5456 
  5457   - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
  5458   binary representation internally;
  5459 
  5460   - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
  5461   over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
  5462 
  5463 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
  5464 are some hints on converting existing sources:
  5465 
  5466   - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
  5467   entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
  5468   to be spaced properly;
  5469 
  5470   - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
  5471   even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";
  5472 
  5473   - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";
  5474 
  5475   - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;
  5476 
  5477 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
  5478 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);
  5479 
  5480 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);
  5481 
  5482 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
  5483 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
  5484 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
  5485 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
  5486 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;
  5487 
  5488 * HOL/record package improvements:
  5489   - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
  5490     "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
  5491     "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
  5492     declared as simp by default;
  5493   - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
  5494     qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5495   - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
  5496     INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5497   - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5498   - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
  5499     methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
  5500     parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
  5501   - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
  5502     theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;
  5503 
  5504 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
  5505 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
  5506 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
  5507 via 'generate_code' theory section;
  5508 
  5509 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);
  5510 
  5511 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
  5512         Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
  5513         String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy
  5514 
  5515 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
  5516 (beware of argument permutation!);
  5517 
  5518 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;
  5519 
  5520 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";
  5521 
  5522 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
  5523 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5524   - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex
  5525 
  5526 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
  5527 in this (rare) case use:
  5528 
  5529   delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
  5530   addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)
  5531 
  5532 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
  5533 MAY FAIL;
  5534 
  5535 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
  5536 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
  5537 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
  5538 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;
  5539 
  5540 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
  5541 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
  5542 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").
  5543 
  5544 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
  5545 expressions;
  5546 
  5547 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
  5548 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5549 
  5550 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5551 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
  5552 renamed "Product_Type.unit";
  5553 
  5554 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl
  5555 
  5556 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
  5557 the "cases" method);
  5558 
  5559 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
  5560 Florian Kammller);
  5561 
  5562 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
  5563 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
  5564 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);
  5565 
  5566 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);
  5567 
  5568 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;
  5569 
  5570 
  5571 *** HOLCF ***
  5572 
  5573 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
  5574 operations;
  5575 
  5576 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
  5577 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;
  5578 
  5579 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
  5580 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
  5581 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;
  5582 
  5583 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;
  5584 
  5585 
  5586 *** ZF ***
  5587 
  5588 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
  5589 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
  5590 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
  5591 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');
  5592 
  5593 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
  5594 your theory on Main_ZFC;
  5595 
  5596 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
  5597 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;
  5598 
  5599 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
  5600 typeless version of the formalism;
  5601 
  5602 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
  5603 format;
  5604 
  5605 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
  5606 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
  5607 new-style theory format;
  5608 
  5609 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;
  5610 
  5611 
  5612 *** General ***
  5613 
  5614 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
  5615 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
  5616 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
  5617 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;
  5618 
  5619 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
  5620 goal_subclass/goal_arity;
  5621 
  5622 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
  5623 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
  5624 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
  5625 properly;
  5626 
  5627 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
  5628 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";
  5629 
  5630 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
  5631 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
  5632 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
  5633 type variable);
  5634 
  5635 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
  5636 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
  5637 "type_brackets";
  5638 
  5639 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
  5640 tokens into AST constants;
  5641 
  5642 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
  5643 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
  5644 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;
  5645 
  5646 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
  5647 practice);
  5648 
  5649 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
  5650 addSafter;
  5651 
  5652 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
  5653 as well;
  5654 
  5655 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +
  5656 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML
  5657 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone
  5658 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol
  5659 support requires further installations, e.g. from
  5660 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);
  5661 
  5662 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);
  5663 
  5664 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead
  5665 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;
  5666 
  5667 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the
  5668 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);
  5669 
  5670 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from
  5671 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable
  5672 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';
  5673 
  5674 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle
  5675 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may
  5676 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly
  5677 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own
  5678 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";
  5679 
  5680 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no
  5681 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper
  5682 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools
  5683 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;
  5684 
  5685 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and
  5686 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable
  5687 terminal);
  5688 
  5689 
  5690 
  5691 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)
  5692 -----------------------------------
  5693 
  5694 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
  5695 
  5696 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the
  5697 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must
  5698 bind them to ML identifers by e.g.      val thm_name = thm "thm_name";
  5699 
  5700 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,
  5701 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old
  5702 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute
  5703 'split_rule (complete)';
  5704 
  5705 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,
  5706 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;
  5707 
  5708 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;
  5709 
  5710 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a
  5711 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been
  5712 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";
  5713 
  5714 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"
  5715 operation;
  5716 
  5717 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;
  5718 
  5719 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;
  5720 
  5721 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a
  5722 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context
  5723 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);
  5724 
  5725 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and
  5726 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;
  5727 
  5728 
  5729 *** Document preparation ***
  5730 
  5731 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently
  5732 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for
  5733 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no
  5734 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted
  5735 type-writer);
  5736 
  5737 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is
  5738 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";
  5739 
  5740 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for
  5741 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;
  5742 
  5743 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation
  5744 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol
  5745 definitions);
  5746 
  5747 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals
  5748 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to
  5749 actual human-readable proof documents.  Please do not include goal
  5750 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!
  5751 
  5752 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX
  5753 fonts;
  5754 
  5755 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document
  5756 generation;
  5757 
  5758 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;
  5759 
  5760 
  5761 *** Isar ***
  5762 
  5763 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound
  5764 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof
  5765 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof
  5766 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals
  5767 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;
  5768 
  5769 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual
  5770 rules as well;
  5771 
  5772 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into
  5773 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single
  5774 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit
  5775 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;
  5776 
  5777 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial
  5778 instance proofs may be performed by "..";
  5779 
  5780 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level
  5781 statements as well;
  5782 
  5783 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;
  5784 
  5785 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl
  5786 rule (as well as the assumption rule);
  5787 
  5788 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and
  5789 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;
  5790 
  5791 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;
  5792 
  5793 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;
  5794 
  5795 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals
  5796 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;
  5797 
  5798 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the
  5799 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);
  5800 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;
  5801 
  5802 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as
  5803 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for
  5804 the result to be shown in each case;
  5805 
  5806 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;
  5807 
  5808 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;
  5809 
  5810 
  5811 *** HOL ***
  5812 
  5813 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together
  5814 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory
  5815 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:
  5816 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While
  5817 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);
  5818 
  5819 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical
  5820 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +
  5821 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).
  5822 
  5823 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has
  5824 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like
  5825 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to
  5826 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical
  5827 literature;
  5828 
  5829 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"
  5830 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation
  5831 operator \<Sum>;
  5832 
  5833 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also
  5834 HOL/subset.thy);
  5835 
  5836 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is
  5837 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may
  5838 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);
  5839 
  5840 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule
  5841 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);
  5842 
  5843 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation
  5844 rules with string literals);
  5845 
  5846 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals
  5847  and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental
  5848  functions for the reals;
  5849 
  5850 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;
  5851 
  5852 
  5853 *** CTT ***
  5854 
  5855 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that
  5856 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols
  5857 
  5858 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool
  5859 and Arith);
  5860 
  5861 
  5862 *** General ***
  5863 
  5864 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule
  5865 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance
  5866 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of
  5867 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;
  5868 
  5869 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>
  5870 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";
  5871 
  5872 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules
  5873 as assumptions as well;
  5874 
  5875 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;
  5876 
  5877 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;
  5878 
  5879 
  5880 
  5881 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)
  5882 ----------------------------------
  5883 
  5884 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
  5885 
  5886 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly
  5887 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)
  5888 issue the following ML commands:
  5889 
  5890   Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;
  5891   Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];
  5892 
  5893 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is
  5894 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;
  5895 
  5896 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;
  5897 
  5898 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool
  5899 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;
  5900 
  5901   select_equality  -> some_equality
  5902   select_eq_Ex     -> some_eq_ex
  5903   selectI2EX       -> someI2_ex
  5904   selectI2         -> someI2
  5905   selectI          -> someI
  5906   select1_equality -> some1_equality
  5907   Eps_sym_eq       -> some_sym_eq_trivial
  5908   Eps_eq           -> some_eq_trivial
  5909 
  5910 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;
  5911 
  5912 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if
  5913 instead);
  5914 
  5915 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called
  5916 f.simps instead of f.rules;
  5917 
  5918 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;
  5919 
  5920 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may
  5921 sometimes be needed;
  5922 
  5923 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";
  5924 
  5925 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";
  5926 
  5927 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian
  5928 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is
  5929 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";
  5930 
  5931 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part
  5932 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;
  5933 
  5934 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;
  5935 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:
  5936 
  5937   syntax (symbols)
  5938     override  :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"
  5939       (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)
  5940 
  5941 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;
  5942 
  5943 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,
  5944 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names
  5945 internally;
  5946 
  5947 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation
  5948 changed from A/r to A//r;
  5949 
  5950 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old
  5951 proofs;
  5952 
  5953 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,
  5954 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);
  5955 
  5956 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
  5957 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one
  5958 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by
  5959 "rule del";
  5960 
  5961 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;
  5962 
  5963 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;
  5964 
  5965 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see
  5966 lib/texinputs);
  5967 
  5968 
  5969 *** Document preparation ***
  5970 
  5971 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now
  5972 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented
  5973 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:
  5974 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};
  5975 
  5976 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,
  5977 including proper document sources;
  5978 
  5979 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run
  5980 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option
  5981 of isatool usedir;
  5982 
  5983 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle
  5984 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying
  5985 LaTeX debugging;
  5986 
  5987 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;
  5988 
  5989 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put
  5990 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed
  5991 graph for 'all sessions';
  5992 
  5993 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}
  5994 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by
  5995 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;
  5996 
  5997 
  5998 *** Isar ***
  5999 
  6000 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now
  6001 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this
  6002 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;
  6003 
  6004 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports
  6005 generalized existence reasoning;
  6006 
  6007 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'
  6008 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;
  6009 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name
  6010 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2
  6011 premises;
  6012 
  6013 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new
  6014 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as
  6015 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached
  6016 to theorems as "tags";
  6017 
  6018 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from
  6019 class/type/const name spaces;
  6020 
  6021 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to
  6022 indicate potential overloading;
  6023 
  6024 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };
  6025 
  6026 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write
  6027 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};
  6028 
  6029 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest
  6030 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion
  6031 with the version in Provers/classical;
  6032 
  6033 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via
  6034 case name 'antecedent';
  6035 
  6036 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms
  6037 to the current context is now done automatically);
  6038 
  6039 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface
  6040 for definining proof methods in ML;
  6041 
  6042 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed
  6043 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  6044 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);
  6045 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";
  6046 
  6047 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and
  6048 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);
  6049 
  6050 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'
  6051 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as
  6052 well (including splits);
  6053 
  6054 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind
  6055 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.
  6056 
  6057 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination
  6058 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);
  6059 
  6060 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'
  6061 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,
  6062 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;
  6063 
  6064 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --
  6065 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of
  6066 calculations;
  6067 
  6068 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof
  6069 method anyway;
  6070 
  6071 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =
  6072 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =
  6073 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;
  6074 
  6075 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"
  6076 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof
  6077 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:
  6078 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);
  6079 
  6080 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;
  6081 
  6082 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;
  6083 
  6084 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and
  6085 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only
  6086 proof states;
  6087 
  6088 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit
  6089 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print
  6090 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;
  6091 
  6092 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof
  6093 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',
  6094 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'
  6095 (for HOL datatypes);
  6096 
  6097 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st
  6098 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus
  6099 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;
  6100 
  6101 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';
  6102 
  6103 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;
  6104 should instead use individual commands for printing items
  6105 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);
  6106 
  6107 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;
  6108 
  6109 
  6110 *** HOL ***
  6111 
  6112 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a
  6113 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode
  6114 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of
  6115 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and
  6116 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at
  6117 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);
  6118 
  6119 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by
  6120 Clemens Ballarin;
  6121 
  6122 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese
  6123 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M
  6124 Rasmussen;
  6125 
  6126 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order
  6127 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic
  6128 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski
  6129 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration
  6130 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and
  6131 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;
  6132 
  6133 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David
  6134 von Oheimb;
  6135 
  6136 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually
  6137 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;
  6138 
  6139 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;
  6140 
  6141 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and
  6142 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn
  6143 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;
  6144 
  6145 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed
  6146 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as
  6147 well; admit "r" as field name;
  6148 
  6149 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with
  6150 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;
  6151 
  6152 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.
  6153 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;
  6154 
  6155 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:
  6156    (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to  #7 + (i + j) = k
  6157    i*j + k + j*#3*i     simplifies to  #4*(i*j) + k
  6158   two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u
  6159     (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)
  6160   and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y
  6161     or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);
  6162 
  6163 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a
  6164 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see
  6165 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;
  6166 
  6167 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and
  6168 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer
  6169 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;
  6170 
  6171 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the
  6172 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to
  6173 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may
  6174 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs
  6175 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).
  6176 
  6177 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for
  6178 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all
  6179 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification
  6180 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named
  6181 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for
  6182 each equation;
  6183 
  6184 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It
  6185 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the
  6186 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the
  6187 invariant proof rule for while is applied.
  6188 
  6189 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above
  6190 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.
  6191 
  6192 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";
  6193 
  6194 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic
  6195 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form
  6196 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;
  6197 
  6198 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;
  6199 
  6200 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of
  6201 main HOL, but was unused);
  6202 
  6203 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to
  6204 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);
  6205 
  6206 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output
  6207 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over
  6208 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still
  6209 bogus);
  6210 
  6211 
  6212 *** ZF ***
  6213 
  6214 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic
  6215 expressions over nat and int;
  6216 
  6217 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators
  6218 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,
  6219 making the algebraic laws unconditional;
  6220 
  6221 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer
  6222 using the function intify;
  6223 
  6224 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the
  6225 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;
  6226 
  6227 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic
  6228 simplification;
  6229 
  6230 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q
  6231 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;
  6232 
  6233 
  6234 *** General ***